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  • Managing Crop Diseases Under Water Scarcity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Cassandra L Swett

    The significance of water scarcity to crop production and food security has been globally recognized as a pivotal sustainability challenge in the UN Sustainable Development Goals (86). The critical link between water scarcity and sustainability is adaptation. Various changes in water use practices have been employed to alleviate production constraints. However, the potential for these changes to influence

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Ustilaginoidea virens: Insights into an Emerging Rice Pathogen.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Wenxian Sun,Jing Fan,Anfei Fang,Yuejiao Li,Muhammad Tariqjaveed,Dayong Li,Dongwei Hu,Wen-Ming Wang

    False smut of rice, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, has become one of the most important diseases in rice-growing regions worldwide. The disease causes a significant yield loss and imposes health threats to humans and animals by producing mycotoxins. In this review, we update our understanding of the pathogen, including the disease cycle and infection strategies, the decoding of the U. virens genome

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Functional Ecology of Forest Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Jonàs Oliva,Miguel Ángel Redondo,Jan Stenlid

    Global change is pressing forest pathologists to solve increasingly complex problems. We argue that understanding interactive effects between forest pathogens and global warming, globalization, and land-use changes may benefit from a functional ecology mindset. Traits can be more informative about ecological functions than species inventories and may deliver a more mechanistic description of forest

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Modeling the Impact of Crop Diseases on Global Food Security.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Serge Savary,Laetitia Willocquet

    Plant pathology must contribute to improving food security in a safe operating space, which is shrinking as a result of declining natural resources, climate change, and the growing world population. This review analyzes the position of plant pathology in a nexus of relationships, which is mapped and where the coupled dynamics of crop growth, disease, and yield losses are modeled. We derive a hierarchy

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Origins and Immunity Networking Functions of EDS1 Family Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Dmitry Lapin,Deepak D Bhandari,Jane E Parker

    The EDS1 family of structurally unique lipase-like proteins EDS1, SAG101, and PAD4 evolved in seed plants, on top of existing phytohormone and nucleotide-binding–leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) networks, to regulate immunity pathways against host-adapted biotrophic pathogens. Exclusive heterodimers between EDS1 and SAG101 or PAD4 create essential surfaces for resistance signaling. Phylogenomic information

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Remote Sensing of Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Erich-Christian Oerke

    Detection, identification, and quantification of plant diseases by sensor techniques are expected to enable a more precise disease control, as sensors are sensitive, objective, and highly available for disease assessment. Recent progress in sensor technology and data processing is very promising; nevertheless, technical constraints and issues inherent to variability in host–pathogen interactions currently

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Progress in Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Louise Morin

    Plant pathogens have played an important role in weed biological control since the 1970s. So far, 36 fungal pathogens have been authorized for introduction across 18 countries for the classical biological control of weeds. Their safety record has been excellent, but questions continue to be asked about the risk that they could transfer to other plants. Quantitative data documenting their impact on

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • The Geopolitics of Plant Pathology: Frederick Wellman, Coffee Leaf Rust, and Cold War Networks of Science.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Stuart McCook,Paul D Peterson

    During the Cold War, coffee became a strategically important crop in the global contest between the United States and the Soviet Union. The economies of many US allies in Latin America depended upon coffee. In the Cold War context, then, the coffee leaf rust (Hemileia vastatrix) became a geopolitical problem. Coffee experts in Latin America, which produced most of the world's coffee, began to prepare

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Developing Public-Private Partnerships in Plant Pathology Extension: Case Studies and Opportunities in the United States.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Samuel G Markell,Gregory L Tylka,Edwin J Anderson,H Peter van Esse

    Public–private partnerships (PPPs) can be an effective and advantageous way to accomplish extension and outreach objectives in plant pathology. The greatest opportunities for extension-focused PPPs may be in response to large-scale or emerging disease management concerns or in addressing complex issues that impact agriculture, such as climate change, digital technology, and public perception of science

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • RPS5-Mediated Disease Resistance: Fundamental Insights and Translational Applications.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Sarah E Pottinger,Roger W Innes

    Focusing on the discovery and characterization of the Arabidopsis disease resistance protein RPS5 and its guardee PBS1, this review discusses work done in the Innes laboratory from the initial identification of the RPS5 gene in 1995 to the recent deployment of the PBS1 decoy system in crops. This is done through discussion of the structure, function, and signaling environment of RPS5 and PBS1, highlighting

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Epigenetic Mechanisms in Nematode-Plant Interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Tarek Hewezi

    Epigenetic mechanisms play fundamental roles in regulating numerous biological processes in various developmental and environmental contexts. Three highly interconnected epigenetic control mechanisms, including small noncoding RNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, contribute to the establishment of plant epigenetic profiles. During the past decade, a growing body of experimental work has

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Disease in Invasive Plant Populations.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Erica M Goss,Amy E Kendig,Ashish Adhikari,Brett Lane,Nicholas Kortessis,Robert D Holt,Keith Clay,Philip F Harmon,S Luke Flory

    Non-native invasive plants can establish in natural areas, where they can be ecologically damaging and costly to manage. Like cultivated plants, invasive plants can experience a relatively disease-free period upon introduction and accumulate pathogens over time. Diseases of invasive plant populations are infrequently studied compared to diseases of agriculture, forestry, and even native plant populations

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Tolerance of Plants to Pathogens: A Unifying View.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Israel Pagán,Fernando García-Arenal

    Increasing evidence indicates that tolerance is a host defense strategy against pathogens as widespread and successful as resistance. Since the concept of tolerance was proposed more than a century ago, it has been in continuous evolution. In parallel, our understanding of its mechanistic bases and its consequences for host and pathogen interactions, ecology, and evolution has grown. This review aims

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Social Evolution and Cheating in Plant Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Maren L Friesen

    Plant pathogens are a critical component of the microbiome that exist as populations undergoing ecological and evolutionary processes within their host. Many aspects of virulence rely on social interactions mediated through multiple forms of public goods, including quorum-sensing signals, exoenzymes, and effectors. Virulence and disease progression involve life-history decisions that have social implications

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Deep Roots and Splendid Boughs of the Global Plant Virome.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Valerian V Dolja,Mart Krupovic,Eugene V Koonin

    Land plants host a vast and diverse virome that is dominated by RNA viruses, with major additional contributions from reverse-transcribing and single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses. Here, we introduce the recently adopted comprehensive taxonomy of viruses based on phylogenomic analyses, as applied to the plant virome. We further trace the evolutionary ancestry of distinct plant virus lineages to primordial

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Gall-Inducing Parasites: Convergent and Conserved Strategies of Plant Manipulation by Insects and Nematodes.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Bruno Favery,Géraldine Dubreuil,Ming-Shun Chen,David Giron,Pierre Abad

    Gall-inducing insects and nematodes engage in sophisticated interactions with their host plants. These parasites can induce major morphological and physiological changes in host roots, leaves, and other tissues. Sedentary endoparasitic nematodes, root-knot and cyst nematodes in particular, as well as gall-inducing and leaf-mining insects, manipulate plant development to form unique organs that provide

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Surviving in a Hostile World: Plant Strategies to Resist Pests and Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Samuel W Wilkinson,Melissa H Magerøy,Ana López Sánchez,Lisa M Smith,Leonardo Furci,T E Anne Cotton,Paal Krokene,Jurriaan Ton

    As primary producers, plants are under constant pressure to defend themselves against potentially deadly pathogens and herbivores. In this review, we describe short- and long-term strategies that enable plants to cope with these stresses. Apart from internal immunological strategies that involve physiological and (epi)genetic modifications at the cellular level, plants also employ external strategies

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Interactions and Coadaptation in Plant Metaorganisms.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    M Amine Hassani,Ezgi Özkurt,Heike Seybold,Tal Dagan,Eva H Stukenbrock

    Plants associate with a wide diversity of microorganisms. Some microorganisms engage in intimate associations with the plant host, collectively forming a metaorganism. Such close coexistence with plants requires specific adaptations that allow microorganisms to overcome plant defenses and inhabit plant tissues during growth and reproduction. New data suggest that the plant immune system has a broader

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • A Decade Decoded: Spies and Hackers in the History of TAL Effectors Research.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Alvaro L Perez-Quintero,Boris Szurek

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from the genus Xanthomonas are proteins with the remarkable ability to directly bind the promoters of genes in the plant host to induce their expression, which often helps bacterial colonization. Metaphorically, TALEs act as spies that infiltrate the plant disguised as high-ranking civilians (transcription factors) to trick the plant into activating weak

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Understanding Adaptation, Coevolution, Host Specialization, and Mating System in Castrating Anther-Smut Fungi by Combining Population and Comparative Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Fanny E Hartmann,Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega,Fantin Carpentier,Pierre Gladieux,Amandine Cornille,Michael E Hood,Tatiana Giraud

    Anther-smut fungi provide a powerful system to study host-pathogen specialization and coevolution, with hundreds of Microbotryum species specialized on diverse Caryophyllaceae plants, castrating their hosts through manipulation of the hosts' reproductive organs to facilitate disease transmission. Microbotryum fungi have exceptional genomic characteristics, including dimorphic mating-type chromosomes

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Molecular Interactions Between Smut Fungi and Their Host Plants.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Weiliang Zuo,Bilal Ökmen,Jasper R L Depotter,Malaika K Ebert,Amey Redkar,Johana Misas Villamil,Gunther Doehlemann

    Smut fungi are a large group of biotrophic plant pathogens that infect mostly monocot species, including economically relevant cereal crops. For years, Ustilago maydis has stood out as the model system to study the genetics and cell biology of smut fungi as well as the pathogenic development of biotrophic plant pathogens. The identification and functional characterization of secreted effectors and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Never Walk Alone: Clathrin-Coated Vesicle (CCV) Components in Plant Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Gayani Ekanayake,Erica D LaMontagne,Antje Heese

    At the host-pathogen interface, the protein composition of the plasma membrane (PM) has important implications for how a plant cell perceives and responds to invading microbial pathogens. A plant's ability to modulate its PM composition is critical for regulating the strength, duration, and integration of immune responses. One mechanism by which plant cells reprogram their cell surface is vesicular

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Activity and Phylogenetics of the Broadly Occurring Family of Microbial Nep1-Like Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Michael F Seidl,Guido Van den Ackerveken

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLP) have an extremely broad taxonomic distribution; they occur in bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. NLPs come in two forms, those that are cytotoxic to eudicot plants and those that are noncytotoxic. Cytotoxic NLPs bind to glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramide (GIPC) sphingolipids that are abundant in the outer leaflet of plant plasma membranes

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms of Infection by Gram-Positive, Plant-Associated Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Shree P Thapa,Edward W Davis,Qingyang Lyu,Alexandra J Weisberg,Danielle M Stevens,Christopher R Clarke,Gitta Coaker,Jeff H Chang

    Gram-positive bacteria are prominent members of plant-associated microbial communities. Although many are hypothesized to be beneficial, some are causative agents of economically important diseases of crop plants. Because the features of Gram-positive bacteria are fundamentally different relative to those of Gram-negative bacteria, the evolution and ecology as well as the mechanisms used to colonize

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Resolving Fusarium: Current Status of the Genus.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Brett A Summerell

    The fungal genus Fusarium is one of the most important groups of plant-pathogenic fungi and affects a huge diversity of crops in all climatic zones across the globe. In addition, it is also a human pathogen and produces several extremely important mycotoxins in food products that have deleterious effects on livestock and humans. These fungi have been plagued over the past century by different perspectives

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Ecology and Evolution of the Sudden Oak Death Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Niklaus J Grünwald,Jared M LeBoldus,Richard C Hamelin

    The sudden oak and sudden larch death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum emerged simultaneously in the United States on oak and in Europe on Rhododendron in the 1990s. This pathogen has had a devastating impact on larch plantations in the United Kingdom as well as mixed conifer and oak forests in the Western United States. Since the discovery of this pathogen, a large body of research has provided novel

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Molecular Dialog Between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Christopher R Clarke,Michael P Timko,John I Yoder,Michael J Axtell,James H Westwood

    Parasitic plants steal sugars, water, and other nutrients from host plants through a haustorial connection. Several species of parasitic plants such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are major biotic constraints to agricultural production. Parasitic plants are understudied compared with other major classes of plant pathogens, but the recent availability of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Durability of Quantitative Resistance in Crops: Greater Than We Know?
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Christina Cowger,James K M Brown

    Quantitative resistance (QR) to crop diseases has usually been much more durable than major-gene, effector-triggered resistance. It has been observed that the effectiveness of some QR has eroded as pathogens adapt to it, especially when deployment is extensive and epidemics occur regularly, but it generally declines more slowly than effector-triggered resistance. Changes in aggressiveness and specificity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Pathways of DNA Transfer to Plants from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Related Bacterial Species.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Benoît Lacroix,Vitaly Citovsky

    Genetic transformation of host plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related species represents a unique model for natural horizontal gene transfer. Almost five decades of studying the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and its host cells have yielded countless fundamental insights into bacterial and plant biology, even though several steps of the DNA transfer process remain poorly understood

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Plant Virus Vectors 3.0: Transitioning into Synthetic Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Will B Cody,Herman B Scholthof

    Plant viruses were first implemented as heterologous gene expression vectors more than three decades ago. Since then, the methodology for their use has varied, but we propose it was the merging of technologies with virology tools, which occurred in three defined steps discussed here, that has driven viral vector applications to date. The first was the advent of molecular biology and reverse genetics

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Boxwood Blight: Threat to Ornamentals.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Margery L Daughtrey

    Boxwood blight, caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata and Calonectria henricotiae, has had devastating effects in gardens since its first appearance in the United Kingdom in 1994. The disease affects two other plants in the Buxaceae: sweet box (Sarcococca spp.) and pachysandra (Pachysandra spp.). C. pseudonaviculata was likely introduced to Europe by nursery trade from East Asia on an ornamental species

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genome Editing, Gene Drives, and Synthetic Biology: Will They Contribute to Disease-Resistant Crops, and Who Will Benefit?
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Kevin V Pixley,Jose B Falck-Zepeda,Ken E Giller,Leland L Glenna,Fred Gould,Carol A Mallory-Smith,David M Stelly,C Neal Stewart

    Genetically engineered crops have been grown for more than 20 years, resulting in widespread albeit variable benefits for farmers and consumers. We review current, likely, and potential genetic engineering (GE) applications for the development of disease-resistant crop cultivars. Gene editing, gene drives, and synthetic biology offer novel opportunities to control viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Stealth Pathogens: The Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Fungal Complex.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Mark L Gleason,Rong Zhang,Jean C Batzer,Guangyu Sun

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi produce superficial, dark-colored colonies on fruits, stems, and leaves of many plant genera. These blemishes are economically damaging on fruit, primarily apple and pear, because they reduce the sale price of fresh fruit. Fungicide spray programs can control SBFS but are costly and impair human and environmental health; thus, less chemically intensive management

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Current Status of Potato Cyst Nematodes in North America.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Louise-Marie Dandurand,Inga A Zasada,Xiaohong Wang,Benjamin Mimee,Walter De Jong,Richard Novy,Jonathan Whitworth,Joseph C Kuhl

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida are internationally recognized quarantine pests. Although not widely distributed in either the United States or Canada, both are present and are regulated by the national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) of each country. G. rostochiensis was first discovered in New York in the 1940s, and G. pallida was first detected

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mangroves in the Leaves: Anatomy, Physiology, and Immunity of Epithemal Hydathodes.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Aude Cerutti,Alain Jauneau,Patrick Laufs,Nathalie Leonhardt,Martin H Schattat,Richard Berthomé,Jean-Marc Routaboul,Laurent D Noël

    Hydathodes are organs found on aerial parts of a wide range of plant species that provide almost direct access for several pathogenic microbes to the plant vascular system. Hydathodes are better known as the site of guttation, which is the release of droplets of plant apoplastic fluid to the outer leaf surface. Because these organs are only described through sporadic allusions in the literature, this

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Revisiting the Concept of Host Range of Plant Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Cindy E Morris,Benoît Moury

    Strategies to manage plant disease-from use of resistant varieties to crop rotation, elimination of reservoirs, landscape planning, surveillance, quarantine, risk modeling, and anticipation of disease emergences-all rely on knowledge of pathogen host range. However, awareness of the multitude of factors that influence the outcome of plant-microorganism interactions, the spatial and temporal dynamics

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Paving the Way to Tospovirus Infection: Multilined Interplays with Plant Innate Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Min Zhu,Irene Louise van Grinsven,Richard Kormelink,Xiaorong Tao

    Tospoviruses are among the most important plant pathogens and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Tospoviruses have evolved to smartly utilize the host cellular machinery to accomplish their life cycle. Plants mount two layers of defense to combat their invasion. The first one involves the activation of an antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) defense response. However, tospoviruses encode an RNA silencing

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Fusarium graminearum Trichothecene Mycotoxins: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Management
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Yun Chen; H. Corby Kistler; Zhonghua Ma

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species is an economically important plant disease worldwide. Fusarium infections not only result in severe yield losses but also contaminate grain with various mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). With the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, tremendous progress has been made during

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Lessons from a Life in Time and Space.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Jeremy J Burdon

    A research career investigating epidemiological and evolutionary patterns in both natural and crop host-pathogen systems emphasizes the need for flexibility in thinking and a willingness to adopt ideas from a wide diversity of subdisciplines. Here, I reflect on the pivotal issues, research areas, and interactions, including the role of science management, that shaped my career in the hope of demonstrating

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Future of Nanotechnology in Plant Pathology
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Wade Elmer, Jason C. White

    Engineered nanoparticles are materials between 1 and 100 nm and exist as metalloids, metallic oxides, nonmetals, and carbon nanomaterials and as functionalized dendrimers, liposomes, and quantum dots. Their small size, large surface area, and high reactivity have enabled their use as bactericides/ fungicides and nanofertilizers. Nanoparticles can be designed as biosensors for plant disease diagnostics

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Organic Amendments, Beneficial Microbes, and Soil Microbiota: Toward a Unified Framework for Disease Suppression
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Giuliano Bonanomi, Matteo Lorito, Francesco Vinale, Sheridan L. Woo

    Organic amendments (OAs) and soilborne biocontrol agents or beneficial microbes (BMs) have been extensively studied and applied worldwide in most agriculturally important plant species. However, poor integration of research and technical approaches has limited the development of effective disease management practices based on the combination of these two bio-based strategies. Insights into the importance

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • The Genome Biology of Effector Gene Evolution in Filamentous Plant Pathogens
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Andrea Sánchez-Vallet, Simone Fouché, Isabelle Fudal, Fanny E. Hartmann, Jessica L. Soyer, Aurélien Tellier, Daniel Croll

    Filamentous pathogens, including fungi and oomycetes, pose major threats to global food security. Crop pathogens cause damage by secreting effectors that manipulate the host to the pathogen's advantage. Genes encoding such effectors are among the most rapidly evolving genes in pathogen genomes. Here, we review how the major characteristics of the emergence, function, and regulation of effector genes

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Seeing the Light: The Roles of Red- and Blue-Light Sensing in Plant Microbes
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Gwyn A. Beattie, Bridget M. Hatfield, Haili Dong, Regina S. McGrane

    Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage) domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Joining the Crowd: Integrating Plant Virus Proteins into the Larger World of Pathogen Effectors
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Scott M. Leisner, James E. Schoelz

    The first bacterial and viral avirulence (avr) genes were cloned in 1984. Although virus and bacterial avr genes were physically isolated in the same year, the questions associated with their characterization after discovery were very different, and these differences had a profound influence on the narrative of host-pathogen interactions for the past 30 years. Bacterial avr proteins were subsequently

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Mechanisms Underlying Establishment of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Symbioses
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Jeongmin Choi, William Summers, Uta Paszkowski

    Most land plants engage in mutually beneficial interactions with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi, the fungus providing phosphate and nitrogen in exchange for fixed carbon. During presymbiosis, both organisms communicate via oligosaccharides and butenolides. The requirement for a rice chitin receptor in symbiosis-induced lateral root development suggests that cell division programs operate in inner

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Antibiotic Resistance in Plant-Pathogenic Bacteria
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    George W. Sundin, Nian Wang

    Antibiotics have been used for the management of relatively few bacterial plant diseases and are largely restricted to high-value fruit crops because of the expense involved. Antibiotic resistance in plant-pathogenic bacteria has become a problem in pathosystems where these antibiotics have been used for many years. Where the genetic basis for resistance has been examined, antibiotic resistance in

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Xylella fastidiosa: Insights into an Emerging Plant Pathogen
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Anne Sicard, Adam R. Zeilinger, Mathieu Vanhove, Tyler E. Schartel, Dylan J. Beal, Matthew P. Daugherty, Rodrigo P.P. Almeida

    The bacterium Xylella fastidiosa re-emerged as a plant pathogen of global importance in 2013 when it was first associated with an olive tree disease epidemic in Italy. The current threat to Europe and the Mediterranean basin, as well as other world regions, has increased as multiple X. fastidiosa genotypes have now been detected in Italy, France, and Spain. Although X. fastidiosa has been studied in

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • The Barberry Eradication Program in Minnesota for Stem Rust Control: A Case Study
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Paul D. Peterson

    The Barberry Eradication Program was an unprecedented federal and state cooperative plant disease control campaign between 1918 and the late 1970s to remove common barberry (Berberis vulgaris), the alternate host of Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, from the major centers of wheat production in the United States. Eradication of barberry has been credited with helping to reduce stem rust of wheat to

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Endosymbionts of Plant-Parasitic Nematodes
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Amanda M.V. Brown

    Some of the most agriculturally important plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) harbor endosymbionts. Extensive work in other systems has shown that endosymbionts can have major effects on host virulence and biology. This review highlights the discovery, development, and diversity of PPN endosymbionts, incorporating inferences from genomic data. Cardinium, reported from five PPN hosts to date, is characterized

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Structural, Functional, and Genomic Diversity of Plant NLR Proteins: An Evolved Resource for Rational Engineering of Plant Immunity
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Freddy Monteiro, Marc T. Nishimura

    Plants employ a diverse intracellular system of NLR (nucleotide binding–leucine-rich repeat) innate immune receptors to detect pathogens of all types. These receptors represent valuable agronomic traits that plant breeders rely on to maximize yield in the face of devastating pathogens. Despite their importance, the mechanistic underpinnings of NLR-based disease resistance remain obscure. The rapidly

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • The Changing Face of Bacterial Soft-Rot Diseases
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Amy O. Charkowski

    Bacterial soft rot is a disease complex caused by multiple genera of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, with Dickeya and Pectobacterium being the most widely studied soft-rot bacterial pathogens. In addition to soft rot, these bacteria also cause blackleg of potato, foot rot of rice, and bleeding canker of pear. Multiple Dickeya and Pectobacterium species cause the same symptoms on potato, complicating

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Biology of Fungi and Their Bacterial Endosymbionts
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Teresa E. Pawlowska, Maria L. Gaspar, Olga A. Lastovetsky, Stephen J. Mondo, Imperio Real-Ramirez, Evaniya Shakya, Paola Bonfante

    Heritable symbioses, in which endosymbiotic bacteria (EB) are transmitted vertically between host generations, are an important source of evolutionary novelties. A primary example of such symbioses is the eukaryotic cell with its EB-derived organelles. Recent discoveries suggest that endosymbiosis-related innovations can be also found in associations formed by early divergent fungi in the phylum Mucoromycota

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: An Evaluation of Virulence Theories
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Liangsheng Xu, Guoqing Li, Daohong Jiang, Weidong Chen

    Oxalic acid production in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has long been associated with virulence. Research involving UV-induced, genetically undefined mutants that concomitantly lost oxalate accumulation, sclerotial formation, and pathogenicity supported the conclusion that oxalate is an essential pathogenicity determinant of S. sclerotiorum. However, recent investigations showed that genetically defined

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Fitness Penalties in the Evolution of Fungicide Resistance
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    N.J. Hawkins, B.A. Fraaije

    The evolution of resistance poses an ongoing threat to crop protection. Fungicide resistance provides a selective advantage under fungicide selection, but resistance-conferring mutations may also result in fitness penalties, resulting in an evolutionary trade-off. These penalties may result from the functional constraints of an evolving target site or from the resource allocation costs of overexpression

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Multifaceted Impacts of Bacteriophages in the Plant Microbiome
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Britt Koskella, Tiffany B. Taylor

    Plant-associated bacteria face multiple selection pressures within their environments and have evolved countless adaptations that both depend on and shape bacterial phenotype and their interaction with plant hosts. Explaining bacterial adaptation and evolution therefore requires considering each of these forces independently as well as their interactions. In this review, we examine how bacteriophage

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Plant-Parasitic Nematodes and Food Security in Sub-Saharan Africa.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Danny L Coyne,Laura Cortada,Johnathan J Dalzell,Abiodun O Claudius-Cole,Solveig Haukeland,Nessie Luambano,Herbert Talwana

    Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) is a region beset with challenges, not least its ability to feed itself. Low agricultural productivity, exploding populations, and escalating urbanization have led to declining per capita food availability. In order to reverse this trend, crop production systems must intensify, which brings with it an elevated threat from pests and diseases, including plant-parasitic nematodes

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • The Rise and Rise of Nicotiana benthamiana: A Plant for All Reasons
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Julia Bally, Hyungtaek Jung, Cara Mortimer, Fatima Naim, Joshua G. Philips, Roger Hellens, Aureliano Bombarely, Michael M. Goodin, Peter M. Waterhouse

    A decade ago, the value of Nicotiana benthamiana as a tool for plant molecular biologists was beginning to be appreciated. Scientists were using it to study plant-microbe and protein-protein interactions, and it was the species of choice with which to activate plasmid-encoded viruses, screen for gene functions with virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS), and transiently express genes by leaf agroinfiltration

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Wheat Blast: Past, Present, and Future
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Paulo Cezar Ceresini, Vanina Lilián Castroagudín, Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues, Jonas Alberto Rios, Carlos Eduardo Aucique-Pérez, Silvino Intra Moreira, Eduardo Alves, Daniel Croll, João Leodato Nunes Maciel

    The devastating wheat blast disease first emerged in Brazil in 1985. The disease was restricted to South America until 2016, when a series of grain imports from Brazil led to a wheat blast outbreak in Bangladesh. Wheat blast is caused by Pyricularia graminis-tritici (Pygt), a species genetically distinct from the Pyricularia oryzae species that causes rice blast. Pygt has high genetic and phenotypic

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • Lessons from the Incursion of Myrtle Rust in Australia
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Angus J. Carnegie, Geoff S. Pegg

    Austropuccinia psidii (myrtle rust) is a globally invasive neotropical rust of the Myrtaceae that came into international prominence following extensive damage to exotic Eucalyptus plantations in Brazil in the 1970s and 1980s. In 2005, myrtle rust established in Hawaii (USA), and over the past 12 years has spread from the Americas into Asia, the Pacific, and South Africa. Myrtle rust was detected in

    更新日期:2018-08-27
  • CRISPR Crops: Plant Genome Editing Toward Disease Resistance
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2018-08-27
    Thorsten Langner, Sophien Kamoun, Khaoula Belhaj

    Genome editing by sequence-specific nucleases (SSNs) has revolutionized biology by enabling targeted modifications of genomes. Although routine plant genome editing emerged only a few years ago, we are already witnessing the first applications to improve disease resistance. In particular, CRISPR-Cas9 has democratized the use of genome editing in plants thanks to the ease and robustness of this method

    更新日期:2018-08-27
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