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  • Trait-Based Assessments of Climate-Change Impacts on Interacting Species
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Matthias Schleuning; Eike Lena Neuschulz; Jörg Albrecht; Irene M.A. Bender; Diana E. Bowler; D. Matthias Dehling; Susanne A. Fritz; Christian Hof; Thomas Mueller; Larissa Nowak; Marjorie C. Sorensen; Katrin Böhning-Gaese; W. Daniel Kissling

    Plant–animal interactions are fundamentally important in ecosystems, but have often been ignored by studies of climate-change impacts on biodiversity. Here, we present a trait-based framework for predicting the responses of interacting plants and animals to climate change. We distinguish three pathways along which climate change can impact interacting species in ecological communities: (i) spatial and temporal mismatches in the occurrence and abundance of species, (ii) the formation of novel interactions and secondary extinctions, and (iii) alterations of the dispersal ability of plants. These pathways are mediated by three kinds of functional traits: response traits, matching traits, and dispersal traits. We propose that incorporating these traits into predictive models will improve assessments of the responses of interacting species to climate change.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Coloration in Mammals
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Tim Caro; Ricardo Mallarino

    Mammalian colors and color patterns are some of the most diverse and conspicuous traits found in nature and have been widely studied from genetic/developmental and evolutionary perspectives. In this review we first discuss the proximate causes underlying variation in pigment type (i.e., color) and pigment distribution (i.e., color pattern) and highlight both processes as having a distinct developmental basis. Then, using multiple examples, we discuss ultimate factors that have driven the evolution of coloration differences in mammals, which include background matching, intra- and interspecific signaling, and physiological influences. Throughout, we outline bridges between developmental and functional investigatory approaches that help broaden knowledge of mammals’ memorable external appearances, and we point out areas for future interdisciplinary research.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Mixed Models Offer No Freedom from Degrees of Freedom
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Göran Arnqvist

    Statistics matter greatly in biology, whether we like it or not. As a discipline with an empirical inclination, we are faced with data every day and we rely on inferential statistical models to make sense of it and to provide us with novel insights. Much of the time, the growing level of complexity and sophistication of the models we put to use in ecology and evolution have led to more appropriate analyses of our data. However, this is not always the case. Here, I draw attention to a classic flaw in inferential statistics that has resurfaced in a new flavor as a result of increased reliance on complex linear mixed models – the multifaceted and disturbingly persistent problem of pseudoreplication.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • The Evolution of Paleoecology
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Joseph D. Napier; Guillaume de Lafontaine; Melissa L. Chipman

    While the interplay between migration and adaptation dictates species response to climate change, technological limitations have obfuscated explicit tests on past adaptive responses. However, a surge in technology-driven advances in paleoecological methods coincides with breakthroughs in processing ancient DNA, providing the first opportunity to assess adaptation to past climate shifts.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Museum Epigenomics: Charting the Future by Unlocking the Past
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Erin E. Hahn; Alicia Grealy; Marina Alexander; Clare E. Holleley

    Epigenomic state preserved in museum specimens could be leveraged to provide unique insights into gene regulation trends associated with accelerating environmental change during the Anthropocene. We address the challenges facing museum epigenomics and propose a collaborative framework for researchers and curators to explore this new field.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Climate Change and Edaphic Specialists: Irresistible Force Meets Immovable Object?
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Richard T. Corlett; Kyle W. Tomlinson

    Species exposed to anthropogenic climate change can acclimate, adapt, move, or be extirpated. It is often assumed that movement will be the dominant response, with populations tracking their climate envelopes in space, but the numerous species restricted to specialized substrates cannot easily move. In warmer regions of the world, such edaphic specialists appear to have accumulated in situ over millions of years, persisting despite climate change by local movements, plastic responses, and genetic adaptation. However, past climates were usually cooler than today and rates of warming slower, while edaphic islands are now exposed to multiple additional threats, including mining. Modeling studies that ignore edaphic constraints on climate change responses may therefore give misleading results for a significant proportion of all taxa.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • A Plea for Standardized Nuclear Markers in Metazoan DNA Taxonomy
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jonas Eberle; Dirk Ahrens; Christoph Mayer; Oliver Niehuis; Bernhard Misof

    The ease of sequencing DNA barcodes promoted a species identification system universally applicable across animal phyla. However, relying on a single mitochondrial DNA fragment has a number of drawbacks that can mislead species delimitation and identification. Implementation of multiple nuclear markers would mitigate the limits of the current barcoding system if these markers are universally applicable across species, carry sufficient information to discriminate between closely related species, and if sequencing and analyzing these markers can be automatized. As sequencing costs continue to fall, we believe that the time is right to extend DNA barcoding. Here we argue that nearly universal single-copy nuclear protein-coding genes deliver the desired characteristics and could be used to reliably delimit and identify animal species.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Reproductive Microbiome: An Emerging Driver of Sexual Selection, Sexual Conflict, Mating Systems, and Reproductive Isolation
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Melissah Rowe; Liisa Veerus; Pål Trosvik; Angus Buckling; Tommaso Pizzari

    All multicellular organisms host microbial communities in and on their bodies, and these microbiomes can have major influences on host biology. Most research has focussed on the oral, skin, and gut microbiomes, whereas relatively little is known about the reproductive microbiome. Here, we review empirical evidence to show that reproductive microbiomes can have significant effects on the reproductive function and performance of males and females. We then discuss the likely repercussions of these effects for evolutionary processes related to sexual selection and sexual conflict, as well as mating systems and reproductive isolation. We argue that knowledge of the reproductive microbiome is fundamental to our understanding of the evolutionary ecology of reproductive strategies and sexual dynamics of host organisms.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Towards a New Generation of Trait-Flexible Vegetation Models
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Fabio Berzaghi; Ian J. Wright; Koen Kramer; Sylvie Oddou-Muratorio; Friedrich J. Bohn; Christopher P.O. Reyer; Santiago Sabaté; Tanja G.M. Sanders; Florian Hartig

    Plant trait variability, emerging from eco-evolutionary dynamics that range from alleles to macroecological scales, is one of the most elusive, but possibly most consequential, aspects of biodiversity. Plasticity, epigenetics, and genetic diversity are major determinants of how plants will respond to climate change, yet these processes are rarely represented in current vegetation models. Here, we provide an overview of the challenges associated with understanding the causes and consequences of plant trait variability, and review current developments to include plasticity and evolutionary mechanisms in vegetation models. We also present a roadmap of research priorities to develop a next generation of vegetation models with flexible traits. Including trait variability in vegetation models is necessary to better represent biosphere responses to global change.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • The Role of Individual Heterogeneity in Collective Animal Behaviour
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Jolle W. Jolles; Andrew J. King; Shaun S. Killen

    Social grouping is omnipresent in the animal kingdom. Considerable research has focused on understanding how animal groups form and function, including how collective behaviour emerges via self-organising mechanisms and how phenotypic variation drives the behaviour and functioning of animal groups. However, we still lack a mechanistic understanding of the role of phenotypic variation in collective animal behaviour. Here we present a common framework to quantify individual heterogeneity and synthesise the literature to systematically explain and predict its role in collective behaviour across species, contexts, and traits. We show that individual heterogeneity provides a key intermediary mechanism with broad consequences for sociality (e.g., group structure, functioning), ecology (e.g., response to environmental change), and evolution. We also outline a roadmap for future research.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • How ‘Blue’ Is ‘Green’ Energy?
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Andrew J. Wright; Claryana Araújo-Wang; John Y. Wang; Peter S. Ross; Jakob Tougaard; Robin Winkler; Melissa C. Márquez; Frances C. Robertson; Kayleigh Fawcett Williams; Randall R. Reeves

    Often perceived as environmentally benign, ‘green’ renewable energy technologies have ecological costs that are often overlooked, especially those occurring below the waterline. After briefly discussing the impacts of hydropower on freshwater and marine organisms, we focus this review on the impacts of marine renewable energy devices (MREDs) on underwater marine organisms, particularly offshore wind farms and marine energy converters (e.g., tidal turbines). We consider both cumulative impacts and synergistic interactions with other anthropogenic pressures, using offshore wind farms and the Taiwanese white dolphin (Sousa chinensis taiwanensis) as an example. While MREDs undoubtedly can help mitigate climate change, variability in the sensitivity of different species and ecosystems means that rigorous case-by-case assessments are needed to fully comprehend the consequences of MRED use.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • It’s Not about Him: Mismeasuring ‘Good Genes’ in Sexual Selection
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Angela M. Achorn; Gil G. Rosenthal

    What explains preferences for elaborate ornamentation in animals? The default answer remains that the prettiest males have the best genes. If mating signals predict good genes, mating preferences evolve because attractive mates yield additive genetic benefits through offspring viability, thereby maximizing chooser fitness. Across disciplines, studies claim ‘good genes’ without measuring mating preferences, measuring offspring viability, distinguishing between additive and nonadditive benefits, or controlling for manipulation of chooser investment. Crucially, studies continue to assert benefits to choosers purely based on signal costs to signalers. A focus on fitness outcomes for choosers suggests that ‘good genes’ are insufficient to explain the evolution of mate choice or of sexual ornamentation.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Ecosystem-Based Tsunami Mitigation for Tropical Biodiversity Hotspots
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Thomas Cherico Wanger, Nur Ainun, Barry W. Brook, Daniel A. Friess, Rachel R.Y. Oh, Andi Rusdin, Scott Smithers, Aiyen Tjoa

    Inclusion of ecosystem-based approaches in the governmental masterplan for tsunami mitigation in Palu, Indonesia may make the city a rare case study for ecological disaster risk reduction in tropical biodiversity hotspots. Such case studies are a key pillar of the United Nations (UN) Sendai Framework to protect coastal societies globally.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • A Horizon Scan of Emerging Global Biological Conservation Issues for 2020
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    William J. Sutherland, Maria P. Dias, Lynn V. Dicks, Helen Doran, Abigail C. Entwistle, Erica Fleishman, David W. Gibbons, Rosie Hails, Alice C. Hughes, Jonathan Hughes, Ruth Kelman, Xavier Le Roux, Becky LeAnstey, Fiona A. Lickorish, Luke Maggs, James W. Pearce-Higgins, Lloyd S. Peck, Nathalie Pettorelli, Ann Thornton

    In this horizon scan, we highlight 15 emerging issues of potential relevance to global conservation in 2020. Seven relate to potentially extensive changes in vegetation or ecological systems. These changes are either relatively new, for example, conversion of kelp forests to simpler macroalgal systems, or may occur in the future, for example, as a result of the derivation of nanocelluose from wood or the rapid expansion of small hydropower schemes. Other topics highlight potential changes in national legislation that may have global effect on international agreements. Our panel of 23 scientists and practitioners selected these issues using a modified version of the Delphi technique from a long-list of 89 potential topics.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The History of Farm Foxes Undermines the Animal Domestication Syndrome
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Kathryn A. Lord, Greger Larson, Raymond P. Coppinger, Elinor K. Karlsson

    The Russian Farm-Fox Experiment is the best known experimental study in animal domestication. By subjecting a population of foxes to selection for tameness alone, Dimitry Belyaev generated foxes that possessed a suite of characteristics that mimicked those found across domesticated species. This ‘domestication syndrome’ has been a central focus of research into the biological pathways modified during domestication. Here, we chart the origins of Belyaev’s foxes in eastern Canada and critically assess the appearance of domestication syndrome traits across animal domesticates. Our results suggest that both the conclusions of the Farm-Fox Experiment and the ubiquity of domestication syndrome have been overstated. To understand the process of domestication requires a more comprehensive approach focused on essential adaptations to human-modified environments.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Using Haplotype Information for Conservation Genomics
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Maeva Leitwein, Maud Duranton, Quentin Rougemont, Pierre-Alexandre Gagnaire, Louis Bernatchez

    The particular combinations of alleles that define haplotypes along individual chromosomes can be determined with increasing ease and accuracy by using current sequencing technologies. Beyond allele frequencies, haplotype data collected in population samples contain information about the history of allelic associations in gene genealogies, and this is of tremendous potential for conservation genomics. We provide an overview of how haplotype information can be used to assess historical demography, gene flow, selection, and the evolutionary outcomes of hybridization across different timescales relevant to conservation issues. We address technical aspects of applying such approaches to nonmodel species. We conclude that there is much to be gained by integrating haplotype-based analyses in future conservation genomics studies.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Considering Complexity: Animal Social Networks and Behavioural Contagions
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Josh A. Firth

    The spread of behaviours through animal social networks have often been considered as ‘simple contagions’. However, research across other disciplines now provides substantial grounding for the ‘complex contagion’ of behaviours. The study of animal behaviour could benefit greatly from generally expanding to incorporate these new insights.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Authorship Protocols Must Change to Credit Citizen Scientists
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Georgia Ward-Fear, Gregory B. Pauly, Jann E. Vendetti, Richard Shine

    The sociopolitical nature of research is changing and so must our protocols for authorship. Citizen scientists are often excluded from authorship because they cannot meet rigid journal criteria. To address this, we propose a new concept: allowing nonprofessional scientists to be credited as authors under a collective identity (‘group coauthorship’).

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Gene Expression and Diet Breadth in Plant-Feeding Insects: Summarizing Trends
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Stephanie S.L. Birnbaum, Patrick Abbot

    Transcriptomic studies lend insights into the role of transcriptional plasticity in adaptation and specialization. Recently, there has been growing interest in understanding the relationship between variation in herbivorous insect gene expression and the evolution of diet breadth. We review the studies that have emerged on insect gene expression and host plant use, and outline the questions and approaches in the field. Many candidate genes underlying herbivory and specialization have been identified, and a few key studies demonstrate increased transcriptional plasticity associated with generalist compared with specialist species. Addressing the roles that transcriptional variation plays in insect diet breadth will have important implications for our understanding of the evolution of specialization and the genetic and environmental factors that govern insect–plant interactions.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Post-Anthropocene Conservation
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Maggie J. Watson, David M. Watson

    Conditions capable of supporting multicellular life are predicted to continue for another billion years, but humans will inevitably become extinct within several million years. We explore the paradox of a habitable planet devoid of people, and consider how to prioritise our actions to maximise life after we are gone.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Powering Ocean Giants: The Energetics of Shark and Ray Megafauna
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Christopher L. Lawson, Lewis G. Halsey, Graeme C. Hays, Christine L. Dudgeon, Nicholas L. Payne, Michael B. Bennett, Craig R. White, Anthony J. Richardson

    Shark and ray megafauna have crucial roles as top predators in many marine ecosystems, but are currently among the most threatened vertebrates and, based on historical extinctions, may be highly susceptible to future environmental perturbations. However, our understanding of their energetics lags behind that of other taxa. Such knowledge is required to answer important ecological questions and predict their responses to ocean warming, which may be limited by expanding ocean deoxygenation and declining prey availability. To develop bioenergetics models for shark and ray megafauna, incremental improvements in respirometry systems are useful but unlikely to accommodate the largest species. Advances in biologging tools and modelling could help answer the most pressing ecological questions about these iconic species.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Measuring Terrestrial Area of Habitat (AOH) and Its Utility for the IUCN Red List
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Thomas M. Brooks, Stuart L. Pimm, H. Resit Akçakaya, Graeme M. Buchanan, Stuart H.M. Butchart, Wendy Foden, Craig Hilton-Taylor, Michael Hoffmann, Clinton N. Jenkins, Lucas Joppa, Binbin V. Li, Vivek Menon, Natalia Ocampo-Peñuela, Carlo Rondinini

    The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species includes assessment of extinction risk for 98 512 species, plus documentation of their range, habitat, elevation, and other factors. These range, habitat and elevation data can be matched with terrestrial land cover and elevation datasets to map the species’ area of habitat (AOH; also known as extent of suitable habitat; ESH). This differs from the two spatial metrics used for assessing extinction risk in the IUCN Red List criteria: extent of occurrence (EOO) and area of occupancy (AOO). AOH can guide conservation, for example, through targeting areas for field surveys, assessing proportions of species’ habitat within protected areas, and monitoring habitat loss and fragmentation. We recommend that IUCN Red List assessments document AOH wherever practical.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Towards Integrating Evolution, Metabolism, and Climate Change Studies of Marine Ecosystems
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-07-24
    Federico Baltar, Barbara Bayer, Nina Bednarsek, Stacy Deppeler, Ruben Escribano, Carolina E. Gonzalez, Roberta L. Hansman, Rajani Kanta Mishra, Mary Ann Moran, Daniel J. Repeta, Carol Robinson, Eva Sintes, Christian Tamburini, Luis E. Valentin, Gerhard J. Herndl

    Global environmental changes are challenging the structure and functioning of ecosystems. However, a mechanistic understanding of how global environmental changes will affect ecosystems is still lacking. The complex and interacting biological and physical processes spanning vast temporal and spatial scales that constitute an ecosystem make this a formidable problem. A unifying framework based on ecological theory, that considers fundamental and realized niches, combined with metabolic, evolutionary, and climate change studies, is needed to provide the mechanistic understanding required to evaluate and forecast the future of marine communities, ecosystems, and their services.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Exciting Potential and Remaining Uncertainties of Genetic Rescue
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Donovan A. Bell, Zachary L. Robinson, W. Chris Funk, Sarah W. Fitzpatrick, Fred W. Allendorf, David A. Tallmon, Andrew R. Whiteley

    Restoring gene flow into small, isolated populations can alleviate genetic load and decrease extinction risk (i.e., genetic rescue), yet gene flow is rarely augmented as a conservation strategy. Due to this discrepancy between opportunity and action, a recent call was made for widespread genetic rescue attempts. However, several aspects of augmenting gene flow are poorly understood, including the magnitude and duration of beneficial effects and when deleterious effects are likely to occur. We discuss the remaining uncertainties of genetic rescue in order to promote and direct future research and to hasten progress toward implementing this potentially powerful conservation strategy on a broader scale.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Improving Environmental Interventions by Understanding Information Flows
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Emiel de Lange, E.J. Milner-Gulland, Aidan Keane

    Conservationists are increasingly interested in changing human behaviour. One understudied aspect of such interventions is information flow. Different patterns of interpersonal communication and social structures within communities influence the adoption of behavioural changes through social influence and social reinforcement. Understanding the structure of information flow in a group, using tools such as social network analysis, can therefore offer important insights for interventions. For example, communications may be targeted to highly connected opinion leaders to leverage their influence, or communication may be facilitated between distinct subgroups to promote peer learning. Incorporating these approaches into conservation interventions can promote more effective behaviour change. This review introduces conservation researchers and practitioners to key concepts underpinning information flows for interventions targeting networks of individuals.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Using Soundscapes to Assess Deep-Sea Benthic Ecosystems
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Tzu-Hao Lin, Chong Chen, Hiromi Kayama Watanabe, Shinsuke Kawagucci, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Tomonari Akamatsu

    Targets of deep-sea mining commonly coincide with biodiversity hotspots, such as hydrothermal vents. The resilience of these ecosystems relies on larval dispersal, which may be directed by habitat-specific soundscapes. We urge for a global effort to implement soundscape as a conservation tool to assess anthropogenic disruption to deep-sea benthic ecosystems.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Transgenerational Plasticity in Human-Altered Environments
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Sarah C. Donelan, Jennifer K. Hellmann, Alison M. Bell, Barney Luttbeg, John L. Orrock, Michael J. Sheriff, Andrew Sih

    Our ability to predict how species will respond to human-induced rapid environmental change (HIREC) may depend upon our understanding of transgenerational plasticity (TGP), which occurs when environments experienced by previous generations influence phenotypes of subsequent generations. TGP evolved to help organisms cope with environmental stressors when parental environments are highly predictive of offspring environments. HIREC can alter conditions that favored TGP in historical environments by reducing parents’ ability to detect environmental conditions, disrupting previous correlations between parental and offspring environments, and interfering with the transmission of parental cues to offspring. Because of the propensity to produce errors in these processes, TGP will likely generate negative fitness outcomes in response to HIREC, though beneficial fitness outcomes may occur in some cases.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Understanding Admixture: Haplodiploidy to the Rescue
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Pierre Nouhaud, Alexandre Blanckaert, Claudia Bank, Jonna Kulmuni

    Hybridization has broad evolutionary consequences, from fueling or counteracting speciation to facilitating adaptation to novel environments. Hybridization and subsequent introgression appear widespread along the tree of life. However, our understanding of how distinct evolutionary forces shape admixed genomes and the fate of introgressed genetic variants remains scarce. Most admixture research in animals has focused on diploid organisms. We propose that haplodiploid organisms can help resolve open questions about the genomic consequences of hybridization in natural populations. The ploidy difference between haploid males and diploid females, the availability of genome-wide male haplotypes, and ongoing cases of admixture make haplodiploid organisms promising models to improve our knowledge with regards to the evolution of hybrid genomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Environmental Predictability as a Cause and Consequence of Animal Movement
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Louise Riotte-Lambert, Jason Matthiopoulos

    The impacts of environmental predictability on the ecology and evolution of animal movement have been the subject of vigorous speculation for several decades. Recently, the swell of new biologging technologies has further stimulated their investigation. This advancing research frontier, however, still lacks conceptual unification and has so far focused little on converse effects. Populations of moving animals have ubiquitous effects on processes such as nutrient cycling and seed dispersal and may therefore shape patterns of environmental predictability. Here, we synthesise the main strands of the literature on the feedbacks between environmental predictability and animal movement and discuss how they may react to anthropogenic disruption, leading to unexpected threats for wildlife and the environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Social Barriers in Ecological Landscapes: The Social Resistance Hypothesis
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Nicolette C. Armansin, Adam J. Stow, Mauricio Cantor, Stephan T. Leu, James A. Klarevas-Irby, Anthony A. Chariton, Damien R. Farine

    Across animal societies, individuals invest time and energy in social interactions. The social landscape that emerges from these interactions can then generate barriers that limit the ability of individuals to disperse to, and reproduce in, groups or populations. Therefore, social barriers can contribute to the difference between the physical capacity for movement through the habitat and subsequent gene flow. We call this contributing effect ‘social resistance’. We propose that social resistance can act as an agent of selection on key life-history strategies and promote the evolution of social strategies that facilitate effective dispersal. By linking landscape genetics and social behaviour, the social resistance hypothesis generates predictions integrating dispersal, connectivity, and life-history evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Predicting Landscape Configuration Effects on Agricultural Pest Suppression
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Nathan L. Haan, Yajun Zhang, Douglas A. Landis

    Arthropod predators and parasitoids attack crop pests, providing a valuable ecosystem service. The amount of noncrop habitat surrounding crop fields influences pest suppression, but synthesis of new studies suggests that the spatial configuration of crops and other habitats is similarly important. Natural enemies are often more abundant in fine-grained agricultural landscapes comprising smaller patches and can increase or decrease with the connectivity of crop fields to other habitats. Partitioning organisms by traits has emerged as a promising way to predict the strength and direction of these effects. Furthermore, our ability to predict configurational effects will depend on understanding the potential for indirect effects among trophic levels and the relationship between arthropod dispersal capability and the spatial scale of underlying landscape structure.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Conservation Genomics in a Changing Arctic
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Jocelyn P. Colella, Sandra L. Talbot, Christian Brochmann, Eric B. Taylor, Eric P. Hoberg, Joseph A. Cook

    Although logistically challenging to study, the Arctic is a bellwether for global change and is becoming a model for questions pertinent to the persistence of biodiversity. Disruption of Arctic ecosystems is accelerating, with impacts ranging from mixing of biotic communities to individual behavioral responses. Understanding these changes is crucial for conservation and sustainable economic development. Genomic approaches are providing transformative insights into biotic responses to environmental change, but have seen limited application in the Arctic due to a series of limitations. To meet the promise of genome analyses, we urge rigorous development of biorepositories from high latitudes to provide essential libraries to improve the conservation, monitoring, and management of Arctic ecosystems through genomic approaches.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • 3D Imaging Insights into Forests and Coral Reefs
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Kim Calders, Stuart Phinn, Renata Ferrari, Javier Leon, John Armston, Gregory P. Asner, Mathias Disney

    Forests and coral reefs are structurally complex ecosystems threatened by climate change. In situ 3D imaging measurements provide unprecedented, quantitative, and detailed structural information that allows testing of hypotheses relating form to function. This affords new insights into both individual organisms and their relationship to their surroundings and neighbours.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Data Integration for Large-Scale Models of Species Distributions
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Nick J.B. Isaac, Marta A. Jarzyna, Petr Keil, Lea I. Dambly, Philipp H. Boersch-Supan, Ella Browning, Stephen N. Freeman, Nick Golding, Gurutzeta Guillera-Arroita, Peter A. Henrys, Susan Jarvis, José Lahoz-Monfort, Jörn Pagel, Oliver L. Pescott, Reto Schmucki, Emily G. Simmonds, Robert B. O’Hara

    With the expansion in the quantity and types of biodiversity data being collected, there is a need to find ways to combine these different sources to provide cohesive summaries of species’ potential and realized distributions in space and time. Recently, model-based data integration has emerged as a means to achieve this by combining datasets in ways that retain the strengths of each. We describe a flexible approach to data integration using point process models, which provide a convenient way to translate across ecological currencies. We highlight recent examples of large-scale ecological models based on data integration and outline the conceptual and technical challenges and opportunities that arise.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evidence Ranking Needs to Reflect Causality.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : null
    Anne-Christine Mupepele,Carsten F Dormann

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Components and Spatiotemporal Dimension of Carrion Biomass Quantification.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : null
    Marcos Moleón,Nuria Selva,José A Sánchez-Zapata

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conservation Success through IPBES-Guided Transformative Change.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-10-12
    Timothy C Bonebrake,Fengyi Guo,Caroline Dingle,David M Baker,Roger L Kitching,Louise A Ashton

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • IPBES Promotes Integration of Multiple Threats to Biodiversity.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Nicolas Titeux,Lluís Brotons,Josef Settele

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Better Model Transfers Require Knowledge of Mechanisms.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Phil J Bouchet,A Townsend Peterson,Damaris Zurell,Carsten F Dormann,David Schoeman,Rebecca E Ross,Paul Snelgrove,Ana M M Sequeira,Mark J Whittingham,Lifei Wang,Giovanni Rapacciuolo,Steffen Oppel,Camille Mellin,Valentina Lauria,Periyadan K Krishnakumar,Alice R Jones,Stefan Heinänen,Risto K Heikkinen,Edward J Gregr,Alan H Fielding,M Julian Caley,A Márcia Barbosa,Andrew J Bamford,Hector Lozano-Montes,Stephen Parnell,Seth Wenger,Katherine L Yates

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Integrated Approaches to Studying Male and Female Thermal Fertility Limits.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-04-14
    Benjamin S Walsh,Steven R Parratt,David Atkinson,Rhonda R Snook,Amanda Bretman,Tom A R Price

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transferability of Mechanistic Ecological Models Is About Emergence.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2019-02-24
    Viktoriia Radchuk,Stephanie Kramer-Schadt,Volker Grimm

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The emerging medical ecology of the human gut microbiome.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2012-04-28
    John W Pepper,Simon Rosenfeld

    It is increasingly clear that the human gut microbiome has great medical importance, and researchers are beginning to investigate its basic biology and to appreciate the challenges that it presents to medical science. Several striking new empirical results in this area are perplexing within the standard conceptual framework of biomedicine, and this highlights the need for new perspectives from ecology and from dynamical systems theory. Here, we discuss recent results concerning sources of individual variation, temporal variation within individuals, long-term changes after transient perturbations and individualized responses to perturbation within the human gut microbiome.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The evolution of restricted recombination in sex chromosomes.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2008-12-23
    Roberta Bergero,Deborah Charlesworth

    In species with separate sexes, sex determination often has a genetic basis, and in a wide diversity of taxa a pair of cytologically distinguishable 'sex chromosomes' are found such that the chromosome complements of males and females differ (males are often XY and females XX, but sometimes females are ZW whereas males are ZZ). Recent evidence from sequences of sex-linked genes confirms classical genetic evidence that these chromosomes are a homologous pair, evolved from a normal chromosome pair, between which recombination stopped. We discuss why sex chromosomes evolve reduced recombination and why different parts of the chromosomes stopped recombining at different times, and outline some of the consequences of suppressed recombination, including the evolution of chromosome heteromorphism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Origins and evolution of eukaryotic RNA interference.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 2008-08-22
    Svetlana A Shabalina,Eugene V Koonin

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and genome-encoded microRNAs (miRNAs) silence genes via complementary interactions with mRNAs. With thousands of miRNA genes identified and genome sequences of diverse eukaryotes available for comparison, the opportunity emerges for insights into the origin and evolution of RNA interference (RNAi). The miRNA repertoires of plants and animals appear to have evolved independently. However, conservation of the key proteins involved in RNAi suggests that the last common ancestor of modern eukaryotes possessed siRNA-based mechanisms. Prokaryotes have an RNAi-like defense system that is functionally analogous but not homologous to eukaryotic RNAi. The protein machinery of eukaryotic RNAi seems to have been pieced together from ancestral archaeal, bacterial and phage proteins that are involved in DNA repair and RNA processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lobsters, moths and centipedes.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    B M Winnepenninckx

    Arthropod Relationships edited by R.A. Fortey and H. Thomas, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1998 (The Systematics Association Special Volume Series 55). £115 hbk (xii+383 pages) ISBN 0 412 75420 7.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An encyclopaedia of sexuality.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    A H Harcourt

    Primate Sexuality. Comparative Studies of the Prosimians, Monkeys, Apes and Human Beings by Alan F. Dixson, Oxford University Press, 1998. £75.00 hbk, £32.50 pbk (656 pages) ISBN 0 19 850183 8/0 19 850182 X.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bird biodiversity.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    C M Perrins

    Endemic Bird Areas of the World. Priorities for Biodiversity Conservation by A.J. Stattersfield, M.J. Crosby, A.J. Long and D.C. Wege, Birdlife International, 1997. £37.00 pbk (860 pages) ISBN 0946 888 33 7 CDROM: Birds of the World-A Multimedia Encyclopedia, Ransom, 1997. £14.99 ISBN 1 863 89 1748.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ultimate parasites.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    A F Read

    Evolutionary Ecology of Parasites. From Individuals to Communities by Robert Poulin, Chapman & Hall, 1998. £55.00 hbk (x+212 pages) ISBN 0 412 80560 X.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Family values.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    D R Brooks

    Evolutionary Genetics (2nd edn) by J. Maynard Smith, Oxford University Press, 1998. £50.00 hbk, £19.95 pbk (368 pages) ISBN 0 19 850232 X/0 19 850231 1 Selection in Natural Populations by J.B. Mitton, Oxford University Press, 1998. £50.00 hbk (252 pages) ISBN 0 19 506352 X Progress and Prospects in Evolutionary Biology edited by J.R. Powell, Oxford University Press, 1997. £49.50 hbk (576 pages) ISBN 0 19 507691 5 Evolution on Islands edited by P.R. Grant, Oxford University Press, 1997. £24.99 pbk (348 pages) ISBN 0 19 850 1714.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Costly sexual signals: are carotenoids rare, risky or required?
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    V A Olson,I P Owens

    Theories of animal signalling emphasize the importance of costliness-to be effective, signals must be dependable; to be dependable, signals must carry costs-and carotenoid-based signals are a favoured example. The traditional view that carotenoids are costly because they are scarce still carries weight. However, biomedical research has led to alternative views on costliness, mainly related to beneficial, but also to detrimental, effects of carotenoids. Recent improvements in our understanding of carotenoids suggest that the relative importance of these mechanisms will soon be determined, leading to a fresh outlook on cost-based signalling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Deep flowers for long tongues: reply from L.A. Nilsson.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    L A Nilsson

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reply from m. Heino, j.a.j. Metz and v. Kaitala.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    M Heino,J Metz,V Kaitala

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Frequency dependence versus optimization.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    E Kisdi

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reply from R. Fortey and a. Cooper.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    R Fortey,A Cooper

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reply from a.L.R. Thomas.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    A Thomas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reply from s. Randolph.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    S Randolph

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trace fossils and the Cambrian explosion.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    G E Budd,S Jensen

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mast seeding and Lyme disease.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    D Kelly

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mast seeding and Lyme disease.
    Trends Ecol. Evol. (IF 15.236) Pub Date : 1998-12-01
    C G Jones,R S Ostfeld,M P Richard,E M Schauber,J O Wolff

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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