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  • Speaking across boundaries to explore the potential for interdisciplinarity in ecosystem services knowledge production
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Marleen S. Schutter; Christina C. Hicks

    Conservation is likely to be most successful if it draws on knowledge from across the natural and social sciences. The ecosystem services concept has been termed a boundary object, facilitating the development of such interdisciplinary knowledge through a common platform for researchers, policy makers, and practitioners. However, critique of the concept has focused on narrow disciplinary framings that

  • Three lessons conservation science can learn from the COVID‐19 pandemic
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Rachel T. Buxton; Jordanna N. Bergman; Hsien‐Yung Lin; Allison D. Binley; Stephanie Avery‐Gomm; Richard Schuster; Dominique G. Roche; Joseph R. Bennett

    Article impact statement: COVID‐19 has demonstrated the need to optimize research activity, convey the gravity of loss, and reevaluate merit in conservation science.

  • Bridging gaps in demographic analysis with phylogenetic imputation
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Tamora D. James; Roberto Salguero‐Gómez; Owen R. Jones; Dylan Z. Childs; Andrew P. Beckerman

    Population responses to threats such as habitat loss, climate change and overexploitation are usually explored using demographic models parameterized with estimates of vital rates of survival, maturation and fecundity. However, the vital rate estimates required to construct such models are often unavailable, particularly for species of conservation concern. Phylogenetically informed imputation methods

  • Geology‐dependent impacts of forest conversion on stream fish diversity
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Nobuo Ishiyama; Kazuki Miura; Takahiro Inoue; Masanao Sueyoshi; Futoshi Nakamura

    Forest conversion is one of the greatest global threats to biodiversity, and land‐use change and subsequent biodiversity declines sometimes occur over a variety of underlying geologies. However, how forest conversion and underlying geology interact to alter biodiversity is underappreciated, although spatial variability in geology is considered an integral part of sustaining ecosystems. We aimed to

  • Large carnivore hunting and the social license to hunt
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Chris T. Darimont; Hannah Hall; Lauren Eckert; Ilona Mihalik; Kyle Artelle; Adrian Treves; Paul C. Paquet

    The Social License to Operate framework considers how society grants or withholds informal permission for resource extractors to exploit publicly owned resources. Here we offer a modified model, referred to as Social License to Hunt (SLH). In it we similarly consider hunters as “operators” who exploit wildlife, which are legally considered public resources in North America and Europe. We illustrate

  • Importance of species translocations under rapid climate change
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Nathalie Butt; Alienor L.M. Chauvenet; Vanessa M. Adams; Maria Beger; Rachael V. Gallagher; Danielle F. Shanahan; Michelle Ward; James E.M. Watson; Hugh P. Possingham

    Species that cannot adapt or keep pace with a changing climate are likely to need human intervention to shift to more suitable climates. While hundreds of articles mention using translocation as a climate‐change adaptation tool, in practice, assisted migration as a conservation action remains rare, especially for animals. This is likely due to concern over introducing species to places where they may

  • Vascular plant extinction in the continental United States and Canada.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Wesley M Knapp,Anne Frances,Reed Noss,Robert F C Naczi,Alan Weakley,George D Gann,Bruce G Baldwin,James Miller,Patrick McIntyre,Brent D Mishler,Gerry Moore,Richard G Olmstead,Anna Strong,Kathryn Kennedy,Bonnie Heidel,Daniel Gluesenkamp

    Extinction rates are expected to increase during the Anthropocene. Current extinction rates of plants and many animals remain unknown. We quantified extinctions among the vascular flora of the continental United States and Canada since European settlement. We compiled data on apparently extinct species by querying plant conservation databases, searching the literature, and vetting the resulting list

  • Rethinking the study of human‐wildlife coexistence
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Simon Pooley; Saloni Bhatia; Anirudhkumar Vasava

    While coexistence with wildlife is a key goal of conservation, little is known about it or how to study it. By coexistence we mean a sustainable though dynamic state in which humans and wildlife coadapt to sharing landscapes, where human interactions with wildlife are effectively governed to ensure wildlife populations persist in socially legitimate ways that ensure tolerable risk levels. Problems

  • Adapting participation processes to fine‐tune conservation approaches in multiactor decision settings
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-12
    Arnaud Buchs; Emeline Hassenforder; Yves Meinard

    Conservation decisions are typically made in complex, dynamic, and uncertain settings, where multiple actors raise diverse and potentially conflicting claims, champion different and sometimes contradictory values, and enjoy varying degrees of freedom and power to act and influence collective decisions. Therefore, effective conservation actions require conservation scientists and practitioners to take

  • Meta‐analysis of anthropogenic impacts on physiological stress in wild primates
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Olivier Kaisin; Lisieux Fuzessy; Pascal Poncin; Fany Brotcorne; Laurence Culot

    As humanity continues to alter the environment extensively, comprehending the effect of anthropogenic disturbances on the health, survival, and fitness of wildlife is a crucial question of conservation biology. Many primate populations occupy sub‐optimal habitats prone to diverse anthropogenic disturbances that may be sources of acute and chronic stress. Quantification of glucocorticoid concentrations

  • Applying a values‐based decision process to facilitate comanagement of threatened species in Aotearoa New Zealand
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Thalassa McMurdo Hamilton; Stefano Canessa; Katie Clarke; Pani Gleeson; Fiona Mackenzie; Troy Makan; Gena Moses‐Te Kani; Shona Oliver; Kevin A. Parker; John G. Ewen

    Ko koe ki tēnā, ko ahau ki tēnai kīwai o te kete (you at that, and I at this handle of the basket). Despite decades of calls to rectify cultural imbalance in conservation, threatened species management still relies overwhelmingly on ideas from Western science and on top‐down implementation. Values‐based approaches to decision‐making can be used to integrate indigenous peoples’ values into species conservation

  • Citizen science for environmental citizenship
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Finn Arne Jørgensen; Dolly Jørgensen

    Article impact statement: Conservation‐based citizen science projects have the potential to contribute to the formation of environmental citizenship.

  • Noted with InterestThe Solitary Bees. Biology, Evolution, Conservation. Danford, B. N., Minckley, R.L. and J. L. Neff. 2019. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, U.S.A. 488 pp. US$45.00 (hardcover). ISBN 978‐0‐691‐16898‐2.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-11

    There are many books and articles on honeybees and nearly as many on other social bees, such as bumblebees, and these species or groups are familiar to most people. The solitary bees, however, are much less generally known. Most people believe that all bees are social, although over 90 % of the known species are solitary. The Solitary Bees is an excellent book that gives an up‐to‐date overview of this

  • Conservation lessons from taboos and trolley problems.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Mark W Schwartz

    Governments pass conservation laws, adopt policies, and make plans yet frequently fail to implement them. Implementation of conservation, however, often requires costly sacrifice: people foregoing benefit for the benefit of biodiversity. Decisions involve trade‐offs with outcomes that depend on the values at stake and people's perceptions of those values. Psychology, ethics, and behavioral science

  • Darwin, the devil, and the management of transmissible cancers
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Rodrigo Hamede; Thomas Madsen; Hamish McCallum; Andrew Storfer; Paul A. Hohenlohe; Hannah Siddle; Jim Kaufman; Mathieu Giraudeau; Menna Jones; Frédéric Thomas; Beata Ujvari

    Introduction Modern conservation science frequently relies on genetic tools to manage imperiled populations threatened by processes such as habitat fragmentation and infectious diseases. Translocation of individuals to restore genetic diversity (genetic rescue) is increasingly used to manage vulnerable populations (Whiteley et al. 2015), but it can swamp local adaptations and lead to outbreeding depression

  • Tracking the response of industrial fishing fleets to large marine protected areas in the Pacific Ocean
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Timothy D. White; Tiffany Ong; Francesco Ferretti; Barbara A. Block; Douglas J. McCauley; Fiorenza Micheli; Giulio A. De Leo

    Large marine protected areas (MPAs) of unprecedented size have recently been established across the global oceans, yet their ability to meet conservation objectives is debated. Key areas of debate include uncertainty over nations’ abilities to enforce fishing bans across vast, remote regions and the intensity of human impacts before and after MPA implementation. We used a recently developed vessel

  • Markets and the crowding out of conservation-relevant behavior.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Joshua E Cinner,Michele L Barnes,Georgina G Gurney,Stewart Lockie,Cristian Rojas

    Markets are increasingly being incorporated into many aspects of daily life and are becoming an important part of the conservation solution space. Although market‐based solutions to environmental problems can result in improvements to conservation, a body of social science research highlights how markets may also have unforeseen consequences by crowding out or displacing 3 key types of behaviors potentially

  • Ethics and biodiversity offsetting.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Mikael Karlsson,Karin Edvardsson Björnberg

    Biodiversity offsetting is an increasingly applied tool aiming to compensate for environmental damage caused by exploitation projects. Critics, however, raise concerns over the purported effectiveness of offsetting and question the ethical underpinnings and implications of offsetting. These ethical dimensions have largely been overlooked in research, which may lead to offsetting systems that fail to

  • Incorporating putatively neutral and adaptive genomic data into marine conservation planning.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Amanda Xuereb,Cassidy C D'Aloia,Marco Andrello,Louis Bernatchez,Marie-Josée Fortin

    The availability of genomic data for an increasing number of species makes it possible to incorporate evolutionary processes into conservation plans. Recent studies show how genetic data can inform spatial conservation prioritization (SCP), but they focus on metrics of diversity and distinctness derived primarily from neutral genetic data sets. Identifying adaptive genetic markers can provide important

  • Moving from trends to benchmarks by using regression tree analysis to find inbreeding thresholds in a critically endangered bird
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Alison M. Flanagan; Bryce Masuda; Catherine E. Grueber; Jolene T. Sutton

    Understanding how inbreeding impacts endangered species in conservation breeding programs is essential for their recovery. The ‘Alalā (Hawaiian crow, Corvus hawaiiensis) is one of the world's most endangered birds. It went extinct in the wild in 2002, and, as of June 2020, ∼ 90% of the population remains under human care for conservation breeding. Using pedigree inbreeding coefficients (F), we evaluated

  • Effects of knowledge and emotion on support for novel synthetic biology applications
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Aditi Mankad; Elizabeth V. Hobman; Lucy Carter

    There is sometimes an inherent assumption that the logical head will overrule the emotional heart in matters of science and technology. However, literature on decision‐making under risk and uncertainty suggests that emotional responses may be more potent. A representative sample of Australians participated in a large, national, online survey (n = 8,037) in which we measured the influence of knowledge

  • Benefits of protected areas for nonbreeding waterbirds adjusting their distributions under climate warming
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-10-02
    Elie Gaget; Diego Pavón‐Jordán; Alison Johnston; Aleksi Lehikoinen; Wesley M. Hochachka; Brett K. Sandercock; Alaaeldin Soultan; Hichem Azafzaf; Nadjiba Bendjedda; Taulant Bino; Luka Božič; Preben Clausen; Mohamed Dakki; Koen Devos; Cristi Domsa; Vitor Encarnação; Kiraz Erciyas‐Yavuz; Sándor Faragó; Teresa Frost; Clemence Gaudard; Lívia Gosztonyi; Fredrik Haas; Menno Hornman; Tom Langendoen; Christina

    Climate warming is driving changes in species distributions and community composition. Many species show a so‐called climatic debt, where shifts in range have lagged behind faster shifts in temperature isoclines. Inside protected areas (PAs), community changes in response to climate warming can be facilitated by greater colonization rates by warm‐dwelling species, but also mitigated by lowering extinction

  • Gillnet illumination as an effective measure to reduce sea turtle bycatch
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Phil Allman; Andrews Agyekumhene; Leyna Stemle

    The growing demand for fish around the world is an immediate threat to marine megafauna that are unintentionally captured in commercial and artisanal fishery operations. Bycatch mitigation strategies such as turtle excluder devices, circle hooks, and net illumination have successfully reduced this risk in some fisheries. This study explored the effectiveness of gillnet illumination to reduce sea turtle

  • Using long‐term data for a reintroduced population to empirically estimate future consequences of inbreeding
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Doug P. Armstrong; Elizabeth H. Parlato; Barbara Egli; Wendy J. Dimond; Renske Kwikkel; Åsa Berggren; Mhairi McCready; Kevin A. Parker; John G. Ewen

    Inbreeding depression is an important long‐term threat to reintroduced populations. However, the strength of inbreeding depression is difficult to estimate in wild populations, both because pedigree data are inevitably incomplete and because good data are needed on survival and reproduction. Predicting future population consequences is especially difficult because this also requires projecting future

  • How the diversity of human concepts of nature affects conservation of biodiversity
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Frédéric Ducarme; Fabrice Flipo; Denis Couvet

    Protecting nature has become a global concern. However, the very idea of nature is problematic. We examine the etymological and semantic diversity of the word used for translating “nature” in a conservation context in 76 of the main languages of the world, in order to identify different visions of the relationship between humankind and nature. Surprisingly, the number of morphemes (distinct etymological

  • Effects of site-selection bias on estimates of biodiversity change.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Andrea Mentges,Shane A Blowes,Dorothee Hodapp,Helmut Hillebrand,Jonathan M Chase

    Estimates of biodiversity change are essential for the management and conservation of ecosystems. Accurate estimates rely on selecting representative sites, but monitoring often focuses on sites of special interest. How such site‐selection biases influence estimates of biodiversity change is largely unknown. Site‐selection bias potentially occurs across four major sources of biodiversity data, decreasing

  • Approaches to interdisciplinary mixed methods research in land change science and environmental management
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Eva Kinnebrew; Elizabeth Shoffner; Aldo Farah‐Pérez; Megan Mills‐Novoa; Katherine Siegel

    Combining qualitative and quantitative methods and data is crucial to understanding the complex dynamics and often interdisciplinary nature of conservation. While many conservation studies use mixed methods, there are a variety of approaches, a lack of shared vocabulary, and few developed methodological frameworks. Here, we review papers from two conservation‐related fields that often incorporate qualitative

  • Threats posed to conservation by media misinformation.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-09
    Adam G Hart,Rosie Cooney,Amy Dickman,Darragh Hare,Charles Jonga,Paul Johnson,Maxi Pia Louis,Rodgers Lubilo,Dilys Roe,Catherine Semcer,Keith Somerville

    Media misinformation is an increasing concern in conservation; for example, climate change denial is particularly pervasive (Wong‐Parodi & Feygina 2020). Here, we highlight simplistic and inaccurate coverage of trophy hunting (TH) in mainstream newspapers (print and online). This is particularly timely because the United Kingdom and the United States are considering laws to restrict or ban trophy imports

  • Consequences of ignoring dispersal variation in network models for landscape connectivity
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Lauren L. Sullivan; Matthew J. Michalska‐Smith; Katie P. Sperry; David A. Moeller; Allison K. Shaw

    Habitat loss and fragmentation can negatively impact population persistence and biodiversity, but these effects can be mitigated if species successfully disperse between isolated habitat patches. Network models are the primary tool for quantifying landscape connectivity, yet as practiced, they take an overly simplistic view of species dispersal. These models often ignore individual variation in dispersal

  • Need for global conservation assessments and frameworks to include airspace habitat
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Sergio A. Lambertucci; Karina L. Speziale

    Article impact statement: The pervasive human‐driven decline of life on Earth points to the need for transformative change in the airspace.

  • Global protected-area coverage and human pressure on tidal flats.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Narelle K Hill,Bradley K Woodworth,Stuart R Phinn,Nicholas J Murray,Richard A Fuller

    Tidal flats are a globally distributed coastal ecosystem important for supporting biodiversity and ecosystem services. Local to continental‐scale studies have documented rapid loss of tidal habitat driven by human impacts, but assessments of progress in their conservation are lacking. We analysed human pressure on tidal flats, and measured their representation in protected areas using a newly developed

  • Cover Caption
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-24

    Cover: The Southern Royal Albatross (Diomedea epomophora), here a nesting individual on Campbell Island, New Zealand, has, at 28 years, the longest generation time of all birds. Generation length is a useful metric that informs adaptability, bycatch sustainability, and extinction risk. Data on the life‐history traits that affect generation length (first reproduction, maximum longevity, and annual adult

  • Message framing in the time of the precautionary principle: response to Martell and Rodewald 2019.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Alexander M Kusmanoff

    Martell and Rodewald (2019) considered the recent changes made by The Guardian to its style guide. These changes include the reframing of climate change as climate emergency, crisis, or breakdown and global warming as global heating (Carrington 2019). The Guardian’s goal in making these changes is to “more accurately describe the environmental crises facing the world” and to “ensure that we are being

  • Rethinking the Ecology of Towns and Villages
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Ezequiel González

    Towns, Ecology, and the Land. Forman, R.T.T. 2019. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. xviii+ 585 pp. £39.99 (paperback). ISBN 978‐1‐316‐64860‐5. In its beginnings, ecology as a discipline focused mainly on the study of natural, pristine environments to understand their structure and functioning. Later on, as human impacts on the planet became more evident, the interest in anthropogenic habitats

  • The Land of Orangutans through the Lens of Science
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-27
    Gabor Pozsgai

    The Ecology of Tropical East Asia. Corlett, R. T. 2019. Oxford University Press, Oxford, U.K. 3rd edition. 320 pp. £45.99 (paperback). ISBN 978‐0‐19‐881702‐4. Images of deforestation for to make way for oil‐palm plantations and dying baby orangutans are easily associated with Tropical East Asia (TEA) on most social media. Reality, as always, is more complex. Those who are interested in the intricate

  • Noted with Interest
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-27

    Biological Control. Ecology and Applications. Heimpel, G. E., and N. J. Mills. 2017. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, U.K. x. ii+380 pp. £47.99 (hardcover). ISBN 978‐0‐521‐84514‐4. The topic seemingly has little to do with conservation biology, yet this is a good reminder that one should not judge a book by its cover. The authors, two eminent practitioners of biological control, synthesise the

  • Book Reviewers, January–December 2019
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-02

    We thank the following colleagues for assisting Conservation Biology with book reviews to encourage reading of in‐depth conservation works. Book Reviewers P. A. V. Borges L. Bradford S. C. Cork M. Desrosseaux M. Ferrante M. Furtado E. Gonzalez T. Gruber F. Jordán G. Krőel‐Dulay Z. Molnár R. Moorehouse V. Novotny T. Price K. Sam M. Sárospataki M. Scott G. Szövényi P. Török I. Trukhanova Reviewers for

  • Books Received (March 2019–May 2020)
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-05

    A Coast of Scenic Wonders. Coastal Geology and Ecology of the Outer Coast of Oregon and Washington and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. Hayes, M. O., and J. Michel. 2019. Pandion Books, Columbia, SC, U.S.A. xiv+229 pp. US$29.95 (paperback). ISBN 978‐0‐981‐6618‐5‐8. A Practical Guide for Genetic Management of Fragmented Animal and Plant Populations. Frankham, R., J.D. Ballou, K. Ralls, M.D.B. Eldridge, M

  • The Time for Insects Is Now Insect Conservation: A Global Synthesis. Samways, M.J.2019. CABI, Oxford, UK. 560 pp. £55.00 (paperback). ISBN 9781789241679.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Pedro Cardoso

    “Synthesis: the mixing of different ideas, influences, or things to make a whole that is different, or new” (dictionary.cambridge.org/dictionary/english/synthesis). This is what Michael Samways set out to provide in this 500+ page volume. I guess this much space is required just to begin tackling a problem with millions of actors. Millions of actors that are now in the middle of an apocalyptic movie

  • Conservation optimism and reckoning with the future.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Luiz R R Faria

    Article impact statement: The optimism permeating biological conservation should be recalibrated considering the future that present times portend.

  • Relative influence of environmental factors and fishing on coral reef fish assemblages.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Eva C McClure,Andrew S Hoey,Katherine T Sievers,Rene A Abesamis,Garry R Russ

    Understanding whether assemblages of species respond more strongly to bottom‐up (availability of trophic resources and/or habitats) or top‐down (predation pressure) processes is important for effective management of resources and ecosystems. Here, we determine the relative influence of environmental factors and predation by humans in shaping the density, biomass and species richness of four medium‐bodied

  • Online multiplayer games as virtual laboratories for collecting data on social-ecological decision-making.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    A Bradley Duthie,Jeroen Minderman,O Sarobidy Rakotonarivo,Gabriela Ochoa,Nils Bunnefeld

    Article impact statement: Online games can improve the collection of data on human decision‐making in situations relevant to conservation and stakeholder trade‐offs.

  • Michael Soulé (1936-2020) on Spirituality, Ethics, and Conservation Biology.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Bron Taylor

    Michael Soulé is best known for his scientific contributions and central role founding the Society for Conservation Biology and its journal. Less well known are his childhood experiences, his affinity for Zen Buddhism and Arne Naess’ deep ecology philosophy, and his contributions as an environmental activist to efforts to protect biodiversity and rewild ecosystems. Also less well known is the extent

  • A method to develop a shared qualitative model of a complex system.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-05
    Katie Moon,Nicola Browne

    Understanding complex systems is essential to ensure their conservation and management. Modelling has become a common tool for supporting our understanding of complex ecological systems and, by extension, their conservation. Modelling, however, is largely a social process constrained by individual's mental models (i.e. a small‐scale internal model of how a part of the world works, on the basis of knowledge

  • Assessing the current state of ecological connectivity in a large marine protected area system.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-05
    Kelsey E Roberts,Carly N Cook,Jutta Beher,Eric A Treml

    The establishment of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step in ensuring the continued persistence of marine biodiversity. Although the area protected in MPAs is growing, the movement of individuals (or larvae) among MPAs, termed connectivity, has only recently been included as an objective of many MPAs. As such, assessing connectivity is often neglected or oversimplified in the planning process

  • Fundamental insights on when social network data are most critical for conservation planning.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-21
    Jonathan R Rhodes,Angela M Guerrero,Örjan Bodin,Iadine Chadès

    As declines in biodiversity accelerate, there is an urgent imperative to ensure that every dollar spent on conservation counts toward species protection. Systematic conservation planning is a widely used approach to achieve this, but there is growing concern that it must better integrate the human social dimensions of conservation to be effective. Yet, fundamental insights about when social data are

  • Trends in seabird breeding populations across the Great Barrier Reef.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Bradley K Woodworth,Richard A Fuller,Graham Hemson,Andrew McDougall,Bradley C Congdon,Matthew Low

    The Great Barrier Reef is an iconic ecosystem, known globally for its rich marine biodiversity that includes many thousands of tropical breeding seabirds. Despite indications of localised declines in some seabird species from as early as the mid‐1990s, trends in seabird populations across the Reef have never been quantified. With a long history of human impact and ongoing environmental change, seabirds

  • An economic evaluation framework for land-use-based conservation policy instruments in a changing climate.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Charlotte Gerling,Frank Wätzold

    Climate change is a key threat for biodiversity. In order to conserve species under climate change, ecologists and conservation biologists suggest two main strategies regarding conservation with land‐use measures: (1) supporting a species’ range shift to enable it to follow its suitable climatic conditions by creating migration pathways such as corridors and stepping stones, and (2) conserving climate

  • A strategy for the next decade to address data deficiency in neglected biodiversity.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-12
    Axel Hochkirch,Michael J Samways,Justin Gerlach,Monika Böhm,Paul Williams,Pedro Cardoso,Neil Cumberlidge,P J Stephenson,Mary B Seddon,Viola Clausnitzer,Paulo A V Borges,Gregory M Mueller,Paul Pearce-Kelly,Domitilla C Raimondo,Anja Danielczak,Klaas-Douwe B Dijkstra

    Measuring progress toward international biodiversity targets requires robust information on the conservation status of species, which the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species provides. However, data and capacity are lacking for most hyperdiverse groups, such as invertebrates, plants, and fungi, particularly in megadiverse or high‐endemism regions. Conservation

  • Urgent plea for global protection of springs.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Marco Cantonati,Roderick J Fensham,Lawrence E Stevens,Reinhard Gerecke,Douglas S Glazier,Nico Goldscheider,Robert L Knight,John S Richardson,Abraham E Springer,Klement Tockner

  • The importance of indigenous peoples' lands for the conservation of terrestrial mammals.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Christopher J O'Bryan,Stephen T Garnett,John E Fa,Ian Leiper,Jose Rehbein,Álvaro Fernández-Llamazares,Micha V Jackson,Harry D Jonas,Eduardo S Brondizio,Neil D Burgess,Catherine J Robinson,Kerstin K Zander,Oscar Venter,James E M Watson

    Indigenous Peoples’ lands cover over one‐quarter of Earth's surface, a significant proportion of which is still free from industrial‐level human impacts. As a result, Indigenous Peoples and their lands are crucial for the long‐term persistence of Earth's biodiversity and ecosystem services. Yet, information on species composition within Indigenous Peoples’ lands globally remains largely unknown. Here

  • Determinants of population persistence and abundance of terrestrial and arboreal vertebrates stranded in tropical forest land-bridge islands.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Maíra Benchimol,Carlos A Peres

    Mega‐dams are among the key modern drivers of habitat and biodiversity loss in emerging economies. The Balbina Hydroelectric Dam of Central Brazilian Amazonia inundated 312,900 ha of primary forests and created ∼3500 variable‐sized islands that still harbor vertebrate populations after nearly three decades of post‐isolation history. Here, we estimated the species richness, abundance, biomass, composition

  • Motivations for the use and consumption of wildlife products.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Laura Thomas-Walters,Amy Hinsley,Daniel Bergin,Gayle Burgess,Hunter Doughty,Sara Eppel,Douglas MacFarlane,Wander Meijer,Tien Ming Lee,Jacob Phelps,Robert J Smith,Anita K Y Wan,Diogo Veríssimo

    The dominant approach to combating the illegal wildlife trade has traditionally been to restrict the supply of wildlife products. Yet conservationists increasingly recognize the importance of implementing demand‐side interventions that target the end consumers in the trade chain. Their aim is to curb the consumption of wildlife or shift consumption to more sustainable alternatives. However, there are

  • Wildlife collection for scientific purposes.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Caroline Fukushima,Rick West,Thomas Pape,Lyubomir Penev,Leif Schulman,Pedro Cardoso

    Illegal transfer of wildlife has 2 main purposes: trade and scientific research. Trade is the most common, whereas scientific research is much less common and unprofitable, yet still important. Biopiracy in science is often neglected despite that many researchers encounter it during their careers. The use of illegally acquired specimens is detected in different research fields, from scientists bioprospecting

  • Assisted species migration and hybridization to conserve cold-adapted plants under climate change.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Kimberly M Charles,Ivana Stehlik

    Temperature rise due to climate change is putting many arctic and alpine plants at risk of extinction because their ability to react is outpaced by the speed of climate change. We considered assisted species migration (ASM) and hybridization as methods to conserve cold‐adapted species (or the genes thereof) and to minimize the potential perturbation of ecosystems due to climate change. Assisted species

  • Automated conservation assessment of the orchid family with deep learning.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Alexander Zizka,Daniele Silvestro,Pati Vitt,Tiffany M Knight

    IUCN Red List assessments are essential for prioritizing conservation needs but are resource‐intensive and therefore only available for a fraction of global species richness. Automated conservation assessments based on digitally available geographic occurrence records can be a rapid alternative, but it is unclear how reliable these assessments are. Here, we present automated conservation assessments

  • Estimating animal population size with very high resolution satellite imagery.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Peng Zhao,Shuming Liu,Yi Zhou,Tim Lynch,Wenhu Lu,Tao Zhang,Hongsheng Yang

    Very high‐resolution (VHR) satellite sensors can be used to estimate the size of animal populations, a critical factor in wildlife management, and acquire animal spatial distributions in an economical, easy, and precise way. We developed a method for satellite population size estimation that includes a noninvasive photogrammetry, from which the animal's average orthographic area is calculated, and

  • Meta-analysis of genetic representativeness of plant populations under ex situ conservation in contrast to wild source populations.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Xinzeng Wei,Mingxi Jiang

    Ex‐situ conservation is widely used to protect wild plant species from extinction. However, it remains unclear how genetic variation of ex‐situ plant collections reflects wild source population diversity. Here, we conduct a global meta‐analysis of the genetic representativeness of ex‐situ populations by comparing genetic diversity (i.e. AR, allelic richness; HE, expected heterozygosity; PPB, percentage

  • Correlates of bird collisions with buildings across three North American countries.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-06-15
    Jared A Elmore,Stephen B Hager,Bradley J Cosentino,Timothy J O'Connell,Corey S Riding,Michelle L Anderson,Marja H Bakermans,Than J Boves,David Brandes,Eric M Butler,Michael W Butler,Nicolette L Cagle,Rafael Calderón-Parra,Angelo P Capparella,Anqi Chen,Kendra Cipollini,April A T Conkey,Thomas A Contreras,Rebecca I Cooper,Clay E Corbin,Robert L Curry,Jerald J Dosch,Karen L Dyson,Erin E Fraser,Ross A

    Collisions with buildings cause up to 1 billion bird fatalities annually in the United States and Canada. However, efforts to reduce collisions would benefit from studies conducted at large spatial scales across multiple study sites with standardized methods and consideration of species‐ and life‐history‐related variation and correlates of collisions. We addressed these research needs through coordinated

  • Understanding the distribution of bushmeat hunting effort across landscapes by testing hypotheses about human foraging.
    Conserv. Biol. (IF 5.405) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Jedediah F Brodie,Jose M V Fragoso

    Mitigating the massive impacts of defaunation on natural ecosystems requires understanding and predicting hunting effort across the landscape. But such understanding has been hindered by the difficulty in assessing the movement patterns of hunters in thick forests and across complex terrain. Here we develop several ways of statistically testing hypotheses about the spatial distribution of hunting,

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