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  • Epidemiological models for invasion and persistence of pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Christopher A Gilligan,Frank van den Bosch

    Motivated by questions such as "Why do some diseases take off, while others die out?" and "How can we optimize the deployment of control methods," we introduce simple epidemiological concepts for the invasion and persistence of plant pathogens. An overarching modeling framework is then presented that can be used to analyze disease invasion and persistence at a range of scales from the microscopic to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Models of fungicide resistance dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Frank van den Bosch,Christopher A Gilligan

    We describe two classes of models used for fungicide and antibiotic resistance dynamics. One class assumes that the density of the pathogen (or severity of the disease caused by the pathogen) has no feedback effects on the rate at which new infections arise. The second class does not make this assumption. A quantitative relationship between these two classes is derived. We then discuss the two sets

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Saskia A Hogenhout,El-Desouky Ammar,Anna E Whitfield,Margaret G Redinbaugh

    The majority of described plant viruses are transmitted by insects of the Hemipteroid assemblage that includes aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and thrips. In this review we highlight progress made in research on vector interactions of the more than 200 plant viruses that are transmitted by hemipteroid insects beginning a few hours or days after acquisition and for up to the life of the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Direct and indirect roles of viral suppressors of RNA silencing in pathogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Juan A Díaz-Pendón,Shou-Wei Ding

    Plant and animal viruses overcome host antiviral silencing by encoding diverse viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Prior to the identification and characterization of their silencing suppression activities mostly in transgene silencing assays, plant VSRs were known to enhance virus accumulation in the inoculated protoplasts, promote cell-to-cell virus movement in the inoculated leaves, facilitate

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Siderophores in fungal physiology and virulence.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Hubertus Haas,Martin Eisendle,B Gillian Turgeon

    Maintaining the appropriate balance of iron between deficiency and toxicity requires fine-tuned control of systems for iron uptake and storage. Both among fungal species and within a single species, different systems for acquisition, storage, and regulation of iron are present. Here we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanisms involved in maintaining iron homeostasis with a focus on siderophores

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Eva H Stukenbrock,Bruce A McDonald

    Plant pathogens can emerge in agricultural ecosystems through several mechanisms, including host-tracking, host jumps, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. High-throughput DNA sequencing coupled with new analytical approaches make it possible to differentiate among these mechanisms and to infer the time and place where pathogens first emerged. We present several examples to illustrate the different

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plants as a habitat for beneficial and/or human pathogenic bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Heather L Tyler,Eric W Triplett

    Non-plant pathogenic endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, improve nitrogen nutrition, and, in some cases, are human pathogens. Recent work in several laboratories has shown that enteric bacteria are common inhabitants of the interior of plants. These observations led to the experiments that showed the entry into plants of enteric human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. The

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The powdery mildews: a review of the world's most familiar (yet poorly known) plant pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Dean A Glawe

    The past decade has seen fundamental changes in our understanding of powdery mildews (Erysiphales). Research on molecular phylogeny demonstrated that Erysiphales are Leotiomycetes (inoperculate discomycetes) rather than Pyrenomycetes or Plectomycetes. Life cycles are surprisingly variable, including both sexual and asexual states, or only sexual states, or only asexual states. At least one species

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Jennifer Juzwik,Thomas C Harrington,William L MacDonald,David N Appel

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes in land use, and forest management created conditions favorable for disease

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The phenotypic expression of a genotype: bringing muddy boots and micropipettes together.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Roger Hull

    Starting with the influences of having a father who was an agricultural plant pathologist, I sketch my career through university and research institute from field epidemiology, basic virus characterization to molecular biology. I note what I consider to be the highlights of my scientific career and the events that shaped the development of my thinking. These include secondment to teach in a university

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant viruses as biotemplates for materials and their use in nanotechnology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-05-14
    Mark Young,Debbi Willits,Masaki Uchida,Trevor Douglas

    In recent years, plant virus capsids, the protein shells that form the surface of a typical plant virus particle, have emerged as useful biotemplates for material synthesis. All virus capsids are assembled from virus-coded protein subunits. Many plant viruses assemble capsids with precise 3D structures providing nanoscale architectures that are highly homogeneous and can be produced in large quantities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identification and rational design of novel antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-04-29
    Jose F Marcos,Alberto Muñoz,Enrique Pérez-Payá,Santosh Misra,Belén López-García

    Peptides and small proteins exhibiting antimicrobial activity have been isolated from many organisms ranging from insects to humans, including plants. Their role in defense is established, and their use in agriculture was already being proposed shortly after their discovery. However, some natural peptides have undesirable properties that complicate their application. Advances in peptide synthesis and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breaking the barriers: microbial effector molecules subvert plant immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Vera Göhre,Silke Robatzek

    Adaptation to specialized environments allows microorganisms to inhabit an enormous variety of ecological niches. Growth inside plant tissues is a niche offering a constant nutrient supply, but to access this niche, plant defense mechanisms ranging from passive barriers to induced defense reactions have to be overcome. Pathogens have to break several, if not all, of these barriers. For this purpose

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of stomata in plant innate immunity and foliar bacterial diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Maeli Melotto,William Underwood,Sheng Yang He

    Pathogen entry into host tissue is a critical first step in causing infection. For foliar bacterial plant pathogens, natural surface openings, such as stomata, are important entry sites. Historically, these surface openings have been considered as passive portals of entry for plant pathogenic bacteria. However, recent studies have shown that stomata can play an active role in limiting bacterial invasion

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Living in two worlds: the plant and insect lifestyles of Xylella fastidiosa.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Subhadeep Chatterjee,Rodrigo P P Almeida,Steven Lindow

    Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have attained great importance worldwide as the pathogen and its insect vectors have been disseminated. Since this is the first plant pathogenic bacterium for which a complete genome sequence was determined, much progress has been made in understanding the process by which it spreads within the xylem vessels of susceptible plants as well as the traits that contribute

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Yeast as a model host to explore plant virus-host interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Peter D Nagy

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is invaluable for understanding fundamental cellular processes and disease states of relevance to higher eukaryotes. Plant viruses are intracellular parasites that take advantage of resources of the host cell, and a simple eukaryotic cell, such as yeast, can provide all or most of the functions for successful plant virus replication. Thus, yeast has been used as a

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microarrays for rapid identification of plant viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-08-19
    Neil Boonham,Jenny Tomlinson,Rick Mumford

    Many factors affect the development and application of diagnostic techniques. Plant viruses are an inherently diverse group that, unlike cellular pathogens, possess no nucleotide sequence type (e.g., ribosomal RNA sequences) in common. Detection of plant viruses is becoming more challenging as globalization of trade, particularly in ornamentals, and the potential effects of climate change enhance the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identifying microorganisms involved in specific pathogen suppression in soil.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    James Borneman,J Ole Becker

    Suppressive soils hold considerable potential for managing soilborne pathogens. When the suppressiveness has a biological origin, identifying the causal organisms is the crucial step in realizing this potential. Armed with such knowledge, it may be possible to develop effective and sustainable pest management strategies through application of these organisms or agronomic practices that influence their

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Elicitors, effectors, and R genes: the new paradigm and a lifetime supply of questions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Andrew F Bent,David Mackey

    The plant basal immune system can detect broadly present microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, also called PAMPs) and induce defenses, but adapted microbes express a suite of effector proteins that often act to suppress these defenses. Plants have evolved other receptors (R proteins) that detect these pathogen effectors and activate strong defenses. Pathogens can subsequently alter or delete

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Magnaporthe as a model for understanding host-pathogen interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-11
    Daniel J Ebbole

    The rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest in part because of the importance of the disease to world agriculture, but also because both Magnaporthe oryzae and its host are amenable to advanced experimental approaches. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the system and to point out recent significant studies that update our understanding of the biology of M

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Challenges in tropical plant nematology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-11
    Dirk De Waele,Annemie Elsen

    A major challenge facing agricultural scientists today is the need to secure food for an increasing world population. This growth occurs predominantly in developing, mostly tropical countries, where the majority of hungry people live. Reducing yield losses caused by pathogens of tropical agricultural crops is one measure that can contribute to increased food production. Although plant-parasitic nematodes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transcript profiling in host-pathogen interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-08
    Roger P Wise,Matthew J Moscou,Adam J Bogdanove,Steven A Whitham

    Using genomic technologies, it is now possible to address research hypotheses in the context of entire developmental or biochemical pathways, gene networks, and chromosomal location of relevant genes and their inferred evolutionary history. Through a range of platforms, researchers can survey an entire transcriptome under a variety of experimental and field conditions. Interpretation of such data has

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The epidemiology and management of seedborne bacterial diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-05-04
    Ronald Gitaitis,Ronald Walcott

    Although seed production has been moved to semiarid regions to escape seedborne pathogens, seedborne bacterial diseases continue to be problematic and cause significant economic losses worldwide. Infested seeds are responsible for the re-emergence of diseases of the past, movement of pathogens across international borders, or the introduction of diseases into new areas. Considerable attention has been

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Noel T. Keen--pioneer leader in molecular plant pathology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-27
    Alan Collmer,Scott Gold

    Noel T. Keen (1940-2002) made pioneering contributions to molecular plant pathology during a period when the study of disease mechanisms was transformed by the new tools of molecular genetics. His primary contributions involved race-specific elicitors of plant defenses and bacterial pectic enzymes. In collaboration with Brian J. Staskawicz and Frances Jurnak, respectively, Noel cloned the first avirulence

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Flax rust resistance gene specificity is based on direct resistance-avirulence protein interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    Jeffrey G Ellis,Peter N Dodds,Gregory J Lawrence

    Genetic studies of the flax-flax rust interaction led to the formulation of the gene-for-gene hypothesis and identified resistance genes (R) in the host plant and pathogenicity genes, including avirulence (Avr) and inhibitor of avirulence genes (I), in the rust pathogen. R genes have now been cloned from four of the five loci in flax and all encode proteins of the Toll, Interleukin-1 receptor, R gene-nucleotide

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reniform in U.S. cotton: when, where, why, and some remedies.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-13
    A Forest Robinson

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is an emerging problem in U.S. cotton. The impact of this nematode and the extent to which it has and will continue to spread across the U.S. cotton belt are controversial. Long-term changes in cotton production and unique biological attributes of R. reniformis are key factors. Expert opinion surveys indicate that R. reniformis has replaced the root-knot

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virus-induced disease: altering host physiology one interaction at a time.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-10
    James N Culver,Meenu S Padmanabhan

    Virus infections are the cause of numerous plant disease syndromes that are generally characterized by the induction of disease symptoms such as developmental abnormalities, chlorosis, and necrosis. How viruses induce these disease symptoms represents a long-standing question in plant pathology. Recent studies indicate that symptoms are derived from specific interactions between virus and host components

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Disease cycle approach to plant disease prediction.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-06
    Erick D De Wolf,Scott A Isard

    Plant disease cycles represent pathogen biology as a series of interconnected stages of development including dormancy, reproduction, dispersal, and pathogenesis. The progression through these stages is determined by a continuous sequence of interactions among host, pathogen, and environment. The stages of the disease cycle form the basis of many plant disease prediction models. The relationship of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Safety of virus-resistant transgenic plants two decades after their introduction: lessons from realistic field risk assessment studies.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-04-06
    Marc Fuchs,Dennis Gonsalves

    Potential safety issues have been raised with the development and release of virus-resistant transgenic plants. This review focuses on safety assessment with a special emphasis on crops that have been commercialized or extensively tested in the field such as squash, papaya, plum, grape, and sugar beet. We discuss topics commonly perceived to be of concern to the environment and to human health--heteroencapsidation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacteriophages for plant disease control.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-28
    J B Jones,L E Jackson,B Balogh,A Obradovic,F B Iriarte,M T Momol

    The use of phages for disease control is a fast expanding area of plant protection with great potential to replace the chemical control measures now prevalent. Phages can be used effectively as part of integrated disease management strategies. The relative ease of preparing phage treatments and low cost of production of these agents make them good candidates for widespread use in developing countries

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structure and function of resistance proteins in solanaceous plants.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-21
    Gerben van Ooijen,Harrold A van den Burg,Ben J C Cornelissen,Frank L W Takken

    Gene-for-gene resistance in plants is based on the presence of a resistance (R) gene in the host and a matching Avirulence (Avr) gene in the pathogen. Many R genes have been cloned over the past two decades, mostly from the Solanaceae. The gene products, called R proteins, display modular domain structures. R protein function has recently been shown to require dynamic interactions between the various

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomic insights into the contribution of phytopathogenic bacterial plasmids to the evolutionary history of their hosts.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-21
    George W Sundin

    Plasmids are common residents of phytopathogenic bacteria and contribute significantly to host evolution in a multi-faceted manner. Plasmids tend to encode determinants of virulence and ecological fitness that can enhance adaptation to a specific niche or can influence niche expansion. Many of these determinants appear to have been acquired from other bacteria via horizontal transfer, illustrating

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Family Flexiviridae: a case study in virion and genome plasticity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-17
    Giovanni P Martelli,Michael J Adams,Jan F Kreuze,Valerian V Dolja

    The plant virus family Flexiviridae includes the definitive genera Potexvirus, Mandarivirus, Allexivirus, Carlavirus, Foveavirus, Capillovirus, Vitivirus, Trichovirus, the putative genus Citrivirus, and some unassigned species. Its establishment was based on similarities in virion morphology, common features in genome type and organization, and strong phylogenetic relationships between replicational

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tell me again what it is that you do.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-16
    R James Cook

    My job at Pullman, Washington, starting in 1965, was to control the root diseases of wheat and barley, focusing first on fusarium root and crown rot, then including take-all and pythium and rhizoctonia root rots. In the absence of viable alternatives, the agronomic approaches used were implemented through design of cereal-based cropping systems. Starting in the late 1970s, the mission focused further

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell wall-associated mechanisms of disease resistance and susceptibility.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2007-03-14
    Ralph Hückelhoven

    The plant cuticle and cell wall separate microbial pathogens from the products of plant metabolism. While microbial pathogens try to breach these barriers for colonization, plants respond to attempted penetration by a battery of wall-associated defense reactions. Successful pathogens circumvent or suppress plant nonself recognition and basal defense during penetration and during microbial reproduction

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology of flower-infecting fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-10-26
    Henry K Ngugi,Harald Scherm

    The ability to infect host flowers offers important ecological benefits to plant-parasitic fungi; not surprisingly, therefore, numerous fungal species from a wide range of taxonomic groups have adopted a life style that involves flower infection. Although flower-infecting fungi are very diverse, they can be classified readily into three major groups: opportunistic, unspecialized pathogens causing necrotic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Breeding for disease resistance in the major cool-season turfgrasses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-10-26
    Stacy A Bonos,Bruce B Clarke,William A Meyer

    Over the past several decades, breeding cool-season turfgrasses for improved disease resistance has been the focus of many turfgrass breeding programs. This review article discusses the dramatic improvements made in breeding Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) for resistance to leaf spot (caused by Drechslera poae), stem rust (caused by Puccinia graminis), and stripe smut (caused by Ustilago striiformis);

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular ecology and emergence of tropical plant viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-06-21
    D Fargette,G Konaté,C Fauquet,E Muller,M Peterschmitt,J M Thresh

    An appreciation of the risks caused by emergent plant viruses is critical in tropical areas that rely heavily on agriculture for subsistence and rural livelihood. Molecular ecology, within 10 years, has unraveled the factors responsible for the emergence of several of the economically most important tropical plant viruses: Rice yellow mottle virus (RYMV), Cassava mosaic geminiviruses (CMGs), Maize

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Climate change effects on plant disease: genomes to ecosystems.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-26
    K A Garrett,S P Dendy,E E Frank,M N Rouse,S E Travers

    Research in the effects of climate change on plant disease continues to be limited, but some striking progress has been made. At the genomic level, advances in technologies for the high-throughput analysis of gene expression have made it possible to begin discriminating responses to different biotic and abiotic stressors and potential trade-offs in responses. At the scale of the individual plant, enough

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phenazine compounds in fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. biosynthesis and regulation.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-25
    Dmitri V Mavrodi,Wulf Blankenfeldt,Linda S Thomashow

    The phenazines include upward of 50 pigmented, heterocyclic nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites synthesized by some strains of fluorescent Pseudomonas spp. and a few other bacterial genera. The antibiotic properties of these compounds have been known for over 150 years, but advances within the past two decades have provided significant new insights into the genetics, biochemistry, and regulation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of plant pathogenicity in Streptomyces.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-25
    Rosemary Loria,Johan Kers,Madhumita Joshi

    Among the multitude of soil-inhabiting, saprophytic Streptomyces species are a growing number of plant pathogens that cause economically important diseases, including potato scab. Streptomyces scabies is the dominant pathogenic species worldwide, but is only one of many that cause very similar disease symptoms on plants. Molecular genetic analysis is beginning to identify the mechanisms used by plant

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Long-distance RNA-RNA interactions in plant virus gene expression and replication.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    W Allen Miller,K Andrew White

    The vast majority of plant and animal viruses have RNA genomes. Viral gene expression and replication are controlled by cis-acting elements in the viral genome, which have been viewed conventionally as localized structures. However, recent research has altered this perception and provided compelling evidence for cooperative activity involving distantly positioned RNA elements. This chapter focuses

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A model plant pathogen from the kingdom Animalia: Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    T L Niblack,K N Lambert,G L Tylka

    The soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines, adversely affects the production of soybean, Glycine max, in many areas of the world, particularly in the United States, where it is the most economically important soybean pathogen. Despite the availability of hundreds of H. glycines-resistant soybean cultivars, the nematode continues to be a major limiting factor in soybean production. The use of nonhost

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The dawn of fungal pathogen genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    Jin-Rong Xu,You-Liang Peng,Martin B Dickman,Amir Sharon

    Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to a remarkable increase in the number of sequenced fungal genomes. Several important plant pathogenic fungi are among those that have been sequenced or are being sequenced. Additional fungal pathogens are likely to be sequenced in the near future. Analysis of the available genomes has provided useful information about genes that may be important

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparative genomics reveals what makes an enterobacterial plant pathogen.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    Ian K Toth,Leighton Pritchard,Paul R J Birch

    The bacterial family Enterobacteriaceae contains some of the most devastating human and animal pathogens, including Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica and species of Yersinia and Shigella. These are among the best-studied of any organisms, yet there is much to be learned about the nature and evolution of interactions with their hosts and with the wider environment. Comparative and functional genomics

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fitness of human enteric pathogens on plants and implications for food safety.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-05-18
    Maria T Brandl

    The continuous rise in the number of outbreaks of foodborne illness linked to fresh fruit and vegetables challenges the notion that enteric pathogens are defined mostly by their ability to colonize the intestinal habitat. This review describes the epidemiology of produce-associated outbreaks of foodborne disease and presents recently acquired knowledge about the behavior of enteric pathogens on plants

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of ethylene in host-pathogen interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-04-11
    Willem F Broekaert,Stijn L Delauré,Miguel F C De Bolle,Bruno P A Cammue

    The phytohormone ethylene is a principal modulator in many aspects of plant life, including various mechanisms by which plants react to pathogen attack. Induced ethylene biosynthesis and subsequent intracellular signaling through a single conserved pathway have been well characterized. This leads to a cascade of transcription factors consisting of primary EIN3-like regulators and downstream ERF-like

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Coexistence of related pathogen species on arable crops in space and time.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-04-11
    Bruce D L Fitt,Yong-Ju Huang,Frank van den Bosch,Jonathan S West

    This review considers factors affecting the coexistence of closely related pathogen species on arable crops, with particular reference to data available at Rothamsted for Septoria tritici/Stagonospora nodorum (Mycosphaerella graminicola/Phaeosphaeria nodorum) (septoria leaf blotch diseases on winter wheat), Oculimacula yallundae/O. acuformis (eyespot disease of winter cereals), and Leptosphaeria maculans/L

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virus-vector interactions mediating nonpersistent and semipersistent transmission of plant viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-04-11
    James C K Ng,Bryce W Falk

    Most plant viruses are absolutely dependent on a vector for plant-to-plant spread. Although a number of different types of organisms are vectors for different plant viruses, phloem-feeding Hemipterans are the most common and transmit the great majority of plant viruses. The complex and specific interactions between Hemipteran vectors and the viruses they transmit have been studied intensely, and two

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A retrospective of an unconventionally trained plant pathologist: plant diseases to molecular plant pathology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-04-11
    Seiji Ouchi

    Plant pathology evolved from its mycology-oriented origins into a science dealing with biochemical mechanisms of diseases, along with enhanced crop production through disease control. This retrospective describes first my personal experience from my introduction to plant pathology, to the establishment of the concept of accessibility as a model pertaining to genetically defined basic compatibility

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Significance of inducible defense-related proteins in infected plants.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-04-11
    L C van Loon,M Rep,C M J Pieterse

    Inducible defense-related proteins have been described in many plant species upon infection with oomycetes, fungi, bacteria, or viruses, or insect attack. Several types of proteins are common and have been classified into 17 families of pathogenesis-related proteins (PRs). Others have so far been found to occur more specifically in some plant species. Most PRs and related proteins are induced through

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quantification and modeling of crop losses: a review of purposes.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-02-17
    Serge Savary,Paul S Teng,Laetitia Willocquet,Forrest W Nutter

    This review considers the cascade of events that link injuries caused by plant pathogens on crop stands to possible (quantitative and qualitative) crop losses (damage), and to the resulting economic losses. To date, much research has focused on injury control to prevent this cascade of events from occurring. However, this cascade involves a complex succession of components and processes whereby knowledge

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nonsystemic bunt fungi--Tilletia indica and T. horrida: a review of history, systematics, and biology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-02-17
    Lori M Carris,Lisa A Castlebury,Blair J Goates

    The genus Tilletia is a group of smut fungi that infects grasses either systemically or locally. Basic differences exist between the systemically infecting species, such as the common and dwarf bunt fungi, and locally infecting species. Tilletia indica, which causes Karnal bunt of wheat, and Tilletia horrida, which causes rice kernel smut, are two examples of locally infecting species on economically

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genome packaging by spherical plant RNA viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-02-17
    A L N Rao

    The majority of positive-strand RNA viruses of plants replicate and selectively encapsidate their progeny genomes into stable virions in cytoplasmic compartments of the cell where the opportunity to copackage cellular RNA also exists. Remarkably, highly purified infectious virions contain almost exclusively viral RNA, suggesting that mechanisms exist to regulate preferential packaging of viral genomes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A catalogue of the effector secretome of plant pathogenic oomycetes.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2006-02-02
    Sophien Kamoun

    The oomycetes form a phylogenetically distinct group of eukaryotic microorganisms that includes some of the most notorious pathogens of plants. Oomycetes accomplish parasitic colonization of plants by modulating host cell defenses through an array of disease effector proteins. The biology of effectors is poorly understood but tremendous progress has been made in recent years. This review classifies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The current and future dynamics of disease in plant communities.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2005-12-14
    Jeremy J Burdon,Peter H Thrall,And Lars Ericson

    Pathogens are powerful evolutionary forces shaping the structure and dynamics of both individual species and of the communities of which they are part, at a broad range of genetic, ecological, spatial, and temporal scales. At all these levels their impact varies from the subtle and little recognized through to the most obvious destruction. Today the direct role of pathogens in natural plant communities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology of plant rhabdoviruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2005-08-05
    Andrew O Jackson,Ralf G Dietzgen,Michael M Goodin,Jennifer N Bragg,Min Deng

    The Rhabdoviridae, whose members collectively infect invertebrates, animals, and plants, form a large family that has important consequences for human health, agriculture, and wildlife ecology. Plant rhabdoviruses can be separated into the genera Cytorhabdovirus and Nucleorhabdovirus, based on their sites of replication and morphogenesis. This review presents a general overview of classical and contemporary

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of plant virus resistance.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2005-08-05
    Byoung-Cheorl Kang,Inhwa Yeam,Molly M Jahn

    Genetic resistance to plant viruses has been used for at least 80 years to control agricultural losses to viral diseases. To date, hundreds of naturally occurring genes for resistance to plant viruses have been reported from studies of both monocot and dicot crops, their wild relatives, and the plant model, Arabidopsis. The isolation and characterization of a few of these genes in the past decade have

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Signal crosstalk and induced resistance: straddling the line between cost and benefit.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2005-08-05
    Richard M Bostock

    This review discusses recent progress in our understanding of signaling in induced plant resistance and susceptibility to pathogens and insect herbivores, with a focus on the connections and crosstalk among phytohormone signaling networks that regulate responses to these and other stresses. Multiple stresses, often simultaneous, reduce growth and yield in plants. However, prior challenge by a pathogen

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RNA silencing in productive virus infections.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 10.2) Pub Date : 2005-08-05
    Robin MacDiarmid

    RNA silencing can reduce the expression of specific genes through posttranscriptional gene silencing, the microRNA pathway, and also through transcriptional gene silencing. Posttranscriptional gene silencing also acts as an antivirus mechanism. By suppressing this antivirus defense mechanism, viruses affect all three silencing pathways in addition to the intercellular signaling mechanism that transmits

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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