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  • Swine Disease Models for Optimal Vascular Engineering.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Michael Sturek,Mouhamad Alloosh,Frank W Sellke

    Swine disease models are essential for mimicry of human metabolic and vascular pathophysiology, thereby enabling high-fidelity translation to human medicine. The worldwide epidemic of obesity, metabolic disease, and diabetes has prompted the focus on these diseases in this review. We highlight the remarkable similarity between Ossabaw miniature swine and humans with metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Layer-by-Layer Biomaterials for Drug Delivery.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Dahlia Alkekhia,Paula T Hammond,Anita Shukla

    Controlled drug delivery formulations have revolutionized treatments for a range of health conditions. Over decades of innovation, layer-by-layer (LbL) self-assembly has emerged as one of the most versatile fabrication methods used to develop multifunctional controlled drug release coatings. The numerous advantages of LbL include its ability to incorporate and preserve biological activity of therapeutic

    更新日期:2020-02-21
  • Injury biomechanics and child abuse.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-09-10
    Mary Clyde Pierce,Gina Bertocci

    Child abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and infants in the United States. Medical care providers, social services, and legal systems make critical decisions regarding injury and history plausibility daily. Injury plausibility judgments rely on evidence-based medicine, individualized experiences, and empirical data. A poor outcome may result if abuse is missed or

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chemical exchange saturation transfer contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    A Dean Sherry,Mark Woods

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents have become an important tool in clinical medicine. The most common agents are Gd(3+)-based complexes that shorten bulk water T(1) by rapid exchange of a single inner-sphere water molecule with bulk solvent water. Current gadolinium agents lack tissue specificity and typically do not respond to their chemical environment. Recently, it has been demonstrated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Intracranial and abdominal aortic aneurysms: similarities, differences, and need for a new class of computational models.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    J D Humphrey,C A Taylor

    Intracranial saccular and abdominal aortic aneurysms (ISAs and AAAs, respectively) result from different underlying disease processes and exhibit different rupture potentials, yet they share many histopathological and biomechanical characteristics. Moreover, as in other vascular diseases, hemodynamics and wall mechanics play important roles in the natural history and possible treatment of these two

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular engineering of viral gene delivery vehicles.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    David V Schaffer,James T Koerber,Kwang-il Lim

    Viruses can be engineered to efficiently deliver exogenous genes, but their natural gene delivery properties often fail to meet human therapeutic needs. Therefore, engineering viral vectors with new properties, including enhanced targeting abilities and resistance to immune responses, is a growing area of research. This review discusses protein engineering approaches to generate viral vectors with

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ultralow-power electronics for biomedical applications.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Anantha P Chandrakasan,Naveen Verma,Denis C Daly

    The electronics of a general biomedical device consist of energy delivery, analog-to-digital conversion, signal processing, and communication subsystems. Each of these blocks must be designed for minimum energy consumption. Specific design techniques, such as aggressive voltage scaling, dynamic power-performance management, and energy-efficient signaling, must be employed to adhere to the stringent

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacterial quorum sensing: signals, circuits, and implications for biofilms and disease.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Arul Jayaraman,Thomas K Wood

    Communication between bacteria, belonging to the same species or to different species, is mediated through different chemical signals that are synthesized and secreted by bacteria. These signals can either be cell-density related (autoinducers) or be produced by bacteria at different stages of growth, and they allow bacteria to monitor their environment and alter gene expression to derive a competitive

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Current and future considerations in the use of mechanical circulatory support devices.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Marc A Simon,John Watson,J Timothy Baldwin,William R Wagner,Harvey S Borovetz

    Heart failure (HF) is a major public health problem in the United States, and its prevalence is likely to increase with the aging U.S. population. Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) utilizing bladder-based blood pumps generating pulsatile flow has been reserved for patients with severe HF failing medical therapy. As MCS technology has advanced to include rotary blood pumps, so has our understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Catch bonds in adhesion.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Wendy Thomas

    One of the most exciting discoveries in biological adhesion is the recent and counter-intuitive observation that the lifetimes of some biological adhesive bonds, called catch bonds, are enhanced by tensile mechanical force. At least two types of adhesive proteins have been shown to form catch bonds--blood proteins called selectins and a bacterial protein called FimH. Both mediate shear-enhanced adhesion

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fluorescence proteins, live-cell imaging, and mechanobiology: seeing is believing.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Yingxiao Wang,John Y-J Shyy,Shu Chien

    Fluorescence proteins (FPs) have been widely used for live-cell imaging in the past decade. This review summarizes the recent advances in FP development and imaging technologies using FPs to monitor molecular localization and activities and gene expressions in live cells. We also discuss the utilization of FPs to develop molecular biosensors and the principles and application of advanced technologies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantitative imaging of musculoskeletal tissue.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-05-10
    Peter Augat,Felix Eckstein

    Quantitative imaging of musculoskeletal tissue, including radiography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), has become the essential methodology in clinical practice for diagnosis and monitoring of various musculoskeletal conditions. Furthermore, quantitative imaging technologies have become indispensable for research and development in diseases of the human skeleton. Standardized

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural stimulation and recording electrodes.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Stuart F Cogan

    Electrical stimulation of nerve tissue and recording of neural electrical activity are the basis of emerging prostheses and treatments for spinal cord injury, stroke, sensory deficits, and neurological disorders. An understanding of the electrochemical mechanisms underlying the behavior of neural stimulation and recording electrodes is important for the development of chronically implanted devices

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Psychophysical evaluation for visual prosthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Gislin Dagnelie

    Vision restoration through retinal, optic nerve, and cortical implants is no longer just the stuff of fantasy. The design and development of visual prostheses rapidly move from the engineering phase toward preclinical and clinical trials, yet the benchmarks to determine their efficacy in blind research subjects have received very little attention, and likewise the selection criteria and preparation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fluorescence imaging of membrane dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Jay T Groves,Raghuveer Parthasarathy,Martin B Forstner

    Imaging membrane dynamics is an important goal, motivated by the abundance of biochemical and biophysical events that are orchestrated at, or by, cellular membranes. The short length scales, fast timescales, and environmental requirements of membrane phenomena present challenges to imaging experiments. Several technical advances offer means to overcome these challenges, and we describe here three powerful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Targeted drug-aerosol delivery in the human respiratory system.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-04-17
    C Kleinstreuer,Z Zhang,J F Donohue

    Inhalation of drug aerosols is a modern pathway to combat lung diseases. It is also becoming the preferred route for insulin delivery, pain management, cancer therapy, and nanotherapeutics. Popular delivery devices include nebulizers, metered-dose inhalers, and dry-powder inhalers. They are all nondirectional and hence have typically low particle deposition efficiencies in desired nasal or lung areas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Point-of-care diagnostics for global health.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2008-03-25
    Paul Yager,Gonzalo J Domingo,John Gerdes

    Biomedical engineers have traditionally developed technologies in response to the needs of the developed world's medical community. As a result, the diagnostic systems on which they have worked have met the requirements of well-funded laboratories in highly regulated and quality-assessed environments. However, such approaches do not address the needs of the majority of the world's people afflicted

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ultrasound microbubble contrast agents: fundamentals and application to gene and drug delivery.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-07-27
    Katherine Ferrara,Rachel Pollard,Mark Borden

    This review offers a critical analysis of the state of the art of medical microbubbles and their application in therapeutic delivery and monitoring. When driven by an ultrasonic pulse, these small gas bubbles oscillate with a wall velocity on the order of tens to hundreds of meters per second and can be deflected to a vessel wall or fragmented into particles on the order of nanometers. While single-session

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Injury biomechanics and child abuse.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Mary Clyde Pierce,Gina Bertocci

    Child abuse is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in young children and infants in the United States. Medical care providers, social services, and legal systems make critical decisions regarding injury and history plausibility daily. Injury plausibility judgments rely on evidence-based medicine, individualized experiences, and empirical data. A poor outcome may result if abuse is missed or

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breast CT.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Stephen J Glick

    Breast cancer is a serious disease that accounts for approximately 40,000 deaths per year in the United States. Unfortunately, there is no known cause of breast cancer, and therefore the best way to prevent mortality is early detection. In the past 15 years, breast cancer mortality has been reduced significantly, which is in part due to screening with film-screen mammography. Nonetheless, conventional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell mechanics: integrating cell responses to mechanical stimuli.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-28
    Paul A Janmey,Christopher A McCulloch

    Forces are increasingly recognized as major regulators of cell structure and function, and the mechanical properties of cells are essential to the mechanisms by which cells sense forces, transmit them to the cell interior or to other cells, and transduce them into chemical signals that impact a spectrum of cellular responses. Comparison of the mechanical properties of intact cells with those of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Current state of imaging protein-protein interactions in vivo with genetically encoded reporters.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-28
    Victor Villalobos,Snehal Naik,David Piwnica-Worms

    Signaling pathways regulating proliferation, differentiation, and inflammation are commonly mediated through protein-protein interactions as well as reversible modification (e.g., phosphorylation) of proteins. To facilitate the study of regulated protein-protein interactions in cells and living animals, new imaging tools, many based on optical signals and capable of quantifying protein interactions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interstitial flow and its effects in soft tissues.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-27
    Melody A Swartz,Mark E Fleury

    Interstitial flow plays important roles in the morphogenesis, function, and pathogenesis of tissues. To investigate these roles and exploit them for tissue engineering or to overcome barriers to drug delivery, a comprehensive consideration of the interstitial space and how it controls and affects such processes is critical. Here we attempt to review the many physical and mathematical correlations that

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Forensic injury biomechanics.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-24
    Wilson C Hayes,Mark S Erickson,Erik D Power

    Forensic injury biomechanics is the science that relates mechanical forces to disruption of anatomical regions of the human body. In this review, we introduce (a) how scaling techniques can be used to describe injury severity and probability of death; (b) how a simple ratio, the factor of risk, and more sophisticated injury risk functions can be used to determine the probability of injury; and (c)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Noninvasive human brain stimulation.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-21
    Timothy Wagner,Antoni Valero-Cabre,Alvaro Pascual-Leone

    Noninvasive brain stimulation with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) or transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is valuable in research and has potential therapeutic applications in cognitive neuroscience, neurophysiology, psychiatry, and neurology. TMS allows neurostimulation and neuromodulation, while tDCS is a purely neuromodulatory application. TMS and tDCS allow diagnostic and interventional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanotechnology applications in cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-19
    Shuming Nie,Yun Xing,Gloria J Kim,Jonathan W Simons

    Cancer nanotechnology is an interdisciplinary area of research in science, engineering, and medicine with broad applications for molecular imaging, molecular diagnosis, and targeted therapy. The basic rationale is that nanometer-sized particles, such as semiconductor quantum dots and iron oxide nanocrystals, have optical, magnetic, or structural properties that are not available from molecules or bulk

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Magnetic resonance-compatible robotic and mechatronics systems for image-guided interventions and rehabilitation: a review study.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-19
    Nikolaos V Tsekos,Azadeh Khanicheh,Eftychios Christoforou,Constantinos Mavroidis

    The continuous technological progress of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as well as its widespread clinical use as a highly sensitive tool in diagnostics and advanced brain research, has brought a high demand for the development of magnetic resonance (MR)-compatible robotic/mechatronic systems. Revolutionary robots guided by real-time three-dimensional (3-D)-MRI allow reliable and precise minimally

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Design of health care technologies for the developing world.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    Robert A Malkin

    Approximately 20 years ago, the international community embarked on a project to bring health care to everyone by the year 2000 featuring, among other things, technologies that were known to be effective and economical. It was largely a failure. In fact, health care deteriorated in many of the target nations. Problems such as public mistrust, lack of spare parts, lack of required consumables, lack

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Acoustic detection of coronary artery disease.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-12
    John Semmlow,Ketaki Rahalkar

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) occurs when the arteries to the heart (the coronary arteries) become blocked by deposition of plaque, depriving the heart of oxygen-bearing blood. This disease is arguably the most important fatal disease in industrialized countries, causing one-third to one-half of all deaths in persons between the ages of 35 and 64 in the United States. Despite the fact that early detection

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetic engineering for skeletal regenerative medicine.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-04-12
    Charles A Gersbach,Jennifer E Phillips,Andrés J García

    The clinical challenges of skeletal regenerative medicine have motivated significant advances in cellular and tissue engineering in recent years. In particular, advances in molecular biology have provided the tools necessary for the design of gene-based strategies for skeletal tissue repair. Consequently, genetic engineering has emerged as a promising method to address the need for sustained and robust

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SNP genotyping: technologies and biomedical applications.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-30
    Sobin Kim,Ashish Misra

    Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are the most frequently occurring genetic variation in the human genome, with the total number of SNPs reported in public SNP databases currently exceeding 9 million. SNPs are important markers in many studies that link sequence variations to phenotypic changes; such studies are expected to advance the understanding of human physiology and elucidate the molecular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The structure and function of the endothelial glycocalyx layer.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-22
    Sheldon Weinbaum,John M Tarbell,Edward R Damiano

    Over the past decade, since it was first observed in vivo, there has been an explosion in interest in the thin (approximately 500 nm), gel-like endothelial glycocalyx layer (EGL) that coats the luminal surface of blood vessels. In this review, we examine the mechanical and biochemical properties of the EGL and the latest studies on the interactions of this layer with red and white blood cells. This

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering approaches to biomanipulation.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-17
    Jaydev P Desai,Anand Pillarisetti,Ari D Brooks

    This article presents a review on the existing techniques for manipulating biological cells. Because biomanipulation involves a wide range of disciplines, from biology to engineering, we concentrate on some of the key methodologies that would result in an efficient biomanipulation system. Some of the key methodologies discussed in this article for cell manipulation relate to the use of magnetics,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fluid-structure interaction analyses of stented abdominal aortic aneurysms.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-17
    C Kleinstreuer,Z Li,M A Farber

    Rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs) alone is the thirteenth leading cause of death in the United States. Thus, reliable AAA-rupture risk prediction is an important advancement. If repair becomes necessary, the minimally invasive technique of inserting a stent-graft (SG), commonly referred to as endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR), is a viable option in many cases. However, postoperative complications

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of time-series gene expression data: methods, challenges, and opportunities.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-08
    I P Androulakis,E Yang,R R Almon

    Monitoring the change in expression patterns over time provides the distinct possibility of unraveling the mechanistic drivers characterizing cellular responses. Gene arrays measuring the level of mRNA expression of thousands of genes simultaneously provide a method of high-throughput data collection necessary for obtaining the scope of data required for understanding the complexities of living organisms

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SQUID-detected magnetic resonance imaging in microtesla fields.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-03-03
    John Clarke,Michael Hatridge,Michael Mössle

    The use of very low noise magnetometers based on Superconducting QUantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs) enables nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in microtesla magnetic fields. An untuned superconducting flux transformer coupled to a SQUID achieves a magnetic field noise of 10(-15) T Hz(-1/2). The frequency-independent response of this magnetometer combined with prepolarization

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Computational anthropomorphic models of the human anatomy: the path to realistic Monte Carlo modeling in radiological sciences.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2007-02-15
    Habib Zaidi,Xie George Xu

    The widespread availability of high-performance computing and popularity of simulations stimulated the development of computational anthropomorphic models of the human anatomy for medical imaging modalities and dosimetry calculations. The widespread interest in molecular imaging spurred the development of more realistic three- to five-dimensional computational models based on the actual anatomy and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lab on a CD.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Marc Madou,Jim Zoval,Guangyao Jia,Horacio Kido,Jitae Kim,Nahui Kim

    In this paper, centrifuge-based microfluidic platforms are reviewed and compared with other popular microfluidic propulsion methods. The underlying physical principles of centrifugal pumping in microfluidic systems are presented and the various centrifuge fluidic functions, such as valving, decanting, calibration, mixing, metering, heating, sample splitting, and separation, are introduced. Those fluidic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Prognosis in critical care.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Lucila Ohno-Machado,Frederic S Resnic,Michael E Matheny

    Prognostic risk prediction models have been employed in the intensive care unit (ICU) setting since the 1980s and provide health care providers with important information to help inform decisions related to treatment and prognosis, as well as to compare outcomes across institutions. Prognostic models for critical care are among the most widely utilized and tested predictive models in healthcare. In

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Machine learning for detection and diagnosis of disease.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Paul Sajda

    Machine learning offers a principled approach for developing sophisticated, automatic, and objective algorithms for analysis of high-dimensional and multimodal biomedical data. This review focuses on several advances in the state of the art that have shown promise in improving detection, diagnosis, and therapeutic monitoring of disease. Key in the advancement has been the development of a more in-depth

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biomechanical considerations in the design of graft: the homeostasis hypothesis.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Ghassan S Kassab,José A Navia

    Since its inception in the 1960s, coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) evolved as one of the most common, best documented, and most effective of all major surgical treatments for ischemic heart disease. Despite its widespread use, however, the outcome is not always completely satisfactory. The objective of this review is to highlight the physical determinants of biomechanical design of CABG so that

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biomechanical and molecular regulation of bone remodeling.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Alexander G Robling,Alesha B Castillo,Charles H Turner

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that is constantly renewed. The cell populations that participate in this process--the osteoblasts and osteoclasts--are derived from different progenitor pools that are under distinct molecular control mechanisms. Together, these cells form temporary anatomical structures, called basic multicellular units, that execute bone remodeling. A number of stimuli affect bone turnover

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Electrical forces for microscale cell manipulation.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Joel Voldman

    Electrical forces for manipulating cells at the microscale include electrophoresis and dielectrophoresis. Electrophoretic forces arise from the interaction of a cell's charge and an electric field, whereas dielectrophoresis arises from a cell's polarizability. Both forces can be used to create microsystems that separate cell mixtures into its component cell types or act as electrical "handles" to transport

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stress protein expression kinetics.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Kenneth R Diller

    In all organisms there is an elevated synthesis of a select family of "stress proteins" in response to a broad array of environmentally driven stress vectors including elevated or depressed temperature, changes in pH, treatment with many classes of chemicals, ischemia, desiccation, and UV irradiation. The presence of stress proteins, often termed heat shock proteins (HSPs), has been recognized for

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Running interference: prospects and obstacles to using small interfering RNAs as small molecule drugs.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Derek M Dykxhoorn,Judy Lieberman

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a well-conserved, ubiquitous, endogenous mechanism that uses small noncoding RNAs to silence gene expression. The endogenous small RNAs, called microRNAs, are processed from hairpin precursors and regulate important genes involved in cell death, differentiation, and development. RNAi also protects the genome from invading genetic elements, encoded by transposons and viruses

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recent approaches to intracellular delivery of drugs and DNA and organelle targeting.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Vladimir P Torchilin

    Intracellular delivery of various drugs, including DNA, and drug carriers can sharply increase the efficiency of various treatment protocols. However, the receptor-mediated endocytosis of drugs, drug carriers, and DNA results in their lysosomal delivery and significant degradation. The problem can be solved and therapy efficacy still further increased if the approaches for direct intracytoplasmic delivery

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Polymersomes.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Dennis E Discher,Fariyal Ahmed

    Polymersomes are self-assembled polymer shells composed of block copolymer amphiphiles. These synthetic amphiphiles have amphiphilicity similar to lipids, but they have much larger molecular weights, so for this reason--along with others reviewed here--comparisons of polymersomes with viral capsids composed of large polypeptide chains are highly appropriate. We summarize the wide range of polymers

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microvascular perspective of oxygen-carrying and -noncarrying blood substitutes.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Marcos Intaglietta,Pedro Cabrales,Amy G Tsai

    The development of an alternative to natural blood has evolved from the initial goal of replicating blood properties to the current objective of formulating a fluid that can be used to replace blood while preserving microvascular function and delivering oxygen. The properties of this fluid are counterintuitive and different from blood because it has high viscosity, oxygen affinity, and a low oxygen

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanism and dynamics of cadherin adhesion.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Deborah Leckband,Anil Prakasam

    Cadherins are essential cell adhesion molecules involved in tissue morphogenesis and the maintenance of tissue architecture in adults. The adhesion and selectivity functions of cadherins are located in their extracellular regions. Biophysical studies show that the adhesive activity is not confined to a single interface. Instead, multiple cadherin domains contribute to binding. By contrast, the spe

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mathematical modeling of tumor-induced angiogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    M A J Chaplain,S R McDougall,A R A Anderson

    Angiogenesis, the growth of a network of blood vessels, is a crucial component of solid tumor growth, linking the relatively harmless avascular and the potentially fatal vascular growth phases of the tumor. As a process, angiogenesis is a well-orchestrated sequence of events involving endothelial cell migration and proliferation; degradation of tissue; new capillary vessel formation; loop formation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Glycomics approach to structure-function relationships of glycosaminoglycans.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Ram Sasisekharan,Rahul Raman,Vikas Prabhakar

    Extracellular modulation of phenotype is an emerging paradigm in this current postgenomics age of molecular and cell biology. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) are primary components of the cell surface and the cell-extracellular matrix (ECM) interface. Advances in the technology to analyze GAGs and in whole-organism genetics have led to a dramatic increase in the known important biological role of these complex

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Drug-eluting bioresorbable stents for various applications.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Meital Zilberman,Robert C Eberhart

    A stent is a medical device designed to serve as a temporary or permanent internal scaffold to maintain or increase the lumen of a body conduit. Metallic coronary stents were first introduced to prevent arterial dissections and to eliminate vessel recoil and intimal hyperplasia associated with percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. The stent application range has expanded as more experience

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of inflammation.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Geert W Schmid-Schönbein

    In the past, inflammation has been associated with infections and with the immune system. But more recent evidence suggests that a much broader range of diseases have telltale markers for inflammation. Inflammation is the basic mechanism available for repair of tissue after an injury and consists of a cascade of cellular and microvascular reactions that serve to remove damaged and generate new tissue

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bioimpedance tomography (electrical impedance tomography).
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    R H Bayford

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a relatively new imaging method that has evolved over the past 20 years. It has the potential to be of great value in clinical diagnosis; however, EIT is a technically difficult problem to solve in terms of developing hardware for data capture and the algorithms to reconstruct the images. This review looks at the development of EIT and how it has evolved. It

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multimodality in vivo imaging systems: twice the power or double the trouble?
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Simon R Cherry

    Many different types of radiation have been exploited to provide images of the structure and function of tissues inside a living subject. Each imaging modality is characterized by differing resolutions on the spatial and temporal scales, and by a different sensitivity for measuring properties related to morphology or function. Combinations of imaging modalities that integrate the strengths of two modalities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fluorescence molecular imaging.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2006-07-13
    Vasilis Ntziachristos

    There is a wealth of new fluorescent reporter technologies for tagging of many cellular and subcellular processes in vivo. This imposed contrast is now captured with an increasing number of available imaging methods that offer new ways to visualize and quantify fluorescent markers distributed in tissues. This is an evolving field of imaging sciences that has already achieved major advances but is also

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retinal prosthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2005-07-12
    James D Weiland,Wentai Liu,Mark S Humayun

    Retinal prostheses represent the best near-term hope for individuals with incurable, blinding diseases of the outer retina. On the basis of the electrical activation of nerves, prototype retinal prostheses have been tested in blind humans and have demonstrated the capability to elicit the sensation of light and to give test subjects the ability to detect motion. To improve the visual function in implant

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional electrical stimulation for neuromuscular applications.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2005-07-12
    P Hunter Peckham,Jayme S Knutson

    Paralyzed or paretic muscles can be made to contract by applying electrical currents to the intact peripheral motor nerves innervating them. When electrically elicited muscle contractions are coordinated in a manner that provides function, the technique is termed functional electrical stimulation (FES). In more than 40 years of FES research, principles for safe stimulation of neuromuscular tissue have

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy in cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2005-07-12
    Robert J Gillies,David L Morse

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) has been used for more than two decades to interrogate metabolite distributions in living cells and tissues. Techniques have been developed that allow multiple spectra to be obtained simultaneously with individual volume elements as small as 1 uL of tissue (i.e., 1 x 1 x 1 mm(3)). The most common modern applications of in vivo MRS use endogenous signals from (1)H

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Instrumentation aspects of animal PET.
    Annu. Rev. Biomed. Eng. (IF 12.257) Pub Date : 2005-07-12
    Yuan-Chuan Tai,Richard Laforest

    Biological research has been accelerated by the development of noninvasive imaging techniques and by use of genetically engineered mice to model human diseases and normal development. Because these mice can be expensive, noninvasive imaging techniques, such as high-resolution positron emission tomography (PET), that permit longitudinal studies of the same animals are very attractive. Such studies reduce

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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