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  • Oil crops for the future
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Rodomiro Ortiz; Mulatu Geleta; Cecilia Gustafsson; Ida Lager; Per Hofvander; Christer Löfstedt; Edgar B Cahoon; Elena Minina; Peter Bozhkov; Sten Stymne

    Agriculture faces enormous challenges including the need to substantially increase productivity, reduce environmental footprint, and deliver renewable alternatives that are being addressed by developing new oil crops for the future. The efforts include domestication of Lepidium spp. using genomics-aided breeding as a cold hardy perennial high-yielding oil crop that provides substantial environmental benefits, expands the geography for oil crops, and improves farmers’ economy. In addition, genetic engineering in Crambe abyssinica may lead to a dedicated industrial oil crop to replace fossil oil. Redirection of photosynthates from starch to oil in plant tubers and cereal endosperm also provides a path for enhancing oil production to meet the growing demands for food, fuel, and biomaterials. Insect pheromone components are produced in seed oil plants in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly pest management replacing synthetically produced pheromones. Autophagy is explored for increasing crop fitness and oil accumulation using genetic engineering in Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Polar expedition: mechanisms for protein polar localization
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Sara Raggi; Elsa Demes; Sijia Liu; Stéphane Verger; Stéphanie Robert

    Most cells show asymmetry in their shape or in the organization of their components that results in poles with different properties. This is a fundamental feature that participates in modulating the development of an organism and its responses to external stimuli. In plants, a number of proteins that are important for developmental and physiological processes have been shown to display polar localization. However, how these polarities are established, maintained, or dynamically modulated is still largely unclear for most of these proteins. In this review we report recent updates on the mechanisms of polar protein localization, focusing on a subset of these proteins that are the focus of current research efforts.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • ABA-mediated modulation of elevated CO2 on stomatal response to drought
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Shenglan Li; Xiangnan Li; Zhenhua Wei; Fulai Liu

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration (e[CO2]) and soil water deficits have substantial effect on stomatal morphology and movement that regulate plant water relations and plant growth. e[CO2] could alleviate the impact of drought stress, thus contributing to crop yield. Xylem-borne abscisic acid (ABA) plays a crucial role in regulating stomatal aperture serving as first line of defence against drought; whereas e[CO2] may disrupt this fundamental drought adaptation mechanism by delaying the stomatal response to soil drying. We review the state-of-the-art knowledge on stomatal response to drought stress at e[CO2] and discuss the role of ABA in mediating these responses.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Innovations in plant genetics adapting agriculture to climate change
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Robert J Henry

    Developing new genotypes of plants is one of the key options for adaptation of agriculture to climate change. Plants may be required to provide resilience in changed climates or support the migration of agriculture to new regions. Very different genotypes may be required to perform in the modified environments of protected agriculture. Consumers will continue to demand taste, convenience, healthy and safe food and sustainably and ethically produced food, despite the greater challenges of climate in the future. Improving the nutritional value of foods in response to climate change is a significant challenge. Genomic sequences of relevant germplasm and an understanding of the functional role of alleles controlling key traits will be an enabling platform for this innovation.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Climate change enforces to look beyond the plant – the example of pollinators
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Stefanie Christmann

    Within global crop production 1961–2012, the share of pollinator independent crops increased twofold, but fourfold of pollinator dependent crops. Balanced diets within the boundaries of our planet require even more pollinator dependent crops. Particularly, Low and Middle Income Countries in the drylands produce pollinator dependent crops. However, climate change and agriculture increasingly cause risks for pollinators. Common reward-based seeding of wildflower strips is too expensive for these countries. Breeding towards pollinator independent crops might accelerate loss of pollinators. Recent publications warned that pollinator loss can reduce other ecosystem services supporting crop production. A new alternative approach called Farming with Alternative Pollinators (FAP) might fill the gap. FAP creates on-farm habitable conditions for pollinators and increases productivity and incomes per surface.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Symbiotic bacteria of plant-associated fungi: friends or foes?
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Daniel A Bastías, Linda J Johnson, Stuart D Card

    Many bacteria form symbiotic associations with plant-associated fungi. The effects of these symbionts on host fitness usually depend on symbiont or host genotypes and environmental conditions. However, bacterial endosymbionts, that is those living within fungal cells, may positively regulate host performance as their survival is often heavily dependent on host fitness. Contrary to this, bacteria that establish ectosymbiotic associations with fungi, that is those located on the hyphal surface or in close vicinity to fungal mycelia, may not have an apparent net effect on fungal performance due to the low level of fitness dependency on their host. Our analysis supports the hypothesis that endosymbiotic bacteria of fungi are beneficial symbionts, and that effects of ectosymbiotic bacteria on fungal performance depends on the bacterial type involved in the interaction (e.g. helper versus pathogen of fungi). Ecological scenarios, where the presence of beneficial bacterial endosymbionts of fungi could be compromised, are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Progress in understanding the role of auxin in lateral organ development in plants
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Marcus G Heisler, Mary E Byrne

    Plants continuously produce lateral organs from the shoot apex such as leaves and flowers, providing an excellent opportunity to study their development. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in this process by promoting organ formation where it accumulates due to polar auxin transport. Recently, the use of live-imaging, fine perturbation techniques and computational modelling has helped researchers make exciting progress in addressing long-standing questions on plant organogenesis, not only regarding the role of auxin in promoting growth but also on the regulation of morphogenesis and transcriptional control. In this review, we discuss a number of recent studies that address these points, with particular reference to how auxin acts in early leaf development and in leaf shape.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Calcium and plasma membrane force-gated ion channels behind development
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Jean-Marie Frachisse, Sébastien Thomine, Jean-Marc Allain
    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • The circadian clock coordinates plant development through specificity at the tissue and cellular level
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Mark Greenwood, James CW Locke

    The circadian clock is a genetic circuit that allows organisms to anticipate daily events caused by the rotation of the Earth. The plant clock regulates physiology at multiple scales, from cell division to ecosystem-scale interactions. It is becoming clear that rather than being a single perfectly synchronised timer throughout the plant, the clock can be sensitive to different cues, run at different speeds, and drive distinct processes in different cell types and tissues. This flexibility may help the plant clock to regulate such a range of developmental and physiological processes. In this review, using examples from the literature, we describe how the clock regulates development at multiple scales and discuss how the clock might allow local flexibility in regulation whilst remaining coordinated across the plant.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Transcriptional circuits in control of shoot stem cell homeostasis
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Han Han, Xing Liu, Yun Zhou

    Plant shoot apical meristems (SAMs) play essential roles in plant growth and development. Located at the growing tip of a plant stem, these dome-like structures contain stem cells, which serve to perpetuate themselves in an undifferentiated state while continually adding new cells that differentiate and eventually form all above-ground tissues. In a SAM, the pool of stem cells is dynamically maintained through a balance between cell division (self–renewal) and differentiation (loss of stem-cell identity). In the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, a negative feedback loop between WUSCHEL (WUS) and the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) plays important roles in maintaining the stem cell population. In this review, we highlight recent findings mainly from studies in Arabidopsis, and summarize the research progress on understanding how multiple transcriptional circuits integrate and function at different cell layers to control the WUS-CLV3 loop and stem cell homeostasis.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Auxin signalling in growth: Schrödinger’s cat out of the bag
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Michelle Gallei, Christian Luschnig, Jiří Friml

    The phytohormone auxin acts as an amazingly versatile coordinator of plant growth and development. With its morphogen-like properties, auxin controls sites and timing of differentiation and/or growth responses both, in quantitative and qualitative terms. Specificity in the auxin response depends largely on distinct modes of signal transmission, by which individual cells perceive and convert auxin signals into a remarkable diversity of responses. The best understood, or so-called canonical mechanism of auxin perception ultimately results in variable adjustments of the cellular transcriptome, via a short, nuclear signal transduction pathway. Additional findings that accumulated over decades implied that an additional, presumably, cell surface-based auxin perception mechanism mediates very rapid cellular responses and decisively contributes to the cell's overall hormonal response. Recent investigations into both, nuclear and cell surface auxin signalling challenged this assumed partition of roles for different auxin signalling pathways and revealed an unexpected complexity in transcriptional and non-transcriptional cellular responses mediated by auxin.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • MicroRNA miR396, GRF transcription factors and GIF co-regulators: a conserved plant growth regulatory module with potential for breeding and biotechnology
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Daniela Liebsch, Javier F Palatnik

    Multicellular life relies on complex regulatory mechanisms ensuring proper growth and development. In plants, these mechanisms construct a body plan that is both reproducible, and highly flexible for adaptation to different environmental conditions. A crucial regulatory module – consisting of microRNA miR396, GROWTH REGULATING FACTORS (GRFs) and GRF-INTERACTING FACTORS (GIFs) – has been shown to control growth of multiple tissues and organs in a variety of species. Especially in the last few years, research has expanded our knowledge of miR396–GRF/GIF function to crops, where it affects agronomically important traits, and highlighted its role in coordinating growth with endogenous and environmental factors. Special properties make the miR396–GRF/GIF system highly efficient in growth regulation and a promising target for improving plant yield.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Square one: zygote polarity and early embryogenesis in flowering plants
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Kai Wang, Houming Chen, Yingjing Miao, Martin Bayer

    In the last two decades, work on auxin signaling has helped to understand many aspects of the fundamental process underlying the specification of tissue types in the plant embryo. However, the immediate steps after fertilization including the polarization of the zygote and the initial body axis formation remained poorly understood. Valuable insight into these enigmatic processes has been gained by studying fertilization in grasses. Recent technical advances in transcriptomics of developing embryos with high spatial and temporal resolution give an emerging picture of the rapid changes of the zygotic developmental program. Together with the use of live imaging of novel fluorescent marker lines, these data are now the basis of unraveling the very first steps of the embryonic patterning process.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • The evolutionary trajectory of root stem cells
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Hans Motte, Boris Parizot, Tao Fang, Tom Beeckman

    Root stem cells are crucial for the establishment of roots and are therefore a major evolutionary innovation that enabled land plants to spread on land. Despite their importance, not too much is known about the origin and the molecular players installing and maintaining them. Although still fragmentary, the recent availability of new data for early land plants can be used to identify and analyze the conservation of key regulators of root meristems. In this review, we evaluate the possible conservation of important root stem cell regulators to suggest pathways that might have been important at the origin of roots.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Editorial overview: Cell biology in the era of omics?
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : null
    Eva Benkova,Yasin Dagdas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tailoring the cell: a glimpse of how plant viruses manipulate their hosts.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Laura Medina-Puche,Rosa Lozano-Duran

    Viruses are intracellular parasites that completely rely on the molecular machinery of the infected host to complete their cycle. Upon invasion of a susceptible cell, viruses dramatically reshape the intracellular environment to suit their needs, in a complex process that requires the fine manipulation of multiple aspects of the host cell biology, including those enabling replication of the viral genome, facilitating suppression or avoidance of anti-viral plant defence mechanisms, and supporting precise intra-cellular and inter-cellular trafficking of viral components. This tailoring of the cell to fit viral functions occurs through the coordinated action of fast-evolving, multifunctional viral proteins, which efficiently target host factors. In this review, we intend to offer a glimpse of how plant viruses manipulate their hosts from a cell biology perspective, focusing on recent advances covering three specific aspects of the viral infection: viral manipulation of organelle function; virus-induced formation of viral replication complexes through membrane remodelling; and viral evasion of autophagy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nitrate and hormonal signaling crosstalk for plant growth and development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Andrea Vega,José Antonio O'Brien,Rodrigo A Gutiérrez

    Nitrate is an essential macronutrient for plants, a primary nitrogen source in natural and human-made ecosystems. Nitrate can also act as a signaling molecule that directs genome-wide gene expression changes with an impact on plant metabolism, physiology, growth and development. Nitrate and phytohormone signaling pathways crosstalk to modulate growth and developmental programs in a multifactorial manner. Nitrate-signaling controls plant growth and development using molecular mechanisms that involve phytohormone-signaling pathways. In contrast, many phytohormones modulate or impact nitrate signaling in interconnected pathways. In this review, we explore recent progress in our understanding of well-documented connections between nitrate and phytohormones such as auxin, cytokinin and abscisic acid. We also discuss recent studies connecting nitrate to other phytohormones such as ethylene, salicylic acid, gibberellins and brassinosteroids. While many molecular details remain to be elucidated, a number of core signaling components at the intersection between nitrate and the major hormonal pathways have been described. We focus on established interactions of nitrate and different hormonal pathways to bring about cellular, growth and developmental processes in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A single-cell view of tissue regeneration in plants.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Victoria Mironova,Jian Xu

    With the development of advanced molecular-genetic and computational technologies it becomes possible to tackle individual cells within a regenerating tissue, to define morphogenetic and cellular changes in space and time by live imaging, to acquire transcriptome status with single-cell RNA sequencing (ScRNA-seq), and to delineate the candidate mechanisms by iterative computational and experimental approaches. Here, we review recent findings and current knowledge on tissue regeneration in plants, focusing on four evolutionarily conserved scenarios that a cell may embark on to facilitate the regeneration of a plant tissue structure lost by injury, namely cell death, division, dedifferentiation, and transdifferentiation. Understanding of these scenarios at single-cell resolution, singularly and in combination, could provide an unprecedented view of tissue regeneration in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A safe ride in extracellular vesicles - small RNA trafficking between plant hosts and pathogens.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Qiang Cai,Baoye He,Hailing Jin

    Communication between plants and pathogens requires the transport of regulatory molecules across cellular boundaries, which is essential for host defense and pathogen virulence. Previous research has largely focused on protein transport, but, which other molecules function in communication, and how they are transported remains under explored. Recent studies discovered that small RNAs (sRNAs) are transported between plants and pathogens, which can silence target genes in the interacting organisms and regulate host immunity and pathogen infection, a mechanism called 'cross-kingdom RNA interference (RNAi)'. Further studies indicate that plant extracellular vesicles (EVs) are essential for sRNA trafficking and host-pathogen communication. This review will focus on the latest advances in our understanding of plant EVs and their roles in transporting regulatory molecules, especially sRNAs, between hosts and pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • To preserve or to destroy, that is the question: the role of the cell wall integrity pathway in pollen tube growth.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Hannes Vogler,Gorka Santos-Fernandez,Martin A Mecchia,Ueli Grossniklaus

    In plants, cell-shape is defined by the cell wall, a complex network of polymers located outside the plasma membrane. During cell growth, cell wall properties have to be adjusted, assuring cell expansion without compromising cell integrity. Plasma membrane-located receptors sense cell wall properties, transducing extracellular signals into intracellular cascades through the cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway that, in turn, leads to adjustments in the regulation and composition of the cell wall. Using pollen tube growth as a single celled model system, we describe the importance of RAPID ALKALINIZATION FACTOR (RALF) peptides as sensors of cell wall integrity. RALF peptides can mediate the communication between cell wall components and plasma membrane-localized receptor-like kinases (RLKs) of the CrRLK1L family. The subsequent activation of intracellular pathways regulates H+, Ca2+, and ROS levels in the cell and apoplast, thereby modulating cell wall integrity. Interestingly, the RALF-CrRLK1L module and some of the components working up- and downstream of the RLK is conserved in many other developmental and physiological signaling processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Targeted cell ablation-based insights into wound healing and restorative patterning.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Lukas Hoermayer,Jiří Friml

    Plants as sessile organisms are constantly under attack by herbivores, rough environmental situations, or mechanical pressure. These challenges often lead to the induction of wounds or destruction of already specified and developed tissues. Additionally, wounding makes plants vulnerable to invasion by pathogens, which is why wound signalling often triggers specific defence responses. To stay competitive or, eventually, survive under these circumstances, plants need to regenerate efficiently, which in rigid, tissue migration-incompatible plant tissues requires post-embryonic patterning and organogenesis. Now, several studies used laser-assisted single cell ablation in the Arabidopsis root tip as a minimal wounding proxy. Here, we discuss their findings and put them into context of a broader spectrum of wound signalling, pathogen responses and tissue as well as organ regeneration.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The chemical logic of plant natural product biosynthesis.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2014-04-15
    Gülbenk Anarat-Cappillino,Elizabeth S Sattely

    Understanding the logic of plant natural product biosynthesis is important for three reasons: it guides the search for new natural products and pathways, illuminates the function of existing pathways in the context of host biology, and builds an enabling 'parts list' for plant and microbial metabolic engineering. In this review, we highlight the chemical themes that underlie a broad range of plant pathways, dividing pathways into two parts: scaffold-generating steps that draw on a limited set of chemistries, and tailoring reactions that produce a wide range of end products from a small number of common scaffolds.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The fitness benefits of genetic variation in circadian clock regulation.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-07-16
    Matti J Salmela,Cynthia Weinig

    Functional circadian clocks are essential for fitness in diverse ecosystems, facilitating detection of predictable light-dark and temperature cycles. The molecular basis of endogenous clocks is variable across the tree of life, but it has one omnipresent attribute: natural genetic diversity that manifests as variation for instance in circadian period length around the hypothesised optimum of 24 hours. Latitudinal variation in photoperiod alone is unlikely to account for the vast diversity documented in varied organisms, but we have yet to achieve a solid understanding of the interplay between clock variability and natural selection. Recent circadian studies sampling populations have drawn attention to the hierarchical structure of genetic diversity in the wild, unveiling pronounced genetic variation even on a scale of metres.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding trait diversity associated with crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM).
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Nicholas A Niechayev,Paula N Pereira,John C Cushman

    Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) is a specialized mode of photosynthesis that exploits a temporal CO2 pump with nocturnal CO2 uptake and concentration to reduce photorespiration, improve water-use efficiency (WUE), and optimize the adaptability of plants to climates with seasonal or intermittent water limitations. CAM plants display a plastic continuum in the extent to which species engage in net nocturnal CO2 uptake that ranges from 0 to 100%. CAM plants also display diverse enzyme and organic acid and carbohydrate storage systems, which likely reflect the multiple, independent evolutionary origins of CAM. CAM is often accompanied by a diverse set of anatomical traits, such as tissue succulence and water-storage and water-capture strategies to attenuate drought. Other co-adaptive traits, such as thick cuticles, epicuticular wax, low stomatal density, high stomatal responsiveness, and shallow rectifier-like roots limit water loss under conditions of water deficit. Recommendations for future research efforts to better explore and understand the diversity of traits associated with CAM and CAM Biodesign efforts are presented.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Using natural variation to understand the evolutionary pressures on plant photosynthesis.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Pádraic J Flood

    Photosynthesis is the gateway of the Sun's energy into the biosphere and the source of the ozone layer; thus it is both provider and protector of life as we know it. Despite its pivotal role we know surprisingly little about the genetic basis of variation in photosynthesis and the selective pressures giving rise to or maintaining this variation. In this review, I will briefly summarise our current knowledge of intraspecific and interspecific variation in photosynthesis to understand the main selective constraints on photosynthesis and what this means for the future of nature and agriculture in a changing world.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Potential improvement of photosynthetic CO2 assimilation in crops by exploiting the natural variation in the temperature response of Rubisco catalytic traits.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Jeroni Galmés,Sebastià Capó-Bauçà,Ülo Niinemets,Concepción Iñiguez

    The enhancement of the photosynthetic capacity of crops by the expression of more efficient Rubisco versions has been a main target in the field of plant photosynthesis improvement. However, such an increase in the photosynthetic efficiency will depend on the environmental conditions and on the responsiveness of Rubisco to temperature and CO2 availability. After an exhaustive compilation and standardization of the data published so far, a large natural variability in the thermal responses of Rubisco kinetic parameters in higher plant species was revealed. The variability observed was related to the photosynthetic type but a limited adaptation to the species thermal environment was found. We provide theoretical evidence that the existence of distinctive Rubisco responses to varying temperature and CO2 concentration constitutes a promising avenue for increasing the photosynthetic capacity of important crops under future climatic conditions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Natural genetic variation of the photosynthetic induction response to fluctuating light environment.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-06-16
    Yu Tanaka,Shunsuke Adachi,Wataru Yamori

    Field-grown plants experience fluctuating light intensity for periods extending from seconds to hours because of cloud movements and self-shading. When full light intensity returns after shading, the net CO2 assimilation rate in leaves does not reach its maximum value immediately, but rises gradually over several minutes to approach a new steady state. This phenomenon has been termed photosynthetic induction, which substantially affects the efficiency of carbon fixation, and thus crop production. The significant natural variation of the speed of induction response exists among not only interspecies but also intraspecies. Recent advances in molecular analysis and high-throughput measurement techniques have revealed the genetic and eco-physiological basis of observed genetic variations in photosynthetic induction response. Here, we review the current understanding of the physiological and genetic mechanisms behind photosynthetic induction, and discusses routes to further advances.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exploring the regulatory levels of SUMOylation to increase crop productivity.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Margarida Tg Rosa,Isabel A Abreu

    SUMOylation is an essential post-translational modification that affects several cellular processes, from gene replication to stress response. Studies using the SUMO (de)conjugation machinery have provided evidence regarding its potential to improve crop performance and productivity under normal and adverse conditions. However, the pleiotropic effect of SUMOylation can be a disadvantage in both situations, especially when considering unpredictable environmental conditions caused by climate changes. Here, we discuss the pleiotropic effects caused by disrupting the SUMOylation machinery, and new strategies that may help to overcome pleiotropy. We propose exploring the several regulatory levels of SUMOylation recently revealed, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional regulation by alternative splicing, and post-translational modifications. These new findings may provide valuable tools to increase crop productivity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exploiting genetic variation in nitrogen use efficiency for cereal crop improvement.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-06-09
    Malcolm J Hawkesford,Simon Griffiths

    Cereals are the most important sources of calories and nutrition for the human population, and are an essential animal feed. Food security depends on adequate production and demands are predicted to rise as the global population rises. The need for increased yields will have to be coupled to the efficient use of resources including fertilisers such as nitrogen to underpin the sustainability of food production. Although optimally performing crops with high yields require a balanced mineral nutrition, nitrogen fundamentally drives growth and yield as well as requirements for other nutrients. It is estimated that globally only 33% of applied nitrogen fertiliser is recovered in the harvested grain, indicative of a huge waste of resource and potential major pollutant and is thus a major target for crop improvement. Both agronomy and breeding will contribute to improved nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) and an important component of the latter is harnessing germplasm variation. This review will consider the key traits involved in NUE, the potential to exploit genetic variation for these specific traits, and the approaches to be utilised.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mind the gap: the evolutionary engagement of the C4 metabolic cycle in support of net carbon assimilation.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-06-01
    Matt Stata,Tammy L Sage,Rowan F Sage

    C4 photosynthesis evolved dozens of times, with a critical step being the engagement of a C4 metabolic cycle to concentrate CO2 into a bundle sheath-like compartment. While C3-C4 intermediate species show a progressive increase in the activity of a C4 metabolic cycle, the integration of the C4 and C3 biochemical cycles in enhancing photosynthetic carbon gain occurs in a punctuated manner, at an initial C4 cycle activity near 60%. Punctuated integration of the C4 cycle could result from the evolutionary acquisition of traits that coordinate the C3 and C4 biochemical cycles (for example, an enzymatic, regulatory or transport function) or from a sudden reduction in the mesophyll C3 cycle. Alternatively, a punctuated pattern could be an artifact of low numbers of C3-C4 intermediates in the evolutionary space where C4 cycle engagement occurs, due to incomplete sampling of natural diversity or evolutionary dynamics rendering such intermediates unstable. Understanding how the C4 cycle becomes integrated with the C3 cycle could reveal new avenues for engineering the C4 pathway into C3 plants. Such efforts would be facilitated by the generation of hybrids, or the discovery of additional intermediates, that span the transition from low to high C4 cycle engagement.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neglected treasures in the wild - legume wild relatives in food security and human health.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Hengyou Zhang,Farida Yasmin,Bao-Hua Song

    The legume family (Fabaceae) is the third-largest flowering family with over 18 000 species worldwide that are rich in proteins, oils, and nutrients. However, the production potential of legume-derived food cannot meet increasing global demand. Wild legumes represent a large group of wild species adaptive to diverse habitats and harbor rich genetic diversity for the improvement of the agronomic, nutritional, and medicinal values of the domesticated legumes. Accumulating evidence suggests that the genetic variation retained in these under-exploited leguminous wild relatives can be used to improve crop yield, nutrient contents, and resistance/tolerance to environmental stresses via the integration of omics, genetics, and genome-editing technologies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tip of the trichome: evolution of acylsugar metabolic diversity in Solanaceae.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2019-04-23
    Pengxiang Fan,Bryan J Leong,Robert L Last

    Acylsugars are insecticidal plant specialized metabolites produced in the Solanaceae (nightshade family). Despite having simple constituents, these compounds are unusually structurally diverse. Their structural variations in phylogenetically closely related species enable comparative biochemical approaches to understand acylsugar biosynthesis and pathway diversification. Thus far, varied enzyme classes contributing to their synthesis were characterized in cultivated and wild tomatoes, including from core metabolism - isopropylmalate synthase (Leu) and invertase (carbon) - and a group of evolutionarily related BAHD acyltransferases known as acylsucrose acyltransferases. Gene duplication and neofunctionalization of these enzymes drove acylsugar diversification both within and beyond tomato. The broad set of evolutionary mechanisms underlying acylsugar diversity in Solanaceae make this metabolic network an exemplar for detailed understanding of the evolution of metabolic form and function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The actin cytoskeleton in root hairs: all is fine at the tip.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2014-01-22
    Tijs Ketelaar

    Filamentous actin forms characteristic bundles in plant cells that facilitate cytoplasmic streaming. In contrast, networks of actin exhibiting fast turnover are found especially near sites of rapid cell expansion. These networks may serve various functions including delivering and retaining vesicles while preventing penetration of organelles into the area where cell growth occurs thereby allowing fast turnover of vesicles to and from the plasma membrane. Root hairs elongate by polarized growth at their tips and the local accumulation of fine F-actin near the tip has provided valuable insight into the organization of these networks. Here we will sequentially focus on the role of the actin cytoskeleton in root hair tip growth and on how activities of different actin binding proteins in the apical part of growing root hairs contribute to build the fine F-actin configuration that correlates with tip growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding myosin functions in plants: are we there yet?
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2014-01-22
    Stephanie L Madison,Andreas Nebenführ

    Myosins are motor proteins that drive movements along actin filaments and have long been assumed to be responsible for cytoplasmic streaming in plant cells. This conjecture is now firmly established by genetic analysis in the reference species, Arabidopsis thaliana. This work and similar approaches in the moss, Physcomitrella patens, also established that myosin-driven movements are necessary for cell growth and polarity, organelle distribution and shape, and actin organization and dynamics. Identification of a mechanistic link between intracellular movements and cell expansion has proven more challenging, not the least because of the high level of apparent genetic redundancy among myosin family members. Recent progress in the creation of functional complementation constructs and identification of interaction partners promises a way out of this dilemma.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reorganization of the plant cortical microtubule array.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2014-01-22
    Sidney L Shaw

    The interphase microtubule arrays in flowering plant cells assemble at the cell cortex into patterns that affect cellular morphogenesis. A decade of live cell imaging studies has provided significant information about the in vivo properties of the microtubule polymers. Efforts to extrapolate individual properties to larger roles in organizing or patterning the microtubule array have produced models focused on self-organization and local levels of biological control. Recent studies looking at cortical microtubule arrays as they transition from an existing pattern to a new pattern have re-emerged as a testbed for examining these models and the molecular hypotheses underpinning them. The evidence suggests that microtubule patterning is locally controlled on the scale of a cell face, using or circumventing self-organizating properties as necessary.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of local biosynthesis of auxin and cytokinin in plant development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2008-04-15
    Yunde Zhao

    Plant hormones are tightly regulated in response to environmental and developmental signals. It has long been speculated that biosynthesis of hormones occurs broadly in plant organs and that intricate, spatiotemporal regulation of hormones in developing organ primordia is achieved through transport and signal perception. However, recent identification of genes crucial for biosynthesis of auxin and cytokinin reveals that localized hormone biosynthesis also plays an important role in organ growth and patterning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of developmental traits.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Elizabeth A Kellogg

    The evolution of plant development can be studied in many different ways, each of which provides new insights into how plants have been modified over evolutionary time. DNA sequencing shows that most developmental genes are under purifying selection and that obvious adaptive change in proteins is rare. This may indicate that most change occurs in cis-regulatory sequences, that tests for detecting selection lack power, or both. Gene duplications are common and often correlate with divergence of function, as predicted by theory. Studies of gene expression illuminate similarities among structures in disparate plant groups and indicate that the same genes have been deployed repeatedly for similar developmental ends. Comparative functional studies remain uncommon, but promise to illuminate how changing proteins lead to changes in development. Precise characterization of phenotypes by studies of developmental morphology is beginning to occur in some taxonomic groups. The genetic variation necessary for morphological change must originate as allelic polymorphism within populations; such polymorphism has been identified in grasses and in sunflowers, although it is often cryptic.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conservation and diversity in flower land.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Silvia Ferrario,Richard G H Immink,Gerco C Angenent

    During the past decade, enormous progress has been made in understanding the molecular regulation of flower development. In particular, homeotic genes that determine the identity of the floral organs have been characterised from different flowering plants, revealing considerable conservation among angiosperm species. On the other hand, evolutionary diversification has led to enormous variation in flower morphology. Increasing numbers of reports have described differences in the regulation, redundancy and function of homeotic genes from various species. These fundamentals of floral organ specification are therefore an ideal subject for comparative analyses of flower development, which will lead to a better understanding of plant evolution, plant development and the complexity of molecular mechanisms that control flower development and morphology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modeling plant growth and development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Przemyslaw Prusinkiewicz

    Computational plant models or 'virtual plants' are increasingly seen as a useful tool for comprehending complex relationships between gene function, plant physiology, plant development, and the resulting plant form. The theory of L-systems, which was introduced by Lindemayer in 1968, has led to a well-established methodology for simulating the branching architecture of plants. Many current architectural models provide insights into the mechanisms of plant development by incorporating physiological processes, such as the transport and allocation of carbon. Other models aim at elucidating the geometry of plant organs, including flower petals and apical meristems, and are beginning to address the relationship between patterns of gene expression and the resulting plant form.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Shoot branching.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Sally P Ward,Ottoline Leyser

    The mature form of a plant shoot system is an expression of several genetically controlled traits, many of which are also environmentally regulated. A major component of this architectural variation is the degree of shoot branching. Recent results indicate conserved mechanisms for shoot branch development across the monocots and eudicots. The existence of a novel long-range branch-inhibiting signal has been inferred from studies of branching mutants in pea and Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Shaping up: the genetic control of leaf shape.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Sharon Kessler,Neelima Sinha

    Leaf initiation at the shoot apical meristem involves a balance between cell proliferation and commitment to make primordia. Several genes, such as CLAVATA1, CLAVATA3, WUSCHEL, KNOTTED1, and PHANTASTICA, play key roles in these processes. When expressed in the leaf primordium, however, these 'meristem' genes can profoundly affect leaf shape and size, possibly by regulating hormone gradients and transport. The KNOTTED1-like genes are involved in regulating changes in hormonal levels. Recent studies have elaborated on the role that hormones, such as auxin, play in releasing biophysical constraints on leaf initiation and growth. Final leaf form is elaborated by a coordination of these hormonally regulated processes, cell division and cellular differentiation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determination of cell fate in apical meristems.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Bruce Veit

    Although roots and shoots exhibit profound differences in their pattern of organogenesis, both apices share the capacity for indeterminate growth. Ongoing molecular and genetic analyses have revealed relatively little overlap between the genes that regulate organogenesis in the root and shoot apices. In the shoot, an ensemble of transcription factors lays the foundations for the leaf, in which indeterminacy is exchanged for more limited and polarized growth. Class-I KNOX genes are downregulated in the anlagen of the leaf early in its establishment, but are maintained in other regions of the shoot apex. This persistent expression of KNOX genes may serve to prevent the precocious determination of apical initial derivatives, and thus may allow the production of a large number of pluripotent cells from a relatively small number of stem cells. Greater commonality between roots and shoots is seen in mechanisms that underlie histogenesis and radial-patterning processes. Recent work suggests that undetermined stem cells in both the root and the shoot may be maintained by related mechanisms, which feature regulation of WUSCHEL-like organizer activities by feedback mechanisms that involve receptor-like kinases.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Global expression profiling applied to plant development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Patrick S Schnable,Frank Hochholdinger,Mikio Nakazono

    Plant development is controlled by both endogenous genetic programs and responses to exogenous signals. Microarray experiments are being used to identify the genes involved in these developmental processes. Most of the analyses conducted to date have been conducted on whole organs. Although these studies have provided valuable information, they are limited by the composite nature of plant organs that consist of multiple cell types. Technical advances that have made it possible to study global patterns of gene expression in individual cell types promise to increase greatly the information revealed by microarray experiments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The ethylene signaling pathway: new insights.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Hongwei Guo,Joseph R Ecker

    During the past decade, molecular genetic studies on the reference plant Arabidopsis have established a largely linear signal transduction pathway for the response to ethylene gas. The biochemical modes of action of many of the signaling components are still unresolved. During the past year, however, progress in several areas has been made on several fronts. The different approaches used have included a functional study of the activity of the receptor His kinase, the determination of the ethylene receptor signaling complex at the endoplasmic reticulum and of the regulation of CONSTITUTIVE TRIPLE RESPONSE1 (CTR1) activity by these receptors, the identification of a unique MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE (MAPK) cascade, the cloning and characterization of numerous ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3)/EIN3-like (EIL) transcription factors from many plant species, and the integration of the ethylene and jasmonate response pathways via the ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF) family of transcription factors. The elucidation of the biochemical mechanisms of ethylene signal transduction and the identification of new components in the ethylene response pathway in Arabidopsis are providing a framework for understanding how all plants sense and respond to ethylene.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell expansion in roots.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Liam Dolan,Julia Davies

    Cell expansion in roots is crucial for the exploration and exploitation of the soil substrate and the plethora of activities that roots engage in. Expansion requires the coordinated activities of many cell processes. Central to this is the control of ion transport during vacuolar growth, which mediates the increase in cell size and the concomitant production of new wall and membrane at the surface of growing cells. The cytoskeleton plays an important role in growth and the control of growth direction. Evidence is accumulating to show that plant hormones also coordinate cell expansion throughout the plant by controlling the activities of growth-regulating DELLA proteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Posttranscriptional control of plant development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Yulan Cheng,Xuemei Chen

    Genetic studies have provided increasing evidence that proteins involved in all aspects of RNA metabolism, such as RNA processing, transport, stability, and translation, are required for plant development and for plants' responses to the environment. Such proteins act in floral transition, floral patterning, and signaling by abscisic acid, low temperature and circadian rhythms. Although some of these proteins belong to core RNA metabolic machineries, others may have more specialized cellular functions. Despite the limited knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanisms, posttranscriptional regulation is known to play a key role in the control of plant development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Integrating signals in stomatal development.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Dominique C Bergmann

    Stomata are specialized epidermal structures that control the exchange of water and carbon dioxide between the plant and the atmosphere. The classical developmental mechanisms that define cell fate and tissue patterning - cell lineage, cell-cell interactions and signals from a distance - are employed to make stomata and to define their density and distribution within the epidermis. Recent work has shown that two genes that are involved in stomatal pattern may encode components of a classical cell-surface-receptor-mediated signaling cascade. Additional work has suggested that signals from the overlying cuticle and the underlying mesophyll also influence stomatal pattern. These findings highlight the need for models that explain how the signals that regulate stomatal development are integrated and how they act to regulate cell polarity, the cell cycle and, ultimately, cell fate.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Epigenetic control of plant development: new layers of complexity.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Andrea Steimer,Hanspeter Schöb,Ueli Grossniklaus

    Important aspects of plant development are under epigenetic control, that is, under the control of heritable changes in gene expression that are not associated with alterations in DNA sequence. It is becoming clear that RNA molecules play a key role in epigenetic gene regulation by providing sequence specificity for the targeting of developmentally important genes. RNA-based control of gene expression can be exerted posttranscriptionally by interfering with transcript stability or translation. Moreover, RNA molecules also appear to direct developmentally relevant gene regulation at the transcriptional level by modifying chromatin structure and/or DNA methylation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vernalization and epigenetics: how plants remember winter.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2004-01-21
    Sibum Sung,Richard M Amasino

    One of the remarkable aspects of the promotion of flowering by vernalization is that plants have evolved the ability to measure a complete winter season of cold and to 'remember' this prior cold exposure in the spring. Recent work in Arabidopsis demonstrates the molecular basis of this memory of winter: vernalization causes changes in the chromatin structure of a flowering repressor gene, FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), that switch this gene into a repressed state that is mitotically stable. A key component of the vernalization pathway, VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3), which is a PHD-domain-containing protein, is induced only after a prolonged period of cold. VIN3 is involved in initiating the modification of FLC chromatin structure. The stable silencing of FLC also requires the DNA-binding protein VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and the polycomb-group protein VRN2.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • GFP technology for live cell imaging.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    David Ehrhardt

    Fluorescent proteins are generating fresh insight into plant cell function by providing new opportunities to visualize structure and dynamic events in live cells. Novel and transient structures, such as discreet locations in the nucleus where activated photoreceptor proteins accumulate, have recently been identified with fluorescent protein tags. Fluorescent proteins have also enabled the discovery of new dynamic molecular behaviors, such as the repositioning of cortical microtubules by polymer treadmilling. The early potential of fluorescent proteins to reveal protein interactions in living cells is being realized, as demonstrated in recent studies of transcription factors and signal transduction proteins. A promising new approach to the creation of fluorescent-protein-based biosensors has produced an exciting family of tools for visualizing small sugars, and perhaps will produce a wide variety of other small molecules in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Single cell technology.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Julia Kehr

    Complexity is a fundamental feature of life. Like animals, higher plants consist of a multitude of different distinct tissues and cell types, each contributing to the overall performance of the whole organism. Our understanding and knowledge of physiology will greatly increase as our ability to spatially resolve molecular and biochemical processes improves. Differential analysis of individual tissues and single cells will eliminate the averaging effect and allow the discovery of detailed differences between various cell types. Recent breakthroughs have been made in tissue-specific DNA, RNA and protein analysis of plants by applying laser-based microdissection techniques.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Feedback from the wall.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Emma Pilling,Herman Höfte

    The ability of cells to perceive changes in the composition and mechanical properties of their cell wall is crucial for plants to achieve coordinated growth and development. Evidence is accumulating to show that the plant cell wall, like its yeast counterpart, is capable of triggering multiple signalling pathways. The components of the cell wall that are responsible for initiating these signal responses remain unknown; however, recent technological advances in cell wall analysis may now facilitate the identification of these components and accelerate the characterisation of changes that occur in cell wall mutants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expansins and cell growth.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Yi Li,Louise Jones,Simon McQueen-Mason

    Expansins are now generally accepted to be key regulators of wall extension during growth. Several alternative roles for expansins have emerged in which the emphasis of their action is on wall breakdown or softening in processes such as fruit ripening, pollination, germination and abscission. Expansins are commonly encoded by substantial gene families and have classically been divided into two subfamilies, referred to as alpha- and beta-expansins. Two further subfamilies have now been identified: gamma-expansins, which were first described in Arabidopsis, and delta-expansins, which were identified in rice and are absent from Arabidopsis. Both are truncated versions of alpha- and beta-expansins, with gamma-expansins representing the amino-terminal half of a mature expansin and delta-expansins the carboxy-terminal half of a beta-expansin. Functional roles for gamma- and delta-expansins have yet to be defined, although recent data indicate a signalling role for gamma-expansins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Symplasmic protein and RNA traffic: regulatory points and regulatory factors.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Biao Ding,Asuka Itaya,Yijun Qi

    Plasmodesmata and the phloem form a cytoplasmic network that permits direct cell-cell communication in plants. This network can mediate the trafficking of selective proteins and RNAs that may have important developmental functions. Recent work has provided evidence that protein and RNA traffic across specific interfaces of this network is regulated in a distinct manner. Progress has been made in identifying potential cellular factors that confer such regulation. These advances should promote further investigations into the mechanisms and functions of protein and RNA traffic using biochemical, cellular, genetic and molecular tools.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • One ticket for multiple destinations: dual targeting of proteins to distinct subcellular locations.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Marcio C Silva-Filho

    The biogenesis of organelles and the maintenance of cell functions in multi-compartmentalized plant cells require a specific protein delivery mechanism to ensure efficient and effective translocation of proteins to their respective destinations. Increasing numbers of studies demonstrate that some proteins are targeted simultaneously to more than one compartment by a range of mechanisms, involving composite targeting sequences and/or transcriptional and translational controls. Recent data indicate that the final destination of a protein might respond to changes in the environment; this underlines the complexity of cell engineering that is required to localize a protein.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A wound-inducible organelle derived from endoplasmic reticulum: a plant strategy against environmental stresses?
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Ikuko Hara-Nishimura,Ryo Matsushima

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the most multitalented and adaptable compartment in plant cells. Recently, a wound-inducible organelle, which is derived from ER and designated the ER body, was found in Arabidopsis. Wounding and methyl jasmonate induce many ER bodies in rosette leaves, which have no ER bodies under normal conditions. In contrast, tender seedlings have a wide distribution of the ER bodies especially in all the epidermal cells, which are easily stressed by the external environment. The ER bodies play a role in a novel and unique type of endomembrane system that is involved in the response of plant cells to environmental stress and wounding.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Entering a new era of research on plant peroxisomes.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Makoto Hayashi,Mikio Nishimura

    Peroxisomes are globular organelles, of approximately 1 microm in diameter, that are found ubiquitously in eukaryotic cells. In higher plants, peroxisomes have been believed to play a pivotal role in three metabolic pathways: lipid breakdown, photorespiration and H2O2-detoxificaton. However, recent progress using Arabidopsis mutants has suggested that peroxisomes have more diverse functions than are known at present. Extensive studies using genetic and post-genomic approaches will renovate our present understanding of the functions of peroxisomes in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamics and regulation of plant interphase microtubules: a comparative view.
    Curr. Opin. Plant Biol. (IF 7.508) Pub Date : 2003-11-13
    Takashi Hashimoto

    Microtubule and actin cytoskeletons are fundamental to a variety of cellular activities within eukaryotic organisms. Extensive information on the dynamics and functions of microtubules, as well as on their regulatory proteins, have been revealed in fungi and animals, and corresponding pictures are now slowly emerging in plants. During interphase, plant cells contain highly dynamic cortical microtubules that organize into ordered arrays, which are apparently regulated by distinct groups of microtubule regulators. Comparison with fungal and animal microtubules highlights both conserved and unique mechanisms for the regulation of the microtubule cytoskeleton in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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