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  • Developing Public-Private Partnerships in Plant Pathology Extension: Case Studies and Opportunities in the United States.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Samuel G Markell,Gregory L Tylka,Edwin J Anderson,H Peter van Esse

    Public-private partnerships (PPPs) can be an effective and advantageous way to accomplish extension and outreach objectives in plant pathology. The greatest opportunities for extension-focused PPPs may be in response to large-scale or emerging disease management concerns or in addressing complex issues that impact agriculture, such as climate change, digital technology, and public perception of science

  • Disease in Invasive Plant Populations.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Erica M Goss,Amy E Kendig,Ashish Adhikari,Brett Lane,Nicholas Kortessis,Robert D Holt,Keith Clay,Philip F Harmon,S Luke Flory

    Non-native invasive plants can establish in natural areas, where they can be ecologically damaging and costly to manage. Like cultivated plants, invasive plants can experience a relatively disease-free period upon introduction and accumulate pathogens over time. Diseases of invasive plant populations are infrequently studied compared to diseases of agriculture, forestry, and even native plant populations

  • Modeling the Impact of Crop Diseases on Global Food Security.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Serge Savary,Laetitia Willocquet

    Plant pathology must contribute to improving food security in a safe operating space, which is shrinking as a result of declining natural resources, climate change, and the growing world population. This review analyzes the position of plant pathology in a nexus of relationships, which is mapped and where the coupled dynamics of crop growth, disease, and yield losses are modeled. We derive a hierarchy

  • Deep Roots and Splendid Boughs of the Global Plant Virome.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Valerian V Dolja,Mart Krupovic,Eugene V Koonin

    Land plants host a vast and diverse virome that is dominated by RNA viruses, with major additional contributions from reverse-transcribing and single-stranded (ss) DNA viruses. Here, we introduce the recently adopted comprehensive taxonomy of viruses based on phylogenomic analyses, as applied to the plant virome. We further trace the evolutionary ancestry of distinct plant virus lineages to primordial

  • Epigenetic Mechanisms in Nematode-Plant Interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Tarek Hewezi

    Epigenetic mechanisms play fundamental roles in regulating numerous biological processes in various developmental and environmental contexts. Three highly interconnected epigenetic control mechanisms, including small noncoding RNAs, DNA methylation, and histone modifications, contribute to the establishment of plant epigenetic profiles. During the past decade, a growing body of experimental work has

  • Tolerance of Plants to Pathogens: A Unifying View.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Israel Pagán,Fernando García-Arenal

    Increasing evidence indicates that tolerance is a host defense strategy against pathogens as widespread and successful as resistance. Since the concept of tolerance was proposed more than a century ago, it has been in continuous evolution. In parallel, our understanding of its mechanistic bases and its consequences for host and pathogen interactions, ecology, and evolution has grown. This review aims

  • Origins and Immunity Networking Functions of EDS1 Family Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Dmitry Lapin,Deepak D Bhandari,Jane E Parker

    The EDS1 family of structurally unique lipase-like proteins EDS1, SAG101, and PAD4 evolved in seed plants, on top of existing phytohormone and nucleotide-binding-leucine-rich-repeat (NLR) networks, to regulate immunity pathways against host-adapted biotrophic pathogens. Exclusive heterodimers between EDS1 and SAG101 or PAD4 create essential surfaces for resistance signaling. Phylogenomic information

  • Functional Ecology of Forest Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Jonàs Oliva,Ángel Redondo,Jan Stenlid

    Global change is putting pressure on forest pathologists who face increasingly complex problems. We argue that understanding interactive effects between forest pathogens and global warming, globalization, and land-use changes may benefit from a functional ecology mindset. Traits can be more informative about ecological functions than species inventories and may deliver a more mechanistic description

  • Progress in Biological Control of Weeds with Plant Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-08
    Louise Morin

    Plant pathogens have played an important role in weed biological control since the 1970s. So far, 36 fungal pathogens have been authorized for introduction across 18 countries for the classical biological control of weeds. Their safety record has been excellent, but questions continue to be asked about the risk that they could transfer to other plants. Quantitative data documenting their impact on

  • Ustilaginoidea virens: Insights into an Emerging Rice Pathogen.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Wenxian Sun,Jing Fan,Anfei Fang,Yuejiao Li,Muhammad Tariqjaveed,Dayong Li,Dongwei Hu,Wen-Ming Wang

    False smut of rice, caused by Ustilaginoidea virens, has become one of the most important diseases in rice-growing regions worldwide. The disease causes a significant yield loss and imposes health threats to humans and animals by producing mycotoxins. In this review, we update our understanding of the pathogen, including the disease cycle and infection strategies, the decoding of the U. virens genome

  • Surviving in a Hostile World: Plant Strategies to Resist Pests and Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Samuel W Wilkinson,Melissa H Magerøy,Ana López Sánchez,Lisa M Smith,Leonardo Furci,T E Anne Cotton,Paal Krokene,Jurriaan Ton

    As primary producers, plants are under constant pressure to defend themselves against potentially deadly pathogens and herbivores. In this review, we describe short- and long-term strategies that enable plants to cope with these stresses. Apart from internal immunological strategies that involve physiological and (epi)genetic modifications at the cellular level, plants also employ external strategies

  • Interactions and Coadaptation in Plant Metaorganisms.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    M Amine Hassani,Ezgi Özkurt,Heike Seybold,Tal Dagan,Eva H Stukenbrock

    Plants associate with a wide diversity of microorganisms. Some microorganisms engage in intimate associations with the plant host, collectively forming a metaorganism. Such close coexistence with plants requires specific adaptations that allow microorganisms to overcome plant defenses and inhabit plant tissues during growth and reproduction. New data suggest that the plant immune system has a broader

  • A Decade Decoded: Spies and Hackers in the History of TAL Effectors Research.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Alvaro L Perez-Quintero,Boris Szurek

    Transcription activator-like effectors (TALEs) from the genus Xanthomonas are proteins with the remarkable ability to directly bind the promoters of genes in the plant host to induce their expression, which often helps bacterial colonization. Metaphorically, TALEs act as spies that infiltrate the plant disguised as high-ranking civilians (transcription factors) to trick the plant into activating weak

  • Understanding Adaptation, Coevolution, Host Specialization, and Mating System in Castrating Anther-Smut Fungi by Combining Population and Comparative Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Fanny E Hartmann,Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega,Fantin Carpentier,Pierre Gladieux,Amandine Cornille,Michael E Hood,Tatiana Giraud

    Anther-smut fungi provide a powerful system to study host-pathogen specialization and coevolution, with hundreds of Microbotryum species specialized on diverse Caryophyllaceae plants, castrating their hosts through manipulation of the hosts' reproductive organs to facilitate disease transmission. Microbotryum fungi have exceptional genomic characteristics, including dimorphic mating-type chromosomes

  • Molecular Interactions Between Smut Fungi and Their Host Plants.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Weiliang Zuo,Bilal Ökmen,Jasper R L Depotter,Malaika K Ebert,Amey Redkar,Johana Misas Villamil,Gunther Doehlemann

    Smut fungi are a large group of biotrophic plant pathogens that infect mostly monocot species, including economically relevant cereal crops. For years, Ustilago maydis has stood out as the model system to study the genetics and cell biology of smut fungi as well as the pathogenic development of biotrophic plant pathogens. The identification and functional characterization of secreted effectors and

  • Never Walk Alone: Clathrin-Coated Vesicle (CCV) Components in Plant Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Gayani Ekanayake,Erica D LaMontagne,Antje Heese

    At the host-pathogen interface, the protein composition of the plasma membrane (PM) has important implications for how a plant cell perceives and responds to invading microbial pathogens. A plant's ability to modulate its PM composition is critical for regulating the strength, duration, and integration of immune responses. One mechanism by which plant cells reprogram their cell surface is vesicular

  • Activity and Phylogenetics of the Broadly Occurring Family of Microbial Nep1-Like Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Michael F Seidl,Guido Van den Ackerveken

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing peptide 1 (Nep1)-like proteins (NLP) have an extremely broad taxonomic distribution; they occur in bacteria, fungi, and oomycetes. NLPs come in two forms, those that are cytotoxic to eudicot plants and those that are noncytotoxic. Cytotoxic NLPs bind to glycosyl inositol phosphoryl ceramide (GIPC) sphingolipids that are abundant in the outer leaflet of plant plasma membranes

  • The Evolution, Ecology, and Mechanisms of Infection by Gram-Positive, Plant-Associated Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Shree P Thapa,Edward W Davis,Qingyang Lyu,Alexandra J Weisberg,Danielle M Stevens,Christopher R Clarke,Gitta Coaker,Jeff H Chang

    Gram-positive bacteria are prominent members of plant-associated microbial communities. Although many are hypothesized to be beneficial, some are causative agents of economically important diseases of crop plants. Because the features of Gram-positive bacteria are fundamentally different relative to those of Gram-negative bacteria, the evolution and ecology as well as the mechanisms used to colonize

  • Resolving Fusarium: Current Status of the Genus.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Brett A Summerell

    The fungal genus Fusarium is one of the most important groups of plant-pathogenic fungi and affects a huge diversity of crops in all climatic zones across the globe. In addition, it is also a human pathogen and produces several extremely important mycotoxins in food products that have deleterious effects on livestock and humans. These fungi have been plagued over the past century by different perspectives

  • Ecology and Evolution of the Sudden Oak Death Pathogen Phytophthora ramorum.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Niklaus J Grünwald,Jared M LeBoldus,Richard C Hamelin

    The sudden oak and sudden larch death pathogen Phytophthora ramorum emerged simultaneously in the United States on oak and in Europe on Rhododendron in the 1990s. This pathogen has had a devastating impact on larch plantations in the United Kingdom as well as mixed conifer and oak forests in the Western United States. Since the discovery of this pathogen, a large body of research has provided novel

  • Molecular Dialog Between Parasitic Plants and Their Hosts.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Christopher R Clarke,Michael P Timko,John I Yoder,Michael J Axtell,James H Westwood

    Parasitic plants steal sugars, water, and other nutrients from host plants through a haustorial connection. Several species of parasitic plants such as witchweeds (Striga spp.) and broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) are major biotic constraints to agricultural production. Parasitic plants are understudied compared with other major classes of plant pathogens, but the recent availability of

  • Durability of Quantitative Resistance in Crops: Greater Than We Know?
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Christina Cowger,James K M Brown

    Quantitative resistance (QR) to crop diseases has usually been much more durable than major-gene, effector-triggered resistance. It has been observed that the effectiveness of some QR has eroded as pathogens adapt to it, especially when deployment is extensive and epidemics occur regularly, but it generally declines more slowly than effector-triggered resistance. Changes in aggressiveness and specificity

  • Pathways of DNA Transfer to Plants from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Related Bacterial Species.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Benoît Lacroix,Vitaly Citovsky

    Genetic transformation of host plants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens and related species represents a unique model for natural horizontal gene transfer. Almost five decades of studying the molecular interactions between Agrobacterium and its host cells have yielded countless fundamental insights into bacterial and plant biology, even though several steps of the DNA transfer process remain poorly understood

  • Plant Virus Vectors 3.0: Transitioning into Synthetic Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Will B Cody,Herman B Scholthof

    Plant viruses were first implemented as heterologous gene expression vectors more than three decades ago. Since then, the methodology for their use has varied, but we propose it was the merging of technologies with virology tools, which occurred in three defined steps discussed here, that has driven viral vector applications to date. The first was the advent of molecular biology and reverse genetics

  • Boxwood Blight: Threat to Ornamentals.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Margery L Daughtrey

    Boxwood blight, caused by Calonectria pseudonaviculata and Calonectria henricotiae, has had devastating effects in gardens since its first appearance in the United Kingdom in 1994. The disease affects two other plants in the Buxaceae: sweet box (Sarcococca spp.) and pachysandra (Pachysandra spp.). C. pseudonaviculata was likely introduced to Europe by nursery trade from East Asia on an ornamental species

  • Genome Editing, Gene Drives, and Synthetic Biology: Will They Contribute to Disease-Resistant Crops, and Who Will Benefit?
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Kevin V Pixley,Jose B Falck-Zepeda,Ken E Giller,Leland L Glenna,Fred Gould,Carol A Mallory-Smith,David M Stelly,C Neal Stewart

    Genetically engineered crops have been grown for more than 20 years, resulting in widespread albeit variable benefits for farmers and consumers. We review current, likely, and potential genetic engineering (GE) applications for the development of disease-resistant crop cultivars. Gene editing, gene drives, and synthetic biology offer novel opportunities to control viral, bacterial, and fungal pathogens

  • Stealth Pathogens: The Sooty Blotch and Flyspeck Fungal Complex.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Mark L Gleason,Rong Zhang,Jean C Batzer,Guangyu Sun

    Sooty blotch and flyspeck (SBFS) fungi produce superficial, dark-colored colonies on fruits, stems, and leaves of many plant genera. These blemishes are economically damaging on fruit, primarily apple and pear, because they reduce the sale price of fresh fruit. Fungicide spray programs can control SBFS but are costly and impair human and environmental health; thus, less chemically intensive management

  • Current Status of Potato Cyst Nematodes in North America.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Louise-Marie Dandurand,Inga A Zasada,Xiaohong Wang,Benjamin Mimee,Walter De Jong,Richard Novy,Jonathan Whitworth,Joseph C Kuhl

    The potato cyst nematodes (PCNs) Globodera rostochiensis and Globodera pallida are internationally recognized quarantine pests. Although not widely distributed in either the United States or Canada, both are present and are regulated by the national plant protection organizations (NPPOs) of each country. G. rostochiensis was first discovered in New York in the 1940s, and G. pallida was first detected

  • Mangroves in the Leaves: Anatomy, Physiology, and Immunity of Epithemal Hydathodes.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Aude Cerutti,Alain Jauneau,Patrick Laufs,Nathalie Leonhardt,Martin H Schattat,Richard Berthomé,Jean-Marc Routaboul,Laurent D Noël

    Hydathodes are organs found on aerial parts of a wide range of plant species that provide almost direct access for several pathogenic microbes to the plant vascular system. Hydathodes are better known as the site of guttation, which is the release of droplets of plant apoplastic fluid to the outer leaf surface. Because these organs are only described through sporadic allusions in the literature, this

  • Revisiting the Concept of Host Range of Plant Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Cindy E Morris,Benoît Moury

    Strategies to manage plant disease-from use of resistant varieties to crop rotation, elimination of reservoirs, landscape planning, surveillance, quarantine, risk modeling, and anticipation of disease emergences-all rely on knowledge of pathogen host range. However, awareness of the multitude of factors that influence the outcome of plant-microorganism interactions, the spatial and temporal dynamics

  • Paving the Way to Tospovirus Infection: Multilined Interplays with Plant Innate Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Min Zhu,Irene Louise van Grinsven,Richard Kormelink,Xiaorong Tao

    Tospoviruses are among the most important plant pathogens and cause serious crop losses worldwide. Tospoviruses have evolved to smartly utilize the host cellular machinery to accomplish their life cycle. Plants mount two layers of defense to combat their invasion. The first one involves the activation of an antiviral RNA interference (RNAi) defense response. However, tospoviruses encode an RNA silencing

  • Fusarium graminearum Trichothecene Mycotoxins: Biosynthesis, Regulation, and Management
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Yun Chen; H. Corby Kistler; Zhonghua Ma

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) of small grain cereals caused by Fusarium graminearum and other Fusarium species is an economically important plant disease worldwide. Fusarium infections not only result in severe yield losses but also contaminate grain with various mycotoxins, especially deoxynivalenol (DON). With the complete genome sequencing of F. graminearum, tremendous progress has been made during

  • Lessons from a Life in Time and Space.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Jeremy J Burdon

    A research career investigating epidemiological and evolutionary patterns in both natural and crop host-pathogen systems emphasizes the need for flexibility in thinking and a willingness to adopt ideas from a wide diversity of subdisciplines. Here, I reflect on the pivotal issues, research areas, and interactions, including the role of science management, that shaped my career in the hope of demonstrating

  • Epidemiological models for invasion and persistence of pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Christopher A Gilligan,Frank van den Bosch

    Motivated by questions such as "Why do some diseases take off, while others die out?" and "How can we optimize the deployment of control methods," we introduce simple epidemiological concepts for the invasion and persistence of plant pathogens. An overarching modeling framework is then presented that can be used to analyze disease invasion and persistence at a range of scales from the microscopic to

  • Models of fungicide resistance dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Frank van den Bosch,Christopher A Gilligan

    We describe two classes of models used for fungicide and antibiotic resistance dynamics. One class assumes that the density of the pathogen (or severity of the disease caused by the pathogen) has no feedback effects on the rate at which new infections arise. The second class does not make this assumption. A quantitative relationship between these two classes is derived. We then discuss the two sets

  • Insect vector interactions with persistently transmitted viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Saskia A Hogenhout,El-Desouky Ammar,Anna E Whitfield,Margaret G Redinbaugh

    The majority of described plant viruses are transmitted by insects of the Hemipteroid assemblage that includes aphids, whiteflies, leafhoppers, planthoppers, and thrips. In this review we highlight progress made in research on vector interactions of the more than 200 plant viruses that are transmitted by hemipteroid insects beginning a few hours or days after acquisition and for up to the life of the

  • Direct and indirect roles of viral suppressors of RNA silencing in pathogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Juan A Díaz-Pendón,Shou-Wei Ding

    Plant and animal viruses overcome host antiviral silencing by encoding diverse viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs). Prior to the identification and characterization of their silencing suppression activities mostly in transgene silencing assays, plant VSRs were known to enhance virus accumulation in the inoculated protoplasts, promote cell-to-cell virus movement in the inoculated leaves, facilitate

  • Siderophores in fungal physiology and virulence.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Hubertus Haas,Martin Eisendle,B Gillian Turgeon

    Maintaining the appropriate balance of iron between deficiency and toxicity requires fine-tuned control of systems for iron uptake and storage. Both among fungal species and within a single species, different systems for acquisition, storage, and regulation of iron are present. Here we discuss the most recent findings on the mechanisms involved in maintaining iron homeostasis with a focus on siderophores

  • The origins of plant pathogens in agro-ecosystems.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Eva H Stukenbrock,Bruce A McDonald

    Plant pathogens can emerge in agricultural ecosystems through several mechanisms, including host-tracking, host jumps, hybridization and horizontal gene transfer. High-throughput DNA sequencing coupled with new analytical approaches make it possible to differentiate among these mechanisms and to infer the time and place where pathogens first emerged. We present several examples to illustrate the different

  • Plants as a habitat for beneficial and/or human pathogenic bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Heather L Tyler,Eric W Triplett

    Non-plant pathogenic endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, improve nitrogen nutrition, and, in some cases, are human pathogens. Recent work in several laboratories has shown that enteric bacteria are common inhabitants of the interior of plants. These observations led to the experiments that showed the entry into plants of enteric human pathogens such as Salmonella and E. coli O157:H7. The

  • The powdery mildews: a review of the world's most familiar (yet poorly known) plant pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Dean A Glawe

    The past decade has seen fundamental changes in our understanding of powdery mildews (Erysiphales). Research on molecular phylogeny demonstrated that Erysiphales are Leotiomycetes (inoperculate discomycetes) rather than Pyrenomycetes or Plectomycetes. Life cycles are surprisingly variable, including both sexual and asexual states, or only sexual states, or only asexual states. At least one species

  • The origin of Ceratocystis fagacearum, the oak wilt fungus.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Jennifer Juzwik,Thomas C Harrington,William L MacDonald,David N Appel

    The oak wilt pathogen, Ceratocystis fagacearum, may be another example of a damaging, exotic species in forest ecosystems in the United States. Though C. fagacearum has received much research attention, the origin of the fungus is unknown. The pathogen may have been endemic at a low incidence until increased disturbances, changes in land use, and forest management created conditions favorable for disease

  • The phenotypic expression of a genotype: bringing muddy boots and micropipettes together.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Roger Hull

    Starting with the influences of having a father who was an agricultural plant pathologist, I sketch my career through university and research institute from field epidemiology, basic virus characterization to molecular biology. I note what I consider to be the highlights of my scientific career and the events that shaped the development of my thinking. These include secondment to teach in a university

  • Plant viruses as biotemplates for materials and their use in nanotechnology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-05-14
    Mark Young,Debbi Willits,Masaki Uchida,Trevor Douglas

    In recent years, plant virus capsids, the protein shells that form the surface of a typical plant virus particle, have emerged as useful biotemplates for material synthesis. All virus capsids are assembled from virus-coded protein subunits. Many plant viruses assemble capsids with precise 3D structures providing nanoscale architectures that are highly homogeneous and can be produced in large quantities

  • Identification and rational design of novel antimicrobial peptides for plant protection.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-04-29
    Jose F Marcos,Alberto Muñoz,Enrique Pérez-Payá,Santosh Misra,Belén López-García

    Peptides and small proteins exhibiting antimicrobial activity have been isolated from many organisms ranging from insects to humans, including plants. Their role in defense is established, and their use in agriculture was already being proposed shortly after their discovery. However, some natural peptides have undesirable properties that complicate their application. Advances in peptide synthesis and

  • Breaking the barriers: microbial effector molecules subvert plant immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Vera Göhre,Silke Robatzek

    Adaptation to specialized environments allows microorganisms to inhabit an enormous variety of ecological niches. Growth inside plant tissues is a niche offering a constant nutrient supply, but to access this niche, plant defense mechanisms ranging from passive barriers to induced defense reactions have to be overcome. Pathogens have to break several, if not all, of these barriers. For this purpose

  • Role of stomata in plant innate immunity and foliar bacterial diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Maeli Melotto,William Underwood,Sheng Yang He

    Pathogen entry into host tissue is a critical first step in causing infection. For foliar bacterial plant pathogens, natural surface openings, such as stomata, are important entry sites. Historically, these surface openings have been considered as passive portals of entry for plant pathogenic bacteria. However, recent studies have shown that stomata can play an active role in limiting bacterial invasion

  • Living in two worlds: the plant and insect lifestyles of Xylella fastidiosa.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Subhadeep Chatterjee,Rodrigo P P Almeida,Steven Lindow

    Diseases caused by Xylella fastidiosa have attained great importance worldwide as the pathogen and its insect vectors have been disseminated. Since this is the first plant pathogenic bacterium for which a complete genome sequence was determined, much progress has been made in understanding the process by which it spreads within the xylem vessels of susceptible plants as well as the traits that contribute

  • Yeast as a model host to explore plant virus-host interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Peter D Nagy

    The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is invaluable for understanding fundamental cellular processes and disease states of relevance to higher eukaryotes. Plant viruses are intracellular parasites that take advantage of resources of the host cell, and a simple eukaryotic cell, such as yeast, can provide all or most of the functions for successful plant virus replication. Thus, yeast has been used as a

  • Microarrays for rapid identification of plant viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-08-19
    Neil Boonham,Jenny Tomlinson,Rick Mumford

    Many factors affect the development and application of diagnostic techniques. Plant viruses are an inherently diverse group that, unlike cellular pathogens, possess no nucleotide sequence type (e.g., ribosomal RNA sequences) in common. Detection of plant viruses is becoming more challenging as globalization of trade, particularly in ornamentals, and the potential effects of climate change enhance the

  • Identifying microorganisms involved in specific pathogen suppression in soil.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    James Borneman,J Ole Becker

    Suppressive soils hold considerable potential for managing soilborne pathogens. When the suppressiveness has a biological origin, identifying the causal organisms is the crucial step in realizing this potential. Armed with such knowledge, it may be possible to develop effective and sustainable pest management strategies through application of these organisms or agronomic practices that influence their

  • Elicitors, effectors, and R genes: the new paradigm and a lifetime supply of questions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Andrew F Bent,David Mackey

    The plant basal immune system can detect broadly present microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs, also called PAMPs) and induce defenses, but adapted microbes express a suite of effector proteins that often act to suppress these defenses. Plants have evolved other receptors (R proteins) that detect these pathogen effectors and activate strong defenses. Pathogens can subsequently alter or delete

  • Magnaporthe as a model for understanding host-pathogen interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-11
    Daniel J Ebbole

    The rice blast pathosystem has been the subject of intense interest in part because of the importance of the disease to world agriculture, but also because both Magnaporthe oryzae and its host are amenable to advanced experimental approaches. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the system and to point out recent significant studies that update our understanding of the biology of M

  • Challenges in tropical plant nematology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-11
    Dirk De Waele,Annemie Elsen

    A major challenge facing agricultural scientists today is the need to secure food for an increasing world population. This growth occurs predominantly in developing, mostly tropical countries, where the majority of hungry people live. Reducing yield losses caused by pathogens of tropical agricultural crops is one measure that can contribute to increased food production. Although plant-parasitic nematodes

  • Transcript profiling in host-pathogen interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-08
    Roger P Wise,Matthew J Moscou,Adam J Bogdanove,Steven A Whitham

    Using genomic technologies, it is now possible to address research hypotheses in the context of entire developmental or biochemical pathways, gene networks, and chromosomal location of relevant genes and their inferred evolutionary history. Through a range of platforms, researchers can survey an entire transcriptome under a variety of experimental and field conditions. Interpretation of such data has

  • The epidemiology and management of seedborne bacterial diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-05-04
    Ronald Gitaitis,Ronald Walcott

    Although seed production has been moved to semiarid regions to escape seedborne pathogens, seedborne bacterial diseases continue to be problematic and cause significant economic losses worldwide. Infested seeds are responsible for the re-emergence of diseases of the past, movement of pathogens across international borders, or the introduction of diseases into new areas. Considerable attention has been

  • Noel T. Keen--pioneer leader in molecular plant pathology.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-04-27
    Alan Collmer,Scott Gold

    Noel T. Keen (1940-2002) made pioneering contributions to molecular plant pathology during a period when the study of disease mechanisms was transformed by the new tools of molecular genetics. His primary contributions involved race-specific elicitors of plant defenses and bacterial pectic enzymes. In collaboration with Brian J. Staskawicz and Frances Jurnak, respectively, Noel cloned the first avirulence

  • Flax rust resistance gene specificity is based on direct resistance-avirulence protein interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-04-14
    Jeffrey G Ellis,Peter N Dodds,Gregory J Lawrence

    Genetic studies of the flax-flax rust interaction led to the formulation of the gene-for-gene hypothesis and identified resistance genes (R) in the host plant and pathogenicity genes, including avirulence (Avr) and inhibitor of avirulence genes (I), in the rust pathogen. R genes have now been cloned from four of the five loci in flax and all encode proteins of the Toll, Interleukin-1 receptor, R gene-nucleotide

  • Reniform in U.S. cotton: when, where, why, and some remedies.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-04-13
    A Forest Robinson

    The reniform nematode, Rotylenchulus reniformis, is an emerging problem in U.S. cotton. The impact of this nematode and the extent to which it has and will continue to spread across the U.S. cotton belt are controversial. Long-term changes in cotton production and unique biological attributes of R. reniformis are key factors. Expert opinion surveys indicate that R. reniformis has replaced the root-knot

  • Virus-induced disease: altering host physiology one interaction at a time.
    Annu. Rev. Phytopathol. (IF 12.623) Pub Date : 2007-04-10
    James N Culver,Meenu S Padmanabhan

    Virus infections are the cause of numerous plant disease syndromes that are generally characterized by the induction of disease symptoms such as developmental abnormalities, chlorosis, and necrosis. How viruses induce these disease symptoms represents a long-standing question in plant pathology. Recent studies indicate that symptoms are derived from specific interactions between virus and host components

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