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  • Hide-and-Seek: Chitin-Triggered Plant Immunity and Fungal Counterstrategies
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-04-05
    Ben-Qiang Gong; Feng-Zhu Wang; Jian-Feng Li

    Fungal pathogens are major destructive microorganisms for land plants and pose growing challenges to global crop production. Chitin is a vital building block for fungal cell walls and also a broadly effective elicitor of plant immunity. Here we review the rapid progress in understanding chitin perception and signaling in plants and highlight similarities and differences of these processes between arabidopsis

  • Chloroplast Transition Metal Regulation for Efficient Photosynthesis
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt; Marion Eisenhut; Anja Schneider

    Plants require sunlight, water, CO2, and essential nutrients to drive photosynthesis and fulfill their life cycle. The photosynthetic apparatus resides in chloroplasts and fundamentally relies on transition metals as catalysts and cofactors. Accordingly, chloroplasts are particularly rich in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and copper (Cu). Owing to their redox properties, those metals need to be carefully

  • Root-Apex Proton Fluxes at the Centre of Soil-Stress Acclimation
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Wei Siao; Devrim Coskun; František Baluška; Herbert J. Kronzucker; Weifeng Xu

    Proton (H+) fluxes in plant roots play critical roles in maintaining root growth and facilitating plant responses to multiple soil stresses, including fluctuations in nutrient supply, salt infiltration, and water stress. Soil mining for nutrients and water, rates of nutrient uptake, and the modulation of cell expansion all depend on the regulation of root H+ fluxes, particularly at the root apex, mediated

  • PHERES1 Controls Endosperm Gene Imprinting and Seed Development
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Yongyan Wang; Hua Jiang; Guifeng Wang

    In contrast to mammals, genomic imprinting primarily occurs in the endosperm in flowering plants. Nevertheless, the imprinting drivers and functions of imprinted genes remain poorly understood. Batista et al. identified the type I MADS-box transcription factor (TF) PHERES1 (PHE1) as a key regulator of some imprinted and nonimprinted genes required for endosperm development.

  • A Tropical Plant with Friends in Cold Places: The Formation of the UK Rice Research Community
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Ari Sadanandom; Erik H. Murchie

    The trend for translating fundamental plant science to applied solutions in agriculture has accelerated the formation of global networks and partnerships to achieve common global goals in food security. Here we highlight a thriving rice research community in the UK contributing to long-term approaches to understand rice biology.

  • Enzymes as Parts in Need of Replacement – and How to Extend Their Working Life
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Nathan D. Tivendale; Andrew D. Hanson; Christopher S. Henry; Adrian D. Hegeman; A. Harvey Millar

    Enzymes catalyze reactions in vivo at different rates and each enzyme molecule has a lifetime limit before it is degraded and replaced to enable catalysis to continue. Considering these rates together as a unitless ratio of catalytic cycles until replacement (CCR) provides a new quantitative tool to assess the replacement schedule of and energy investment into enzymes as they relate to function. Here

  • The CBL–CIPK Calcium Signaling Network: Unified Paradigm from 20 Years of Discoveries
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Ren-Jie Tang; Chao Wang; Kunlun Li; Sheng Luan

    Calcium (Ca2+) serves as an essential nutrient as well as a signaling agent in all eukaryotes. In plants, calcineurin B-like proteins (CBLs) are a unique group of Ca2+ sensors that decode Ca2+ signals by activating a family of plant-specific protein kinases known as CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Interactions between CBLs and CIPKs constitute a signaling network that enables information integration

  • Roles of Plant-Specific Inserts in Plant Defense
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Lennie K.Y. Cheung; John H. Dupuis; Derek R. Dee; Brian C. Bryksa; Rickey Y. Yada

    Ubiquitously expressed in plants, the plant-specific insert (PSI) of typical plant aspartic proteases (tpAPs) has been associated with plant development, stress response, and defense processes against invading pathogens. Despite sharing high sequence identity, structural studies revealed possible different mechanisms of action among species. The PSI induces signaling pathways of defense hormones in

  • Fine-Tuning Immunity: Players and Regulators for Plant NLRs
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Yang Sun; Yu-Xiu Zhu; Peter J. Balint-Kurti; Guan-Feng Wang

    Plants have evolved a sophisticated innate immune system to defend against pathogen infection, and intracellular nucleotide-binding, leucine-rich repeat (NLR or NB-LRR) immune receptors are one of the main components of this system. NLR activity is fine-tuned by intra- and intermolecular interactions. We survey what is known about the conservation and diversity of NLR-interacting proteins, and divide

  • Does the GABA Shunt Regulate Cytosolic GABA?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Alan W. Bown; Barry J. Shelp

    The GABA shunt has long been known as a metabolic pathway that produces GABA in, and removes GABA from, the cytosol. There is no consensus regarding its function. The hypothesis presented here is that the GABA shunt regulates cytosolic GABA levels and GABA signaling.

  • Aromatic Amino Acids: A Complex Network Ripe for Future Exploration
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-13
    Joseph H. Lynch; Natalia Dudareva

    In plants, high carbon flux is committed to the biosynthesis of phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan, owing to their roles not only in the production of proteins, but also as precursors to thousands of primary and specialized metabolites. The core plastidial pathways that supply the majority of aromatic amino acids (AAAs) have previously been described in detail. More recently, the discovery of

  • Delivering Integrated Pest and Pollinator Management (IPPM)
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-12
    Paul A. Egan; Lynn V. Dicks; Heikki M.T. Hokkanen; Johan A. Stenberg

    The need to reduce pollinator exposure to harmful pesticides has led to calls to expedite the adoption of integrated pest management (IPM). We make the case that IPM is not explicitly ‘pollinator friendly’, but rather must be adapted to reduce impacts on pollinators and to facilitate synergies between crop pollination and pest control practices and ecosystem services. To reconcile these diverse needs

  • The Hidden Costs of Nighttime Warming on Yields
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Walid Sadok; S.V. Krishna Jagadish

    Nighttime warming poses a threat to global food security as it is driving yield declines worldwide, but our understanding of the physiological basis of this phenomenon remains very limited. Furthermore, it is often assumed that such declines are driven solely by increases in nighttime temperature (TNight). Here we argue that, in addition to temperature, increases in nighttime evaporative demand may

  • Towards Engineering Broad-Spectrum Disease-Resistant Crops
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Jingjing Tian; Guoyong Xu; Meng Yuan

    Crop pathologists and breeders are pursuing not only mechanistic understanding of plant–pathogen interactions but also engineering durable and broad-spectrum disease-resistant cultivars. Both goals are achieved in three recent studies by stacking editing of regulatory elements within promoters of susceptibility genes for blight disease in rice.

  • Achieving Plant Genome Editing While Bypassing Tissue Culture
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Xiang Ji; Bing Yang; Daowen Wang

    Conventional genetic transformation is a huge obstacle to the efficient development and application of plant genome-editing (GE) technologies. Recently, Maher et al. reported successful GE by de novo reprogramming plant meristems in somatic tissues, which sidesteps tissue culture-based transformation and promises to significantly enhance the utility of plant GE.

  • A State Factor Model for Ecosystem Carbon–Water Relations
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Toby M. Maxwell; Lucas C.R. Silva

    With increasing calls for improving terrestrial carbon sequestration and sustainable water use, scientists are faced with the challenge of predicting changes in carbon–water relations from organisms to landscapes. We propose an integrative framework to help in answering basic and applied questions pertaining to coupled carbon–water functions in a variety of ecosystems. The conceptual framework is based

  • Roadmap for Accelerated Domestication of an Emerging Perennial Grain Crop
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Lee DeHaan; Steve Larson; Rosa L. López-Marqués; Stephan Wenkel; Caixia Gao; Michael Palmgren

    Shifting the life cycle of grain crops from annual to perennial would usher in a new era of agriculture that is more environmentally friendly, resilient to climate change, and capable of soil carbon sequestration. Despite decades of work, transforming the annual grain crop wheat (Triticum aestivum) into a perennial has yet to be realized. Direct domestication of wild perennial grass relatives of wheat

  • Salicylic Acid Steers the Growth–Immunity Tradeoff
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Tijmen van Butselaar; Guido Van den Ackerveken

    Plants possess an effective immune system to combat most microbial attackers. The activation of immune responses to biotrophic pathogens requires the hormone salicylic acid (SA). Accumulation of SA triggers a plethora of immune responses (like massive transcriptional reprogramming, cell wall strengthening, and production of secondary metabolites and antimicrobial proteins). A tradeoff of strong immune

  • Malate Circulation: Linking Chloroplast Metabolism to Mitochondrial ROS
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Yannan Zhao; Hong Yu; Jian-Min Zhou; Steven M. Smith; Jiayang Li

    In photosynthetic cells, chloroplasts and mitochondria are the sites of the core redox reactions underpinning energy metabolism. Such reactions generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) when oxygen is partially reduced. ROS signaling leads to responses by cells which enable them to adjust to changes in redox status. Recent studies in Arabidopsis thaliana reveal that chloroplast NADH can be used to generate

  • Anthropogenic Seed Dispersal: Rethinking the Origins of Plant Domestication
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Robert N. Spengler

    It is well documented that ancient sickle harvesting led to tough rachises, but the other seed dispersal properties in crop progenitors are rarely discussed. The first steps toward domestication are evolutionary responses for the recruitment of humans as dispersers. Seed dispersal–based mutualism evolved from heavy human herbivory or seed predation. Plants that evolved traits to support human-mediated

  • New Evidence of Thermally Constrained Plant Cell Wall Lignification
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Alan Crivellaro; Ulf Büntgen

    Lignin enhances the mechanical strength of plants and enables their intrinsic water transport. Dendrochronological, wood anatomical, and plant physiological evidence now suggests that the degree of lignin deposition is constrained by low temperature. Placing these findings in an ecological context implies rethinking of the global treeline position.

  • High-resolution digital phenotyping of water uptake and transpiration efficiency
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Andreas Stahl; Benjamin Wittkop; Rod J. Snowdon

    Despite innovations in phenotyping, dissecting impacts of water uptake, transpiration efficiency and harvest index on crop yield under defined drought stress scenarios remains challenging. Here, we highlight benefits of concepts enabling plant growth in extra-large containers accompanied by continuous tracking of transpiration, nondestructive plant growth monitoring, and subsequent yield evaluation

  • Vacuole Biogenesis in Plants: How Many Vacuoles, How Many Models?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Yong Cui; Qiong Zhao; Shuai Hu; Liwen Jiang

    Vacuoles are the largest membrane-bounded organelles and have essential roles in plant growth and development, but several important questions on the biogenesis and dynamics of lytic vacuoles (LVs) remain. Here, we summarize and discuss recent research and models of vacuole formation, and propose, with testable hypotheses, that besides inherited vacuoles, plant cells can also synthesize LVs de novo

  • Foliar Water Uptake in Trees: Negligible or Necessary?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Jeroen D.M. Schreel; Kathy Steppe

    Foliar water uptake (FWU) has been identified as a mechanism commonly used by trees and other plants originating from various biomes. However, many questions regarding the pathways and the implications of FWU remain, including its ability to mitigate climate change-driven drought. Therefore, answering these questions is of primary importance to adequately address and comprehend drought stress responses

  • Endophytes: The Second Layer of Plant Defense
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Francisco Dini-Andreote

    Microorganisms in association with roots can protect plants against soil-borne diseases. A recent study mechanistically revealed how root endophytes act as a second microbiological layer of plant defense. Integrating ecological concepts with principles of plant pathology provides an innovative way to manipulate and engineer beneficial plant microbiomes.

  • Plant Colonization of Land: Mining Genes from Bacteria
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Jianchao Ma; Xiangyang Hu; Jinling Huang

    Although it is known that novel genes facilitated plant colonization of land, the evolutionary origin of these genes remains largely unclear. A recent study by Cheng et al. suggests that some key genes related to plant development and stress responses were acquired from soil bacteria during the early evolution of land plants.

  • Phage Cocktail Therapy: Multiple Ways to Suppress Pathogenicity
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Na Liu; Connor Lewis; Wenming Zheng; Zheng Qing Fu

    Phage cocktails have emerged as precision tools for controlling plant bacterial diseases. Wang et al. now report that phage cocktails decreased the occurrence of tomato bacterial wilt disease efficiently by infecting and destroying bacterial pathogens, selecting phage-resistant but slow-growing pathogen strains, and fostering bacterial species that are antagonistic to the pathogens.

  • Stories of Salicylic Acid: A Plant Defense Hormone
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Pingtao Ding; Yuli Ding

    Salicylic acid (SA) is a key plant hormone required for establishing resistance to many pathogens. SA biosynthesis involves two main metabolic pathways with multiple steps: the isochorismate and the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase pathways. Transcriptional regulations of SA biosynthesis are important for fine-tuning SA level in plants. We highlight here recent discoveries on SA biosynthesis and transcriptional

  • Proteolytic Proteoforms: Elusive Components of Hormonal Pathways?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Chen Liu; Anna Törnkvist; Spyridoula Charova; Simon Stael; Panagiotis N. Moschou

    Hormonal pathways often converge on transcriptional repressors that can be degraded by the proteasome to initiate a response. We wish to draw attention to developments in a less-explored proteolytic branch called ‘limited proteolysis’ that, in addition to the classical proteolytic pathways, seems to regulate auxin and ethylene signaling.

  • Parallel Transcriptional Regulation of Artemisinin and Flavonoid Biosynthesis
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Danial Hassani; Xueqing Fu; Qian Shen; Muhammad Khalid; Jocelyn K.C. Rose; Kexuan Tang

    Plants regulate the synthesis of specialized compounds through the actions of individual transcription factors (TFs) or sets of TFs. One such compound, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, is widely used as a pharmacological product in the first-line treatment of malaria. However, the emergence of resistance to artemisinin in Plasmodium species, as well as its low production rates, have required innovative

  • Tropical Trees as Time Capsules of Anthropogenic Activity.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Victor Lery Caetano-Andrade,Charles Roland Clement,Detlef Weigel,Susan Trumbore,Nicole Boivin,Jochen Schöngart,Patrick Roberts

    After the ice caps, tropical forests are globally the most threatened terrestrial environments. Modern trees are not just witnesses to growing contemporary threats but also legacies of past human activity. Here, we review the use of dendrochronology, radiocarbon analysis, stable isotope analysis, and DNA analysis to examine ancient tree management. These methods exploit the fact that living trees record

  • The Impact of Environmental Stress on Bt Crop Performance.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Patricia S Girón-Calva,Richard M Twyman,Ramon Albajes,Angharad M R Gatehouse,Paul Christou

    Bt crops have been grown commercially for more than two decades. They have proven remarkably effective in the control of target insect pests. However, Bt crops can become less effective under various forms of environmental stress. Most studies in this area have considered the effect of environmental stress on Bt insecticidal protein levels or target pest mortality, but not both, resulting in a lack

  • Genetic Control of Glandular Trichome Development.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Camille Chalvin,Stéphanie Drevensek,Michel Dron,Abdelhafid Bendahmane,Adnane Boualem

    Plant glandular trichomes are epidermal secretory structures producing various specialized metabolites. These metabolites are involved in plant adaptation to its environment and many of them have remarkable properties exploited by fragrance, flavor, and pharmaceutical industries. The identification of genes controlling glandular trichome development is of high interest to understand how plants produce

  • Woody Plant Declines. What's Wrong with the Microbiome?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Pauline Bettenfeld,Florence Fontaine,Sophie Trouvelot,Olivier Fernandez,Pierre-Emmanuel Courty

    Woody plant (WP) declines have multifactorial determinants as well as a biological and economic reality. The vascular system of WPs involved in the transport of carbon, nitrogen, and water from sources to sinks has a seasonal activity, which places it at a central position for mediating plant-environment interactions from nutrient cycling to community assembly and for regulating a variety of processes

  • Gossypium Genomics: Trends, Scope, and Utilization for Cotton Improvement.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Zuoren Yang,Ghulam Qanmber,Zhi Wang,Zhaoen Yang,Fuguang Li

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.) is the most important natural fiber crop worldwide. The diversity of Gossypium species also provides an ideal model for investigating evolution and domestication of polyploids. However, the huge and complex cotton genome hinders genomic research. Technical advances in high-throughput sequencing and bioinformatics analysis have now largely overcome these obstacles, bringing about

  • Achieving Controlled Recombination with Targeted Cleavage and Epigenetic Modifiers.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Ella Taagen,Adam J Bogdanove,Mark E Sorrells

  • Digging Deeper for Agricultural Resources, the Value of Deep Rooting.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Kristian Thorup-Kristensen,Niels Halberg,Mette Nicolaisen,Jørgen Eivind Olesen,Timothy E Crews,Philippe Hinsinger,John Kirkegaard,Alain Pierret,Dorte Bodin Dresbøll

    In the quest for sustainable intensification of crop production, we discuss the option of extending the root depth of crops to increase the volume of soil exploited by their root systems. We discuss the evidence that deeper rooting can be obtained by appropriate choice of crop species, by plant breeding, or crop management and its potential contributions to production and sustainable development goals

  • Flowering Plants in the Anthropocene: A Political Agenda.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Ioan Negrutiu,Michael W Frohlich,Olivier Hamant

    Flowering plants are the foundation of human civilization, providing biomass for food, fuel, and materials to satisfy human needs, dependent on fertile soil, adequate water, and favorable weather. Conversely, failure of any of these inputs has caused catastrophes. Today, human appropriation of biomass is threatening planetary boundaries, inducing social and political unrest worldwide. Human societies

  • GORK Channel: A Master Switch of Plant Metabolism?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Getnet D Adem,Guang Chen,Lana Shabala,Zhong-Hua Chen,Sergey Shabala

    Potassium regulates a plethora of metabolic and developmental response in plants, and upon exposure to biotic and abiotic stresses a substantial K+ loss occurs from plant cells. The outward-rectifying potassium efflux GORK channels are central to this stress-induced K+ loss from the cytosol. In the mammalian systems, signaling molecules such as gamma-aminobutyric acid, G-proteins, ATP, inositol, and

  • Exposing Deep Roots: A Rhizobox Laboratory.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Kristian Thorup-Kristensen,Niels Halberg,Mette H Nicolaisen,Jørgen E Olesen,Dorte Bodin Dresbøll

  • Counting on Crossovers: Controlled Recombination for Plant Breeding.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ella Taagen,Adam J Bogdanove,Mark E Sorrells

    Crossovers (COs), that drive genetic exchange between homologous chromosomes, are strongly biased toward subtelomeric regions in plant species. Manipulating the rate and positions of COs to increase the genetic variation accessible to breeders is a longstanding goal. Use of genome editing reagents that induce double-stranded breaks (DSBs) or modify the epigenome at desired sites of recombination, and

  • The Modular Control of Cereal Endosperm Development.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Odd-Arne Olsen

    Expansion of the human population demands a significant increase in cereal production. The main component of cereal grains is endosperm, a body of starchy endosperm (SE) cells surrounded by aleurone (AL) cells with transfer cells (TC) at the base and embryo surrounding (ESR) cells adjacent to the embryo. The data reviewed here emphasize the modular nature of endosperm by first suggesting that sucrose

  • Prospects for Carotenoid Biofortification Targeting Retention and Catabolism.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jacinta L Watkins,Barry J Pogson

    Due to the ongoing prevalence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries there has been a large effort towards increasing the carotenoid content of staple foods via biofortification. Common strategies used for carotenoid biofortification include altering flux through the biosynthesis pathway to direct synthesis to a specific product, generally β-carotene, or via increasing the expression

  • A Model for Nitrogen Fixation in Cereal Crops.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Alan B Bennett,Vânia C S Pankievicz,Jean-Michel Ané

    Nitrogen-fixing microbial associations with cereals have been of intense interest for more than a century (Roesch et al., Plant Soil 2008;302:91-104; Triplett, Plant Soil 1996;186:29-38; Mus et al., Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 2016;82:3698-3710; Beatty and Good, Science 2011;333:416-417). A recent report demonstrated that an indigenous Sierra Mixe maize landrace, characterized by an extensive development

  • Linking Plant Functional Ecology to Island Biogeography.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gianluigi Ottaviani,Gunnar Keppel,Lars Götzenberger,Susan Harrison,Øystein H Opedal,Luisa Conti,Pierre Liancourt,Jitka Klimešová,Fernando A O Silveira,Borja Jiménez-Alfaro,Luka Negoita,Jiří Doležal,Michal Hájek,Thomas Ibanez,Francisco E Méndez-Castro,Milan Chytrý

    The study of insular systems has a long history in ecology and biogeography. Island plants often differ remarkably from their noninsular counterparts, constituting excellent models for exploring eco-evolutionary processes. Trait-based approaches can help to answer important questions in island biogeography, yet plant trait patterns on islands remain understudied. We discuss three key hypotheses linking

  • The Many Models of Strigolactone Signaling.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Marco Bürger,Joanne Chory

    Strigolactones (SLs) are a class of plant hormones involved in several biological processes that are of great agricultural concern. While initiating plant-fungal symbiosis, SLs also trigger germination of parasitic plants that pose a major threat to farming. In vascular plants, SLs control shoot branching, which is linked to crop yield. SL research has been a fascinating field that has produced a variety

  • Real-Time Volatilomics: A Novel Approach for Analyzing Biological Samples.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Tomasz Majchrzak,Wojciech Wojnowski,Małgorzata Rutkowska,Andrzej Wasik

    The use of the 'omics techniques in environmental research has become common-place. The most widely implemented of these include metabolomics, proteomics, genomics, and transcriptomics. In recent years, a similar approach has also been taken with the analysis of volatiles from biological samples, giving rise to the so-called 'volatilomics' in plant analysis. Developments in direct infusion mass spectrometry

  • Promoting Model Systems of Microbiota-Medicinal Plant Interactions.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Valentina Maggini,Alessio Mengoni,Patrizia Bogani,Fabio Firenzuoli,Renato Fani

    The role of the interaction(s) between medicinal plants (MPs) and their endophytes (bacterial microbiome) in the production of bioactive compounds (BCs) with therapeutic properties is emerging. Here, we propose Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench as a new model to reveal the intimate crosstalk between MPs and bacterial endophytes, aiming to discover (new) BCs.

  • Eating Away at ROS to Regulate Stomatal Opening.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    David B Medeiros,Jessica A S Barros,Alisdair R Fernie,Wagner L Araújo

    Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) function in guard cell signaling has been demonstrated, the control of ROS homeostasis remains elusive. Recent findings point to multiple mechanisms controlling ROS levels in guard cells. These mechanisms require secondary metabolism and autophagy, providing the guard cells with a degree of plasticity during stomatal movements.

  • Revisiting the Role of Master Regulators in Tomato Ripening.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Rufang Wang,Gerco C Angenent,Graham Seymour,Ruud A de Maagd

    The study of transcriptional regulation of tomato ripening has been led by spontaneous mutations in transcription factor (TF) genes that completely inhibit normal ripening, suggesting that they are 'master regulators'. Studies using CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis to produce knockouts of the underlying genes indicate a different picture, suggesting that the regulation is more robust than previously thought

  • Physiology and the (Neuro)biology of Plant Behavior: A Farewell to Arms.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Paco Calvo,Anthony Trewavas

  • Reply to Trewavas et al. and Calvo and Trewavas.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Lincoln Taiz,Daniel Alkon,Andreas Draguhn,Angus Murphy,Michael Blatt,Gerhard Thiel,David G Robinson

  • Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolases: An Expanded Capacity for Chemical Communication?
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Mina Aziz,Kent D Chapman

    Fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) is an enzyme that belongs to the amidase signature (AS) superfamily and is widely distributed in multicellular eukaryotes. FAAH hydrolyzes lipid signaling molecules - namely, N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) - which terminates their actions. Recently, the crystal structure of Arabidopsis thaliana FAAH was solved and key residues were identified for substrate-specific interactions

  • Alternative Biome States in Terrestrial Ecosystems.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Juli G Pausas,William J Bond

    There is growing interest in the application of alternative stable state (ASS) theory to explain major vegetation patterns of the world. Here, we introduce the theory as applied to the puzzle of nonforested (open) biomes growing in climates that are warm and wet enough to support forests (alternative biome states, ABSs). Long thought to be the product of deforestation, diverse lines of evidence indicate

  • CRISPR-TSKO: A Tool for Tissue-Specific Genome Editing in Plants.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Zahir Ali,Magdy M Mahfouz,Shahid Mansoor

    Functional genomics is at the core of studying the exact function of genes. However, homozygous knockouts of essential and pleiotropic effectors (almost 10% of the genome) are not always possible, thus, functions of these genes remain obscured. The tissue-specific genome editing tool (CRISPR-TSKO) recently described by Decaestecker et al., can characterize these indispensable genes and has wide applications

  • MAPK Signaling: Emerging Roles in Lateral Root Formation.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Yunxia He,Xiangzong Meng

    Lateral root (LR) formation is a multistep developmental process in which auxin and peptide hormones play essential roles. Recent studies in arabidopsis by Huang et al. and Zhu et al. have revealed that the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade MKK4/MKK5-MPK3/MPK6 functions in both a noncanonical auxin signaling pathway and the IDA peptide signaling pathway to regulate LR morphogenesis and

  • Light Emission in Betalains: From Fluorescent Flowers to Biotechnological Applications.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    M Alejandra Guerrero-Rubio,Josefa Escribano,Francisco García-Carmona,Fernando Gandía-Herrero

    The discovery of visible fluorescence in the plant pigments betalains revealed the existence of fluorescent patterns in flowers of plants of the order Caryophyllales, where betalains substitute anthocyanins. The serendipitous initial discovery led to a systemized characterization of the role of different substructures on the photophysical phenomenon. Strong fluorescence is general to all members of

  • Adaptive Growth: Shaping Auxin-Mediated Root System Architecture.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Guanghui Xiao,Yuzhou Zhang

    Root system architecture (RSA), governed by the phytohormone auxin, endows plants with an adaptive advantage in particular environments. Using geographically representative arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) accessions as a resource for GWA mapping, Waidmann et al. and Ogura et al. recently identified two novel components involved in modulating auxin-mediated RSA and conferring plant fitness in particular

  • Allelopathic Plants: Models for Studying Plant-Interkingdom Interactions.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Niklas Schandry,Claude Becker

    Allelopathy is a biochemical interaction between plants in which a donor plant releases secondary metabolites, allelochemicals, that are detrimental to the growth of its neighbours. Traditionally considered as bilateral interactions between two plants, allelopathy has recently emerged as a cross-kingdom process that can influence and be modulated by the other organisms in the plant's environment. Here

  • 3D Bioprinting in Plant Science: An Interdisciplinary Approach.
    Trends Plant Sci. (IF 14.006) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Shakti Mehrotra,Smita Kumar,Vikas Srivastava,Taijshee Mishra,Bhartendu Nath Mishra

    Here we highlight advances and opportunities for using 3D bioprinting in plant biology research that could lead to low-cost solutions for biomedical and other applications. For example, the development of plant cell-based and plant-inspired 3D-printed constructs could provide information about single-cell, tissue, and whole-plant interactions with the surrounding environment.

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