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  • Linguistic Diversity and Conservation Opportunities at UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    L.J. Gorenflo; Suzanne Romaine

    Africa contains much of Earth's biological and cultural‐linguistic diversity, but conserving this diversity faces enormous challenges amid widespread poverty, expanding development, social unrest, and rapidly growing human population. Here we examine UNESCO Natural World Heritage Sites (WHSs) on continental Africa and nearby islands—48 protected areas containing globally important natural or combined

  • Evaluating the social and ecological effectiveness of partially protected marine areas
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2021-01-14
    John W. Turnbull; Emma L. Johnston; Graeme F. Clark

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are a primary tool for the stewardship, conservation, and restoration of marine ecosystems, yet 69% of global MPAs are only partially protected (i.e., are open to some form of fishing). Although fully protected areas have well‐documented outcomes, including increased fish diversity and biomass, the effectiveness of partially protected areas is contested. Partially protected

  • Nature Underfoot: Living with Beetles, Crabgrass, Fruit Flies, and Other Tiny Life Around Us. Hainze, J.2020. Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, U.S.A. xviii+254 pp. US$28.00 (hardcover). ISBN 9780300242782.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Gabor Lovei

    This book provides a glimpse into the immense world of small plants, animals, and microorganisms that surround us, particularly those commonly regarded as annoying and unwelcome. Amid a major biodiversity decline, it is now essential to make sure we consider our impact on other living organisms. Through stories and examples, the author sparks curiosity for small creatures, showing us how it is possible

  • Supporting habitat conservation with automated change detection in Google Earth Engine
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Michael J. Evans; Jacob W. Malcom

    A significant limitation in biodiversity conservation has been the effective implementation of laws and regulations that protect species’ habitats from degradation. Flexible, efficient, and effective monitoring and enforcement methods are needed to help conservation policies realize their full benefit. As remote sensing data become more numerous and accessible, they can be used to identify and quantify

  • A counterfactual approach to measure the impact of wet grassland conservation on UK breeding bird populations
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Sean Jellesmark; Malcolm Ausden; Tim M. Blackburn; Richard D. Gregory; Mike Hoffmann; Dario Massimino; Louise McRae; Piero Visconti

    Wet grassland wader populations in the United Kingdom have experienced severe declines over the last three decades. To help mitigate these declines, the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) has restored and managed lowland wet grassland nature reserves to benefit these and other species. However, the impact that these reserves have on bird population trends has not been experimentally evaluated

  • Emotion as a source of moral understanding in conservation
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Chelsea Batavia; Michael Paul Nelson; Jeremy T. Bruskotter; Megan S. Jones; Esty Yanco; Daniel Ramp; Marc Bekoff; Arian D. Wallach

    Recent debates around the meaning and implications of “compassionate conservation” suggest some conservationists are uncomfortable with emotion, disparaging it as a false and misleading basis for moral judgment and decision‐making. These notions arise from a long‐standing, gendered sociocultural convention whereby reason is seen as separate from and superior to emotion. We discuss the intellectual

  • Urban sprawl into Natura 2000 network over Europe
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-30
    Elena D. Concepción

    Urban growth is a major threat to biodiversity conservation at the global scale. Its impacts are expected to be especially detrimental when it sprawls into the landscape and reaches sites of high conservation value due to the species and habitats they host, such as protected areas.

  • Long‐term drivers of persistence and colonization dynamics in spatially structured amphibian populations
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Mattia Falaschi; Simone Giachello; Elia Lo Parrino; Martina Muraro; Raoul Manenti; Gentile Francesco Ficetola

    Many organisms live in networks of local populations connected by dispersing individuals, called spatially structured populations (SSPs), where the long‐term persistence of the entire network is determined by the balance between two processes acting at the scale of local populations: extinction and colonization. When multiple threats act on an SSP, a comparison of the different factors determining

  • Beyond species counts for assessing, valuing, and conserving biodiversity: response to Wallach et al. 2019
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-22
    Ninon F. V. Meyer; Niko Balkenhol; Trishna Dutta; Maarten Hofman; Jean‐Yves Meyer; Euan G. Ritchie; Charlotte Alley; Chad Beranek; Cassandra K. Bugir; Alex Callen; Simon Clulow; Michael V. Cove; Kaya Klop‐Toker; Omar R. Lopez; Michael Mahony; Robert Scanlon; Sandeep Sharma; Elen Shute; Rose Upton; Emy Guilbault; Andrea S. Griffin; Edwin Hernández Pérez; Lachlan G. Howell; John‐Paul King; Dean Lenga;

    Article impact statement: Combining native and non‐native species to evaluate biodiversity is overly simplistic and may undermine the conservation of ecosystems.

  • Reliability of evidence‐review methods in restoration ecology
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-21
    João P. Romanelli; Paula Meli; Rafaela P. Naves; Marcelo C. Alves; Ricardo R. Rodrigues

    In restoration science, evidence reviews play a crucial role in summarizing research findings in practice and policy. However, if unreliable or inappropriate methods are used to review evidence, decisions based on these reviews may not accurately reflect the available evidence base. To assess the current value of restoration reviews, we examined a sample of meta‐analyses and narrative syntheses (n

  • Global effects of extreme temperatures on wild bumblebees
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-15
    Baptiste Martinet; Simon Dellicour; Guillaume Ghisbain; Kimberly Przybyla; Ella Zambra; Thomas Lecocq; Mira Boustani; Ruslan Baghirov; Denis Michez; Pierre Rasmont

    Climate plays a key role in shaping population trends and determining the geographic distribution of species because of their limits in thermal and water tolerance. An evaluation of species tolerance to temperature changes can therefore help predict their potential spatial shifts and population trends triggered by the ongoing global warming. In this work, we focused on 39 bumblebee species, a major

  • Improving inferences about private land conservation by accounting for incomplete reporting
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Matthew A Williamson; Brett G. Dickson; Mevin B. Hooten; Rose A. Graves; Mark N. Lubell; Mark W. Schwartz

    Despite the vital role of private lands as habitat for imperiled species and as important components of functioning protected area networks, incorporation of private lands into national and regional conservation planning has been challenging. Identifying locations where private landowners are likely to participate in conservation initiatives can help avoid costly conflict and clarify trade‐offs between

  • Risks to large marine protected areas posed by drifting fish aggregation devices
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-13
    David J Curnick; David A. Feary; Geórgenes H. Cavalcante

    Mapping and predicting the potential risk of fishing activities to large marine protected areas (MPAs), where management capacity is low, but fish biomass may be globally important, is vital to prioritize enforcement and maximize conservation benefits. Using Lagrangian particle modelling we determine the potential transit of drifting fish aggregating devices (dFADs) entering a large MPA around the

  • Software for prioritizing conservation actions based on probabilistic information4
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-11
    Matthew Watts; Carissa J Klein; Vivitskaia Tulloch; Silvia B Carvalho; Hugh P Possingham

    Marxan is the most commonly used decision support tool for informing the design of protected area systems. There is a great deal of risk and uncertainty associated with the outcome of protected area decisions that the original version of Marxan does not consider, including uncertainty about the location and condition of species populations and habitats now and in the future, given threatening processes

  • The importance of tangible and intangible factors in human‐carnivore coexistence
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Kim S Jacobsen; Amy J Dickman; David W Macdonald; Susana Mourato; Paul Johnson; Lovemore Sibanda; Andrew J Loveridge

    Conflict with humans is one of the major threats facing the world's remaining large carnivore populations, and understanding human attitudes is key to improving coexistence. We use a socio‐ecological model to understand local attitudes towards coexisting with lions. We investigate the importance of a range of tangible and intangible factors on attitudes, including the costs and benefits of wildlife

  • Assessing the strength of climate and land‐use influences on montane epiphyte communities
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-08
    Jeannine H. Richards

    Epiphytes, air plants that are structurally dependent on trees, are a keystone group in tropical forests, supporting the food and habitat needs of animals and influencing water and nutrient cycles. They reach peak diversity in humid montane forests. Climate predictions for Central American mountains include increased temperatures, altered precipitation seasonality, and increased cloud base heights

  • A guide to using the Internet to monitor and quantify the wildlife trade
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-05
    Oliver C. Stringham; Adam Toomes; Aurelie M. Kanishka; Lewis Mitchell; Sarah Heinrich; Joshua V. Ross; Phillip Cassey

    The unrivalled growth in e‐commerce of animals and plants presents an unprecedented opportunity to monitor wildlife trade to inform conservation, biosecurity, and law enforcement. Using the Internet to quantify the scale of the wildlife trade (volume, frequency) is a relatively recent and rapidly developing approach, which currently lacks an accessible framework for locating relevant websites and collecting

  • Building a better baseline to estimate 160 years of avian population change and create historically informed conservation targets
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Tyler A. Hallman; W. Douglas Robinson; Jenna R. Curtis; Edward R. Alverson

    Globally, anthropogenic land cover change has been dramatic over the last few centuries and is frequently invoked as a major cause of wildlife population declines. Baseline data currently used to assess population trends, however, began well after major changes to the landscape. In North America, breeding bird population trends are assessed by the Breeding Bird Survey, which began in the 1960s. Estimates

  • Illegal fisheries, environmental crime, and the conservation of marine resources
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-12-03
    Eréndira Aceves‐Bueno; Andrew J. Read; Miguel A. Cisneros‐Mata

    The illegal harvest of marine species within exclusive economic zones can have a strong impact on the function of local ecosystems and livelihoods of coastal communities. The complexity of these problems is often overlooked in the development of solutions, leading to ineffective and sometimes harmful social and environmental outcomes. One‐dimensional, oversimplified perspectives can lead to conservation

  • Disrupted ecosystem and human phenology at the climate frontline in Gwich'in First Nation territory
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Tracey A. Proverbs; Abraham R. Stewart; Alice Vittrekwa; Ernest Vittrekwa; Rachel A. Hovel; Emma E. Hodgson

    Article impact statement: Indigenous land users’ experiences of global ecological change can help researchers understand variable climate impacts and adaptations.

  • An agenda for research and action towards diverse and just futures for life on Earth
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-26
    C. Wyborn; J. Montana; N. Kalas; S. Clement; F. Davila Cisneros; N. Knowles; E. Louder; M. Balan; J. Chambers; L. Christel; T. Forsyth; G. Henderson; S. Izquierdo Tort; M. Lim; M.J. Martinez‐Harms; J. Merçon; E. Nuesiri; L. Pereria; V. Pilbeam; E. Turnhout; S. Wood; M. Ryan

    Decades of research and policy interventions on biodiversity have insufficiently addressed the dual issues of biodiversity degradation and social justice. New approaches are therefore needed. This essay outlines a research and action agenda that calls for a collective task of ‘revisiting biodiversity’ towards the goal of sustaining diverse and just futures for life on Earth. The agenda was developed

  • Cover Caption
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27

    Cover: Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus) perching on a sea fan after being chased out of hiding by a fisher in Honduras. Conservation of harvested species depends on maintenance of reproductive success. Despite their substantial contribution to reproduction, old, large marine species are disproportionately targeted in fisheries. Conservation and a sustainable fishery of spiny lobsters can be

  • Three lessons conservation science can learn from the COVID‐19 pandemic
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Rachel T. Buxton; Jordanna N. Bergman; Hsien‐Yung Lin; Allison D. Binley; Stephanie Avery‐Gomm; Richard Schuster; Dominique G. Roche; Joseph R. Bennett

    Article impact statement: COVID‐19 has demonstrated the need to optimize research activity, convey the gravity of loss, and reevaluate merit in conservation science.

  • Systematic map of conservation psychology
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Kenneth E. Wallen; Adam C. Landon

    Conservation science and practice commonly draw on the theories and methods of social psychology to explain human cognition, emotion, and behavior germane to biodiversity conservation. We created a systematic map of the cross‐disciplinary conservation science literature, which draws on social psychology concepts and methods in their application broadly described as conservation psychology. Established

  • Tools for assessing the psychometric adequacy of latent variables in conservation research
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Gerard Kyle; Adam Landon; Jerry Vaske; Kenneth Wallen

    Conservation psychology has a history of measuring variables that cannot be seen (e.g., values, attitudes, norms). Such latent variables are critical drivers of human action and are often measured using responses to survey questions. Tools for establishing the psychometric adequacy of unobservable, latent variables has been a century‐long pursuit and challenge for quantitative psychologists and statisticians

  • Using cognitive mapping to understand conservation planning
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Kelly Biedenweg; David Trimbach; Jackie Delie; Bessie Schwarz

    We considered a common research tool for understanding the mental models behind conservation decisions: cognitive mapping. Developed by cognitive psychologists, the elicitation of mental models with cognitive mapping has been used to understand soil management in Spain, invasive grass management in Australia, community forest management in the Bolivian Amazon, and small‐scale fisheries access in Belize

  • Promoting meaningful and positive nature interactions for visitors to green spaces
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Agathe Colléony; Liat Levontin; Assaf Shwartz

    The increasing alienation of people from nature is profoundly concerning because people's interactions with nature affect well‐being, affinity for nature, and support of biodiversity conservation. Efforts to restore or enhance people's interactions with nature are, therefore, important to ensure sustainable human and wildlife communities, but little is known about how this can be achieved. A key factor

  • Psychological drivers of risk‐reducing behaviors to limit human–wildlife conflict
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Stacy A. Lischka; Tara L. Teel; Heather E. Johnson; Courtney Larson; Stewart Breck; Kevin Crooks

    Conflicts between people and wild animals are increasing globally, often with serious consequences for both. Local regulations or ordinances are frequently used to promote human behaviors that minimize these conflicts (risk‐reducing behaviors), but compliance with ordinances can be highly variable. While efforts to increase compliance could be improved through applications of conservation psychology

  • Effect of decision rules in choice experiments on hunting and bushmeat trade
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Martin Reinhardt Nielsen; Jette Bredahl Jacobsen

    Providing insight on decisions to hunt and trade bushmeat can facilitate improved management interventions that typically include enforcement, alternative employment, and donation of livestock. Conservation interventions to regulate bushmeat hunting and trade have hitherto been based on assumptions of utility‐ (i.e., personal benefits) maximizing behavior, which influences the types of incentives designed

  • Determining the role of eudaimonic values in conservation behavior
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Sophia Winkler‐Schor; Carena J. van Riper; Adam Landon; Rose Keller

    Values are the fundamental reasons why people engage in conservation behaviors. Recent research has called for a more refined approach to studying values in a way that accounts for the concept of eudaimonia. However, the empirical properties for a eudaimonic value scale have not been tested given that previous investigations have remained at the theoretical level. Drawing from an on‐site survey of

  • Tracking the response of industrial fishing fleets to large marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Timothy D. White; Tiffany Ong; Francesco Ferretti; Barbara A. Block; Douglas J. McCauley; Fiorenza Micheli; Giulio A. De Leo

    Large marine protected areas (MPAs) of unprecedented size have recently been established across the global oceans, yet their ability to meet conservation objectives is debated. Key areas of debate include uncertainty over nations’ abilities to enforce fishing bans across vast, remote regions and the intensity of human impacts before and after MPA implementation. We used a recently developed vessel

  • The Time for Insects Is Now Insect Conservation: A Global Synthesis. Samways, M.J.2019. CABI, Oxford, UK. 560 pp. £55.00 (paperback). ISBN 9781789241679.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Pedro Cardoso

    “Synthesis: the mixing of different ideas, influences, or things to make a whole that is different, or new” (dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/synthesis). This is what Michael Samways set out to provide in this 500+ page volume. I guess this much space is required just to begin tackling a problem with millions of actors. Millions of actors that are now in the middle of an apocalyptic movie

  • Toward Sustainable Management of Fish Stocks
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Miguel Furtado

    Fish Ecology, Evolution, and Exploitation: A New Theoretical Synthesis. Andersen, K.A., 2019. Monographs in Population Biology. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. xii+257 pp. US$120.00 (hardcover). ISBN 978–0691176550. The Future of Bluefin Tunas: Ecology, Fisheries Management and Conservation. Block, B.A., 2019. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD, U.S.A. xiii+346 pp. US$124

  • Noted with InterestThe Solitary Bees. Biology, Evolution, Conservation. Danford, B. N., Minckley, R.L. and J. L. Neff. 2019. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. 488 pp. US$45.00 (hardcover). ISBN 978‐0‐691‐16898‐2.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-11

    There are many books and articles on honeybees and nearly as many on other social bees, such as bumblebees, and these species or groups are familiar to most people. The solitary bees, however, are much less generally known. Most people believe that all bees are social, although over 90 % of the known species are solitary. The Solitary Bees is an excellent book that gives an up‐to‐date overview of this

  • Guidelines for genetic monitoring of translocated plant populations
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Fabienne Van Rossum; Olivier J. Hardy

    Plant translocation is a useful tool for implementing assisted gene flow in recovery plans of critically endangered plant species. Although it helps to restore genetically viable populations, it is not devoid of genetic risks, such as poor adaptation of transplants and outbreeding depression in the hybrid progeny, which may have negative consequences in terms of demographic growth and plant fitness

  • How decisions about fitting species distribution models affect conservation outcomes
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Angela Muscatello; Jane Elith; Heini Kujala

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used in conservation and land use planning as inputs to describe biodiversity patterns. SDMs can be built in different ways, and decisions about data preparation, selection of predictor variables, model fitting and evaluation all alter the resulting predictions. Commonly, the true distribution of species is not known, nor is there independent data

  • Conservation and social outcomes of private protected areas
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Rachel Palfrey; Johan Oldekop; George Holmes

    Government administered protected areas (PAs) have dominated conservation strategies, discourse and research, yet private actors are increasingly managing land for conservation. Little is known about the social and environmental outcomes of these privately protected areas (PPAs). We review the global literature on PPAs in English and their environmental and social outcomes. We find research on PPAs

  • Mitigation translocation as a management tool
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Holly S. Bradley; Sean Tomlinson; Michael D. Craig; Adam T. Cross; Philip W. Bateman

    Mitigation translocation is a subgroup of conservation translocation, categorised by a crisis‐responsive timeframe and the immediate goal of relocating individuals threatened with destruction. However, the relative successes of conservation translocations with longer timeframes and broader metapopulation and ecosystem level considerations have been used to justify the continued implementation of mitigation

  • Effects of protected areas on survival of threatened gibbons in China
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Lu Zhang; Samuel T. Turvey; Colin Chapman; Pengfei Fan

    Establishing protected areas (PAs) is an essential strategy to reduce biodiversity loss. However, many PAs do not provide adequate protection due to poor funding, inadequate staffing and equipment, and ineffective management. As part of China's recent economic growth, the Chinese government has significantly increased investment in nature reserves over the past 20 years, providing a unique opportunity

  • Impacts of rural to urban migration, urbanization, and generational change on consumption of wild animals in the Amazon
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-30
    Willandia A. Chaves; Denis Valle; Aline S. Tavares; Thais Q. Morcatty; David S. Wilcove

    For the first time in history, more people live in urban areas than in rural areas. This trend is likely to continue, driven largely by rural‐urban migration. We investigated how rural‐urban migration, combined with urbanization and generational change, affects consumption of wild animals, using one of the most hunted taxa in the Amazon: chelonians (tortoises and freshwater turtles). We surveyed 1

  • Mapping shifts in spatial synchrony in North American grassland birds to inform conservation planning
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Michael C. Allen; Julie L. Lockwood

    Spatial synchrony, defined as the correlated fluctuations in abundance of spatially separated populations, can be caused by regional fluctuations in natural and anthropogenic environmental population drivers. Investigations into the geography of synchrony can provide useful insight to inform conservation planning efforts by revealing regions of common population drivers and metapopulation extinction

  • Adapting participatory processes to fine‐tune conservation approaches in multiactor decision settings
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Arnaud Buchs; Emeline Hassenforder; Yves Meinard

    Conservation decisions are typically made in complex, dynamic, and uncertain settings, where multiple actors raise diverse and potentially conflicting claims, champion different and sometimes contradictory values, and enjoy varying degrees of freedom and power to act and influence collective decisions. Therefore, effective conservation actions require conservation scientists and practitioners to take

  • Rethinking the study of human–wildlife coexistence
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Simon Pooley; Saloni Bhatia; Anirudhkumar Vasava

    Although coexistence with wildlife is a key goal of conservation, little is known about it or how to study it. By coexistence we mean a sustainable though dynamic state in which humans and wildlife coadapt to sharing landscapes, where human interactions with wildlife are effectively governed to ensure wildlife populations persist in socially legitimate ways that ensure tolerable risk levels. Problems

  • Geology‐dependent impacts of forest conversion on stream fish diversity
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Nobuo Ishiyama; Kazuki Miura; Takahiro Inoue; Masanao Sueyoshi; Futoshi Nakamura

    Forest conversion is one of the greatest global threats to biodiversity, and land‐use change and subsequent biodiversity declines sometimes occur over a variety of underlying geologies. However, how forest conversion and underlying geology interact to alter biodiversity is underappreciated, although spatial variability in geology is considered an integral part of sustaining ecosystems. We aimed to

  • Understanding the distribution of bushmeat hunting effort across landscapes by testing hypotheses about human foraging.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Jedediah F Brodie,Jose M V Fragoso

    Mitigating the massive impacts of defaunation on natural ecosystems requires understanding and predicting hunting effort across the landscape. But such understanding has been hindered by the difficulty of assessing the movement patterns of hunters in thick forests and across complex terrain. We statistically tested hypotheses about the spatial distribution of hunting with circuit theory and structural

  • Speaking across boundaries to explore the potential for interdisciplinarity in ecosystem services knowledge production
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Marleen S. Schutter; Christina C. Hicks

    Conservation is likely to be most successful if it draws on knowledge from across the natural and social sciences. The ecosystem services concept has been termed a boundary object, facilitating the development of such interdisciplinary knowledge through a common platform for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. However, critique of the concept has focused on narrow disciplinary framings that

  • Bridging gaps in demographic analysis with phylogenetic imputation
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Tamora D. James; Roberto Salguero‐Gómez; Owen R. Jones; Dylan Z. Childs; Andrew P. Beckerman

    Population responses to threats such as habitat loss, climate change and overexploitation are usually explored using demographic models parameterized with estimates of vital rates of survival, maturation and fecundity. However, the vital rate estimates required to construct such models are often unavailable, particularly for species of conservation concern. Phylogenetically informed imputation methods

  • Large carnivore hunting and the social license to hunt
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Chris T. Darimont; Hannah Hall; Lauren Eckert; Ilona Mihalik; Kyle Artelle; Adrian Treves; Paul C. Paquet

    The Social License to Operate framework considers how society grants or withholds informal permission for resource extractors to exploit publicly owned resources. Here we offer a modified model, referred to as Social License to Hunt (SLH). In it we similarly consider hunters as “operators” who exploit wildlife, which are legally considered public resources in North America and Europe. We illustrate

  • Importance of species translocations under rapid climate change
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Nathalie Butt; Alienor L.M. Chauvenet; Vanessa M. Adams; Maria Beger; Rachael V. Gallagher; Danielle F. Shanahan; Michelle Ward; James E.M. Watson; Hugh P. Possingham

    Species that cannot adapt or keep pace with a changing climate are likely to need human intervention to shift to more suitable climates. While hundreds of articles mention using translocation as a climate‐change adaptation tool, in practice, assisted migration as a conservation action remains rare, especially for animals. This is likely due to concern over introducing species to places where they may

  • Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Wesley M Knapp,Anne Frances,Reed Noss,Robert F C Naczi,Alan Weakley,George D Gann,Bruce G Baldwin,James Miller,Patrick McIntyre,Brent D Mishler,Gerry Moore,Richard G Olmstead,Anna Strong,Kathryn Kennedy,Bonnie Heidel,Daniel Gluesenkamp

    Extinction rates are expected to increase during the Anthropocene. Current extinction rates of plants and many animals remain unknown. We quantified extinctions among the vascular flora of the continental United States and Canada since European settlement. We compiled data on apparently extinct species by querying plant conservation databases, searching the literature, and vetting the resulting list

  • Applying a values‐based decision process to facilitate comanagement of threatened species in Aotearoa New Zealand
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Thalassa McMurdo Hamilton; Stefano Canessa; Katie Clarke; Pani Gleeson; Fiona Mackenzie; Troy Makan; Gena Moses‐Te Kani; Shona Oliver; Kevin A. Parker; John G. Ewen

    Ko koe ki tēnā, ko ahau ki tēnai kīwai o te kete (you at that, and I at this handle of the basket). Despite decades of calls to rectify cultural imbalance in conservation, threatened species management still relies overwhelmingly on ideas from Western science and on top‐down implementation. Values‐based approaches to decision‐making can be used to integrate indigenous peoples’ values into species conservation

  • Conservation lessons from taboos and trolley problems.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Mark W Schwartz

    Governments pass conservation laws, adopt policies, and make plans yet frequently fail to implement them. Implementation of conservation, however, often requires costly sacrifice: people foregoing benefit for the benefit of biodiversity. Decisions involve trade‐offs with outcomes that depend on the values at stake and people's perceptions of those values. Psychology, ethics, and behavioral science

  • Darwin, the devil, and the management of transmissible cancers
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Rodrigo Hamede; Thomas Madsen; Hamish McCallum; Andrew Storfer; Paul A. Hohenlohe; Hannah Siddle; Jim Kaufman; Mathieu Giraudeau; Menna Jones; Frédéric Thomas; Beata Ujvari

    Introduction Modern conservation science frequently relies on genetic tools to manage imperiled populations threatened by processes such as habitat fragmentation and infectious diseases. Translocation of individuals to restore genetic diversity (genetic rescue) is increasingly used to manage vulnerable populations (Whiteley et al. 2015), but it can swamp local adaptations and lead to outbreeding depression

  • Markets and the crowding out of conservation-relevant behavior.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Joshua E Cinner,Michele L Barnes,Georgina G Gurney,Stewart Lockie,Cristian Rojas

    Markets are increasingly being incorporated into many aspects of daily life and are becoming an important part of the conservation solution space. Although market‐based solutions to environmental problems can result in improvements to conservation, a body of social science research highlights how markets may also have unforeseen consequences by crowding out or displacing 3 key types of behaviors potentially

  • Ethics and biodiversity offsetting.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Mikael Karlsson,Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    Biodiversity offsetting is an increasingly applied tool aiming to compensate for environmental damage caused by exploitation projects. Critics, however, raise concerns over the purported effectiveness of offsetting and question the ethical underpinnings and implications of offsetting. These ethical dimensions have largely been overlooked in research, which may lead to offsetting systems that fail to

  • Incorporating putatively neutral and adaptive genomic data into marine conservation planning.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Amanda Xuereb,Cassidy C D'Aloia,Marco Andrello,Louis Bernatchez,Marie-Josée Fortin

    The availability of genomic data for an increasing number of species makes it possible to incorporate evolutionary processes into conservation plans. Recent studies show how genetic data can inform spatial conservation prioritization (SCP), but they focus on metrics of diversity and distinctness derived primarily from neutral genetic data sets. Identifying adaptive genetic markers can provide important

  • A meta‐analysis of anthropogenic impacts on physiological stress in wild primates
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Olivier Kaisin; Lisieux Fuzessy; Pascal Poncin; Fany Brotcorne; Laurence Culot

    As humanity continues to alter the environment extensively, comprehending the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on the health, survival, and fitness of wildlife is a crucial question for conservation science. Many primate populations occupy suboptimal habitats prone to diverse anthropogenic disturbances that may be sources of acute and chronic stress. Quantification of glucocorticoid (GC) concentrations

  • Citizen science for environmental citizenship
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Finn Arne Jørgensen; Dolly Jørgensen

    Introduction Citizen science projects, in which citizens are collectors and sensors generating data, have become a well‐established scientific practice (Bonney et al. 2016). Citizen science research within environmental conservation typically focuses on either the usability of citizen‐generated data or individual motivation for involvement (Kobori et al. 2016; Ellwood et al. 2017; McKinley et al. 2017)

  • Moving from trends to benchmarks by using regression tree analysis to find inbreeding thresholds in a critically endangered bird
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Alison M. Flanagan; Bryce Masuda; Catherine E. Grueber; Jolene T. Sutton

    Understanding how inbreeding impacts endangered species in conservation breeding programs is essential for their recovery. The ‘Alalā (Hawaiian crow, Corvus hawaiiensis) is one of the world's most endangered birds. It went extinct in the wild in 2002, and, as of June 2020, ∼ 90% of the population remains under human care for conservation breeding. Using pedigree inbreeding coefficients (F), we evaluated

  • Effects of knowledge and emotion on support for novel synthetic biology applications
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Aditi Mankad; Elizabeth V. Hobman; Lucy Carter

    There is sometimes an inherent assumption that the logical head will overrule the emotional heart in matters of science and technology. However, the literature on decision making under risk and uncertainty suggests that emotional responses may be more potent. A representative sample of Australians participated in a large, national, online survey (n = 8037), in which we measured the influence of knowledge

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