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  • Bridging information domains to improve ecological understanding of biological invasions in a marine ecosystem
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Megan Rothenberger; Andrea Armstrong; Trent Gaugler; Sarah Massaro; William Pfadenhauer; Juliana Ventresca

    Bioinvasions are widely recognized as a growing threat to marine ecosystems, but our ability to predict future invasions and develop control measures is hampered by a lack of timely and accessible information. Although scientific research and traditional ecological monitoring programs amass information on the spread and impact of introduced species, there are other domains in which valuable information

  • Applying the zoo model to conservation of threatened exceptional plant species
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Jordan Wood; Jonathan D. Ballou; Taylor Callicrate; Jeremie B. Fant; M. Patrick Griffith; Andrea T. Kramer; Robert C. Lacy; Abby Meyer; Sara Sullivan; Kathy Traylor‐Holzer; Seana K. Walsh; Kayri Havens

    Maintaining a living plant collection is the most common method of ex situ conservation for plant species that cannot be seed banked i.e. “exceptional” species. Viability of living collections, and their value for future conservation efforts, can be limited without coordinated efforts to track and manage individuals across institutions. The zoological community has established an inter‐institutional

  • An adaptive plan for prioritizing road sections for fencing to reduce animal mortality
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Ariel G. Spanowicz; Fernanda Zimmermann Teixeira; Jochen A.G. Jaeger

    Mortality of animals on roads is a critical threat to many wildlife populations, and is poised to increase strongly because of ongoing and planned road construction. If these new roads cannot be avoided, effective mitigation measures will be necessary to stop biodiversity decline. Fencing along roads effectively reduces roadkill and is often used in combination with wildlife passages. Because fencing

  • Mapping legal authority for terrestrial conservation corridors along streams.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Amanda T Stahl,Alexander K Fremier,Barbara A Cosens

    Wildlife corridors aim to promote species' persistence by connecting habitat patches across fragmented landscapes. Their implementation is limited by patterns of land ownership and complicated by differences in the jurisdictional and regulatory authorities under which lands are managed. Terrestrial corridor conservation requires coordination across jurisdictions and sectors subject to site-specific

  • Combined effects of land use and hunting on distributions of tropical mammals.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Juan Gallego-Zamorano,Ana Benítez-López,Luca Santini,Jelle P Hilbers,Mark A J Huijbregts,Aafke M Schipper

    Land use and hunting are two major pressures on biodiversity in the tropics. Yet, their combined impacts have not been systematically quantified at a large scale. We estimated the effects of both pressures on the distributions of 1,884 tropical mammal species by integrating detailed land-use maps (1992 and 2015), species-specific habitat preference data, and a hunting pressure model. We further identified

  • Evaluating and expanding the European Union's protected-area network toward potential post-2020 coverage targets.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Anke Müller,Uwe A Schneider,Kerstin Jantke

    The Convention on Biological Diversity's (CBD) strategic plan will expire in 2020, but biodiversity loss is ongoing. Scientists call for more ambitious targets in the next agreement. The nature-needs-half movement, for example, has advocated conserving half of Earth to solve the biodiversity crisis, which has been translated to protecting 50% of each ecoregion. We evaluated current protection levels

  • Freshwater fish diversity hotspots for conservation priorities in the Amazon Basin.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Céline Jézéquel,Pablo A Tedesco,William Darwall,Murilo S Dias,Renata G Frederico,Max Hidalgo,Bernard Hugueny,Javier Maldonado-Ocampo,Koen Martens,Hernan Ortega,Gislene Torrente-Vilara,Jansen Zuanon,Thierry Oberdorff

    Conserving freshwater habitats and their biodiversity in the Amazon Basin is a growing challenge in the face of rapid anthropogenic changes. We used the most comprehensive fish-occurrence database available (2,355 valid species; 21,248 sampling points) and 3 ecological criteria (irreplaceability, representativeness, and vulnerability) to identify biodiversity hotspots based on 6 conservation templates

  • Responses of New Zealand forest birds to management of introduced mammals.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Nyree Fea,Wayne Linklater,Stephen Hartley

    Over the past 1000 years New Zealand has lost 40-50% of its bird species, with over half of the extinctions attributed to predation by introduced mammals. Populations of many extant forest bird species continue to be depredated by mammals, especially rats, possums and mustelids. The management history of New Zealand's forests over the past fifty years presents a unique opportunity in which a varied

  • Ex situ collections and their potential for the restoration of extinct plants.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Thomas Abeli,Sarah Dalrymple,Sandrine Godefroid,Andrea Mondoni,Jonas V Müller,Graziano Rossi,Simone Orsenigo

    The alarming current and predicted species extinction rates have galvanized conservationists in their efforts to avoid future biodiversity losses, but for species extinct in the wild, few options exist. We posed the questions, can these species be restored, and, if so, what role can ex situ plant collections (i.e., botanic gardens, germplasm banks, herbaria) play in the recovery of plant genetic diversity

  • Evaluating conservation dogs in the search for rare species.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Emma M Bennett,Cindy E Hauser,Joslin L Moore

    Detecting rare species is important for both threatened species management and invasive species eradication programs. Conservation scent dogs provide an olfactory survey tool that has advantages over traditional visual and auditory survey techniques for some cryptic species. From the literature, we identified 5 measures important in evaluating the use of scent dogs: precision, sensitivity, effort,

  • Environmental impacts and implications of tropical carrageenophyte seaweed farming.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Emily L A Kelly,Abigail L Cannon,Jennifer E Smith

    Field-based cultivation of Kappaphycus and Eucheuma seaweeds is widespread across the tropics and is largely done to extract the polysaccharide carrageenan, which is used in commercial applications. Although such seaweed farming has been cited as a sustainable alternative livelihood to destructive fishing, there has not been a comprehensive review of its environmental impacts to assess its potential

  • Campesino hunting and conservation in Latin America.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Michael A Petriello,Amanda L Stronza

    Hunting presents a paradox for biodiversity conservation. It is both a problem and a solution to species declines and poverty. Yet, conservation scientists hold different assumptions about the significance and sustainability of hunting based on the cultures and identities of hunters. In Latin America, conservationists largely sort hunters as either indigenous or campesino. Indigenous hunters are often

  • Effectiveness of biodiversity-conservation marketing.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Jillian Ryan,Sarah Mellish,Jillian Dorrian,Tony Winefield,Carla Litchfield

    Conservation marketing holds potential as a means to engage audiences with biodiversity conservation and help to address the human dimensions of biodiversity loss. Empirical evaluations of conservation marketing indicatives are growing, so we reviewed the literature on this research to inform future directions in the field. We used a systematic search strategy to identify studies that evaluated the

  • Need for a global map of forest naturalness for a sustainable future.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Alessandro Chiarucci,Gianluca Piovesan

    There is a growing need to assess and monitor forest cover and its conservation status over global scales to determine human impact on ecosystems and to develop sustainability plans. Recent approaches to measure regional and global forest status and dynamics are based on remotely sensed estimates of tree cover. We argue that tree cover should not be used to assess the area of forest ecosystems because

  • Rethinking the native range concept.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Patricio Javier Pereyra

    A species is not native outside its native range, but native range is not precisely defined. The invasion literature contains wide discussion of the core concepts such as naturalization, invasiveness, and ecological impact, but the concept of native range has received so little attention that a formal definition does not exist. I considered, among other impediments to a formal definition of native

  • The ethics of genetic engineering and gene drives in conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Ronald Sandler

    The ethical issues associated with using genetic engineering and gene drives in conservation are typically described as consisting of risk assessment and management, public engagement and acceptance, opportunity costs, risk and benefit distributions, and oversight. These are important, but the ethical concerns extend beyond them because the use of genetic engineering has the potential to significantly

  • Environmental solutions sparked by environmental history.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Dominic McAfee,Heidi K Alleway,Sean D Connell

    Environmental solutions require a decision-making process that is ultimately political, in that they involve decisions with uncertain outcomes and stakeholders with conflicting viewpoints. If this process seeks broad alignment between the government and public, then reconciling conflicting viewpoints is a key to the legitimacy of these decisions. We show that ecological baselines can be particularly

  • Mediation of area and edge effects in forest fragments by adjacent land use.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Jack H Hatfield,Jos Barlow,Carlos A Joly,Alexander C Lees,Celso Henrique de Freitas Parruco,Joseph A Tobias,C David L Orme,Cristina Banks-Leite

    Habitat loss, fragmentation, and degradation have pervasive detrimental effects on tropical forest biodiversity, but the role of the surrounding land use (i.e., matrix) in determining the severity of these impacts remains poorly understood. We surveyed bird species across an interior-edge-matrix gradient to assess the effects of matrix type on biodiversity at 49 different sites with varying levels

  • Effects of crowding due to habitat loss on species assemblage patterns.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Marcelo Alejandro Villegas Vallejos,André Andrian Padial,Jean Ricardo Simões Vitule,Emygdio Leite de Araujo Monteiro-Filho

    Terrestrial animals are negatively affected by habitat loss, which is assessed on a landscape scale, whereas secondary effects of habitat loss, such as crowding, are usually disregarded. Such impacts are inherently hard to address and poorly understood, and there is a growing concern that they could have dire consequences. We sampled birds throughout a deforestation process to assess crowding stress

  • A network approach to prioritize conservation efforts for migratory birds.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Yanjie Xu,Yali Si,John Takekawa,Qiang Liu,Herbert H T Prins,Shenglai Yin,Diann J Prosser,Peng Gong,Willem F de Boer

    Habitat loss can trigger migration network collapse by isolating migratory bird breeding grounds from nonbreeding grounds. Theoretically, habitat loss can have vastly different impacts depending on the site's importance within the migratory corridor. However, migration-network connectivity and the impacts of site loss are not completely understood. We used GPS tracking data on 4 bird species in the

  • A climate-change vulnerability and adaptation assessment for Brazil's protected areas.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    David M Lapola,José Maria C da Silva,Diego R Braga,Larissa Carpigiani,Fernanda Ogawa,Roger R Torres,Luis C F Barbosa,Jean P H B Ometto,Carlos A Joly

    Brazil hosts the largest expanse of tropical ecosystems within protected areas (PAs), which shelter biodiversity and support traditional human populations. We assessed the vulnerability to climate change of 993 terrestrial and coastal-marine Brazilian PAs by combining indicators of climatic-change hazard with indicators of PA resilience (size, native vegetation cover, and probability of climate-driven

  • Urban wild meat consumption and trade in central Amazonia.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Hani R El Bizri,Thaís Q Morcatty,João Valsecchi,Pedro Mayor,Jéssica E S Ribeiro,Carlos F A Vasconcelos Neto,Jéssica S Oliveira,Keilla M Furtado,Urânia C Ferreira,Carlos F S Miranda,Ciclene H Silva,Valdinei L Lopes,Gerson P Lopes,Caio C F Florindo,Romerson C Chagas,Vincent Nijman,John E Fa

    The switch from hunting wild meat for home consumption to supplying more lucrative city markets in Amazonia can adversely affect some game species. Despite this, information on the amounts of wild meat eaten in Amazonian cities is still limited. We estimated wild meat consumption rates in 5 cities in the State of Amazonas in Brazil through 1046 door-to-door household interviews conducted from 2004

  • Shared ways of thinking in Brazil about the science-practice interface in ecology and conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Diana Bertuol-Garcia,Carla Morsello,Charbel N El-Hani,Renata Pardini

    The debate in the literature on the science-practice interface suggests a diversity of opinions on how to link science and practice to improve conservation. Understanding this diversity is key to addressing unequal power relations, avoiding the consideration of only dominant views, and identifying strategies to link science and practice. In turn, linking science and practice should promote conservation

  • Sentiment analysis as a measure of conservation culture in scientific literature.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Robert J Lennox,Diogo Veríssimo,William M Twardek,Colin R Davis,Ivan Jarić

    Culturomics is emerging as an important field within science, as a way to measure attitudes and beliefs and their dynamics across time and space via quantitative analysis of digitized data from literature, news, film, social media, and more. Sentiment analysis is a culturomics tool that, within the last decade, has provided a means to quantify the polarity of attitudes expressed within various media

  • Estimating non-native plant richness with a species-accumulation model along roads.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-31
    Huixuan Liao,Huijie Wang,Qiaohong Dong,Feihong Cheng,Ting Zhou,Shaolin Peng

    Monitoring non-native plant richness is important for biodiversity conservation and scientific research. The species-area model (SA model) has been used frequently to estimate the total species richness within a region. However, the conventional SA model may not provide robust estimations of non-native plant richness because the ecological processes associated with the accumulation of exotic and native

  • Application of multiple-population viability analysis to evaluate species recovery alternatives.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Helen M Neville,Douglas R Leasure,Daniel C Dauwalter,Jason B Dunham,Robin Bjork,Kurt A Fesenmyer,Nathan D Chelgren,Mary M Peacock,Charles H Luce,Daniel J Isaak,Lee Ann Carranza,Jon Sjoberg,Seth J Wenger

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a powerful conservation tool, but it remains impractical for many species, particularly species with multiple, broadly distributed populations for which collecting suitable data can be challenging. A recently developed method of multiple-population viability analysis (MPVA), however, addresses many limitations of traditional PVA. We built on previous development

  • Integrating intraseasonal grassland dynamics in cross-scale distribution modeling to support waterbird recovery plans.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Adrián Regos,María Vidal,Miguel Lorenzo,Jesús Domínguez

    Despite much discussion about the utility of remote sensing for effective conservation, the inclusion of these technologies in species recovery plans remains largely anecdotal. We developed a modeling approach for the integration of local, spatially measured ecosystem functional dynamics into a species distribution modeling (SDM) framework in which other ecologically relevant factors are modeled separately

  • Using spatially explicit, time-dependent analysis to understand how social factors influence conservation outcomes.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-16
    Rebecca M Niemiec,Greg P Asner,Julie A Gaertner,Philip G Brodrick,Nick Vaughn,Joseph Heckler,Flint Hughes,Lisa Keith,Tracie Matsumoto

    Conservation across human-dominated landscapes requires an understanding of the social and ecological factors driving outcomes. Studies that link conservation outcomes to social and ecological factors have examined temporally static patterns. However, there may be different social and ecological processes driving increases and decreases in conservation outcomes that can only be revealed through temporal

  • A Bayesian hierarchical approach to quantifying stakeholder attitudes toward conservation in the presence of reporting error.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Divya Vasudev,Varun R Goswami

    Stakeholder support is vital for achieving conservation success, yet there are few reliable mechanisms to monitor stakeholder attitudes toward conservation. Approaches used to assess attitudes rarely account for bias arising from reporting error, which can lead to falsely reporting a positive attitude toward conservation (false-positive error) or not reporting a positive attitude when the respondent

  • Manipulating water for amphibian conservation
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Rupert Mathwin; Skye Wassens; Jeanne Young; Qifeng Ye; Corey J. A. Bradshaw

    Amphibian populations globally are in decline. One important threat is the abstraction of water resources that alter surface‐water hydrology. Conservation actions aimed at restoring or manipulating surface‐water is frequently employed as a management tool, but empirical evidence on the effectiveness of these approaches is scarce. In this systematic review we summarise the global experience of manipulating

  • Extinction rate of discovered and undiscovered plants in Singapore
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Nadiah P. Kristensen; Wei Wei Seah; Kwek Yan Chong; Yi Shuen Yeoh; Tak Fung; Laura M. Berman; Hui Zhen Tan; Ryan A. Chisholm

    Extinction is a key issue in the assessment of global biodiversity. However, many extinction rate measures do not account for species that went extinct before they could be discovered. The highly developed island city‐state of Singapore has one of the best‐documented tropical floras in the world. This presents a unique opportunity to estimate the total rate of local floristic extinctions, after accounting

  • Recognizing animal personhood in compassionate conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-07
    Arian D Wallach,Chelsea Batavia,Marc Bekoff,Shelley Alexander,Liv Baker,Dror Ben-Ami,Louise Boronyak,Adam P A Cardilini,Yohay Carmel,Danielle Celermajer,Simon Coghlan,Yara Dahdal,Jonatan J Gomez,Gisela Kaplan,Oded Keynan,Anton Khalilieh,Helen Kopnina,William S Lynn,Yamini Narayanan,Sophie Riley,Francisco J Santiago-Ávila,Esty Yanco,Miriam A Zemanova,Daniel Ramp

    Compassionate conservation argues that actions taken to protect the Earth's diversity of life should be guided by compassion for all sentient beings. A set of essays published in Conservation Biology call to reject compassionate conservation. Critics argue that there are situations in which harming animals in conservation programs is appropriate. Three core reasons can be summarized: (1) conservation's

  • Using deep-belief networks to understand propensity for livelihood change in a rural coastal community to further conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Alfonso B Labao,Prospero C Naval,David Leonides T Yap,Helen T Yap

    Overharvesting of terrestrial and marine resources may be alleviated by encouraging an alternative configuration of livelihoods, particularly in rural communities in developing countries. Typical occupations in such areas include fishing and farming, and rural households often switch livelihood activities to suit climate and economic conditions. We used a machine-learning tool, deep-belief networks

  • Ex situ management as insurance against extinction of mammalian megafauna in an uncertain world.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Mohammad S Farhadinia,Paul J Johnson,Alexandra Zimmermann,Philip J K McGowan,Erik Meijaard,Mark Stanley-Price,David W Macdonald

    The persistence of endangered species may depend on the fate of a very small number of individual animals. In situ conservation alone may sometimes be insufficient. In these instances, the International Union for Conservation of Nature provides guidelines for ex situ conservation and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) indicates how ex situ management can support the CDB's objectives by providing

  • The changing sociocultural context of wildlife conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Michael J Manfredo,Tara L Teel,Andrew W Don Carlos,Leeann Sullivan,Alan D Bright,Alia M Dietsch,Jeremy Bruskotter,David Fulton

    This article proposes a multilevel model of value shift to describe the changing social context of wildlife conservation. Our model depicts how cultural-level processes, driven by modernization, affect changes in individual-level cognition, prompting a shift from domination to mutualism wildlife values. Domination values promote beliefs that wildlife should be used primarily to benefit humans, while

  • Matching expert range maps with species distribution model predictions.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-03-01
    Kumar Mainali,Trevor Hefley,Leslie Ries,William Fagan

    Species range maps based on expert opinion are a critical resource for conservation planning. Expert maps are usually accompanied by species descriptions that specify sources of internal range heterogeneity, such as habitat associations, but these are rarely considered when using expert maps for analysis. Here, we develop a quantitative metric ("Expert Score") to evaluate the agreement between an expert

  • Testing the presence of marine protected areas against their ability to reduce pressures on biodiversity.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-10-30
    Simone L Stevenson,Skipton N C Woolley,Jon Barnett,Piers Dunstan

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the preferred tool for preventing marine biodiversity loss, as reflected in international protected area targets. Although the area covered by MPAs is expanding, there is a concern that opposition from resource users is driving them into already low-use locations, whereas high-pressure areas remain unprotected, which has serious implications for biodiversity conservation

  • Reconsidering humaneness.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Jordan O Hampton,Penny M Fisher,Bruce Warburton

    Animal welfare is increasingly important in our understanding of how human activity affects wildlife, but the conservation community is still grappling with meaningful terminology when communicating this aspect of their work. One example is the use of the terms 'humane' and 'inhumane'. These terms are used in scientific contexts but also have legal and social definitions. Without reference to a defined

  • Three lessons for gender equity in biodiversity conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Jacqueline D Lau

    Article impact statement: Insights from feminist political ecology can help conservationists incorporate gender equity more reflexively. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  • Integrating functional connectivity and fire management for better conservation outcomes.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Holly Sitters,Julian Di Stefano

    Globally, the mean abundance of terrestrial animals has fallen by 50% since 1970, and populations face ongoing threats associated with habitat loss, fragmentation, climate change, and disturbance. Climate change can influence the quality of remaining habitat directly and indirectly by precipitating increases in the extent, frequency, and severity of natural disturbances, such as fire. Species face

  • Optimization of capture-recapture monitoring of elusive species illustrated with a threatened grasshopper.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Linda Bröder,Laurent Tatin,Axel Hochkirch,Andreas Schuld,Lucas Pabst,Aurélien Besnard

    Information on population sizes and trends of threatened species is essential for their conservation, but obtaining reliable estimates can be challenging. We devised a method to improve the precision of estimates of population size obtained from capture-recapture studies for species with low capture and recapture probabilities and short seasonal activity, illustrated with population data of an elusive

  • Exploring nationality and social identity to explain attitudes toward conservation actions in the United States and Australia.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-23
    Lily M van Eeden,Kristina Slagle,Thomas M Newsome,Mathew S Crowther,Christopher R Dickman,Jeremy T Bruskotter

    Understanding human attitudes toward wildlife management is critical to implementing effective conservation action and policy. Our understanding of the factors that shape public attitudes toward different wildlife management actions is limited, however, which can result in unpredictable public responses to interventions. Here we draw on comparisons between residents of two countries in separate continents

  • Generation lengths of the world's birds and their implications for extinction risk.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jeremy P Bird,Robert Martin,H Reşit Akçakaya,James Gilroy,Ian J Burfield,Stephen Garnett,Andy Symes,Joe Taylor,Çağan H Şekercioğlu,Stuart H M Butchart

    Birds have been comprehensively assessed on the IUCN Red List more times than any other taxonomic group. However, to date, generation lengths have not been systematically estimated to scale population trends when undertaking assessments, as required by the Red List Criteria. We compiled information from major databases of published life history and trait data for all birds, and imputed missing life

  • Five lessons to guide more effective biodiversity conservation message framing.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Alexander M Kusmanoff,Fiona Fidler,Ascelin Gordon,Georgia E Garrard,Sarah A Bekessy

    Because the conservation of biodiversity is a social and political process, conservation policies are more effective if they can create shifts in attitudes and/or behaviours. As such, communication and advocacy approaches that influence attitudes and behaviours are key to addressing conservation problems. It is well established that the way an issue is 'framed' can influence how people view, judge

  • Positioning human heritage at the center of conservation practice.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Robert A Montgomery,Kendi Borona,Herbert Kasozi,Tutilo Mudumba,Mordecai Ogada

    Conservation projects subscribing to a community-based paradigm have predominated in the 21st century. Here, we examine the context in which the phrase was coined and trace its growth over time. We found that the phrase 'community-based conservation' first appeared in the literature in 1993 and existed for a decade without much growth. However, after the 5th IUCN World Parks Congress held in Durban

  • Key considerations and challenges in the application of social-network research for environmental decision making.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    A M Guerrero,M Barnes,Ö Bodin,I Chadès,K J Davis,M S Iftekhar,C Morgans,K A Wilson

    Attempts to better understand the social context in which conservation and environmental decisions are made has led to increased interest in human social networks. To improve the use of social-network analysis in conservation, we reviewed recent studies in the literature in which such methods were applied. In our review, we looked for problems in research design and analysis that limit the utility

  • Rigid laws and invasive species management.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Francisco J Oficialdegui,Miguel Delibes-Mateos,Andy J Green,Marta I Sánchez,Luz Boyero,Miguel Clavero

  • Complex and nonlinear climate-driven changes in freshwater insect communities over 42 years.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Viktor Baranov,Jonas Jourdan,Francesca Pilotto,Rüdiger Wagner,Peter Haase

    The ongoing biodiversity crisis becomes evident in the widely observed decline in abundance and diversity of species, profound changes in community structure and shifts in the species' phenology. Insects are among the most affected groups, with documented decreases in abundance up to 76% in the last 25-30 years in some terrestrial ecosystems. Identifying the underlying drivers is a major obstacle as

  • When all life counts in conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Arian D Wallach,Erick Lundgren,Chelsea Batavia,Michael Paul Nelson,Esty Yanco,Wayne L Linklater,Scott P Carroll,Danielle Celermajer,Kate J Brandis,Jamie Steer,Daniel Ramp

    Conservation science involves the collection and analysis of data. These scientific practices emerge from values that shape who and what is counted. Currently, conservation data are filtered through a value system that considers native life the only appropriate subject of conservation concern. We examined how trends in species richness, distribution, and threats change when all wildlife count by adding

  • Global reforestation and biodiversity conservation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Krista M S Kemppinen,Pamela M Collins,David G Hole,Christopher Wolf,William J Ripple,Leah R Gerber

    The loss of forest habitat is a leading cause of species extinction, and reforestation is one of two established interventions for reversing this loss. However, the role of reforestation for biodiversity conservation remains debated, and lacking is an assessment of the potential contribution that reforestation could make to biodiversity conservation globally. Here, we conduct a spatial analysis of

  • Priority areas for conservation of and research focused on terrestrial vertebrates.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Javier Nori,Rafael Loyola,Fabricio Villalobos

    Effective conservation policies require comprehensive knowledge on biodiversity. However, knowledge shortfalls still remain, hindering our possibilities to improve decision making and built such policies. During the last two decades, conservationists have made great efforts to allocate resources as efficiently as possible but have rarely considered the idea that if research investments are also strategically

  • Catalyzing sustainable fisheries management though behavior change interventions.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Gavin McDonald,Molly Wilson,Diogo Veríssimo,Rebecca Twohey,Michaela Clemence,Dean Apistar,Stephen Box,Paul Butler,Fel Cesar Cadiz,Stuart J Campbell,Courtney Cox,Micah Effron,Steve Gaines,Raymond Jakub,Roquelito H Mancao,Pablo T Rojas,Rocky Sanchez Tirona,Gabriel Vianna

    Small-scale fisheries are an important livelihood and primary protein source for coastal communities in many of the poorest regions in the world, yet many suffer from overfishing, requiring effective and scalable management solutions. Positive ecological and socioeconomic responses to management typically lag behind immediate costs borne by fishers from fishing pressure reductions necessary for fisheries

  • Incorporating differences between genetic diversity of trees and herbaceous plants in conservation strategies.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Mi Yoon Chung,Sungwon Son,Sonia Herrando-Moraira,Cindy Q Tang,Masayuki Maki,Young-Dong Kim,Jordi López-Pujol,J L Hamrick,Myong Gi Chung

    According to several reviews that summarize the genetic diversity of plant species in relation to their life-history and ecological traits, forest trees have more genetic diversity than annuals or herbaceous perennials at both the population and species levels. In addition, the among-population genetic diversity in trees is significantly lower than most herbaceous perennials and annuals. Possible reasons

  • The uses and implications of avian vocalizations for conservation planning.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Rebecca N Lewis,Leah J Williams,R Tucker Gilman

    There is a growing recognition that animal behaviour can impact wildlife conservation, but there have been few direct studies of animal behaviour during conservation programmes. However, a great deal of existing behavioural research can be applied in the context of conservation. Research on avian vocalizations provides an excellent example. The conspicuous nature of birds' vocal behaviour makes it

  • Historical and contemporary indigenous marine conservation strategies in the North Pacific.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Natalie C Ban,Emma Wilson,Doug Neasloss

    Strategies to reduce, halt, and reverse global declines in marine biodiversity are needed urgently. We reviewed, coded, and synthesized historical and contemporary marine conservation strategies of the Kitasoo/Xai'xais First Nation in British Columbia, Canada to show how their approaches work. We assessed whether the conservation actions classification system by the Conservation Measures Partnership

  • Planting gardens to support insect pollinators.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-02-20
    Ania A Majewska,Sonia Altizer

    Global insect pollinator declines have prompted habitat restoration efforts, including pollinator-friendly gardening. Gardens can provide nectar and pollen for adult insects and offer reproductive resources, such as nesting sites and caterpillar host plants. We conducted a review and meta-analysis to examine how decisions made by gardeners on plant selection and garden maintenance influence pollinator

  • A critical appraisal of population viability analysis.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Vratika Chaudhary,Madan K Oli

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is useful in management of imperiled species. Applications range from research design, threat assessment, and development of management frameworks. Given the importance of PVAs, it is essential that they be rigorous and adhere to widely accepted guidelines; however, the quality of published PVAs is rarely assessed. We evaluated the quality of 160 PVAs of 144 species

  • Compliance with and ecosystem function of biodiversity offsets in North American and European freshwaters.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-06-03
    Sebastian Theis,Jonathan L W Ruppert,Karling N Roberts,Charles K Minns,Marten Koops,Mark S Poesch

    Land-use change via human development is a major driver of biodiversity loss. To reduce these impacts, billions of dollars are spent on biodiversity offsets. However, studies evaluating offset project effectiveness that examine components such as the overall compliance and function of projects remain rare. We reviewed 577 offsetting projects in freshwater ecosystems that included the metrics project

  • Transforming ecology and conservation biology through genome editing.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    Michael P Phelps,Lisa W Seeb,James E Seeb

    As the conservation challenges increase, new approaches are needed to help combat losses in biodiversity and slow or reverse the decline of threatened species. Genome-editing technology is changing the face of modern biology, facilitating applications that were unimaginable only a decade ago. The technology has the potential to make significant contributions to the fields of evolutionary biology, ecology

  • Conservation value of small reserves.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 6.194) Pub Date : 2019-03-28
    Zoe M Volenec,Andrew P Dobson

    The importance of large reserves has been long maintained in the scientific literature, often leading to dismissal of the conservation potential of small reserves. However, over half the global protected-area inventory is composed of protected areas that are <100 ha, and the median size of added protected area is decreasing. Studies of the conservation value of small reserves and fragments of natural

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿