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  • ZEITLUPE is required for shade avoidance in the wild tobacco Nicotiana attenuata
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yong Zou; Ran Li; Ian T. Baldwin

    Being shaded is a common environmental stress for plants, especially for densely planted crops. Shade decreases red: far‐red (R:FR) ratios that inactivate phytochrome B (PHYB) and subsequently release p̱hytochrome i̱nteraction f̱actors (PIFs). Shaded plants display elongated hypocotyls, internodes, and petioles, hyponastic leaves, early flowering and are inhibited in branching: traits collectively called the shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). ZEITLUPE (ZTL) is a circadian clock component and blue light photoreceptor, which is also involved in floral rhythms and plant defense in Nicotiana attenuata. ztl mutants are hypersensitive to red light and ZTL physically interacts with PHYB, suggesting the involvement of ZTL in R:FR light signaling. Here, we show that N. attenuata ZTL‐silenced plants display a phenotype opposite to that of the SAS under normal light. After simulated shade, the normally induced transcript levels of the SAS marker gene, ATHB2 are attenuated in ZTL‐silenced plants. The auxin signaling pathway, known to be involved in SAS, was also significantly attenuated. Furthermore, NaZTL directly interacts with NaPHYBs, and regulates the transcript levels of PHYBs, PIF3a, PIF7 and PIF8 under shade. Our results suggest that ZTL may regulate PHYB‐ and the auxin‐mediated signaling pathway, which functions in the SAS of N. attenuata.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Identification of late‐stage pollen‐specific promoters for construction of pollen‐inactivation system in rice
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Menglong Wang; Wei Yan; Xiaoqun Peng; Zhufeng Chen; Chunjue Xu; Jianxin Wu; Xing Wang Deng; Xiaoyan Tang

    Large scale production of male sterile seeds can be achieved by introducing a fertility‐restoration gene linked with a pollen‐killer gene into a recessive male sterile mutant. We attempted to construct this system in rice by using a late‐stage pollen‐specific (LSP) promoter driving the expression of maize α‐amylase gene ZM‐AA1. To obtain such promoters in rice, we conducted comparative RNA‐seq analysis of mature pollen with premeiosis anther, and compared with the transcriptomic data of various tissues in Rice Expression Database, resulting in 269 candidate LSP genes. Initial test of 9 LSP genes showed that only the most active OsLSP3 promoter could drive ZM‐AA1 to disrupt pollen. We then analyzed additional 22 LSP genes and found 12 genes stronger than OsLSP3 in late stage anthers. The promoters of OsLSP5 and OsLSP6 showing higher expression than OsLSP3 at stages 11 and 12 could drive ZM‐AA1 to inactivate pollen, while the promoter of OsLSP4 showing higher expression at stage 12 only could not drive ZM‐AA1 to disrupt pollen, suggesting strong promoter activity at stage 11 was critical for pollen inactivation. The strong pollen‐specific promoters identified in this study provided valuable tools for genetic engineering of rice male sterile system for hybrid rice production.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Phototropin‐ and photosynthesis‐dependent mitochondrial positioning in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll cells
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Md Sayeedul Islam; Toan Van Nguyen; Wataru Sakamoto; Shingo Takagi

    Mitochondria are frequently observed in the vicinity of chloroplasts in photosynthesizing cells, and this association is considered necessary for their metabolic interactions. We previously reported that, in leaf palisade cells of Arabidopsis thaliana, mitochondria exhibit blue‐light‐dependent redistribution together with chloroplasts, which conduct accumulation and avoidance responses under the control of blue‐light receptor phototropins. In this study, precise motility analyses by fluorescent microscopy revealed that the individual mitochondria in palisade cells, labeled with green fluorescent protein, exhibit typical stop‐and‐go movement. When exposed to blue light, the velocity of moving mitochondria increased in 30 min, whereas after 4 h, the frequency of stoppage of mitochondrial movement markedly increased. Using different mutant plants, we concluded that the presence of both phototropin1 and phototropin2 is necessary for the early acceleration of mitochondrial movement. On the contrary, the late enhancement of stoppage of mitochondrial movement occurs only in the presence of phototropin2 and only when intact photosynthesis takes place. A plasma‐membrane ghost assay suggested that the stopped mitochondria are firmly adhered to chloroplasts. These results indicate that the physical interaction between mitochondria and chloroplasts is cooperatively mediated by phototropin2‐ and photosynthesis‐dependent signals. The present study might add novel regulatory mechanism for light‐dependent plant organelle interactions.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Combined genome‐wide association study and transcriptome analysis reveal candidate genes for resistance to Fusarium ear rot in maize
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lishan Yao; Yanmei Li; Chuanyu Ma; Lixiu Tong Feili Du; Mingliang Xu

    Fusarium ear rot, caused by Fusarium verticillioides, is a devastating fungal disease in maize that reduces yield and quality; moreover, F. verticillioides produces fumonisin mycotoxins, which pose serious threats to human and animal health. Here, we performed a genome‐wide association study (GWAS) under three environmental conditions and identified 34 single‐nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that were significantly associated with Fusarium ear rot resistance. With reference to the maize B73 genome, 69 genes that overlapped with or were adjacent to the significant SNPs were identified as potential resistance genes to Fusarium ear rot. Comparing transcriptomes of the most resistant and most susceptible lines during the very early response to Fusarium ear rot, we detected many differentially expressed genes enriched for pathways related to plant immune responses, such as plant hormone signal transduction, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and cytochrome P450 metabolism. More than one‐fourth of the potential resistance genes detected in the GWAS were differentially expressed in the transcriptome analysis, which allowed us to predict numbers of candidate genes for maize resistance to ear rot, including genes related to plant hormones, a MAP kinase, a PR5‐like receptor kinase, and heat shock proteins. We propose that maize plants initiate early immune responses to Fusarium ear rot mainly by regulating the growth–defense balance and promoting biosynthesis of defense compounds.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH3F1 involvement in flowering time regulation through histone acetylation modulation on FLOWERING LOCUS C
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Danyun Xu; Qing Liu; Gang Chen; Zhiqiang Yan; Honghong Hu

    Flowering time regulation is one of the most important processes in the whole life of flowering plants and FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) is a central repressor of flowering time. However, whether metabolic acetate level affects flowering time is unknown. Here we report that ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE ALDH3F1 plays essential roles in floral transition via FLC‐dependent pathway. In the aldh3f1‐1 mutant, the flowering time was significant earlier than Col‐0 and the FLC expression level was reduced. ALDH3F1 had aldehyde dehydrogenase activity to affect the acetate level in plants, and the amino acids of E214 and C252 are essential for its catalytic activity. Moreover, aldh3f1 mutation reduced acetate level and the total acetylation on histone H3. The H3K9Ac level on FLC locus was decreased in aldh3f1‐1, which reduced FLC expression. Expression of ALDH3F1 could rescue the decreased H3K9Ac level on FLC, FLC expression and also the early‐flowering phenotype of aldh3f1‐1, however ALDH3F1E214A or ALDH3F1C252A could not. Our findings demonstrate that ALDH3F1 participates in flowering time regulation through modulating the supply of acetate for acetyl‐CoA, which functions as histone acetylation donor to modulate H3K9Ac on FLC locus.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Development of nutritious rice with high zinc/selenium and low cadmium in grains through QTL pyramiding
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Chaolei Liu; Shilin Ding; Anpeng Zhang; Kai Hong; Hongzhen Jiang; Shenglong Yang; Banpu Ruan; Bin Zhang; Guojun Dong; Longbiao Guo; Dali Zeng; Qian Qian; Zhenyu Gao

    Enriching zinc (Zn) and selenium (Se) levels, while reducing cadmium (Cd) concentration in rice grains is of great benefit for human diets and health. Large natural variations in grain Zn, Se and Cd concentrations in different rice accessions enable Zn/Se‐biofortification and Cd‐minimization through molecular breeding. Here, we report the development of new elite varieties by pyramiding major QTLs that significantly contribute to high Zn/Se and low Cd accumulation in grains. A chromosome segment substitution line CSSLGCC7 with the PA64s‐derived GCC7 allele in the 93‐11 background, exhibited steadily higher Mn and lower Cd concentrations in grains than those of 93‐11. This elite CSSL was used as the core breeding material to cross with CSSLs harboring other major QTLs for essential mineral elements, especially CSSLGZC6 for grain Zn concentration and CSSLGSC5 for grain Se concentration. The CSSLGCC7+GZC6 and CSSLGCC7+GSC5 exhibited lower Cd concentration with higher Zn and Se concentrations in grains, respectively. Our study thus provides elite materials for rice breeding targeting high Zn/Se and low Cd concentrations in grains.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Plastid ribosomal protein LPE2 is involved in photosynthesis and the response to C/N balance in Arabidopsis thaliana
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Xiaoxiao Dong; Sujuan Duan; Hong‐Bin Wang; Hong‐Lei Jin

    The balance between cellular carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) must be tightly coordinated to sustain optimal growth and development in plants. In chloroplasts, photosynthesis converts inorganic C to organic C, which is important for maintenance of C content in plant cells. However, little is known about the role of chloroplasts in C/N balance. Here, we identified a nuclear‐encoded protein LOW PHOTOSYNTHETIC EFFICIENCY2 (LPE2) that it is required for photosynthesis and C/N balance in Arabidopsis. LPE2 is specifically localized in the chloroplast. Both of loss‐of‐function mutants, lpe2‐1 and lpe2‐2, showed lower photosynthetic activity, characterized by slower electron transport and lower PSII quantum yield than the wild type. Notably, LPE2 is predicted to encode the plastid ribosomal protein S21 (RPS21). Deficiency of LPE2 significantly perturbed the thylakoid membrane composition and plastid protein accumulation, although the transcription of plastid genes is not affected obviously. More interestingly, transcriptome analysis indicated that the loss of LPE2 altered the expression of C and N response related genes in nucleus, which is confirmed by quantitive RT‐PCR. Moreover, deficiency of LPE2 suppressed the response of C/N balance in physiological level. Taken together, our findings suggest that LPE2 plays dual roles in photosynthesis and the response to C/N balance.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Expanding the scope of CRISPR/Cas9‐mediated genome editing in plants using an xCas9 and Cas9‐NG hybrid
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Qingfeng Niu; Siqun Wu; Yansha Li; Xiaoxuan Yang; Ping Liu; Yaping Xu; Zhaobo Lang

    The widely used Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpCas9) requires NGG as a protospacer adjacent motif (PAM) for genome editing. Although SpCas9 is a powerful genome‐editing tool, its use has been limited on the targetable genomic locus lacking NGG PAM. The SpCas9 variants xCas9 and Cas9‐NG have been developed to recognize NG, GAA, and GAT PAMs in human cells. Here, we show that xCas9 cannot recognize NG PAMs in tomato, and Cas9‐NG can recognize some of our tested NG PAMs in the tomato and Arabidopsis genomes. In addition, we engineered SpCas9 (XNG‐Cas9) based on mutations from both xCas9 and Cas9‐NG, and found that XNG‐Cas9 can efficiently mutagenize endogenous target sites with NG, GAG, GAA, and GAT PAMs in the tomato or Arabidopsis genomes. The PAM compatibility of XNG‐Cas9 is the broadest reported to date among Cas9s (SpCas9 and Cas9‐NG) active in plant.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • New insights into gibberellin signaling in regulating flowering in Arabidopsis
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Shengjie Bao; Changmei Hua; Lisha Shen; Hao Yu

    In angiosperms, floral transition is a key developmental transition from the vegetative to reproductive growth, and requires precise regulation to maximize the reproductive success. A complex regulatory network governs this transition through integrating flowering pathways in response to multiple exogenous and endogenous cues. Phytohormones are essential for proper plant developmental regulation and have been extensively studied for their involvement in the floral transition. Among various phytohormones, gibberellin (GA) plays a major role in affecting flowering in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. The GA pathway interact with other flowering genetic pathways and phytohormone signaling pathways through either DELLA proteins or mediating GA homeostasis. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in understanding the mechanisms of DELLA‐mediated GA pathway in flowering time control in Arabidopsis, and discuss its possible link with other phytohormone pathways during the floral transition.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Colonization of endophyte Acremonium sp. D212 in Panax notoginseng and rice mediated by auxin and jasmonic acid
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Li Han; Xuan Zhou; Yiting Zhao; Shusheng Zhu; Lixia Wu; Yunlu He; Xiangrui Ping; Xinqi Lu; Wuying Huang; Jie Qian; Lina Zhang; Xi Jiang; Dan Zhu; Chongyu Luo; Saijie Li; Qian Dong; Qijing Fu; Kaiyuan Deng; Xin Wang; Lei Wang; Sheng Peng; Jinsong Wu; Weimin Li; Jiří Friml; Youyong Zhu; Xiahong He; Yunlong Du

    Endophytic fungi can be beneficial to plant growth. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying colonization of Acremonium spp. remain unclear. In this study, a novel endophytic Acremonium strain was isolated from the buds of Panax notoginseng and named Acremonium sp. D212. The Acremonium sp. D212 could colonize the roots of P. notoginseng, enhance the resistance of P. notoginseng to root rot disease, and promote root growth and saponin biosynthesis in P. notoginseng. Acremonium sp. D212 could secrete indole‐3‐acetic acid (IAA) and jasmonic acid (JA), and inoculation with the fungus increased the endogenous levels of IAA and JA in P. notoginseng. Colonization of the Acremonium sp. D212 in the roots of the rice line Nipponbare was dependent on the concentration of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) (2 to 15 μM) and 1‐naphthalenacetic acid (NAA) (10 to 20 μM). Moreover, the roots of the JA signalling‐defective coi1‐18 mutant were colonized by Acremonium sp. D212 to a lesser degree than those of the wild‐type Nipponbare and miR393b‐overexpressing lines, and the colonization was rescued by MeJA but not by NAA. It suggests that the cross‐talk between JA signalling and the auxin biosynthetic pathway plays a crucial role in the colonization of Acremonium sp. D212 in host plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • COP9 Signalosome: discovery, conservation, activity, and function
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Nanxun Qin; Dongqing Xu; Jigang Li; Xing Wang Deng

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a conserved protein complex, typically composed of eight subunits (designated as CSN1 to CSN8) in higher eukaryotes such as plants and animals, but of fewer subunits in some lower eukaryotes such as yeasts. The CSN complex is originally identified in plants from a genetic screen for mutants that mimic light‐induced photomorphogenic development when grown in the dark. The CSN complex regulates the activity of cullin–RING ligase (CRL) families of E3 ubiquitin ligase complexes, and play critical roles in regulating gene expression, cell proliferation and cell cycle. This review aims to summarize the discovery, composition, structure, and function of CSN in the regulation of plant development in response to external (light and temperature) and internal cues (phytohormones).

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The mechanism and function of active DNA demethylation in plants
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ruie Liu; Zhaobo Lang

    DNA methylation is a conserved and important epigenetic mark in both mammals and plants. DNA methylation can be dynamically established, maintained, and removed through different pathways. In plants, active DNA demethylation is initiated by the RELEASE OF SILENCING 1 (ROS1) family of bifunctional DNA glycosylases/lyases. Accumulating evidence suggests that DNA demethylation is important in many processes in plants. In this review, we summarize recent studies on the enzymes and regulatory factors that have been identified in the DNA demethylation pathway. We also review the functions of active DNA demethylation in plant development as well as biotic and abiotic stress responses. Finally, we highlight those aspects of DNA demethylation that require additional research.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Cell polarity: regulators and mechanisms in plants
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Kezhen Yang; Lu Wang; Jie Le; Juan Dong

    Cell polarity plays an important role in a wide range of biological processes in plant growth and development. Cell polarity is manifested as the asymmetric distribution of molecules, e.g. proteins and lipids, at the plasma membrane and/or inside of a cell. Here, we summarize a few polarized proteins that have been characterized in plants and we review recent advances towards understanding the molecular mechanism for them to polarize at the plasma membrane. Multiple mechanisms, including membrane trafficking, cytoskeletal activities, and protein phosphorylation, etc., define the polarized plasma membrane domains. Recent discoveries suggest that the polar positioning of the proteo‐lipid membrane domain may instruct the formation of polarity complexes in plants. In this review, we highlight the factors and regulators for their functions in establishing the membrane asymmetries in plant development. Furthermore, we discuss a few outstanding questions to be addressed to better understand the mechanisms by which cell polarity is regulated in plants.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Recurrent genome duplication events likely contributed to both the ancient and recent rise of ferns
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Chien‐Hsun Huang; Xinping Qi; Duoyuan Chen; Ji Qi; Hong Ma

    Ferns, the second largest group of vascular plants, originated ~400 million years ago (Mya). They became dominant in the ancient Earth landscape before the angiosperms and are still important in current ecosystems. Many ferns have exceptionally high chromosome numbers, possibly resulting from whole‐genome duplications (WGDs). However, WGDs have not been investigated molecularly across fern diversity. Here we detected and dated fern WGDs using a phylogenomic approach and by calculating synonymous substitution rates (Ks). We also investigated a possible correlation between proposed WGDs and shifts in species diversification rates. We identified 19 WGDs: three ancient events along the fern phylogenetic backbone that are shared by 66%–97% of extant ferns, with additional lineage‐specific WGDs for eight orders, providing strong evidence for recurring genome duplications across fern evolutionary history. We also observed similar Ks peak values for more than half of these WGDs, with multiple WGDs occurring close to the Cretaceous (~145–66 Mya). Despite the repeated WGD events, the biodiversity of ferns declined during the Cretaceous, implying that other factors probably contributed to the floristic turnover from ferns to angiosperms. This study provides molecular evidence for recurring WGDs in ferns and offers important clues to the genomic evolutionary history of ferns.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Identification of plant genes putatively involved in the perception of fungal ergosterol‐squalene
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Laura Lindo; Rosa E. Cardoza; Alicia Lorenzana; Pedro A. Casquero; Santiago Gutiérrez

    Trichoderma biocontrol strains establish a complex network of interactions with plants, in which diverse fungal molecules are involved in the recognition of these fungi as nonpathogenic organisms. These molecules act as microbial‐associated molecular patterns that trigger plant responses. Previous studies have reported the importance of ergosterol produced by Trichoderma spp. for the ability of these fungi to induce plant growth and defenses. In addition, squalene, a sterol biosynthetic intermediate, seems to play an important role in these interactions. Here, we analyzed the effect of different concentrations of ergosterol and squalene on tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) growth and on the transcription level of defense‐ and growth‐related genes. We used an RNA‐seq strategy to identify several tomato genes encoding predicted pattern recognition receptor proteins or WRKY transcription factors, both of which are putatively involved in the perception and response to ergosterol and squalene. Finally, an analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana mutants lacking the genes homologous to these tomato candidates led to the identification of a WRKY40 transcription factor that negatively regulates salicylic acid‐related genes and positively regulates ethylene‐ and jasmonate‐related genes in the presence of ergosterol and squalene.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • MYC2, MYC3, and MYC4 function additively in wounding‐induced jasmonic acid biosynthesis and catabolism
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Cuiping Zhang; Yunting Lei; Chengkai Lu; Lei Wang; Jianqiang Wu

    Jasmonic acid (JA) plays a critical role in plant defenses against insects and necrotrophic fungi. Wounding or lepidopteran insect feeding rapidly induces a burst of JA in plants, which usually reaches peak values within one to two hours. The induced JA is converted to JA‐Ile and perceived by the COI1‐JAZ co‐receptor, leading to activation of the transcription factors (TFs) MYC2 and its homologs, which further induce JA‐responsive genes. Although much is known about JA biosynthesis and catabolism enzymes and JA signaling, how JA biosynthesis and catabolism are regulated remain unclear. Here, we show that in Arabidopsis thaliana MYC2 functions additively with MYC3 and MYC4 to regulate wounding‐induced JA accumulation by directly binding to the promoters of genes function in JA biosynthesis and catabolism to promote their transcription. MYC2 also controls the transcription of JAV1 and JAM1, which are key factors controlling JA biosynthesis and catabolism, respectively. In addition, we also found that MYC2 could bind to the MYC2 promoter and self‐inhibit its own expression. This work illustrates the central role of MYC2/3/4 in controlling wounding‐induced JA accumulation by regulating the transcription of genes involved in JA biosynthesis and catabolism.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Epigenetic regulation in plant abiotic stress responses
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Ya‐Nan Chang; Chen Zhu; Jing Jiang; Huiming Zhang; Jian‐Kang Zhu; Cheng‐Guo Duan

    In eukaryotic cells, the expression of protein‐coding genes is greatly influenced by the dynamic chromatin environment. Epigenetic mechanisms, including covalent modifications to DNA and histone tails and the accessibility of chromatin, create various chromatin situations for stress‐responsive gene expression for adaptation to formidable conditions in nature. Most epigenetic modifications are reversible. For example, DNA and histone methylation can be catalyzed by methyltransferases and can be undone by demethylases. Recent studies have revealed that many epigenetic factors participate in abiotic stress responses, and many specific modifications are inducible and changeable in stressful environments. In this review, we summarize recent progresses on the cross‐talk between epigenetic mechanisms and abiotic stress responses in plants. Our review focuses on extreme‐temperature stress, drought stress, salt stress, abscisic acid (ABA)‐mediated stresses, nutrient stress, ultraviolet (UV) stress and stress memory.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • The plant N‐degron pathways of ubiquitin‐mediated proteolysis
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Michael John Holdsworth; Jorge Vicente; Gunjan Sharma; Mohamad Abbas; Agata Zubrycka

    The amino‐terminal residue of a protein (or amino‐terminus of a peptide following protease cleavage) can be an important determinant of its stability, through the Ubiquitin Proteasome System associated N‐degron pathways. Plants contain a unique combination of N‐degron pathways (previously called the N‐end rule pathways) E3 ligases, PROTEOLYSIS (PRT)6 and PRT1, recognizing non‐overlapping sets of amino‐terminal residues, and others remain to be identified. Although only very few substrates of PRT1 or PRT6 have been identified, substrates of the oxygen and nitric oxide sensing branch of the PRT6 N‐degron pathway include key nuclear‐located transcription factors (ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR VIIs and LITTLE ZIPPER 2) and the histone‐modifying Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 component VERNALIZATION 2. In response to reduced oxygen or nitric oxide levels (and other mechanisms that reduce pathway activity) these stabilized substrates regulate diverse aspects of growth and development, including response to flooding, salinity, vernalization (cold‐induced flowering) and shoot apical meristem function. The N‐degron pathways show great promise for use in the improvement of crop performance and for biotechnological applications. Upstream proteases, components of the different pathways and associated substrates still remain to be identified and characterized to fully appreciate how regulation of protein stability through the amino‐terminal residue impacts plant biology.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Split Nano luciferase complementation for probing protein‐protein interactions in plant cells
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Feng‐Zhu Wang; Nannan Zhang; Yan‐Jun Guo; Ben‐Qiang Gong; Jian‐Feng Li

    Deciphering protein‐protein interactions (PPIs) is fundamental for understanding signal transduction pathways in plants. The split firefly luciferase (Fluc) complementation (SLC) assay has been widely used for analyzing PPIs. However, concern has risen about the bulky halves of Fluc interfering with the functions of their fusion partners. Nano luciferase (Nluc) is the smallest substitute for Fluc with improved stability and luminescence. Here, we developed a dual‐use system enabling the detection of PPIs through the Nluc‐based SLC and co‐immunoprecipitation assays. This was realized by coexpression of two proteins under investigation in fusion with the HA‐ or FLAG‐tagged Nluc halves, respectively. We validated the robustness of this system by reproducing multiple previously documented PPIs in protoplasts or Agrobacterium‐transformed plants. We next applied this system to evaluate the homodimerization of Arabidopsis CERK1, a coreceptor of fungal elicitor chitin, and its heterodimerization with other homologs in the absence or presence of chitin. Moreover, split fragments of Nluc were fused to two cytosolic ends of Arabidopsis calcium channels CNGC2 and CNGC4 to help sense the allosteric change induced by the bacterial elicitor flg22. Collectively, these results demonstrate the usefulness of the Nluc‐based SLC assay for probing constitutive or inducible PPIs and protein allostery in plant cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Osa‐miR1873 fine‐tunes rice immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae and yield traits
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Shi‐Xin Zhou; Yong Zhu; Liang‐Fang Wang; Ya‐Ping Zheng; Jin‐Feng Chen; Ting‐Ting Li; Xue‐Mei Yang; He Wang; Xu‐Pu Li; Xiao‐Chun Ma; Ji‐Qun Zhao; Mei Pu; Hui Feng; Yan Li; Jing Fan; Ji‐Wei Zhang; Yan‐Yan Huang; Wen‐Ming Wang

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known to fine‐tune growth, development, and stress‐induced responses. Osa‐miR1873 is a rice‐specific miRNA targeting LOC_Os05g01790. Here, we show that Osa‐miR1873 fine‐tunes rice immunity against Magnaporthe oryzae and yield traits via LOC_Os05g01790. Osa‐miR1873 was significantly up‐regulated in a susceptible accession but down‐regulated in a resistance accession at 24 hours post‐inoculation (hpi) of M. oryzae. Overexpressing Osa‐miR1873 enhanced susceptibility to M. oryzae and compromised induction of defense responses. In contrast, blocking Osa‐miR1873 through target mimicry compromised susceptibility to M. oryzae and enhanced induction of defense responses. Altered expression of Osa‐miR1873 also resulted in some defects in yield traits, including grain numbers and seed setting rate. Moreover, overexpression of the target gene LOC_Os05g01790 increased rice blast disease resistance but severely penalized growth and yield. Taken together, we demonstrate that Osa‐miR1873 fine‐tunes the rice immunity‐growth trade‐off via LOC_Os05g01790, and blocking Osa‐miR1873 could improve blast disease resistance without significant yield penalty. Thus, the Osa‐miR1873‐LOC_Os05g01790 regulatory module is valuable in balancing yield traits and blast resistance.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Overexpression of CmSOS1 confers waterlogging tolerance in Chrysanthemum
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Lijun Wang; Jiaojiao Gao; Zixin Zhang; Weimiao Liu; Peilei Cheng; Wenting Mu; Tong Su; Sumei Chen; Fadi Chen; Jiafu Jiang

    Manipulating the level of expression of Salt Overly Sensitive (SOS)1, a protein which regulates the movement and distribution of sodium ions, has been shown to enhance the salinity tolerance of a number of plant species, but its involvement in the response to hypoxia is less well established. Here, the contribution of the chrysanthemum homolog CmSOS1 on the expression of waterlogging tolerance has been explored. The overexpression of CmSOS1 improved the survival rate of plants exposed to waterlogging, while the performance of CmSOS1 knock‐down plants was inferior to that of wild type ones. The leaf's relative electrical conductivity, malondialdehyde (MDA), peroxide (H2O2) and superoxide contents were all lowered in stressed overexpressors, whereas their soluble protein content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activity levels were all heightened. To further explore the mechanism, an oxidative stress regulator CmRCD1 was found to interact with CmSOS1, while CmRCD1 knock‐down plants also appeared sensitive to waterlogging in chrysanthemum. The sensitivity to waterlogging of the Arabidopsis thaliana sos1 and rcd1 mutants was confirmed. The conclusion was that CmSOS1, via its interaction with CmRCD1, enhances the plants' waterlogging tolerance, presumably by maintaining the integrity of the plants' membranes and strengthening their capacity to neutralize reactive oxygen species.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Editing of an effector gene promoter sequence impacts plant‐Phytophthora interaction
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Sylvans Ochola; Jie Huang; Haider Ali; Haidong Shu; Danyu Shen; Min Qiu; Liyuan Wang; Xi Li; Han Chen; Alex Kange; Dinah Qutob; Suomeng Dong

    Pathogen avirulence (Avr) effectors interplay with corresponding plant resistance (R) proteins and activate robust plant immune responses. Although the expression pattern of Avr genes has been tied to their functions for a long time, it is still not clear how Avr gene expression patterns impact plant‐microbe interactions. Here, we selected PsAvr3b, which shows a typical effector gene expression pattern from a soybean root pathogen Phytophthora sojae. To modulate gene expression, we engineered PsAvr3b promoter sequences by in situ substitution with promoter sequences from Actin (constitutive expression), PsXEG1 (early expression), and PsNLP1 (later expression) using the CRISPR/Cas9. PsAvr3b driven by different promoters resulted in distinct expression levels across all the tested infection time points. Importantly, those mutants with low PsAvr3b expression successfully colonized soybean plants carrying the cognate R gene Rps3b. To dissect the difference in plant responses to the PsAvr3b expression level, we conducted RNA‐sequencing of different infection samples at 24 h postinfection and found soybean immune genes, including a few previously unknown genes that are associated with resistance. Our study highlights that fine‐tuning in Avr gene expression impacts the compatibility of plant disease and provides clues to improve crop resistance in disease control management.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Abscisic acid dynamics, signaling and functions in plants
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Kong Chen; Guo‐Jun Li; Ray A. Bressan; Chun‐Peng Song; Jian‐Kang Zhu; Yang Zhao

    Abscisic acid (ABA) is an important phytohormone regulating plant growth, development and stress responses. It has an essential role in multiple physiological processes of plants, such as stomatal closure, cuticular wax accumulation, leaf senescence, bud dormancy, seed germination, osmotic regulation and growth inhibition among many others. ABA controls downstream responses to abiotic and biotic environmental changes through both transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. During the past twenty years, the ABA biosynthesis and many of its signaling pathways have been well characterized. Here we review the dynamics of ABA metabolic pools and signaling that affects many of its physiological functions.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Plant immune signaling: Advancing on two frontiers
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Wei Wang; Baomin Feng; Jian‐Min Zhou; Dingzhong Tang

    Plants have evolved multiple defense strategies to cope with pathogens, among which plant immune signaling that relies on cell‐surface localized and intracellular receptors takes fundamental roles. Exciting breakthroughs were made recently on the signaling mechanisms of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and intracellular nucleotide‐binding site (NBS) and leucine‐rich repeat (LRR) domain receptors (NLRs). This review summarizes current view of PRRs activation, emphasizing the most recent discoveries about PRRs’ dynamic regulation and signaling mechanisms directly leading to downstream molecular events including mitogen‐activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation and calcium (Ca2+) burst. Plants also have evolved intracellular NLRs to perceive the presence of specific pathogen effectors and trigger more robust immune responses. We also discuss current understanding of the mechanisms of NLR activation, which has been greatly advanced by recent breakthroughs including structures of the first full‐length plant NLR complex, findings of NLR sensor‐helper pairs and novel biochemical activity of Toll/interleukin‐1 receptor (TIR) domain.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Lectin receptor kinase OsLecRK‐S.7 is required for pollen development and male fertility
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Xiaoqun Peng; Menglong Wang; Yiqi Li; Wei Yan; Zhenyi Chang; Zhufeng Chen; Chunjue Xu; Chengwei Yang; Xing Wang Deng; Jianxin Wu; Xiaoyan Tang

    Pollen grains are covered by exine that protects the pollen from stress and facilitates pollination. Here we isolated a male sterile mutant s13283 in rice exhibiting aborted pollen with abnormal exine and defective aperture. The mutant gene encodes a novel plasma membrane‐localized legume‐lectin receptor kinase that we named OsLecRK‐S.7. OsLecRK‐S.7 was expressed at different levels in all tested tissues and throughout anther development. In vitro kinase assay showed OsLecRK‐S.7 capable of autophosporylation. Mutation in s13283 (E560K) and mutation of the conserved ATP binding site (K418E) both knocked out the kinase activity. Mass spectrometry showed Thr376, Ser378, Thr386, Thr403, and Thr657 to be the autophosphorylation sites. Mutation of individual autophosphorylation site affected the in vitro kinase activity to different degrees, but did not abolish the gene function in fertility complementation. oslecrk‐s.7 mutant plant overexpressing OsLecRK‐S.7 recovered male fertility but showed severe growth retardation with reduced number of tillers, and these phenotypes were abolished by E560K or K418E mutation. The results indicated that OsLecRK‐S.7 was a key regulator of pollen development.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Experiencing winter for spring flowering – a molecular epigenetic perspective on vernalization
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Xiao Luo; Yuehui He

    Many over‐wintering plants, through vernalization, overcome a block to flowering and thus acquire competence to flower in the following spring after experiencing prolonged cold exposure or winter cold. The vernalization pathways in different angiosperm lineages appear to have convergently evolved to adapt to temperate climates. Molecular and epigenetic mechanisms for vernalization regulation have been well studied in the crucifer model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we review recent progresses on the vernalization pathway in Arabidopsis. In addition, we summarize current molecular and genetic understandings of vernalization regulation in temperate grasses including wheat and Brachypodium, two monocots from Pooideae, followed by a brief discussion on divergence of the vernalization pathways between Brassicaceae and Pooideae.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • The roles of endomembrane trafficking in plant abiotic stress responses
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Xiangfeng Wang; Min Xu; Caiji Gao; Yonglun Zeng; Yong Cui; Wenjin Shen; Liwen Jiang

    Endomembrane trafficking is a fundamental cellular process in all eukaryotic cells and its regulatory mechanisms have been extensively studied. In plants, the endomembrane trafficking system needs to be constantly adjusted to adapt to the ever‐changing environment. Evidence has accumulated supporting the idea that endomembrane trafficking is tightly linked to stress signaling pathways to meet the demands of rapid changes in cellular processes and to ensure the correct delivery of stress‐related cargo molecules. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here in this review, we summarize the recent findings on the functional roles of both secretory trafficking and endocytic trafficking in different types of abiotic stresses. We also highlight and discuss the unique properties of specific regulatory molecules beyond their conventional functions in endosomal trafficking during plant growth under stress conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Proteomic and metabolomic profiling underlines the stage‐ and time‐dependent effects of high temperature on grape berry metabolism
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    David Lecourieux; Christian Kappel; Stéphane Claverol; Philippe Pieri; Regina Feil; John E. Lunn; Marc Bonneu; Lijun Wang; Eric Gomès; Serge Delrot; Fatma Lecourieux

    Climate change scenarios predict an increase in mean air temperatures and in the frequency, intensity, and length of extreme temperature events in many wine‐growing regions worldwide. Because elevated temperature has detrimental effects on the berry growth and composition, it threatens the economic and environmental sustainability of wine production. Using Cabernet Sauvignon fruit‐bearing cuttings, we investigated the effects of high temperature (HT) on grapevine berries through a label‐free shotgun proteomic analysis coupled to a complementary metabolomic study. Among the 2279 proteins identified, 592 differentially abundant proteins were found in berries exposed to HT. The gene ontology categories “Stress”, “Protein”, “Secondary metabolism” and “Cell wall” were predominantly altered under HT. High temperatures strongly impaired carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and the effects depended on the stage of development and duration of treatment. Transcript amounts correlated poorly with protein expression levels in HT berries, highlighting the value of proteomic studies in the context of heat stress. Furthermore, this work reveals that HT alters key proteins driving berry development and ripening. Finally, we provide a list of differentially abundant proteins that can be considered as potential markers for developing or selecting grape varieties that are better adapted to warmer climates or extreme heat waves.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • OsCYCP4s coordinate phosphate starvation signaling with cell cycle progression in rice
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Lei Xu, Fang Wang, Ruili Li, Minjuan Deng, Meilan Fu, Huiying Teng, Keke Yi

    Phosphate starvation leads to a strong reduction in shoot growth and yield in crops. The reduced shoot growth is caused by extensive gene expression reprogramming triggered by phosphate deficiency, which is not itself a direct consequence of low levels of shoot phosphorus. However, how phosphate starvation inhibits shoot growth in rice is still unclear. In this study, we determined the role of OsCYCP4s in the regulation of shoot growth in response to phosphate starvation in rice. We demonstrate that the expression levels of OsCYCP4s, except OsCYCP4;3, were induced by phosphate starvation. Overexpression of the phosphate starvation induced OsCYCP4s could compete with the other cyclins for the binding with cyclin‐dependent kinases, therefore suppressing growth by reducing cell proliferation. The phosphate starvation induced growth inhibition in the loss‐of‐function mutants cycp4;1, cycp4;2, and cycp4;4 is partially compromised. Furthermore, the expression of some phosphate starvation inducible genes is negatively modulated by these cyclins, which indicates that these OsCYCP4s may also be involved in phosphate starvation signaling. We conclude that phosphate starvation induced OsCYCP4s might coordinate phosphate starvation signaling and cell cycle progression under phosphate starvation stress.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • The Interaction of CaM7 and CNGC14 regulates root hair growth in Arabidopsis
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Qudsia Zeb, Xiaohan Wang, Congcong Hou, Xiwen Zhang, Mengqi Dong, Sisi Zhang, Qian Zhang, Zhijie Ren, Wang Tian, Huifeng Zhu, Legong Li, Liangyu Liu

    Oscillations in cytosolic free calcium determine the polarity of tip‐growing root hairs. The Ca2+ channel cyclic nucleotide gated channel 14 (CNGC14) contributes to the dynamic changes in Ca2+ concentration gradient at the root hair tip. However, the mechanisms that regulate CNGC14 are unknown. In this study, we detected a direct interaction between calmodulin 7 (CaM7) and CNGC14 through yeast two‐hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. We demonstrated that the third EF‐hand domain of CaM7 specifically interacts with the cytosolic C‐terminal domain of CNGC14. A two‐electrode voltage clamp assay showed that CaM7 completely inhibits CNGC14‐mediated Ca2+ influx, suggesting that CaM7 negatively regulates CNGC14‐mediated calcium signaling. Furthermore, CaM7 overexpressing lines phenocopy the short root hair phenotype of a cngc14 mutant and this phenotype is insensitive to changes in external Ca2+ concentrations. We, thus, identified CaM7‐CNGC14 as a novel interacting module that regulates polar growth in root hairs by controlling the tip‐focused Ca2+ signal.

    更新日期:2019-11-22
  • AtSec62 is critical for plant development and is involved in ER‐phagy in Arabidopsis thaliana
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Shuai Hu, Hao Ye, Yong Cui, Liwen Jiang

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site for protein folding in eukaryotic cells. ER homeostasis is essential for the development of an organism, whereby the unfolded protein response (UPR) within the ER is precisely regulated. ER‐phagy is a newly identified selective autophagic pathway for removal of misfolded or unfolded proteins within the ER in mammalian cells. Sec62, a component of the translocon complex, was recently characterized as an ER‐phagy receptor during the ER stress recovery phase in mammals. In this study, we demonstrated that the Arabidopsis Sec62 (AtSec62) is required for plant development and might function as an ER‐phagy receptor in plants. We showed that AtSec62 is an ER‐localized membrane protein with three transmembrane domains (TMDs) with its C‐terminus facing to the ER lumen. AtSec62 is required for plant development because atsec62 mutants display impaired vegetative growth, abnormal pollen and decreased fertility. atsec62 mutants are sensitive towards tunicamycin (TM)‐induced ER stress, whereas overexpression of AtSec62 subsequently enhances stress tolerance during the ER stress recovery phase. Moreover, YFP‐AtSec62 colocalizes with the autophagosome marker mCh‐Atg8e in ring‐like structures upon ER stress induction. Taken together, these data provide evidence for the pivotal roles of AtSec62 in plant development and ER‐phagy.

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • The Brassicaceae‐specific secreted peptides, STMPs, function in plant growth and pathogen defense
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Zipeng Yu, Yang Xu, Lifei Zhu, Lei Zhang, Lin Liu, Di Zhang, Dandan Li, Changai Wu, Jinguang Huang, Guodong Yang, Kang Yan, Shizhong Zhang, Chengchao Zheng

    Low molecular weight secreted peptides have recently been shown to affect multiple aspects of plant growth, development, and defense responses. Here, we performed stepwise BLAST filtering to identify unannotated peptides from the Arabidopsis thaliana protein database and uncovered a novel secreted peptide family, secreted transmembrane peptides (STMPs). These low molecular weight peptides, which consist of an N‐terminal signal peptide and a transmembrane domain, were primarily localized to extracellular compartments but were also detected in the endomembrane system of the secretory pathway, including the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi. Comprehensive bioinformatics analysis identified 10 STMP family members that are specific to the Brassicaceae family. Brassicaceae plants showed dramatically inhibited root growth upon exposure to chemically synthesized STMP1 and STMP2. Arabidopsis overexpressing STMP1, 2, 4, 6, or 10 exhibited severely arrested growth, suggesting that STMPs are involved in regulating plant growth and development. In addition, in vitro bioassays demonstrated that STMP1, STMP2, and STMP10 have antibacterial effects against Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, Ralstonia solanacearum, Bacillus subtilis, and Agrobacterium tumefaciens, demonstrating that STMPs are antimicrobial peptides. These findings suggest that STMP family members play important roles in various developmental events and pathogen defense responses in Brassicaceae plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Specifying the role of BAK1‐interacting receptor‐like kinase 3 in brassinosteroid signaling
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Ruth Großeholz, Anna Feldman‐Salit, Friederike Wanke, Sarina Schulze, Nina Glöckner, Birgit Kemmerling, Klaus Harter, Ursula Kummer

    Brassinosteroids (BR) are involved in the control of several developmental processes ranging from root elongation to senescence and adaptation to environmental cues. Thus, BR perception and signaling have to be precisely regulated. One regulator is BRI1‐associated kinase 1 (BAK1)‐interacting receptor‐like kinase 3 (BIR3). In the absence of BR, BIR3 forms complexes with BR insensitive 1 (BRI1) and BAK1. However, the biophysical and energetic requirements for complex formation in the absence of the ligand have yet to be determined. Using computational modeling, we simulated the potential complexes between the cytoplasmic domains of BAK1, BRI1 and BIR3. Our calculations and experimental data confirm the interaction of BIR3 with BAK1 and BRI1, with the BAK1 BIR3 interaction clearly favored. Furthermore, we demonstrate that BIR3 and BRI1 share the same interaction site with BAK1. This suggests a competition between BIR3 and BRI1 for binding to BAK1, which results in preferential binding of BIR3 to BAK1 in the absence of the ligand thereby preventing the active participation of BAK1 in BR signaling. Our model also suggests that BAK1 and BRI1 can interact even while BAK1 is in complex with BIR3 at an additional binding site of BAK1 that does not allow active BR signaling.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Osa‐miR167d facilitates infection of Magnaporthe oryzae in rice
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Zhi‐Xue Zhao, Qin Feng, Xiao‐Long Cao, Yong Zhu, He Wang, Viswanathan Chandran, Jing Fan, Ji‐Qun Zhao, Mei Pu, Yan Li, Wen‐Ming Wang

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in rice response to Magnaporthe oryzae, the causative agent of rice blast disease. Studying the roles of rice miRNAs is of great significance for the disease control. Osa‐miR167d belongs to a conserved miRNA family targeting auxin responsive factor (ARF) genes that act in developmental and stress‐induced responses. Here, we show that Osa‐miR167d plays a negative role in rice immunity against M. oryzae by suppressing its target gene. The expression of Osa‐miR167d was significantly suppressed in a resistant accession at and after 24 h post inoculation (hpi), however, its expression was significantly increased at 24 hpi in the susceptible accession upon M. oryzae infection. Transgenic rice lines over‐expressing Osa‐miR167d were highly susceptible to multiple blast fungal strains. By contrast, transgenic lines expressing a target mimicry to block Osa‐miR167d enhanced resistance to rice blast disease. In addition, knocking out the target gene ARF12 led to hyper‐susceptibility to multiple blast fungal strains. Taken together, our results indicate that Osa‐miR167d negatively regulate rice immunity to facilitate the infection of M. oryzae by downregulating ARF12. Thus, Osa‐miR167d‐ARF12 regulatory module could be valuable in improvement of blast‐disease resistance.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Gibberellin repression of axillary bud formation in Arabidopsis by modulation of DELLA‐SPL9 complex activity
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-27
    Qi‐Qi Zhang, Jia‐Gang Wang, Ling‐Yan Wang, Jun‐Fang Wang, Qun Wang, Ping Yu, Ming‐Yi Bai, Min Fan

    The formation of lateral branches has an important and fundamental contribution to the remarkable developmental plasticity of plants, which allows plants to alter their architecture to adapt to the challenging environment conditions. The Gibberellin (GA) phytohormones have been known to regulate the outgrowth of axillary meristems (AMs), but the specific molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that DELLA proteins regulate axillary bud formation by interacting and regulating the DNA‐binding ability of SQUAMOSA‐PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE 9 (SPL9), a microRNA156‐targeted squamosa promoter binding protein‐like transcription factor. SPL9 participates in the initial regulation of axillary buds by repressing the expression of LATERAL SUPPRESSOR (LAS), a key regulator in the initiation of AMs, and LAS contributes to the specific expression pattern of the GA deactivation enzyme GA2ox4, which is specifically expressed in the axils of leaves to form a low‐GA cell niche in this anatomical region. Nevertheless, increasing GA levels in leaf axils by ectopically expressing the GA‐biosynthesis enzyme GA20ox2 significantly impaired axillary meristem initiation. Our study demonstrates that DELLA‐SPL9‐LAS‐GA2ox4 defines a core feedback regulatory module that spatially pattern GA content in the leaf axil and precisely control the axillary bud formation in different spatial and temporal.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Cryptochrome‐mediated hypocotyl phototropism was regulated antagonistically by gibberellic acid and sucrose in Arabidopsis
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
    Qing‐Ping Zhao, Jin‐Dong Zhu, Nan‐Nan Li, Xiao‐Nan Wang, Xiang Zhao, Xiao Zhang

    Both phototropins (phot1 and phot2) and cryptochromes (cry1 and cry2) were proven as the Arabidopsis thaliana blue light receptors. Phototropins predominately function in photomovement, and cryptochromes play a role in photomorphogenesis. Although cryptochromes have been proposed to serve as positive modulators of phototropic responses, the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report that depleting sucrose from the medium or adding gibberellic acids (GAs) can partially restore the defects in phototropic curvature of the phot1 phot2 double mutants under high‐intensity blue light; this restoration does not occur in phot1 phot2 cry1 cry2 quadruple mutants and nph3 (nonphototropic hypocotyl 3) mutants which were impaired phototropic response in sucrose‐containing medium. These results indicate that GAs and sucrose antagonistically regulate hypocotyl phototropism in a cryptochromes dependent manner, but it showed a crosstalk with phototropin signaling on NPH3. Furthermore, cryptochromes activation by blue light inhibit GAs synthesis, thus stabilizing DELLAs to block hypocotyl growth, which result in the higher GAs content in the shade side than the lit side of hypocotyl to support the asymmetric growth of hypocotyl. Through modulation of the abundance of DELLAs by sucrose depletion or added GAs, it revealed that cryptochromes have a function in mediating phototropic curvature.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Tissue‐specific Hi‐C analyses of rice, foxtail millet and maize suggest non‐canonical function of plant chromatin domains
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Pengfei Dong, Xiaoyu Tu, Haoxuan Li, Jianhua Zhang, Donald Grierson, Pinghua Li, Silin Zhong

    Chromatins are not randomly packaged in the nucleus and their organization plays important roles in transcription regulation, which is best studied in the mammalian models. Using in situ Hi‐C, we have compared the 3D chromatin architectures of rice mesophyll and endosperm, foxtail millet bundle sheath and mesophyll, and maize bundle sheath, mesophyll and endosperm tissues. We found that their global A/B compartment partitions are stable across tissues, while local A/B compartment has tissue‐specific dynamic associated with differential gene expression. Plant domains are largely stable across tissues, while new domain border formations are often associated with transcriptional activation in the region. Genes inside plant domains are not conserved across species, and lack significant co‐expression behavior unlike those in mammalian TADs. Although we only observed chromatin loops between gene islands in the large genomes, the maize loop gene pairs’ syntenic orthologs have shorter physical distances in small genome monocots, suggesting that loops instead of domains might have conserved biological function. Our study showed that plants’ chromatin features might not have conserved biological functions as the mammalian ones.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A common metabolomic signature is observed upon inoculation of rice roots with various rhizobacteria
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Marine Valette, Marjolaine Rey, Florence Gerin, Gilles Comte, Florence Wisniewski‐Dyé

    Plant growth‐promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), whose growth is stimulated by root exudates, are able to improve plant growth and health. Among those, bacteria of the genus Azospirillum were shown to affect root secondary metabolite content in rice and maize, sometimes without visible effects on root architecture. Transcriptomic studies also revealed that expression of several genes involved in stress and plant defense was affected, albeit with fewer genes when a strain was inoculated onto its original host cultivar. Here, we investigated, via a metabolic profiling approach, whether rice roots responded differently and with gradual intensity to various PGPR, isolated from rice or not. A common metabolomic signature of nine compounds was highlighted, with the reduced accumulation of three alkylresorcinols and increased accumulation of two hydroxycinnamic acid amides (HCAA), identified as N‐p‐coumaroylputrescine and N‐feruloylputrescine. This was accompanied by the increased transcription of two genes involved in the N‐feruloylputrescine biosynthetic pathway. Interestingly, exposure to a rice bacterial pathogen triggered a reduced accumulation of these HCAA in roots, a result contrasting with previous reports of increased HCAA content in leaves upon pathogen infection. Accumulation of HCAA, that are potential antimicrobial compounds, might be considered as a primary reaction of plant to bacterial perception.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Elicitor hydrophobin Hyd1 interacts with Ubiquilin1‐like to induce maize systemic resistance
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Chuanjin Yu, Kai Dou, Shaoqing Wang, Qiong Wu, Mi Ni, Tailong Zhang, Zhixiang Lu, Jun Tang, Jie Chen

    Trichoderma harzianum is a plant‐beneficial fungus that secretes small cysteine‐rich proteins that induce plant defense responses; however, the molecular mechanism involved in this induction is largely unknown. Here, we report that the class II hydrophobin ThHyd1 acts as an elicitor of induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants. Immunogold labeling and immunofluorescence revealed ThHyd1 localized on maize (Zea mays) root cell plasma membranes. To identify host plant protein interactors of Hyd1, we screened a maize B73 root cDNA library. ThHyd1 interacted directly with ubiquilin 1‐like (UBL). Furthermore, the N‐terminal fragment of UBL was primarily responsible for binding with Hyd1 and the eight‐cysteine amino acid of Hyd1 participated in the protein‐protein interactions. Hyd1 from T. harzianum (Thhyd1) and ubl from maize were co‐expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana, they synergistically promoted plant resistance against Botrytis cinerea. RNA‐sequencing analysis of global gene expression in maize leaves 24 h after spraying with Curvularia lunata spore suspension showed that Thhyd1‐induced systemic resistance was primarily associated with brassinosteroid signaling, likely mediated through BAK1. Jasmonate/ethylene (JA/ET) signaling was also involved to some extent in this response. Our results suggest that the Hyd1‐UBL axis might play a key role in inducing systemic resistance as a result of Trichoderma‐plant interactions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Nitric oxide, γ‐aminobutyric acid, and mannose pretreatment influence metabolic profiles in white clover under water stress
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-10
    Zhou Li, Bin Yong, Bizhen Cheng, Xing Wu, Yan Zhang, Xinquan Zhang, Yan Peng

    Nitric oxide (NO), γ‐aminobutyric acid (GABA), and mannose (MAS) could be important regulators of plant growth and adaptation to water stress. The application of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a NO donor), GABA, and MAS improved plant growth under water‐sufficient conditions and effectively mitigated water stress damage to white clover. The metabonomic analysis showed that both SNP and GABA application resulted in a significant increase in myo‐inositol content; the accumulation of mannose was commonly regulated by SNP and MAS; GABA and MAS induced the accumulation of aspartic acid, quinic acid, trehalose, and glycerol under water deficit. In addition, citric acid was uniquely up‐regulated by SNP associated with tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle under water stress. GABA specially induced the accumulation of GABA, glycine, methionine, and aconitic acid related to GABA shunt, amino acids metabolism, and TCA cycle in response to water stress. MAS uniquely enhanced the accumulation of asparagine, galactose, and D‐pinitol in association with amino acids and sugars metabolism under water stress. SNP‐, GABA‐, and MAS‐induced changes of metabolic profiles and associated metabolic pathways could contribute to enhanced stress tolerance via involvement in the TCA cycle for energy supply, osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, and signal transduction for stress defense in white clover.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Exploring the molecular basis of heterosis for plant breeding
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Jie Liu, Mengjie Li, Qi Zhang, Xin Wei, Xuehui Huang

    Since approximate a century ago, many hybrid crops have been continually developed by crossing two inbred varieties. Owing to heterosis (hybrid vigor) in plants, these hybrids often have superior agricultural performances in yield or disease resistance succeeding their inbred parental lines. Several classical hypotheses have been proposed to explain the genetic causes of heterosis. During recent years, many new genetics and genomics strategies have been developed and used for the identifications of heterotic genes in plants. Heterotic effects of the heterotic loci and molecular functions of the heterotic genes are being investigated in many plants such as rice, maize, sorghum, Arabidopsis and tomato. More and more data and knowledge coming from the molecular studies of heterotic loci and genes will serve as a valuable resource for hybrid breeding by molecular design in future. This review aims to address recent advances in our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of heterosis in plants. The remaining scientific questions on the molecular basis of heterosis and the potential applications in breeding are also proposed and discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Natural variation in the promoter of OsHMA3 contributes to differential grain cadmium accumulation between Indica and Japonica rice
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Chao‐Lei Liu, Zhen‐Yu Gao, Lian‐Guang Shang, Chang‐Hong Yang, Ban‐Pu Ruan, Da‐Li Zeng, Long‐Biao Guo, Fang‐Jie Zhao, Chao‐Feng Huang, Qian Qian

    Rice is a major source of cadmium (Cd) intake for Asian people. Indica rice usually accumulates more Cd in shoots and grains than Japonica rice. However, underlying genetic bases for differential Cd accumulation between Indica and Japonica rice are still unknown. In this study, we cloned a quantitative trait locus (QTL) grain Cd concentration on chromosome 7 (GCC7) responsible for differential grain Cd accumulation between two rice varieties by performing QTL analysis and map‐based cloning. We found that the two GCC7 alleles, GCC7PA64s and GCC793‐11, had different promoter activity of OsHMA3, leading to different OsHMA3 expression and different shoot and grain Cd concentrations. By analyzing the distribution of different haplotypes of GCC7 among diverse rice accessions, we discovered that the high and low Cd accumulation alleles, namely GCC793‐11 and GCC7PA64s, were preferentially distributed in Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. We further showed that the GCC7PA64s allele can be used to replace the GCC793‐11 allele in the super cultivar 93‐11 to reduce grain Cd concentration without adverse effect on agronomic traits. Our results thus reveal that the QTL GCC7 with sequence variation in the OsHMA3 promoter is an important determinant controlling differential grain Cd accumulation between Indica and Japonica rice.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • OsCIPK7 point‐mutation leads to conformation and kinase‐activity change for sensing cold response
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Dajian Zhang, Xiaoyu Guo, Yunyuan Xu, Hao Li, Liang Ma, Xuefeng Yao, Yuxiang Weng, Yan Guo, Chun‐Ming Liu, Kang Chong

    Calcineurin B‐like interacting protein kinases (CIPKs) play important roles via environmental stress. However, less is known how to sense the stress in molecular structure conformation level. Here, an OsCIPK7 mutant via TILLING procedure with a point mutation in the kinase domain showed increased chilling tolerance, which could be potentially used in the molecular breeding. We found that this point mutation of OsCIPK7 led to a conformational change in the activation loop of the kinase domain, subsequently with an increase of protein kinase activity, thus conferred an increased tolerance to chilling stress.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Jasmonic acid alleviates cadmium toxicity in Arabidopsis via suppression of cadmium uptake and translocation
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Gui Jie Lei, Li Sun, Ying Sun, Xiao Fang Zhu, Gui Xin Li, Shao Jian Zheng

    Jasmonic acid (JA) is thought to be involved in plant responses to cadmium (Cd) stress, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. Here, we show that Cd treatment rapidly induces the expression of genes promoting endogenous JA synthesis, and subsequently increases the JA concentration in Arabidopsis roots. Furthermore, exogenous methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alleviates Cd‐generated chlorosis of new leaves by decreasing the Cd concentration in root cell sap and shoot, and decreasing the expression of the AtIRT1, AtHMA2 and AtHMA4 genes promoting Cd uptake and long‐distance translocation, respectively. In contrast, mutation of a key JA synthesis gene, AtAOS, greatly enhances the expression of AtIRT1, AtHMA2 and AtHMA4, increases Cd concentration in both roots and shoots, and confers increased sensitivity to Cd. Exogenous MeJA recovers the enhanced Cd‐sensitivity of the ataos mutant, but not of atcoi1, a JA receptor mutant. In addition, exogenous MeJA reduces NO levels in Cd‐stressed Arabidopsis root tips. Taken together, our results suggest that Cd‐induced JA acts via the JA signaling pathway and its effects on NO levels to positively restrict Cd accumulation and alleviates Cd toxicity in Arabidopsis via suppression of the expression of genes promoting Cd uptake and long‐distance translocation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Application and future perspective of CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing in fruit crops
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Junhui Zhou, Dongdong Li, Guoming Wang, Fuxi Wang, Merixia Kunjal, Dirk Joldersma, Zhongchi Liu

    Fruit crops, including apple, orange, grape, banana, strawberry, watermelon, kiwifruit and tomato, not only provide essential nutrients for human life but also contribute to the major agricultural output and economic growth of many countries and regions in the world. Recent advancements in genome editing provides an unprecedented opportunity for the genetic improvement of these agronomically important fruit crops. Here, we summarize recent reports of applying CRISPR/Cas9 to fruit crops, including efforts to reduce disease susceptibility, change plant architecture or flower morphology, improve fruit quality traits, and increase fruit yield. We discuss challenges facing fruit crops as well as new improvements and platforms that could be used to facilitate genome editing in fruit crops, including dCas9‐base‐editing to introduce desirable alleles and heat treatment to increase editing efficiency. In addition, we highlight what we see as potentially revolutionary development ranging from transgene‐free genome editing to de novo domestication of wild relatives. Without doubt, we now see only the beginning of what will eventually be possible with the use of the CRISPR/Cas9 toolkit. Efforts to communicate with the public and an emphasis on the manipulation of consumer‐friendly traits will be critical to facilitate public acceptance of genetically engineered fruits with this new technology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Critical function of DNA methyltransferase 1 in tomato development and regulation of the DNA methylome and transcriptome
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Yu Yang, Kai Tang, Tatsiana U Datsenka, Wenshan Liu, Suhui Lv, Zhaobo Lang, Xingang Wang, Jinghui Gao, Wei Wang, Wenfeng Nie, Zhaoqing Chu, Heng Zhang, Avtar K Handa, Jian‐Kang Zhu, Huiming Zhang

    DNA methylation confers epigenetic regulation on gene expression and thereby on various biological processes. Tomato has emerged as an excellent system to study the function of DNA methylation in plant development. To date, regulation and function of DNA methylation maintenance remains unclear in tomato plants. Here, we report the critical function of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Methyltransferase 1 (SlMET1) in plant development and DNA methylome and transcriptome regulation. Using CRISPR‐Cas9 gene editing, we generated slmet1 mutants and observed severe developmental defects with a frame‐shift mutation, including small and curly leaves, defective inflorescence, and parthenocarpy. In leaf tissues, mutations in SlMET1 caused CG hypomethylation and CHH hypermethylation on a whole‐genome scale, leading to a disturbed transcriptome including ectopic expression of many RIN target genes such as ACC2 in leaf tissues, which are normally expressed in fruits. Neither the CG hypomethylation nor CHH hypermethylation in the slmet1 mutants is related to tissue culture. Meanwhile, tissue culture induces non‐CG hypomethylation, which occurs more frequently at gene regions than at TE regions. Our results depict SlMET1‐ and tissue culture‐dependent tomato DNA methylomes, and that SlMET1 is required for maintaining a normal transcriptome and normal development of tomato.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An efficient TILLING platform for cultivated tobacco
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-04-13
    Yu‐Long Gao, Xue‐Feng Yao, Wen‐Zheng Li, Zhong‐Bang Song, Bing‐Wu Wang, Yu‐Ping Wu, Jun‐Li Shi, Guan‐Shan Liu, Yong‐Ping Li, Chun‐Ming Liu

    Targeting‐induced local lesions in genomes (TILLING) is a powerful reverse‐genetics tool that enables high‐throughput screening of genomic variations in plants. Although TILLING has been developed for many diploid plants, the technology has been used in very few polyploid species due to their genomic complexity. Here, we established an efficient capillary electrophoresis‐based TILLING platform for allotetraploid cultivated tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) using an ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS)‐mutagenized population of 1,536 individuals. We optimized the procedures for endonuclease preparation, leaf tissue sampling, DNA extraction, normalization, pooling, PCR amplification, heteroduplex formation, and capillary electrophoresis. In a test screen using seven target genes with eight PCR fragments, we obtained 118 mutants. The mutation density was estimated to be approximately one mutation per 106 kb on average. Phenotypic analyses showed that mutations in two heavy metal transporter genes, HMA2S and HMA4T, led to reduced accumulation of cadmium and zinc, which was confirmed independently using CRISPR/Cas9 to generate knockout mutants. Our results demonstrate that this powerful TILLING platform (available at http://www.croptilling.org) can be used in tobacco to facilitate functional genomics applications.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • miR164c and miR168a regulate seed vigor in rice
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-04-04
    Yan Zhou, Shiqi Zhou, Liping Wang, Duo Wu, Hailan Cheng, Xu Du, Dandan Mao, Chunlai Zhang, Xiaocheng Jiang

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are key regulators of gene expression in many important biological processes of plants. However, few miRNAs have been shown to regulate seed vigor. Here, we conducted microarray assays to analyze miRNA expression levels in seeds of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivar ZR02. Results showed significant differences in the expression of 11 miRNAs between artificially aged and untreated control seeds. Among these, osa‐miR164c was transcriptionally upregulated, while osa‐miR168a was downregulated in artificially aged seeds; this was verified by quantitative real‐time PCR analysis. Under the same aging condition, osa‐miR164c overexpression in OE164c transgenic seeds and osa‐miR168a silencing in MIM168a transgenic seeds of the rice cultivar Kasalath led to lower germination rates, whereas osa‐miR164c silencing in MIM164c and osa‐miR168a overexpression in OE168a resulted in higher seed germination rates compared with wild‐type seeds. Meanwhile, changes in cytomembrane permeability of seeds and in the expression level of osa‐miR164c target genes (OsPM27 and OsPSK5) and osa‐miR168a target genes (OsAGO1 and OsPTR2) under aging conditions coincided with changes in seed vigor induced by osa‐miR164c and osa‐miR168a. Thus, genetic manipulation of miRNAs has important implications in the development of crop cultivars with high vigor and extended life span of seeds.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • EXPORTIN 1A prevents transgene silencing in Arabidopsis by modulating nucleo‐cytoplasmic partitioning of HDA6
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-03-28
    Guohui Zhu, Yanan Chang, Xuezhong Xu, Kai Tang, Chunxiang Chen, Mingguang Lei, Jian‐Kang Zhu, Cheng‐Guo Duan

    In eukaryotic cells, transport of macromolecules across the nuclear envelope is an essential process that ensures rapid exchange of cellular components, including protein and RNA molecules. Chromatin regulators involved in epigenetic control are among the molecules exported across the nuclear envelope, but the significance of this nucleo‐cytoplasmic trafficking is not well understood. Here, we use a forward screen to isolate XPO1A (a nuclear export receptor in Arabidopsis) as an anti‐silencing factor that protects transgenes from transcriptional silencing. Loss‐of‐function of XPO1A leads to locus‐specific DNA hypermethylation at transgene promoters and some endogenous loci. We found that XPO1A directly interacts with histone deacetylase HDA6 in vivo and that the xpo1a mutation causes increased nuclear retention of HDA6 protein and results in reduced histone acetylation and enhanced transgene silencing. Our results reveal a new mechanism of epigenetic regulation through the modulation of XPO1A‐dependent nucleo‐cytoplasm partitioning of a chromatin regulator.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Protein S‐Nitrosylation in plants: Current progresses and challenges
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-03-27
    Jian Feng, Lichao Chen, Jianru Zuo

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling molecule regulating diverse biological processes in all living organisms. A major physiological function of NO is executed via protein S‐nitrosylation, a redox‐based posttranslational modification by covalently adding a NO molecule to a reactive cysteine thiol of a target protein. S‐nitrosylation is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism modulating multiple aspects of cellular signaling. During the past decade, significant progress has been made in functional characterization of S‐nitrosylated proteins in plants. Emerging evidence indicates that protein S‐nitrosylation is ubiquitously involved in the regulation of plant development and stress responses. Here we review current understanding on the regulatory mechanisms of protein S‐nitrosylation in various biological processes in plants and highlight key challenges in this field.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Developing disease‐resistant thermosensitive male sterile rice by multiplex gene editing
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-03-06
    Sanfeng Li, Lan Shen, Ping Hu, Qing Liu, Xudong Zhu, Qian Qian, Kejian Wang, Yuexing Wang

    High‐quality and disease‐resistant male sterile lines have great potential for applications in hybrid rice breeding. We introduced specific mutations into the TMS5, Pi21, and Xa13 genes in Pinzhan intermediate breeding material using the CRISPR/Cas9 multiplex genome editing system. We found that the transgene‐free homozygous triple tms5/pi21/xa13 mutants obtained in the T1 generation displayed characteristics of thermosensitive genic male sterility (TGMS) with enhanced resistance to rice blast and bacterial blight. Our study provides a convenient and effective way of converting breeding intermediate material into TGMS lines through multiplex gene editing, which could significantly accelerate the breeding of sterile lines.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Retracted: Activities of carbohydrate‐metabolism enzymes in pre‐drought primed wheat plants under drought stress during grain filling
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2017-12-20
    Muhammad Abid, Zhongwei Tian, Jinling Hu, Attiq Ullah, Yakun Cui, Shafaqat Ali, Suyu Jiang, Rizwan Zahoor, Yonghui Fan, Jiang Dong, Tingbo Dai

    Abid M, Tian Z, Hu J, Ullah A, Cui Y, Ali S, Jiang S, Zahoor R, Fan Y, Dong J and Dai T Activities of carbohydrate‐metabolism enzymes in pre‐drought primed wheat plants under drought stress during grain filling. J Integr Plant Biol Accepted Author Manuscript. doi:10.1111/jipb.12628

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A WRKY transcription factor confers aluminum tolerance via regulation of cell wall modifying genes
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Chun Xiao Li, Jing Ying Yan, Jiang Yuan Ren, Li Sun, Chen Xu, Gui Xin Li, Zhong Jie Ding, Shao Jian Zheng

    Modification of cell wall properties has been considered as one of the determinants that confer Al tolerance in plants, while how cell wall modifying processes are regulated remains elusive. Here, we present a WRKY transcription factor WRKY47 involved in Al tolerance and root growth. Lack of WRKY47 significantly reduces, while overexpression of it increases Al tolerance. We show that lack of WRKY47 substantially affects subcellular Al distribution in the root, with Al content decreased in apoplast and increased in symplast, which is attributed to the reduced cell wall Al‐binding capacity conferred by the decreased content of hemicellulose I in the wrky47‐1 mutant. Based on microarray, RT‐qPCR and ChIP assays, we further show that WRKY47 directly regulates the expression of EXTENSIN‐LIKE PROTEIN (ELP) and XYLOGLUCAN ENDOTRANSGLUCOSYLASE‐HYDROLASES17 (XTH17) responsible for cell wall modification. Increasing the expression of ELP and XTH17 rescued Al tolerance as well as root growth in wrky47‐1 mutant. In summary, our results demonstrate that WRKY47 is required for root growth under both normal and Al stress conditions via direct regulation of cell wall modification genes, and that the balance of Al distribution between root apoplast and symplast conferred by WRKY47 is important for Al tolerance.

    更新日期:2019-11-15
  • Arabidopsis DXO1 possesses deNADding and exonuclease activities and its mutation affects defense‐related and photosynthetic gene expression
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Shuying Pan, Kai‐en Li, Wei Huang, Huan Zhong, Huihui Wu, Yuan Wang, He Zhang, Zongwei Cai, Hongwei Guo, Xuemei Chen, Yiji Xia

    RNA capping and decapping tightly coordinate with transcription, translation, and RNA decay to regulate gene expression. Proteins in the DXO/Rai1 family have been implicated in mRNA decapping and decay, and mammalian DXO was recently found to also function as a decapping enzyme for NAD+‐capped RNAs (NAD‐RNA). The Arabidopsis genome contains a single gene encoding a DXO/Rai1 protein, AtDXO1. Here we show that AtDXO1 possesses both NAD‐RNA decapping activity and 5ʹ‐3ʹ exonuclease activity but does not hydrolyze the m7G cap. The atdxo1 mutation increased the stability of NAD‐RNAs and led to pleiotropic phenotypes, including severe growth retardation, pale color, and multiple developmental defects. Transcriptome profiling analysis showed that the atdxo1 mutation resulted in upregulation of defense‐related genes but downregulation of photosynthesis‐related genes. The autoimmunity phenotype of the mutant could be suppressed by either eds1 or npr1 mutation. However, the various phenotypes associated with the atdxo1 mutant could be complemented by an enzymatically inactive AtDXO1. The atdxo1 mutation apparently enhances post‐transcriptional gene silencing by elevating levels of siRNAs. Our study indicates that AtDXO1 regulates gene expression in various biological and physiological processes through its pleiotropic molecular functions in mediating RNA processing and decay.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • The transcription factor GATA10 regulates fertility conversion of a two‐line hybrid tms5 mutant rice via the modulation of UbL40 expression
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Jing Jin, Songtao Gui, Qian Li, Ying Wang, Hongyuan Zhang, Zhixuan Zhu, Hao Chen, Yueyang Sun, Yu Zou, Xingguo Huang, Yi Ding

    The thermosensitive genic male sterile 5 (tms5) mutation causes thermosensitive genic male sterility in rice (Oryza sativa) through loss of RNase ZS1 function, which influences ubiquitin fusion ribosomal protein L40 (UbL40) messenger RNA levels during male development. Here, we used ATAC‐seq, combined with analysis of H3K9ac and H3K4me2, to identify changes in accessible chromatin during fertility conversion of the two‐line hybrid rice Wuxiang S (WXS) derived from a mutant tms5 allele. Furthermore, RNA‐seq and bioinformatic analyses identified specific transcription factors (TFs) in differentially accessible chromatin regions. Among these TFs, only GATA10 targeted UbL40. Osgata10 knockout mutations, which resulted in low expression of UbL40 and a tendency toward male fertility, confirmed that GATA10 regulated fertility conversion via the modulation of UbL40. Meanwhile, GATA10 acted as a mediator for interactions with ERF65, which revealed that transcriptional regulation is a complex process involving multiple complexes of TFs, namely TF modules. It appears that the ERF141/MADS7/MADS50/MYB modules affect metabolic processes that control anther and pollen development, especially cell wall formation. Our analysis revealed that these modules directly or indirectly affect metabolic pathway‐related genes to coordinate plant growth with proper anther development, and furthermore, that GATA10 regulates fertility conversion via the modulation of UbL40 expression.

    更新日期:2019-11-07
  • Reactive oxygen species regulate auxin levels to mediate adventitious root induction in Arabidopsis hypocotyl cuttings
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Aixia Huang, Yongshun Wang, Yangyang Liu, Guodong Wang, Xiaoping She

    Adventitious root (AR) formation from leafy stem cuttings is critical for breeding of many forest and horticultural species. In addition to the plant hormone auxin, wound‐induced signaling caused by the cutting excision is also essential for AR initiation. Here we found that reactive oxygen species (ROS) are rapidly generated at the excision site as a wound‐induced signal and propagated throughout the hypocotyl cutting after excision of the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) primary root. ROS propagation was not observed in the presence of an NADPH oxidase inhibitor (diphenylene iodonium chloride) or in a knockout mutant of the NADPH oxidase gene respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein D (RBOHD). Respiratory burst oxidase homolog protein D was specifically upregulated in hypocotyl cuttings at 0.5 h post excision (hpe). Together, these data suggest that RBOHD mediates ROS propagation in hypocotyl cuttings. We also found that auxin levels increased significantly in the shoot apex at 5 hpe and at the base of the cutting at 6 hpe; these effects were blocked by treatment with ROS scavengers. Consistent with this, transcript levels of auxin biosynthesis and polar‐transport genes generally increased between 1 to 6 hpe. Collectively, our results suggest that wound‐induced ROS participate in AR induction through regulation of auxin biosynthesis and transport.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Tasselseed5 encodes a cytochrome C oxidase that functions in sex determination by affecting jasmonate catabolism in maize
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Fei Wang, Zhenjiang Yuan, Zhiwei Zhao, Caixia Li, Xin Zhang, Huafeng Liang, Yawen Liu, Qian Xu, Hongtao Liu

    Maize (Zea mays L.) is a monoecious grass plant in which mature male and female florets form the tassel and ear, respectively. Maize is often used as a model plant to study flower development. Several maize tassel seed mutants, such as the recessive mutants tasselseed1 (ts1) and tasselseed2 (ts2), exhibit a reversal in sex determination, which leads to the generation of seeds in tassels. The phenotype of the dominant mutant, Tasselseed5 (Ts5), is similar to that of ts2. Here, we positionally cloned the underlying gene of Ts5 and characterized its function. We show that the GRMZM2G177668 gene is overexpressed in Ts5. This gene encodes a cytochrome C oxidase, which catalyzes the transformation of jasmonoyl‐L‐isoleucine (JA‐Ile) to 12OH‐JA‐Ile during jasmonic acid catabolism. Consistent with this finding, no JA‐Ile peak was detected in Ts5 tassels during the sex determination period, unlike in the wild type. Transgenic maize plants overexpressing GRMZM2G177668 exhibited a tassel‐seed phenotype similar to that of Ts5. These results indicate that the JA‐Ile peak in tassels is critical for sex determination and that the Ts5 mutant phenotype results from the disruption of this peak in tassels during sex determination.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recent progress in polar metabolite quantification in plants using liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry.
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2014-10-24
    Zhiqian Liu,Simone Rochfort

    Metabolite analysis or metabolomics is an important component of systems biology in the post-genomic era. Although separate liquid chromatography (LC) methods for quantification of the major classes of polar metabolites of plants have been available for decades, a single method that enables simultaneous determination of hundreds of polar metabolites is possible only with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) techniques. The rapid expansion of new LC stationary phases in the market and the ready access of mass spectrometry in many laboratories provides an excellent opportunity for developing LC–MS based methods for multi-target quantification of polar metabolites. Although various LC–MS methods have been developed over the last 10 years with the aim to quantify one or more classes of polar compounds in different matrices, currently there is no consensus LC–MS method that is widely used in plant metabolomics studies. The most promising methods applicable to plant metabolite analysis will be reviewed in this paper and the major problems encountered highlighted. The aim of this review is to provide plant scientists, with limited to moderate experience in analytical chemistry, with up-to-date and simplified information regarding the current status of polar metabolite analysis using LC–MS techniques.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Performance index: An expeditious tool to screen for improved drought resistance in the Lathyrus genus.
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2014-08-16
    Susana Silvestre,Susana de Sousa Araújo,Maria Carlota Vaz Patto,Jorge Marques da Silva

    Some species of the Lathyrus genus are among the most promising crops for marginal lands, with high resilience to drought, flood, and fungal diseases, combined with high yields and seed nutritional value. However, lack of knowledge on the mechanisms underlying its outstanding performance and methodologies to identify elite genotypes has hampered its proper use in breeding. Chlorophyll a fast fluorescence transient (JIP test), was used to evaluate water deficit (WD) resistance in Lathyrus genus. Our results reveal unaltered photochemical values for all studied genotypes showing resistance to mild WD. Under severe WD, two Lathyrus sativus genotypes showed remarkable resilience maintaining the photochemical efficiency, contrary to other genotypes studied. Performance index (PIABS) is the best parameter to screen genotypes with improved performance and grain production under WD. Moreover, we found that JIP indices are good indicators of genotypic grain production under WD. Quantum yield of electron transport (ϕEo) and efficiency with which trapped excitons can move electrons further than QA (ψ0) revealed as important traits related to improved photosynthetic performance and should be exploited in future Lathyrus germplasm improvements. The JIP test herein described showed to be an expeditious tool to screen and to identify elite genotypes with improved drought resistance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Additive and over-dominant effects resulting from epistatic loci are the primary genetic basis of heterosis in rice.
    J. Integr. Plant Biol. (IF 3.824) Pub Date : 2009-04-01
    Xiaojin Luo,Yongcai Fu,Peijiang Zhang,Shuang Wu,Feng Tian,Jiayong Liu,Zuofeng Zhu,Jinshui Yang,Chuanqing Sun

    A set of 148 F9 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) was developed from the cross of an indica cultivar 93-11 and japonica cultivar DT713, showing strong F1 heterosis. Subsequently, two backcross F1 (BCF1) populations were constructed by backcrossing these 148 RILs to two parents, 93-11 and DT713. These three related populations (281BCF1 lines, 148 RILs) were phenotyped for six yield-related traits in two locations. Significant inbreeding depression was detected in the population of RILS and a high level of heterosis was observed in the two BCF1 populations. A total of 42 main-effect quantitative trait loci (M-QTLs) and 109 epistatic effect QTL pairs (E-QTLs) were detected in the three related populations using the mixed model approach. By comparing the genetic effects of these QTLs detected in the RILs, BCF1 performance and mid-parental heterosis (HMP), we found that, in both BCF1 populations, the QTLs detected could be classified into two predominant types: additive and over-dominant loci, which indicated that the additive and over-dominant effect were more important than complete or partially dominance for M-QTLs and E-QTLs. Further, we found that the E-QTLs detected collectively explained a larger portion of the total phenotypic variation than the M-QTLs in both RILs and BCF1 populations. All of these results suggest that additive and over-dominance resulting from epistatic loci might be the primary genetic basis of heterosis in rice.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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