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  • Controversy over the Mode of Growth of Cambial Cylinder
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Adam Miodek, Wiesław Włoch, Muhammad Iqbal, Aldona Gizińska, Paweł Kojs

    Based on mathematical modelling, this review article describes the mechanism of expansion in the circumference of vascular cambium due to radial growth leading to increase in the tree-trunk diameter, and emphasizes upon the huge difference in the rate of symplastic growth of cambial initials in two different directions, viz. radial and circumferential. On the basis of anatomical evidence regarding

  • Review of Piper species growing in the Brazilian State of Paraná with emphasize on the vegetative anatomy and biological activities
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Vera Lucia Pereira dos Santos, Izabelle Cristina Garcia Rodrigues, Rodrigo Berté, Vijayasankar Raman, Iara José Messias-Reason, Jane Manfron Budel

    The State of Parana has a diversity of plants that are used in the traditional medicine and among them are some of the representatives of the Piperaceae family. Piper is the one of the most important genera of this family and its species show similar morphology and different biological activities. The literature shows that approximately 54 species of Piper have been described in the State of Paraná

  • Sixty Years with the Chrysobalanaceae
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-12-14
    Ghillean T. Prance

    A review is given of the studies of Ghillean Prance and associates on the Chrysobalanaceae over the past sixty years. This has focussed on defining the generic boundaries in the family and on monographic work with a worldwide approach to this pantropical family. The importance of field studies for work on monographs and Floras is emphasized. Monographs are still the basis for much work on conservation

  • Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Metabolism under Adverse Environmental Conditions: a Review
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-12-01
    Pedro García-Caparrós, Luigi De Filippis, Alvina Gul, Mirza Hasanuzzaman, Munir Ozturk, Volkan Altay, María Teresa Lao

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) originate as a natural byproduct in standard metabolism of oxygen activities. The principal sites of ROS generation in the cell are apoplast, mitochondria, chloroplasts, and peroxisomes. These ROS can induce cellular injuries by proteins oxidation, lipid peroxidation, and DNA damage, which finally may result in plant cellular death. Under regular circumstances, there is

  • A Plant within a Plant: Insights on the Development of the Rafflesia Endophyte within its Host
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Adhityo Wicaksono, Sofi Mursidawati, Jeanmaire Molina

    Rafflesia produces the largest single flowers in the world, at the expense of its host vine, Tetrastigma, yet it begins as an inconspicuous endophyte. It is unknown how the Rafflesia seed gets into the host and germinates. Multiple locals claim to have successfully grown the holoparasitic flower from seeds resulting in blooms. Using available morpho-histological studies, combined with descriptions

  • Scott Alan Mori (1941—2020): An Appreciation
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Brian M. Boom

    Scott Alan Mori (1941—2020) was among the most distinguished and prolific botanists in the 129-year history of The New York Botanical Garden (NYBG). He spent nearly 40 years of his career at NYBG before retiring in 2014 as Nathaniel Lord Britton Curator of Botany, and then serving as Curator Emeritus until his death on August 12, 2020. Over the course of his career he collected more than 27,000 herbarium

  • Caryocaraceae Voigt (Malpighiales): a Synthesis Based on Science Mapping and Systematic Review
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Rhewter Nunes, Natácia Evangelista de Lima, Rafael Barbosa Pinto, Ivone de Bem Oliveira, Mariana Pires de Campos Telles

    Caryocaraceae, a family of plants widely distributed throughout the Neotropic region, includes two woody genera: Anthodiscus and Caryocar - with 26 species. The family includes species with medical, timber, food, ecological, and cultural importance. Here we aim to unveil the current state of scientific knowledge of Caryocaraceae through a systematic review and a scientometric approach, also to trace

  • The Pantepui in the Brazilian Amazon: Vascular Flora of Serra Do Aracá, a Cradle of Diversity, Richness and Endemism
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Rafael Gomes Barbosa-Silva, Marcelo Leandro Bueno, Paulo Henrique Labiak, Marcus Alberto Nadruz Coelho, Gustavo Martinelli, Rafaela Campostrini Forzza

    Formed by tall flat-topped mountains known as tepuis, the Pantepui is an important center of vascular plant endemism and diversity in South America. In Brazil, the Pantepui is mostly on the border of Venezuela, and an isolated area, Serra do Aracá, stands out as the tepui southernmost. In this paper we present a floristic survey of the vascular plants that occur on Serra do Aracá, compare the richness

  • Flora of the Savanna-like Vegetation in Hot Dry Valleys, Southwestern China with Implications to their Origin and Evolution
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Hua Zhu, Yunhong Tan, Lichun Yan, Fangyan Liu

    Savanna-like vegetation and dry thickets occur in hot dry valleys across southwestern China. Here, the flora and biogeography in hot dry valleys with savanna-like vegetation in SW China are studied. Native seed plants of 3217 species and varieties from 1038 genera in 163 families are recorded from these hot dry valleys. The biogeographical elements with a tropical distribution contribute 57.18%, but

  • Key Points about North and Northern Brazilian Restinga: a Review of Geomorphological Characterization, Phytophysiognomies Classification, and Studies’ Tendencies
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Bruna Emanuele Freire Correia, Eduardo Bezerra de Almeida, Marina Zanin

    Brazil has a pronounced complexity in coastal region, which affects the restingas’ diversity patterns. Therefore, we reviewed and systematized the knowledge about the attributes influencing the characterization and, eventually, the biases in the identification of restingas’ diversity patterns, mainly focusing in the Brazilian North and Northeast regions. Coastal geomorphology is one of the key attributes

  • A Review on Traditional Uses and Pharmacological Importance of Genus Elaeagnus Species
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Nausheen Nazir, Muhammad Zahoor, Mohammad Nisar
  • Paleorecords of Domesticated and Wild Grapevine in Romania: a Review
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Casandra Brașoveanu, George Bodi, Mihaela Danu

    This paper reviews the, so far available, paleorecords of Vitis sylvestris C.C. Gmel and Vitis vinifera L. from Romania. The study takes into consideration the presence of Vitis pollen from Holocene peat sediment sequences and archaeological context, but also the presence of macrorests from various archaeological sites that date from Neolithic, Chalcolithic, Bronze Age, and La Tène. Both paleobotanical

  • A Review on Taxonomy, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Threats and Conservation of Elaeocarpus L. (Elaeocarpaceae)
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Priya Prasannan, Yasotha Jeyaram, Arjun Pandian, Ramasubbu Raju, Sudharshan Sekar

    The genus Elaeocarpus is considered as largest among the family Elaeocarpaceae recorded by ca. 360 species with significant distribution throughout the world except from Africa and America. This review provides elaborate and comprehensive details on taxonomy, phylogeny, Economic botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, threats and conservation of Elaeocarpus. This genus is taxonomically significant; however

  • Sorrel ( Rumex acetosa L.): Not Only a Weed but a Promising Vegetable and Medicinal Plant
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Helena Korpelainen, Maria Pietiläinen

    Sorrel (Rumex acetosa L.) is a perennial, dioecious herb occupying a variety of habitats. Sorrel has been utilized as a wild gathered plant for thousands of years and as a cultivated plant for centuries. Primarily roots but also other tissues have been used in folk remedies since ancient times. In recent investigations, different phytochemical and pharmacological activities of Rumex have been analyzed

  • Recent Progress in the Molecular Investigations of Yellow Horn ( Xanthoceras sorbifolia Bunge )
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Yanhe Lang; Yuan Sun; Yajie Feng; Zheng Qi; Miao Yu; Kai Song

    Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolia bunge) is a small endemic oilseed energy plant native to the northern part of China, which can survive in desert, semi-arid and arid environment, and therefore has important economic, environmental and ecological value for biodiesel production, agricultural production and ecological restoration. With the increased concerns on the energy shortage and ecological environment

  • A Global Review of Ligustrum Lucidum (OLEACEAE) Invasion.
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Romina D Fernandez,Sergio J Ceballos,Roxana Aragón,Agustina Malizia,Lía Montti,Juan I Whitworth-Hulse,Pilar Castro-Díez,H Ricardo Grau

    Ligustrum lucidum is a highly invasive East Asian tree that successfully colonizes several subtropical and temperate areas around the world. Its invasion capacity results from a widespread human use mostly in urban and periurban settings, very abundant fruit and seed production, small bird-dispersed fruits, high germination rates, resprouting capacity, fast growth rates, low herbivory levels and tolerance

  • Towards a Standardization of Terminology of the Climbing Habit in Plants
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Patrícia Sperotto, Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Thais N. C. Vasconcelos, Nádia Roque

    In science, standardization of terminology is crucial to make information accessible and allow proper comparison of studies’ results. Climbing plants and the climbing habit have been described in numerous ways, frequently with imprecise and dubious terms. We propose a standardization of terms regarding the climbing habit, with special attention to climbing mechanisms. We abide by previous suggestions

  • Disturbance and Response in the Andean Cloud Forest: a Conceptual Review
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Randall W. Myster

    The Andean cloud forest is a critical part of the Neotropics and much of its structure, function and dynamics are in response to both natural and human-caused disturbances. Those natural disturbances include landslides, and tree death leading to trees falling and creating gaps in the canopy. The human-caused disturbances include logging, mining, road construction and other aspects of urbanization as

  • Dynamics of Mycorrhizal Mutualism in Relation to Plant Invasion Along an Altitudinal Gradient in Kashmir Himalaya
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Mudasir A Dar; Afshana; Aashaq H Sheikh; Gowher A Wani; Zafar A Reshi; Manzoor A Shah

    In view of the mutualistic facilitation of invasive plants, we examined the mycorrhizal status of 469 species, including 335 alien and 134 native to the region of Kashmir Himalaya, India. Data on the mycorrhizal status and altitudinal range of the target species were obtained using some peer reviewed primary published and web based sources. One sample Z score test and regression analysis were performed

  • The Control of Seed Dormancy and Germination by Temperature, Light and Nitrate
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    An Yan; Zhong Chen

    Seed dormancy and germination are two closely linked physiological traits that have great impacts on adaptation and survival of seed plants. Seed dormancy strengthen and germination potential are comprehensively influenced by a variety of internal factors and external environment cues. Environmental factors, such as water content, light condition, ambient temperature, and nitrogen availability, act

  • Sporangia and Spores in the Fern Genera Spicantopsis and Struthiopteris (Blechnaceae, Polypodiopsida)
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    S. Molino; C. Prada; J. M. Gabriel y Galán; P. Wasowicz; B. Estébanez; R. Vázquez

    Struthiopteris (Blechnaceae) has recently been classified on the basis of molecular and morphological evidence, and some of its species are now included in the sister genus Spicantopsis. However, the lack of studies on several important morphological features impedes a sound assessment of their congruence with this new systematic arrangement, as well as of their range of variation and taxonomic value

  • Biogeographical Review of Asteraceae in the Espinhaço Mountain Range, Brazil
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Lídia Campos; Marcelo Freire Moro; Vicki A. Funk; Nádia Roque

    The Espinhaço Range is characterized by its high taxonomic diversity and endemism level, where Asteraceae is one of the richest plant families. The present study aims to catalogue the Asteraceae species recorded in the campos rupestres of the Espinhaço Range and evaluate its biogeography. We built a database that contained recorded Asteraceae species and their geographical location. We thus produced

  • Edaphic Endemism in the Amazon: Vascular Plants of the canga of Carajás, Brazil
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Ana M. Giulietti; Tereza C. Giannini; Nara F. O. Mota; Maurício T. C. Watanabe; Pedro L. Viana; Mayara Pastore; Uiara C. S. Silva; Marinez F. Siqueira; José R. Pirani; Haroldo C. Lima; Jovani B. S. Pereira; Rafael M. Brito; Raymond M. Harley; José O. Siqueira; Daniela C. Zappi

    Amazonia is one of the most diverse biomes worldwide, and, as well as luxuriant forest, it includes mountain areas which, despite their small surface area, display fascinating endemism. In these regions, the specificity of edaphic factors is mirrored by a highly specialised, isolated flora adapted to survive adverse conditions. The Serra dos Carajás in the Brazilian state of Pará is one of world’s

  • Influence of Socio-Historical Events and Macroecological Patterns on the Endemic Plant Descriptions in the Iberian Peninsula
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Antoni Buira; Carlos Aedo

    Since 1753 the description of vascular plants has been highly uneven. Given its high levels of plant endemism and long botanical history, the Iberian Peninsula is considered a suitable territory to study the species discovery process. Anova tests were conducted to explore the differences on the description dates for categories of range size and life-form. Correlation and GLM analyses were carried out

  • Phytogeography and Floristic Affinities of Woody Plants in “Los Montes de María”, a Tropical Dry Forest Fragment in the Colombian Caribbean
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-08-05
    Jorge D. Mercado-Gómez; Fran Y. Herazo-Vitola; María E. Morales-Puentes

    The phytogeographic and floristic connections of the “Montes de Maria” (MM: north of Colombia) were analyzed through Geographic Information Systems, at worldwide, Neotropical and in Colombia scales in order to determine its geographical origin and floristic affinities. We estimated that genera are mostly of the Neotropical (74%) and Nearctic (26%) origin. At the Neotropical level, MM is located at

  • Trillium – toward Sustainable Utilization of a Biologically Distinct Genus Valued for Traditional Medicine
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Harsh K. Chauhan; Anil K. Bisht; Indra D. Bhatt; Arvind Bhatt; David Gallacher

    Trillium has fascinated the botanical world with its peculiar biology and high medicinal value. The genus appears in North America and Asia, and is widely used for traditional medicine on both continents. Medicinal value has been validated recently through the isolation and ex situ testing of constituent compounds. This study reviews biology, medicinal value, ecological threats and knowledge gaps,

  • A Review of the Economic Botany of Sesbania (Leguminosae)
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Saowalak Bunma; Henrik Balslev

    Sesbania is a genus in the family Leguminosae that has been widely used by people in tropical and subtropical regions, especially in Southeast Asia. Information about Sesbania uses and their characteristics such as chemical compounds were obtained from 233 papers, reports and books. We found evidence for 22 Sesbania species being used. They were used for human food (10 species), animal food (9), poisons

  • Studies on the Evergreen Broad-leaved Forests of Yunnan, Southwestern China
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-05-07
    Hua Zhu; Shisun Zhou; Lichun Yan; Jipu Shi; Youxin Shen

    Yunnan of southwestern China supports an extremely rich biodiversity and various vegetation types dominated by evergreen broad-leaved forest. The floristic composition, species diversity, physiognomy and biogeography of three major types of the evergreen broad-leaved forest in Yunnan were surveyed using 1-ha plots. The three forest types are very diverse in species composition, diversity, physiognomy

  • Ecology and Use of Lantana camara in India
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Girish C. S. Negi; Subrat Sharma; Subash C.R. Vishvakarma; Sher S. Samant; Rakesh K. Maikhuri; Ram C. Prasad; Lok M. S. Palni

    In the Indian sub-continent Lantana has invaded vast tracts of dry-moist forests and other culturable wastelands, and has potentially altered biodiversity, landscape ecology and ecosystem services. It has invaded most Indian pasture lands (13.2 million ha) besides forest and fallow areas, and the cost of its control is estimated at US$ 70 per ha. This invasive weed stands out because of its rapid spread

  • Risk Analysis of Gene Flow from Cultivated, Addictive, Social-Drug Plants to Wild Relatives
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-03-18
    L. G. Campbell; C. M. Blanchette; E. Small

    Addictive “social drugs” that are derived from plants range from reputable stimulants (e.g., coffee and tea) to stigmatized and dangerous preparations (e.g., ephedrine and cocaine). Both legal and illicit global trade has increased the geographic distribution of plants from which the principal social drugs are obtained. In turn, this range expansion increased opportunities to transfer genes controlling

  • Feeding and Other Gall Facets: Patterns and Determinants in Gall Structure
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2019-02-25
    Bruno G. Ferreira; Rafael Álvarez; Gracielle P. Bragança; Danielle R. Alvarenga; Nicolás Pérez-Hidalgo; Rosy M. S. Isaias

    Galls are neoformed structures induced by specific animals, fungi, bacteria, virus or some parasitic plants on their host plant organs. Developmental processes are well known in Agrobacterium tumefasciens galls, but the animal-induced galls have a striking anatomical diversity, concerning several patterns, which were reunited herein. Anatomical traits observed in animal-induced galls involve manipulation

  • What we Know about the Composition and Structure of Igapó Forests in the Amazon Basin
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-08-07
    Randall W. Myster

    The Amazon contains some of the most critical ecosystems on earth and Igapó forests are one of those ecosystems. They are flooded by “black-water”, leached runoff of forest litter. To help in our understanding of igapó forests, and to act as a resource for their future research, I review what we know about their composition and structure. I used my own sampling data to construct floristics tables of

  • Fruit Morphology and Anatomy of the Spondioid Anacardiaceae.
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-08-03
    Fabiany Herrera,John D Mitchell,Susan K Pell,Margaret E Collinson,Douglas C Daly,Steven R Manchester

    The Spondioideae subfamily of the Anacardiaceae is widely distributed today in tropical regions. Recent molecular phylogenetic investigations indicate that the Spondioideae are not monophyletic, but rather comprise at least two separate clades that are difficult to distinguish using vegetative and floral characters. Nevertheless, the syndrome of fruit characters traditionally used in identifying the

  • Evolution of Stem and Leaf Structural Diversity: a Case Study in Lychnophorinae (Asteraceae)
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-07-13
    Makeli Garibotti Lusa; Benoit Francis Patrice Loeuille; Daniela Ciccarelli; Beatriz Appezzato-da-Glória

    Lychnophorinae occurs mainly in campos rupestres and cerrados of the Cerrado Domain (Brazil) and are species subject to fire occurrences and intense solar radiation, occupying acid and well-drained soils. Informative characters on the taxonomy of this subtribe were studied considering the leaf and stem morphology and anatomy. In addition, putative synapomorphies and features that probably determined

  • Comparative Biology of Cycad Pollen, Seed and Tissue - A Plant Conservation Perspective.
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-07-05
    J Nadarajan,E E Benson,P Xaba,K Harding,A Lindstrom,J Donaldson,C E Seal,D Kamoga,E M G Agoo,N Li,E King,H W Pritchard

    Cycads are the most endangered of plant groups based on IUCN Red List assessments; all are in Appendix I or II of CITES, about 40% are within biodiversity ‘hotspots,’ and the call for action to improve their protection is long-standing. We contend that progress in this direction will not be made until there is better understanding of cycad pollen, seed and tissue biology, which at the moment is limited

  • Phylogeny and Systematics of Cyperaceae, the Evolution and Importance of Embryo Morphology
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-06-25
    Ilias Semmouri; Kenneth Bauters; Étienne Léveillé-Bourret; Julian R. Starr; Paul Goetghebeur; Isabel Larridon

    Despite recent advances in molecular phylogenetic studies, deep evolutionary relationships in Cyperaceae are still not entirely resolved. Reduction of floral morphology and complex inflorescences pose difficulties to unravel relationships based on morphology alone. One of the most phylogenetically informative structures in Cyperaceae are the embryos. The utility of embryo characters and types in Cyperaceae

  • Review of Vegetative Branching in the Palms (Arecaceae)
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Sara M. Edelman; Jennifer H. Richards

    Vegetative branching is common in the palms (Arecaceae). However, current terms to describe vegetative branching diversity are not consistent and do not cover the full range of branching types. In this study vegetative branching types in the palms were reviewed and defined, and the phylogenetic distribution of palm branching types was described. Branching types were described from a literature review

  • Living Cells in Wood 3. Overview; Functional Anatomy of the Parenchyma Network
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-06-12
    Sherwin Carlquist

    The very different evolutionary pathways of conifers and angiosperms are very informative precisely because their wood anatomy is so different. New information from anatomy, comparative wood physiology, and comparative ultrastructure can be combined to provide evidence for the role of axial and ray parenchyma in the two groups. Gnetales, which are essentially conifers with vessels, have evolved parallel

  • Phylogenetic Analyses of Cretaceous Fossils Related to Chloranthaceae and their Evolutionary Implications
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-06-01
    James A. Doyle; Peter K. Endress

    Chloranthaceae were one of the first common lines during the early radiation of angiosperms, possibly reflecting adaptation to more open habitats. Phylogenetic analyses clarify the position of Cretaceous mesofossils in molecular trees of Recent taxa. Plants that produced Asteropollis pollen, with tepals adnate to a single carpel, are nested in crown group Chloranthaceae with Hedyosmum; Canrightiopsis

  • Ten Rules for Associate Editors
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2018-05-10
    Mark P. Simmons

    Associate editors are typically given minimal guidance when they are hired by editors-in-chief of scientific journals. Ten rules (or guidelines) are presented for associate editors based on the author’s experience as an associate editor for three evolutionary journals. First, accept invitations to edit manuscripts that are outside your comfort zone. Second, turn-around time is important. Third, read

  • Patterns of Genetic Diversity in Rare and Common Orchids Focusing on the Korean Peninsula: Implications for Conservation
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-31
    Mi Yoon Chung; Jordi López-Pujol; Sungwon Son; Gang Uk Suh; Tomohisa Yukawa; Myong Gi Chung

    To provide basic information for orchid conservation, we surveyed the plant allozyme literature to summarize genetic diversity and structure data for (i) rare orchids native to the Korean Peninsula, and (ii) their congeners irrespective of being common and rare or Korean or not. A total of 68 taxa (32 taxa in Korea and 37 outside Korea; Goodyera repens being included in both datasets) were considered

  • Lessons on Evolution from the Study of Edaphic Specialization
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Nishanta Rajakaruna

    Plants adapted to special soil types are ideal for investigating evolutionary processes, including maintenance of intraspecific variation, adaptation, reproductive isolation, ecotypic differentiation, and the tempo and mode of speciation. Common garden and reciprocal transplant approaches show that both local adaptation and phenotypic plasticity contribute to edaphic (soil-related) specialization.

  • Comparative Flower and Inflorescence Organogenesis among Genera of Betulaceae: Implications for Phylogenetic Relationships
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Junyi Zhu; Lifan Zhang; Baoqing Ren; Min Chen; Ruiqi Li; You Zhou; Yu Liang; Jianhua Li; Zhiduan Chen

    Betulaceae have simple flowers but complex inflorescences. Recent phylogenetic analyses using molecular data have produced robust phylogenetic trees of Betulaceae. In this study, we evaluated the phylogenetic value of comparative organogenetic data of reproductive organs in the context of molecular phylogenies. Flower and inflorescence developmental processes of 21 species from all six genera in Betulaceae

  • Biology of Amaranths
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-26
    Rezwana Assad; Zafar A. Reshi; Snober Jan; Irfan Rashid

    Amaranthus, a cosmopolitan genus including endangered species, restricted endemics and widespread weeds, is often difficult to characterize taxonomically and thus has generally been considered by systematists as a “difficult” genus. Species in this genus have high genetic variability, with diversity in growth form, plant height, number of inflorescences, seed colour, protein content, seed yield, resistance

  • Studies on Ectomycorrhiza: An Appraisal
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-25
    Jitender Kumar; N. S. Atri

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi are obligate symbionts of dominant vascular plants, liverworts and hornworts. There are reports of about 20,000 to 25,000 ECM fungi that promote plant growth by facilitating enhanced water and nutrient absorption, and provide tolerance to environmental stresses. These below-ground fungi play a key role in terrestrial ecosystems as they regulate plant diversity, nutrient

  • Trophotagma Enrichment Axes in Poaceae
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    S. E. Muchut; V. Pilatti; N. Uberti-Manassero; M. Perreta; A. C. Vegetti

    This review is intended: (1) to interpret and characterize morphological variations observed in the structure of the enrichment axes, located below the terminal inflorescence in Poaceae; and (2) to study the relationship between the intensity of development of such axes and the size of terminal inflorescence. An important reduction in the development of the terminal inflorescence is generally accompanied

  • Models of Cannabis Taxonomy, Cultural Bias, and Conflicts between Scientific and Vernacular Names
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    John M. McPartland; Geoffrey W. Guy

    Debates over Cannabis sativa L. and C. indica Lam. center on their taxonomic circumscription and rank. This perennial puzzle has been compounded by the viral spread of a vernacular nomenclature, “Sativa” and “Indica,” which does not correlate with C. sativa and C. indica. Ambiguities also envelop the epithets of wild-type Cannabis: the spontanea versus ruderalis debate (i.e., vernacular “Ruderalis”)

  • The Introduction of Japanese Plants Into North America
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-06-08
    Peter Del Tredici

    This article describes the history of plant introductions from Japan into North America, from the Perry Expedition in 1854 through the collections of George Rogers Hall of Bristol, Rhode Island and Thomas Hogg of New York City between 1861 and 1875. Both men sent plants to the innovative nurseryman, Samuel Bowne Parsons of Flushing, Long Island, who propagated and sold them to the gardening public

  • Botanic Gardens as Communicators of Plant Diversity and Conservation
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-05-31
    Gisela Gaio-Oliveira; Ana Delicado; Maria Amélia Martins-Loução

    This paper presents a unique survey on the role of botanic gardens as educational institutions that communicate plant diversity and conservation. An online survey was created to evaluate the present strategies developed by botanic gardens from all over the world to their visiting public. Dependent on their resources, either human, financial or both, all of them look for the accomplishment of Global

  • Detecting Phytogeographic Units Based on Native Woody Flora: A Case Study in Central Peninsular Italy
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-05-10
    Marta Latini; Fabrizio Bartolucci; Fabio Conti; Mauro Iberite; Gianluca Nicolella; Anna Scoppola; Giovanna Abbate

    We present a statistically derived phytogeographic regionalization based on the spatial distribution of native woody flora, investigating environmental correlates and assessing congruence between the spatial patterns of species, genera, and families. A sector of central peninsular Italy (Lazio and Abruzzo regions) was selected as a case study. A rich georeferenced floristic database was compiled, including

  • Assessing the Relevance of Herbarium Collections as Tools for Conservation Biology
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-05-09
    Neus Nualart; Neus Ibáñez; Ignasi Soriano; Jordi López-Pujol

    Herbarium collections constitute permanent and often well-documented records of the distribution of taxa through space and time. Since their creation, their uses have dramatically expanded and with many new uses being proposed, including some for which herbaria were not initially intended for. In this paper we assess the potential of these collections on conservation biology, by providing exemplary

  • Herbarium-Based Preliminary Conservation Assessments of Lesser Antillean Endemic Seed Plants Reveal a Flora at Risk
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    C. M. Sean Carrington; Gary A. Krupnick; Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez

    Conservation assessments present a formidable challenge for regions of the developing world such as the Lesser Antilles. Of the 2652 seed plant taxa recorded from this archipelago (Acevedo-Rodríguez & Strong, 2012, 2016), only 150 taxa (including 14 endemics) are listed in the IUCN Red List. Using only herbarium data, we carried out a preliminary conservation assessment of the 263 seed plant taxa unique

  • African Cycad Ecology, Ethnobotany and Conservation: A Synthesis
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-05-01
    S. R. Cousins; E. T. F. Witkowski

    Africa hosts a rich assemblage of cycads: 66 Encephalartos species, Stangeria eriopus and Cycas thouarsii. Most Encephalartos and S. eriopus adults appear to be fire-tolerant, and certain Encephalartos species may be fire-dependent. Four Encephalartos species and S. eriopus are primarily insect-pollinated. African cycad populations typically have sex ratios of 1:1, with very small populations often

  • Fruit and Seed Dispersal of Salvia L. (Lamiaceae): A Review of the Evidence
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-04-25
    Scott Zona

    The seed dispersal mechanisms of Salvia species are reviewed, with particular attention to quantitative or experimental evidence of dispersal. Despite having rather uniform fruit morphology, Salvia has several dispersal mechanisms: dispersal of mericarps by water (hydrochory), wind (anemochory), animals (zoochory) or gravity (barochory). Cases of myrmecochory are highlighted, along with dispersal by

  • Tropical China Plant Diversity, Ecology and Conservation – a Glimpse at the Current State
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-04-05
    Hong Liu; Mingxun Ren; Jennifer Richards; Xiqiang Song

    Tropical and subtropical ecosystems, especially those found on limestone substrates, are among the most diverse terrestrial habitats in China. However, little is known about patterns of plant diversity, ecology and conservation status within these ecosystems. In this special issue we present five reviews and/or in-depth studies of these tropical Chinese plants and ecosystems that capture current research

  • Phytogeography and Floristic Affinities of the Limestone Flora of Mt. Exianling, Hainan Island, China
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-04-04
    Rongjing Zhang; Xinsheng Qin; Hongfeng Chen; Bosco Pui Lok Chan; Fuwu Xing; Zhe Xu

    The limestone forest of Mt. Exianling on Hainan Island, China, was inventoried, and their floristic composition and biogeographical affinities discussed. Botanical surveys recorded 1121 vascular plant species belonging to 620 genera and 171 families; of which 81 represented significant records including 11 new species. Mt. Exianling is characterized by phanerophytes making up ca. 79% of the total flora

  • Impacts of Host Trees and Sowing Conditions on Germination Success and a Simple Ex Situ Approach to Generate Symbiotic Seedlings of a Rare Epiphytic Orchid Endemic to Hainan Island, China
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Fu-Sun Yang; Ai-Hua Sun; Jie Zhu; Jason Downing; Xi-Qiang Song; Hong Liu

    For species relying on seeds for population regeneration, knowledge on seed germination behaviors in relation to environmental factors is critical in designing species recovery strategy. Dendrobium sinense is an orchid endemic to Hainan Island of China and listed as Endangered by the IUCN Redlist. It reproduces primarily via seeds in its natural habitat. However, how germination is impacted by major

  • The Tropical Forests of Southern China and Conservation of Biodiversity
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-03-21
    Hua Zhu

    Species-rich tropical forests once occurred along much of China’s southern border, from southeastern Xizang (Tibet) and southern Yunnan to southwestern Guangxi, southern Taiwan and Hainan, mainly south of 22°30’N latitude. These Chinese forests are similar to Southeast Asian lowland tropical forests in their profiles and physiognomic characteristics, floristic composition and species richness. Studies

  • Pollination Syndromes of Chinese Gesneriaceae: a Comparative Study between Hainan Island and Neighboring Regions
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-03-02
    Shao-Jun Ling; Qian-Wan Meng; Liang Tang; Ming-Xun Ren

    The species-rich Gesneriaceae are typically a tropical family in Asia, showing a monophyletic radiation and high endemism in Southwest China and Hainan Island. The Chinese species have diverse floral traits and pollination systems, but the detailed patterns of diversity and possible differentiations between Hainan Island and the Chinese mainland remain unclear. Here, we enumerate the species diversity

  • Research Progress on Karst Tiankeng Ecosystems
    Bot. Rev. (IF 1.667) Pub Date : 2017-03-02
    Gaozhong Pu; Yanna Lv; Guangping Xu; Danjuan Zeng; Yuqing Huang

    The geomorphologic features called tiankengs were first discovered and named at the end of the twentieth century in karst areas of China. They have enjoyed increasing attention owing to their unusual geologic processes and unique ecological communities. However, the understanding of classification, geomorphic evolution, developmental conditions, geological dating and ecological environments of tiankengs

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