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  • From Bacteriophage to Plant Genetics
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Barbara Hohn

    When first asked to write a review of my life as a scientist, I doubted anyone would be interested in reading it. In addition, I did not really want to compose my own memorial. However, after discussing the idea with other scientists who have written autobiographies, I realized that it might be fun to dig into my past and to reflect on what has been important for me, my life, my family, my friends and colleagues, and my career. My life and research has taken me from bacteriophage to Agrobacterium tumefaciens–mediated DNA transfer to plants to the plant genome and its environmentally induced changes. I went from being a naïve, young student to a postdoc and married mother of two to the leader of an ever-changing group of fantastic coworkers—a journey made rich by many interesting scientific milestones, fascinating exploration of all corners of the world, and marvelous friendships.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Assembly of the Complexes of the Oxidative Phosphorylation System in Land Plant Mitochondria
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Etienne H. Meyer, Elina Welchen, Chris Carrie

    Plant mitochondria play a major role during respiration by producing the ATP required for metabolism and growth. ATP is produced during oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS), a metabolic pathway coupling electron transfer with ADP phosphorylation via the formation and release of a proton gradient across the inner mitochondrial membrane. The OXPHOS system is composed of large, multiprotein complexes coordinating metal-containing cofactors for the transfer of electrons. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge about assembly of the OXPHOS complexes in land plants. We present the different steps involved in the formation of functional complexes and the regulatory mechanisms controlling the assembly pathways. Because several assembly steps have been found to be ancestral in plants—compared with those described in fungal and animal models—we discuss the evolutionary dynamics that lead to the conservation of ancestral pathways in land plant mitochondria.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Chloroplast Lipids and Their Biosynthesis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Georg Hölzl, Peter Dörmann

    Chloroplasts contain high amounts of monogalactosyldiacylglycerol (MGDG) and digalactosyldiacylglycerol (DGDG) and low levels of the anionic lipids sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), and glucuronosyldiacylglycerol (GlcADG). The mostly extraplastidial lipid phosphatidylcholine is found only in the outer envelope. Chloroplasts are the major site for fatty acid synthesis. In Arabidopsis, a certain proportion of glycerolipids is entirely synthesized in the chloroplast (prokaryotic lipids). Fatty acids are also exported to the endoplasmic reticulum and incorporated into lipids that are redistributed to the chloroplast (eukaryotic lipids). MGDG, DGDG, SQDG, and PG establish the thylakoid membranes and are integral constituents of the photosynthetic complexes. Phosphate deprivation induces phospholipid degradation accompanied by the increase in DGDG, SQDG, and GlcADG. During freezing and drought stress, envelope membranes are stabilized by the conversion of MGDG into oligogalactolipids. Senescence and chlorotic stress lead to lipid and chlorophyll degradation and the deposition of acyl and phytyl moieties as fatty acid phytyl esters.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Conditional Protein Function via N-Degron Pathway–Mediated Proteostasis in Stress Physiology
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Nico Dissmeyer

    The N-degron pathway, formerly the N-end rule pathway, regulates functions of regulatory proteins. It impacts protein half-life and therefore directs the actual presence of target proteins in the cell. The current concept holds that the N-degron pathway depends on the identity of the amino (N)-terminal amino acid and many other factors, such as the follow-up sequence at the N terminus, conformation, flexibility, and protein localization. It is evolutionarily conserved throughout the kingdoms. One possible entry point for substrates of the N-degron pathway is oxidation of N-terminal Cys residues. Oxidation of N-terminal Cys is decisive for further enzymatic modification of various neo–N termini by arginylation that generates potentially neofunctionalized or instable proteoforms. Here, I focus on the posttranslational modifications that are encompassed by protein degradation via the Cys/Arg branch of the N-degron pathway—part of the PROTEOLYSIS 6 (PRT6)/N-degron pathway—as well as the underlying physiological principles of this branch and its biological significance in stress response.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Scope, Functions, and Dynamics of Posttranslational Protein Modifications
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    A. Harvey Millar, Joshua L. Heazlewood, Carmela Giglione, Michael J. Holdsworth, Andreas Bachmair, Waltraud X. Schulze

    Assessing posttranslational modification (PTM) patterns within protein molecules and reading their functional implications present grand challenges for plant biology. We combine four perspectives on PTMs and their roles by considering five classes of PTMs as examples of the broader context of PTMs. These include modifications of the N terminus, glycosylation, phosphorylation, oxidation, and N-terminal and protein modifiers linked to protein degradation. We consider the spatial distribution of PTMs, the subcellular distribution of modifying enzymes, and their targets throughout the cell, and we outline the complexity of compartmentation in understanding of PTM function. We also consider PTMs temporally in the context of the lifetime of a protein molecule and the need for different PTMs for assembly, localization, function, and degradation. Finally, we consider the combined action of PTMs on the same proteins, their interactions, and the challenge ahead of integrating PTMs into an understanding of protein function in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Look Closely, the Beautiful May Be Small: Precursor-Derived Peptides in Plants
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Vilde Olsson, Lisa Joos, Shanshuo Zhu, Kris Gevaert, Melinka A. Butenko, Ive De Smet

    During the past decade, a flurry of research focusing on the role of peptides as short- and long-distance signaling molecules in plant cell communication has been undertaken. Here, we focus on peptides derived from nonfunctional precursors, and we address several key questions regarding peptide signaling. We provide an overview of the regulatory steps involved in producing a biologically active peptide ligand that can bind its corresponding receptor(s) and discuss how this binding and subsequent activation lead to specific cellular outputs. We discuss different experimental approaches that can be used to match peptide ligands with their receptors. Lastly, we explore how peptides evolved from basic signaling units regulating essential processes in plants to more complex signaling systems as new adaptive traits developed and how nonplant organisms exploit this signaling machinery by producing peptide mimics.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Next-Gen Approaches to Flavor-Related Metabolism
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Guangtao Zhu, Junbo Gou, Harry Klee, Sanwen Huang

    Although flavor is an essential element for consumer acceptance of food, breeding programs have focused primarily on yield, leading to significant declines in flavor for many vegetables. The deterioration of flavor quality has concerned breeders; however, the complexity of this trait has hindered efforts to improve or even maintain it. Recently, the integration of flavor-associated metabolic profiling with other omics methodologies derived from big data has become a prominent trend in this research field. Here, we provide an overview of known metabolites contributing to flavor in the major vegetables as well as genetic analyses of the relevant metabolic pathways based on different approaches, especially multi-omics. We present examples demonstrating how omics analyses can help us to understand the accomplishments of historical flavor breeding practices and implement further improvements. The integration of genetics, cultivation, and postharvest practices with genome-scale data analyses will create enormous potential for further flavor quality improvements.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Heterotrimeric G-Protein Signaling in Plants: Conserved and Novel Mechanisms
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Sona Pandey

    Heterotrimeric GTP-binding proteins are key regulators of a multitude of signaling pathways in all eukaryotes. Although the core G-protein components and their basic biochemistries are broadly conserved throughout evolution, the regulatory mechanisms of G proteins seem to have been rewired in plants to meet specific needs. These proteins are currently the focus of intense research in plants due to their involvement in many agronomically important traits, such as seed yield, organ size regulation, biotic and abiotic stress responses, symbiosis, and nitrogen use efficiency. The availability of massive sequence information from a variety of plant species, extensive biochemical data generated over decades, and impressive genetic resources for plant G proteins have made it possible to examine their role, unique properties, and novel regulation. This review focuses on some recent advances in our understanding of the mechanistic details of this critical signaling pathway to enable the precise manipulation and generation of plants to meet future needs.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Division Plane Establishment and Cytokinesis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Pantelis Livanos, Sabine Müller

    Plant cells divide their cytoplasmic content by forming a new membrane compartment, the cell plate, via a rerouting of the secretory pathway toward the division plane aided by a dynamic cytoskeletal apparatus known as the phragmoplast. The phragmoplast expands centrifugally and directs the cell plate to the preselected division site at the plasma membrane to fuse with the parental wall. The division site is transiently decorated by the cytoskeletal preprophase band in preprophase and prophase, whereas a number of proteins discovered over the last decade reside continuously at the division site and provide a lasting spatial reference for phragmoplast guidance. Recent studies of membrane fusion at the cell plate have revealed the contribution of functionally conserved eukaryotic proteins to distinct stages of cell plate biogenesis and emphasize the coupling of cell plate formation with phragmoplast expansion. Together with novel findings concerning preprophase band function and the setup of the division site, cytokinesis and its spatial control remain an open-ended field with outstanding and challenging questions to resolve.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Control of Meristem Size
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Munenori Kitagawa, David Jackson

    A fascinating feature of plant growth and development is that plants initiate organs continually throughout their lifespan. The ability to do this relies on specialized groups of pluripotent stem cells termed meristems, which allow for the elaboration of the shoot, root, and vascular systems. We now have a deep understanding of the genetic networks that control meristem initiation and stem cell maintenance, including the roles of receptors and their ligands, transcription factors, and integrated hormonal and chromatin control. This review describes these networks and discusses how this knowledge is being applied to improve crop productivity by increasing fruit size and seed number.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Dynamics of Cambial Stem Cell Activity
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Urs Fischer, Melis Kucukoglu, Ykä Helariutta, Rishikesh P. Bhalerao

    Stem cell populations in meristematic tissues at distinct locations in the plant body provide the potency of continuous plant growth. Primary meristems, at the apices of the plant body, contribute mainly to the elongation of the main plant axes, whereas secondary meristems in lateral positions are responsible for the thickening of these axes. The stem cells of the vascular cambium—a secondary lateral meristem—produce the secondary phloem (bast) and secondary xylem (wood). The sites of primary and secondary growth are spatially separated, and mobile signals are expected to coordinate growth rates between apical and lateral stem cell populations. Although the underlying mechanisms have not yet been uncovered, it seems likely that hormones, peptides, and mechanical cues orchestrate primary and secondary growth. In this review, we highlight the current knowledge and recent discoveries of how cambial stem cell activity is regulated, with a focus on mobile signals and the response of cambial activity to environmental and stress factors.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Thermomorphogenesis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Jorge J. Casal, Sureshkumar Balasubramanian

    When exposed to warmer, nonstressful average temperatures, some plant organs grow and develop at a faster rate without affecting their final dimensions. Other plant organs show specific changes in morphology or development in a response termed thermomorphogenesis. Selected coding and noncoding RNA, chromatin features, alternative splicing variants, and signaling proteins change their abundance, localization, and/or intrinsic activity to mediate thermomorphogenesis. Temperature, light, and circadian clock cues are integrated to impinge on the level or signaling of hormones such as auxin, brassinosteroids, and gibberellins. The light receptor phytochrome B (phyB) is a temperature sensor, and the phyB–PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4)–auxin module is only one thread in a complex network that governs temperature sensitivity. Thermomorphogenesis offers an avenue to search for climate-smart plants to sustain crop and pasture productivity in the context of global climate change.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Leaf Senescence: Systems and Dynamics Aspects
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Hye Ryun Woo, Hyo Jung Kim, Pyung Ok Lim, Hong Gil Nam

    Leaf senescence is an important developmental process involving orderly disassembly of macromolecules for relocating nutrients from leaves to other organs and is critical for plants’ fitness. Leaf senescence is the response of an intricate integration of various environmental signals and leaf age information and involves a complex and highly regulated process with the coordinated actions of multiple pathways. Impressive progress has been made in understanding how senescence signals are perceived and processed, how the orderly degeneration process is regulated, how the senescence program interacts with environmental signals, and how senescence regulatory genes contribute to plant productivity and fitness. Employment of systems approaches using omics-based technologies and characterization of key regulators have been fruitful in providing newly emerging regulatory mechanisms. This review mainly discusses recent advances in systems understanding of leaf senescence from a molecular network dynamics perspective. Genetic strategies for improving the productivity and quality of crops are also described.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Plant Regeneration
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Momoko Ikeuchi, David S. Favero, Yuki Sakamoto, Akira Iwase, Duncan Coleman, Bart Rymen, Keiko Sugimoto

    Plants reprogram somatic cells following injury and regenerate new tissues and organs. Upon perception of inductive cues, somatic cells often dedifferentiate, proliferate, and acquire new fates to repair damaged tissues or develop new organs from wound sites. Wound stress activates transcriptional cascades to promote cell fate reprogramming and initiate new developmental programs. Wounding also modulates endogenous hormonal responses by triggering their biosynthesis and/or directional transport. Auxin and cytokinin play pivotal roles in determining cell fates in regenerating tissues and organs. Exogenous application of these plant hormones enhances regenerative responses in vitro by facilitating the activation of specific developmental programs. Many reprogramming regulators are epigenetically silenced during normal development but are activated by wound stress and/or hormonal cues.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Functional Status of Xylem Through Time
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Craig R. Brodersen, Adam B. Roddy, Jay W. Wason, Andrew J. McElrone

    Water transport in vascular plants represents a critical component of terrestrial water cycles and supplies the water needed for the exchange of CO2 in the atmosphere for photosynthesis. Yet, many fundamental principles of water transport are difficult to assess given the scale and location of plant xylem. Here we review the mechanistic principles that underpin long-distance water transport in vascular plants, with a focus on woody species. We also discuss the recent development of noninvasive tools to study the functional status of xylem networks in planta. Limitations of current methods to detect drought-induced xylem blockages (e.g., embolisms) and quantify corresponding declines in sap flow, and the coordination of hydraulic dysfunction with other physiological processes are assessed. Future avenues of research focused on cross-validation of plant hydraulics methods are discussed, as well as a proposed fundamental shift in the theory and methodology used to characterize and measure plant water use.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Networks of Seed Size Control in Plants
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Na Li, Ran Xu, Yunhai Li

    The size of seeds affects not only evolutionary fitness but also grain yield of crops. Understanding the mechanisms controlling seed size has become an important research field in plant science. Seed size is determined by the integrated signals of maternal and zygotic tissues, which control the coordinated growth of the embryo, endosperm, and seed coat. Recent advances have identified several signaling pathways that control seed size through maternal tissues, including or involving the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, G-protein signaling, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, phytohormone perception and homeostasis, and some transcriptional regulators. Meanwhile, growth of the zygotic tissues is regulated in part by the HAIKU (IKU) pathway and phytohormones. This review provides a general overview of current findings in seed size control and discusses the emerging molecular mechanisms and regulatory networks found to be involved.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular and Environmental Regulation of Root Development
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Hans Motte, Steffen Vanneste, Tom Beeckman

    In order to optimally establish their root systems, plants are endowed with several mechanisms to use at distinct steps during their development. In this review, we zoom in on the major processes involved in root development and detail important new insights that have been generated in recent studies, mainly using the Arabidopsis root as a model. First, we discuss new insights in primary root development with the characterization of tissue-specific transcription factor complexes and the identification of non-cell-autonomous control mechanisms in the root apical meristem. Next, root branching is discussed by focusing on the earliest steps in the development of a new lateral root and control of its postemergence growth. Finally, we discuss the impact of phosphate, nitrogen, and water availability on root development and summarize current knowledge about the major molecular mechanisms involved.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • MicroRNAs and Their Regulatory Roles in Plant–Environment Interactions
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Xianwei Song, Yan Li, Xiaofeng Cao, Yijun Qi

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are 20–24 nucleotide noncoding RNAs abundant in plants and animals. The biogenesis of plant miRNAs involves transcription of miRNA genes, processing of primary miRNA transcripts by DICER-LIKE proteins into mature miRNAs, and loading of mature miRNAs into ARGONAUTE proteins to form miRNA-induced silencing complex (miRISC). By targeting complementary sequences, miRISC negatively regulates gene expression, thereby coordinating plant development and plant–environment interactions. In this review, we present and discuss recent updates on the mechanisms and regulation of miRNA biogenesis, miRISC assembly and actions as well as the regulatory roles of miRNAs in plant developmental plasticity, abiotic/biotic responses, and symbiotic/parasitic interactions. Finally, we suggest future directions for plant miRNA research.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular Interactions Between Plants and Insect Herbivores
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Matthias Erb, Philippe Reymond

    Diverse molecular processes regulate the interactions between plants and insect herbivores. Here, we review genes and proteins that are involved in plant–herbivore interactions and discuss how their discovery has structured the current standard model of plant–herbivore interactions. Plants perceive damage-associated and, possibly, herbivore-associated molecular patterns via receptors that activate early signaling components such as Ca2+, reactive oxygen species, and MAP kinases. Specific defense reprogramming proceeds via signaling networks that include phytohormones, secondary metabolites, and transcription factors. Local and systemic regulation of toxins, defense proteins, physical barriers, and tolerance traits protect plants against herbivores. Herbivores counteract plant defenses through biochemical defense deactivation, effector-mediated suppression of defense signaling, and chemically controlled behavioral changes. The molecular basis of plant–herbivore interactions is now well established for model systems. Expanding molecular approaches to unexplored dimensions of plant–insect interactions should be a future priority.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Molecular View of Plant Local Adaptation: Incorporating Stress-Response Networks
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Acer VanWallendael, Ali Soltani, Nathan C. Emery, Murilo M. Peixoto, Jason Olsen, David B. Lowry

    Ecological specialization in plants occurs primarily through local adaptation to different environments. Local adaptation is widely thought to result in costly fitness trade-offs that result in maladaptation to alternative environments. However, recent studies suggest that such trade-offs are not universal. Further, there is currently a limited understanding of the molecular mechanisms responsible for fitness trade-offs associated with adaptation. Here, we review the literature on stress responses in plants to identify potential mechanisms underlying local adaptation and ecological specialization. We focus on drought, high and low temperature, flooding, herbivore, and pathogen stresses. We then synthesize our findings with recent advances in the local adaptation and plant molecular biology literature. In the process, we identify mechanisms that could cause fitness trade-offs and outline scenarios where trade-offs are not a necessary consequence of adaptation. Future studies should aim to explicitly integrate molecular mechanisms into studies of local adaptation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Evolution of Glucosinolate Diversity via Whole-Genome Duplications, Gene Rearrangements, and Substrate Promiscuity
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Brenden Barco, Nicole K. Clay

    Over several decades, glucosinolates have become a model system for the study of specialized metabolic diversity in plants. The near-complete identification of biosynthetic enzymes, regulators, and transporters has provided support for the role of gene duplication and subsequent changes in gene expression, protein function, and substrate specificity as the evolutionary bases of glucosinolate diversity. Here, we provide examples of how whole-genome duplications, gene rearrangements, and substrate promiscuity potentiated the evolution of glucosinolate biosynthetic enzymes, regulators, and transporters by natural selection. This in turn may have led to the repeated evolution of glucosinolate metabolism and diversity in higher plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Comparative and Functional Algal Genomics
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Crysten E. Blaby-Haas, Sabeeha S. Merchant

    Over 100 whole-genome sequences from algae are published or soon to be published. The rapidly increasing availability of these fundamental resources is changing how we understand one of the most diverse, complex, and understudied groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes. Genome sequences provide a window into the functional potential of individual algae, with phylogenomics and functional genomics as tools for contextualizing and transferring knowledge from reference organisms into less well-characterized systems. Remarkably, over half of the proteins encoded by algal genomes are of unknown function, highlighting the volume of functional capabilities yet to be discovered. In this review, we provide an overview of publicly available algal genomes, their associated protein inventories, and their quality, with a summary of the statuses of protein function understanding and predictions.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Genomics of Oryza Species Provides Insights into Rice Domestication and Heterosis
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Erwang Chen, Xuehui Huang, Zhixi Tian, Rod A. Wing, Bin Han

    Here, we review recent progress in genetic and genomic studies of the diversity of Oryza species. In recent years, unlocking the genetic diversity of Oryza species has provided insights into the genomics of rice domestication, heterosis, and complex traits. Genome sequencing and analysis of numerous wild rice (Oryza rufipogon) and Asian cultivated rice (Oryza sativa) accessions have enabled the identification of genome-wide signatures of rice domestication and the unlocking of the origin of Asian cultivated rice. Moreover, similar studies on genome variations of African rice (Oryza glaberrima) cultivars and their closely related wild progenitor Oryza barthii accessions have provided strong evidence to support a theory of independent domestication in African rice. Integrated genomic approaches have efficiently investigated many heterotic loci in hybrid rice underlying yield heterosis advantages and revealed the genomic architecture of rice heterosis. We conclude that in-depth unlocking of genetic variations among Oryza species will further enhance rice breeding.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • CRISPR/Cas Genome Editing and Precision Plant Breeding in Agriculture
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Kunling Chen, Yanpeng Wang, Rui Zhang, Huawei Zhang, Caixia Gao

    Enhanced agricultural production through innovative breeding technology is urgently needed to increase access to nutritious foods worldwide. Recent advances in CRISPR/Cas genome editing enable efficient targeted modification in most crops, thus promising to accelerate crop improvement. Here, we review advances in CRISPR/Cas9 and its variants and examine their applications in plant genome editing and related manipulations. We highlight base-editing tools that enable targeted nucleotide substitutions and describe the various delivery systems, particularly DNA-free methods, that have linked genome editing with crop breeding. We summarize the applications of genome editing for trait improvement, development of techniques for fine-tuning gene regulation, strategies for breeding virus resistance, and the use of high-throughput mutant libraries. We outline future perspectives for genome editing in plant synthetic biology and domestication, advances in delivery systems, editing specificity, homology-directed repair, and gene drives. Finally, we discuss the challenges and opportunities for precision plant breeding and its bright future in agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Risk Assessment and Regulation of Plants Modified by Modern Biotechniques: Current Status and Future Challenges
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Joachim Schiemann, Antje Dietz-Pfeilstetter, Frank Hartung, Christian Kohl, Jörg Romeis, Thorben Sprink

    This review describes the current status and future challenges of risk assessment and regulation of plants modified by modern biotechniques, namely genetic engineering and genome editing. It provides a general overview of the biosafety and regulation of genetically modified plants and details different regulatory frameworks with a focus on the European situation. The environmental risk and safety assessment of genetically modified plants is explained, and aspects of toxicological assessments are discussed, especially the controversial debate in Europe on the added scientific value of untargeted animal feeding studies. Because RNA interference (RNAi) is increasingly explored for commercial applications, the risk and safety assessment of RNAi-based genetically modified plants is also elucidated. The production, detection, and identification of genome-edited plants are described. Recent applications of modern biotechniques, namely synthetic biology and gene drives, are discussed, and a short outlook on the future follows.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Crop Biodiversity: An Unfinished Magnum Opus of Nature
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Matthew B. Hufford, Jorge C. Berny Mier y Teran, Paul Gepts

    Crop biodiversity is one of the major inventions of humanity through the process of domestication. It is also an essential resource for crop improvement to adapt agriculture to ever-changing conditions like global climate change and consumer preferences. Domestication and the subsequent evolution under cultivation have profoundly shaped the genetic architecture of this biodiversity. In this review, we highlight recent advances in our understanding of crop biodiversity. Topics include the reduction of genetic diversity during domestication and counteracting factors, a discussion of the relationship between parallel phenotypic and genotypic evolution, the role of plasticity in genotype × environment interactions, and the important role subsistence farmers play in actively maintaining crop biodiversity and in participatory breeding. Linking genotype and phenotype remains the holy grail of crop biodiversity studies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Crop Improvement Through Temperature Resilience
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Jingyu Zhang, Xin-Min Li, Hong-Xuan Lin, Kang Chong

    Abnormal environmental temperature affects plant growth and threatens crop production. Understanding temperature signal sensing and the balance between defense and development in plants lays the foundation for improvement of temperature resilience. Here, we summarize the current understanding of cold signal perception/transduction as well as heat stress response. Dissection of plant responses to different levels of cold stresses (chilling and freezing) illustrates their common and distinct signaling pathways. Axillary bud differentiation in response to chilling is presented as an example of the trade-off between defense and development. Vernalization is a cold-dependent development adjustment mediated by O-GlcNAcylation and phosphorylation to sense long-term cold. Recent progress on major quantitative trait loci genes for heat tolerance has been summarized. Molecular mechanisms in utilizing temperature-sensitive sterility in super hybrid breeding in China are revealed. The way to improve crop temperature resilience using integrative knowledge of omics as well as systemic and synthetic biology, especially the molecular module program, is summarized.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Water Use Efficiency as a Constraint and Target for Improving the Resilience and Productivity of C3 and C4 Crops
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Andrew D.B. Leakey, John N. Ferguson, Charles P. Pignon, Alex Wu, Zhenong Jin, Graeme L. Hammer, David B. Lobell

    The ratio of plant carbon gain to water use, known as water use efficiency (WUE), has long been recognized as a key constraint on crop production and an important target for crop improvement. WUE is a physiologically and genetically complex trait that can be defined at a range of scales. Many component traits directly influence WUE, including photosynthesis, stomatal and mesophyll conductances, and canopy structure. Interactions of carbon and water relations with diverse aspects of the environment and crop development also modulate WUE. As a consequence, enhancing WUE by breeding or biotechnology has proven challenging but not impossible. This review aims to synthesize new knowledge of WUE arising from advances in phenotyping, modeling, physiology, genetics, and molecular biology in the context of classical theoretical principles. In addition, we discuss how rising atmospheric CO2 concentration has created and will continue to create opportunities for enhancing WUE by modifying the trade-off between photosynthesis and transpiration.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Fruitful Journey: Pollen Tube Navigation from Germination to Fertilization
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Mark A. Johnson, Jeffrey F. Harper, Ravishankar Palanivelu

    In flowering plants, pollen tubes undergo tip growth to deliver two nonmotile sperm to the ovule where they fuse with an egg and central cell to achieve double fertilization. This extended journey involves rapid growth and changes in gene activity that manage compatible interactions with at least seven different cell types. Nearly half of the genome is expressed in haploid pollen, which facilitates genetic analysis, even of essential genes. These unique attributes make pollen an ideal system with which to study plant cell–cell interactions, tip growth, cell migration, the modulation of cell wall integrity, and gene expression networks. We highlight the signaling systems required for pollen tube navigation and the potential roles of Ca2+ signals. The dynamics of pollen development make sexual reproduction highly sensitive to heat stress. Understanding this vulnerability may generate strategies to improve seed crop yields that are under threat from climate change.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Transport and metabolism in legume-rhizobia symbioses.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2013-03-05
    Michael Udvardi,Philip S Poole

    Symbiotic nitrogen fixation by rhizobia in legume root nodules injects approximately 40 million tonnes of nitrogen into agricultural systems each year. In exchange for reduced nitrogen from the bacteria, the plant provides rhizobia with reduced carbon and all the essential nutrients required for bacterial metabolism. Symbiotic nitrogen fixation requires exquisite integration of plant and bacterial metabolism. Central to this integration are transporters of both the plant and the rhizobia, which transfer elements and compounds across various plant membranes and the two bacterial membranes. Here we review current knowledge of legume and rhizobial transport and metabolism as they relate to symbiotic nitrogen fixation. Although all legume-rhizobia symbioses have many metabolic features in common, there are also interesting differences between them, which show that evolution has solved metabolic problems in different ways to achieve effective symbiosis in different systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Germline specification and function in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2011-02-22
    Frédéric Berger,David Twell

    The flowering plant germline is produced during the haploid gametophytic stage. Defining the germline is complicated by the extreme reduction of the male and female gametophytes, also referred to as pollen and embryo sac, respectively. Both male and female gamete progenitors are segregated by an asymmetric cell division, as is the case for the germline in animals. Genetic studies and access to the transcriptome of isolated gametes have provided a regulatory framework for the mechanisms that define the male germline. What specifies female germline identity remains unknown. Recent evidence indicates that an auxin gradient provides positional information and plays a role in defining the identity of the female gamete lineage. The animal germline is also marked by production of small RNAs, and recent evidence indicates that this trait might be shared with the plant gamete lineage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Starch: its metabolism, evolution, and biotechnological modification in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2010-03-03
    Samuel C Zeeman,Jens Kossmann,Alison M Smith

    Starch is the most widespread and abundant storage carbohydrate in plants. We depend upon starch for our nutrition, exploit its unique properties in industry, and use it as a feedstock for bioethanol production. Here, we review recent advances in research in three key areas. First, we assess progress in identifying the enzymatic machinery required for the synthesis of amylopectin, the glucose polymer responsible for the insoluble nature of starch. Second, we discuss the pathways of starch degradation, focusing on the emerging role of transient glucan phosphorylation in plastids as a mechanism for solubilizing the surface of the starch granule. We contrast this pathway in leaves with the degradation of starch in the endosperm of germinated cereal seeds. Third, we consider the evolution of starch biosynthesis in plants from the ancestral ability to make glycogen. Finally, we discuss how this basic knowledge has been utilized to improve and diversify starch crops.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Seed storage oil mobilization.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Ian A Graham

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling growth. Biochemical analysis over the last 50 years has identified the main pathways involved in this process, including beta-oxidation, the glyoxylate cycle, and gluconeogenesis. In the last few years molecular genetic dissection of the overall process in the model oilseed species Arabidopsis has provided new insight into its complexity, particularly with respect to the specific role played by individual enzymatic steps and the subcellular compartmentalization of the glyoxylate cycle. Both abscisic acid (ABA) and sugars inhibit storage oil mobilization and a substantial degree of the control appears to operate at the transcriptional level.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cryptochrome structure and signal transduction.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Chentao Lin,Dror Shalitin

    Cryptochromes are photosensory receptors mediating light regulation of growth and development in plants. Since the isolation of the Arabidopsis CRY1 gene in 1993, cryptochromes have been found in every multicellular eukaryote examined. Most plant cryptochromes have a chromophore-binding domain that shares similar structure with DNA photolyase, and a carboxyl terminal extension that contains a DQXVP-acidic-STAES (DAS) domain conserved from moss, to fern, to angiosperm. In Arabidopsis, cryptochromes are nuclear proteins that mediate light control of stem elongation, leaf expansion, photoperiodic flowering, and the circadian clock. Cryptochromes may act by interacting with proteins such as phytochromes, COP1, and clock proteins, or/and chromatin and DNA. Recent studies suggest that cryptochromes undergo a blue light-dependent phosphorylation that affects the conformation, intermolecular interactions, physiological activities, and protein abundance of the photoreceptors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The plant heterotrimeric G-protein complex.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Brenda R S Temple,Alan M Jones

    Heterotrimeric G-protein complexes couple extracellular signals via cell surface receptors to downstream enzymes called effectors. Heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, together with their cognate receptors and effectors, operate at the apex of signal transduction. In plants, the number of G-protein complex components is dramatically less than in other multicellular eukaryotes. An understanding of how multiple signals propagate transduction through the G-protein node can be found in the unique structural and kinetic properties of the plant heterotrimeric G-protein complex. This review addresses these unique features and speculates on why the repertoire of G-protein signaling elements is dramatically simpler than that in all other multicellular eukaryotes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toxic Heavy Metal and Metalloid Accumulation in Crop Plants and Foods.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2016-04-30
    Stephan Clemens,Jian Feng Ma

    Arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury are toxic elements that are almost ubiquitously present at low levels in the environment because of anthropogenic influences. Dietary intake of plant-derived food represents a major fraction of potentially health-threatening human exposure, especially to arsenic and cadmium. In the interest of better food safety, it is important to reduce toxic element accumulation in crops. A molecular understanding of the pathways responsible for this accumulation can enable the development of crop varieties with strongly reduced concentrations of toxic elements in their edible parts. Such understanding is rapidly progressing for arsenic and cadmium but is in its infancy for lead and mercury. Basic discoveries have been made in Arabidopsis, rice, and other models, and most advances in crops have been made in rice. Proteins mediating the uptake of arsenic and cadmium have been identified, and the speciation and biotransformations of arsenic are now understood. Factors controlling the efficiency of root-to-shoot translocation and the partitioning of toxic elements through the rice node have also been identified.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • United in diversity: mechanosensitive ion channels in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2014-12-11
    Eric S Hamilton,Angela M Schlegel,Elizabeth S Haswell

    Mechanosensitive (MS) ion channels are a common mechanism for perceiving and responding to mechanical force. This class of mechanoreceptors is capable of transducing membrane tension directly into ion flux. In plant systems, MS ion channels have been proposed to play a wide array of roles, from the perception of touch and gravity to the osmotic homeostasis of intracellular organelles. Three families of plant MS ion channels have been identified: the MscS-like (MSL), Mid1-complementing activity (MCA), and two-pore potassium (TPK) families. Channels from these families vary widely in structure and function, localize to multiple cellular compartments, and conduct chloride, calcium, and/or potassium ions. However, they are still likely to represent only a fraction of the MS ion channel diversity in plant systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Iron transport and signaling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-27
    Catherine Curie,Jean-François Briat

    Cellular and whole organism iron homeostasis must be balanced to supply enough iron for metabolism and to avoid excessive, toxic levels. To perform iron uptake from the environment, iron distribution to various organs and tissues, and iron intracellular compartmentalization, various membranes must be crossed by this metal. The uptake and transport of iron under physiological conditions require particular processes such as chelation or reduction because ferric iron has a very low solubility. The molecular actors involved in iron acquisition from the soil have recently been characterized. A few candidates belonging to various gene families are hypothesized to play major roles in iron distribution throughout the plant. All these transport activities are tightly regulated at transcriptional and posttranslational levels, according to the iron status of the plant. These coordinated regulations result from an integration of local and long-distance transduction pathways.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Remodeling the cytoskeleton for growth and form: an overview with some new views.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Geoffrey O Wasteneys,Moira E Galway

    The cytoskeleton coordinates all aspects of growth in plant cells, including exocytosis of membrane and wall components during cell expansion. This review seeks to integrate current information about cytoskeletal components in plants and the role they play in generating cell form. Advances in genome analysis have fundamentally changed the nature of research strategies and generated an explosion of new information on the cytoskeleton-associated proteins, their regulation, and their role in signaling to the cytoskeleton. Some of these proteins appear novel to plants, but many have close homologues in other eukaryotic systems. It is becoming clear that the mechanisms behind cell growth are essentially similar across the growth continuum, which ranges from tip growth to diffuse expansion. Remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton at sites of exocytosis is an especially critical feature of polarized and may also contribute to axial growth. We evaluate the most recent work on the signaling mechanisms that continually remodel the actin cytoskeleton via the activation of actin-binding proteins (ABPs) and consider the role the microtubule cytoskeleton plays in this process.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolomics in systems biology.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Wolfram Weckwerth

    The primary aim of "omic" technologies is the nontargeted identification of all gene products (transcripts, proteins, and metabolites) present in a specific biological sample. By their nature, these technologies reveal unexpected properties of biological systems. A second and more challenging aspect of omic technologies is the refined analysis of quantitative dynamics in biological systems. For metabolomics, gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry are well suited for coping with high sample numbers in reliable measurement times with respect to both technical accuracy and the identification and quantitation of small-molecular-weight metabolites. This potential is a prerequisite for the analysis of dynamic systems. Thus, metabolomics is a key technology for systems biology. The aim of this review is to (a) provide an in-depth overview about metabolomic technology, (b) explore how metabolomic networks can be connected to the underlying reaction pathway structure, and (c) discuss the need to investigate integrative biochemical networks.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional genomics of P450s.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Mary A Schuler,Daniele Werck-Reichhart

    Plant systems utilize a diverse array of cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) in their biosynthetic and detoxicative pathways. Those P450s in biosynthetic pathways play critical roles in the synthesis of lignins, UV protectants, pigments, defense compounds, fatty acids, hormones, and signaling molecules. Those in catabolic pathways participate in the breakdown of endogenous compounds and toxic compounds encountered in the environment. Because of their roles in this wide diversity of metabolic processes, plant P450 proteins and transcripts can serve as downstream reporters for many different biochemical pathways responding to chemical, developmental, and environmental cues. This review focuses initially on defining P450 biochemistries, nomenclature systems, and the relationships between genes in the extended P450 superfamily that exists in all plant species. Subsequently, it focuses on outlining the many approaches being used to assign function to individual P450 proteins and gene loci. The examples of assigned P450 activities that are spread throughout this review highlight the importance of understanding and utilizing P450 sequences as markers for linking biochemical pathway responses to physiological processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perception and signal transduction of cytokinins.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Tatsuo Kakimoto

    Cytokinins are plant hormones implicated in diverse and essential processes in plant growth and development, and key genes for the metabolism and actions of cytokinins have recently been identified. Cytokinins are perceived by three histidine kinases--CRE1/WOL/AHK4, AHK2, and AHK3--which initiate intracellular phosphotransfer. The final destination of the transferred phosphoryl groups is response regulators. The type-B Arabidopsis response regulators (ARRs) are DNA-binding transcriptional activators that are required for cytokinin responses. On the other hand, the type-A ARRs act as repressors of cytokinin-activated transcription. How phosphorelay regulate response regulators and how response regulators control downstream events are open questions and discussed in this review.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular mechanisms and regulation of K+ transport in higher plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Anne-Aliénor Véry,Hervé Sentenac

    Potassium (K+) plays a number of important roles in plant growth and development. Over the past few years, molecular approaches associated with electrophysiological analyses have greatly advanced our understanding of K+ transport in plants. A large number of genes encoding K+ transport systems have been identified, revealing a high level of complexity. Characterization of some transport systems is providing exciting information at the molecular level on functions such as root K+ uptake and secretion into the xylem sap, K+ transport in guard cells, or K+ influx into growing pollen tubes. In this review, we take stock of this recent molecular information. The main families of plant K+ transport systems (Shaker and KCO channels, KUP/HAK/KT and HKT transporters) are described, along with molecular data on how these systems are regulated. Finally, we discuss a few physiological questions on which molecular studies have shed new light.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Apomixis: a developmental perspective.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Anna M Koltunow,Ueli Grossniklaus

    The term apomixis encompasses a suite of processes whereby seeds form asexually in plants. In contrast to sexual reproduction, seedlings arising from apomixis retain the genotype of the maternal parent. The transfer of apomixis and its effective utilization in crop plants (where it is largely absent) has major advantages in agriculture. The hallmark components of apomixis include female gamete formation without meiosis (apomeiosis), fertilization-independent embryo development (parthenogenesis), and developmental adaptations to ensure functional endosperm formation. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying apomixis, a developmentally fascinating phenomenon in plants, is critical for the successful induction and utilization of apomixis in crop plants. This review draws together knowledge gained from analyzing ovule, embryo, and endosperm development in sexual and apomictic plants. It consolidates the view that apomixis and sexuality are closely interrelated developmental pathways where apomixis can be viewed as a deregulation of the sexual process in both time and space.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lignin biosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Wout Boerjan,John Ralph,Marie Baucher

    The lignin biosynthetic pathway has been studied for more than a century but has undergone major revisions over the past decade. Significant progress has been made in cloning new genes by genetic and combined bioinformatics and biochemistry approaches. In vitro enzymatic assays and detailed analyses of mutants and transgenic plants altered in the expression of lignin biosynthesis genes have provided a solid basis for redrawing the monolignol biosynthetic pathway, and structural analyses have shown that plant cell walls can tolerate large variations in lignin content and structure. In some cases, the potential value for agriculture of transgenic plants with modified lignin structure has been demonstrated. This review presents a current picture of monolignol biosynthesis, polymerization, and lignin structure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Membrane-bound diiron carboxylate proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Deborah A Berthold,Pål Stenmark

    Four proteins have been identified recently as diiron carboxylate proteins on the basis of conservation of six amino acids (four carboxylate residues and two histidines) constituting an iron-binding motif. Unlike previously identified proteins with this motif, biochemical studies indicate that each of these proteins is membrane bound, although homology modeling rules out a transmembrane mode of binding. Therefore, the predicted structure of each protein [the alternative oxidase (AOX), the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX), the diiron 5-demethoxyquinone hydroxylase (DMQ hydroxylase), and the aerobic Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethylester hydroxylase (MME hydroxylase)] is that of a protein bound monotopically to one leaflet of the membrane bilayer. Three of these enzymes utilize a quinol substrate, with two oxidizing the quinol (AOX and PTOX) and one hydroxylating it (DMQ hydroxylase). MME hydroxylase is involved in synthesis of the isocyclic ring of chlorophyll. Two enzymes are involved in respiration (AOX and, indirectly, the diiron DMQ hydroxylase through ubiquinone biosynthesis) and two in photosynthesis, through their roles in carotenoid and chlorophyll biosynthesis (PTOX and MME hydroxylase, respectively). We discuss what is known about each enzyme as well as our expectations based on their identification as interfacially bound proteins with a diiron carboxylate active site.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chloroplast movement.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Masamitsu Wada,Takatoshi Kagawa,Yoshikatsu Sato

    The study of chloroplast movement made a quantum leap at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Research based on reverse-genetic approaches using targeted mutants has brought new concepts to this field. One of the most exciting findings has been the discovery of photoreceptors for both accumulation and avoidance responses in Arabidopsis and in the fern Adiantum. Evidence for the adaptive advantage of chloroplast avoidance movements in plant survival has also been found. Additional discoveries include mechano-stress-induced chloroplast movement in ferns and mosses, and microtubule-mediated chloroplast movement in the moss Physcomitrella. The possible ecological significance of chloroplast movement is discussed in the final part of this review.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transfer cells: cells specialized for a special purpose.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Christina E Offler,David W McCurdy,John W Patrick,Mark J Talbot

    Transfer cells are plant cells with secondary wall ingrowths. These cells are ubiquitous, occurring in all plant taxonomic groups and in algae and fungi. Transfer cells form from differentiated cells across developmental windows and in response to stress. They are considered to play a central role in nutrient distribution by facilitating high rates of transport at bottlenecks for apo-/symplasmic solute exchange. These properties are conferred by their unique structural features--an invaginated secondary wall ensheathed by an amplified area of plasma membrane enriched in a suite of solute transporters. Recent development of transfer cell experimental systems, combined with technologies to image the three-dimensional structure of wall ingrowths, is allowing identification of inductive and regulatory signals, discovery of sequential processes involved in their differentiation, and a search for transfer cell identity genes. A model of key events in differentiation of a transfer cell is presented to highlight areas for future investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How do cells know what they want to be when they grow up? Lessons from epidermal patterning in Arabidopsis.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    John C Larkin,Matt L Brown,John Schiefelbein

    Because the plant epidermis is readily accessible and consists of few cell types on most organs, the epidermis has become a well-studied model for cell differentiation and cell patterning in plants. Recent advances in our understanding of the development of three epidermal cell types, trichomes, root hairs, and stomata, allow a comparison of the underlying patterning mechanisms. In Arabidopsis, trichome development and root epidermal patterning use a common mechanism involving closely related cell fate transcription factors and a similar lateral inhibition signaling pathway. Yet the resulting patterns differ substantially, primarily due to the influence of a prepattern derived from subepidermal cortical cells in root epidermal patterning. Stomatal patterning uses a contrasting mechanism based primarily on control of the orientation of cell divisions that also involves an inhibitory signaling pathway. This review focuses on comparing and contrasting these patterning pathways to identify and illustrate general themes that may be broadly applicable to other systems. Where these pathways occur in the same tissue, interaction and competition between these pathways is also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Single-nucleotide mutations for plant functional genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Steven Henikoff,Luca Comai

    In the present genomics era, powerful reverse-genetic strategies are needed to elucidate gene and protein function in the context of a whole organism. However, most current techniques lack the generality and high-throughput potential of descriptive genomic approaches, such as those that rely on microarray hybridization. For example, in plant research, effective insertional mutagenesis and transgenic methods are limited to relatively few species or are inefficient. Fortunately, single-nucleotide changes can be induced in any plant by using traditional chemical mutagens, and progress has been made in efficiently detecting changes. Because base substitutions in proteins provide allelic series, and not just knockouts, this strategy can yield refined insights into protein function. Here, we review recent progress that has been made in genome-wide screening for point mutations and natural variation in plants. Its general applicability leads to the expectation that traditional mutagenesis followed by high-throughput detection will become increasingly important for plant functional genomics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structure of linkage disequilibrium in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Sherry A Flint-Garcia,Jeffry M Thornsberry,Edward S Buckler

    Future advances in plant genomics will make it possible to scan a genome for polymorphisms associated with qualitative and quantitative traits. Before this potential can be realized, we must understand the nature of linkage disequilibrium (LD) within a genome. LD, the nonrandom association of alleles at different loci, plays an integral role in association mapping, and determines the resolution of an association study. Recently, association mapping has been exploited to dissect quantitative trait loci (QTL). With the exception of maize and Arabidopsis, little research has been conducted on LD in plants. The mating system of the species (selfing versus outcrossing), and phenomena such as population structure and recombination hot spots, can strongly influence patterns of LD. The basic patterns of LD in plants will be better understood as more species are analyzed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Photosynthesis of overwintering evergreen plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Gunnar Oquist,Norman P A Huner

    In this review we focus on photosynthetic behavior of overwintering evergreens with an emphasis on both the acclimative responses of photosynthesis to cold and the winter behavior of photosynthesis in conifers. Photosynthetic acclimation is discussed in terms of the requirement for a balance between the energy absorbed through largely temperature-insensitive photochemical processes and the energy used for temperature-sensitive biochemical processes and growth. Cold acclimation transforms the xanthophyll-mediated nonphotochemical antenna quenching of absorbed light from a short-term dynamic response to a long-term sustained quenching for the whole winter period. This acclimative response helps protect the evergreen foliage from photooxidative damage during the winter when photosynthesis is restricted or prevented by low temperatures. Although the molecular mechanisms behind the sustained winter excitation quenching are largely unknown, it does involve major alterations in the organization and composition of the photosystem II antenna. In addition, photosystem I may play an important role in overwintering evergreens not only by quenching absorbed light photochemically via its support of cyclic electron transport at low temperatures, but also by nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed light irrespective of temperature. The possible role of photosystem II reaction centers in nonphotochemical quenching of absorbed energy in overwintering evergreens is also discussed. Processes like chlororespiration and cyclic electron transport may also be important for maintaining the functional integrity of the photosynthetic apparatus of overwintering evergreens both during periods of thawing in winter and during recovery from winter stress in spring. We suggest that the photosynthetic acclimation responses of overwintering evergreens represent specific evolutionary adaptations for plant species that invest in the long-term maintenance of leaf structure in cold climatic zones as exemplified by the boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gibberellins and flowering of grasses and cereals: prizing open the lid of the "florigen" black box.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Rod W King,Lloyd T Evans

    Comprehensive studies in grasses show that gibberellins (GAs) play a role as a florigen. For Lolium temulentum, which flowers in response to a single long day (LD), GAs are a transmitted signal, their content increasing in the leaf early in the LD and then, hours later, at the shoot apex. There is a continuous trail of evidence of hormonal action of these GAs for L. temulentum and support for a similar role in the flowering of other LD-responsive temperate grasses and cereals. A characteristic of the initial flowering responses of grasses and cereals is their limited stem elongation. Interestingly, it is GAs with low effectiveness for stem elongation, GA5 and GA6, that reach the shoot apex and, structurally, are probably not degraded by 2-oxidase enzymes. By contrast, GA1 and GA4 cause stem elongation, may be inactive for floral evocation, and do not reach the vegetative shoot apex apparently because of susceptibility to degradation. However, GA4 can be florally active if protected against 2-oxidases either structurally or by using a 2-oxidase inhibitor. Later in inflorescence development, GA1 and GA4 can be detected at the shoot apex and are florally active if applied. The 2-oxidase restricting accessibility to the apex has probably declined at this time so there is a second florigenic, LD-regulated GA action. A growing body of molecular evidence supporting these actions of GA may provide a future basis for manipulating flowering of grasses and cereals.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phospholipid-based signaling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Harold J G Meijer,Teun Munnik

    Phospholipids are emerging as novel second messengers in plant cells. They are rapidly formed in response to a variety of stimuli via the activation of lipid kinases or phospholipases. These lipid signals can activate enzymes or recruit proteins to membranes via distinct lipid-binding domains, where the local increase in concentration promotes interactions and downstream signaling. Here, the latest developments in phospholipid-based signaling are discussed, including the lipid kinases and phospholipases that are activated, the signals they produce, the domains that bind them, the downstream targets that contain them and the processes they control.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The plant cell cycle.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Walter Dewitte,James A H Murray

    Cell division in plants is controlled by the activity of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) complexes. Although this basic mechanism is conserved with all other eukaryotes, plants show novel features of cell-cycle control in the molecules involved and their regulation, including novel CDKs showing strong transcriptional regulation in mitosis. Plant development is characterized by indeterminate growth and reiteration of organogenesis and is therefore intimately associated with cell division. This may explain why plants have a large number of cell-cycle regulators that appear to have overlapping and distinct functions. Here we review the recent considerable progress in understanding how core cell-cycle regulators are involved in integrating and coordinating cell division at the molecular level.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From bacterial glycogen to starch: understanding the biogenesis of the plant starch granule.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Steven G Ball,Matthew K Morell

    Plants, green algae, and cyanobacteria synthesize storage polysaccharides by a similar ADPglucose-based pathway. Plant starch metabolism can be distinguished from that of bacterial glycogen by the presence of multiple forms of enzyme activities for each step of the pathway. This multiplicity does not coincide with any functional redundancy, as each form has seemingly acquired a distinctive and conserved role in starch metabolism. Comparisons of phenotypes generated by debranching enzyme-defective mutants in Escherichia coli and plants suggest that enzymes previously thought to be involved in polysaccharide degradation have been recruited during evolution to serve a particular purpose in starch biosynthesis. Speculations have been made that link this recruitment to the appearance of semicrystalline starch in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Besides the common core pathway, other enzymes of malto-oligosaccharide metabolism are required for normal starch metabolism. However, according to the genetic and physiological system under study, these enzymes may have acquired distinctive roles.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The COP9 signalosome: regulating plant development through the control of proteolysis.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Giovanna Serino,Xing-Wang Deng

    The COP9 signalosome (CSN) is a multiprotein complex that was initially identified in plants as a repressor of photomorphogenesis. It is now known to play major roles in several other developmental pathways, from auxin response to flower development. Furthermore, the COP9 signalosome shares homologies with the lid sibcomplex of the proteasome and is evolutionarily conserved from fission yeast to humans. It is important for the proper development of virtually all higher eukaryotes. In recent years, significant progress has been made in unraveling the molecular, cellular, and physiological mode of action of the COP9 signalosome. This review discusses our current understanding of the COP9 signalosome function with particular emphasis on its recently defined role in modulating a wide variety of cellular processes by regulating specific protein degradation events.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biosynthesis and metabolism of brassinosteroids.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Shozo Fujioka,Takao Yokota

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) are steroid hormones that regulate the growth and development of plants. Detailed study of the biosynthesis of brassinolide, a C28 BR, revealed that two parallel routes, the early and late C-6 oxidation pathways, are connected at multiple steps and also are linked to the early C-22 oxidation pathway. Thus, BR biosynthetic pathways are highly networked. Furthermore, the biosynthesis of C27 BRs was shown to proceed in a similar way to that of C28 BRs. Information on enzymes and genes involved in the BR biosynthesis, as well as their regulation, has been obtained using BR-deficient and BR-insensitive mutants. In addition, the biosynthesis of sterols, which were recently recognized not only as precursors of BRs and membrane constituents, but also as modulators of plant development, is discussed. Various metabolic reactions of BRs including epimerization, oxidation, and conjugation are also summarized.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nitric oxide: the versatility of an extensive signal molecule.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Lorenzo Lamattina,Carlos García-Mata,Magdalena Graziano,Gabriela Pagnussat

    Nitric oxide (NO) is a small highly diffusible gas and a ubiquitous bioactive molecule. Its chemical properties make NO a versatile signal molecule that functions through interactions with cellular targets via either redox or additive chemistry. In plants, NO plays a role in a broad spectrum of pathophysiological and developmental processes. Although nitric oxide synthase (NOS)-dependent NO production has been reported in plants, no gene, cDNA, or protein has been isolated to date. In parallel, precise and regulated NO production can be measured from the activity of the ubiquitous enzyme nitrate reductase (NR). In addition to endogenous NO formation, high NO emissions are observed from fertilized soils, but their effects on the physiology of plants are largely unknown. Many environmental and hormonal stimuli are transmitted either directly or indirectly by NO signaling cascades. The ability of NO to act simultaneously on several unrelated biochemical nodes and its redox homeostatic properties suggest that it might be a synchronizing molecule in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant peroxiredoxins.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2003-09-25
    Karl-Josef Dietz

    Peroxiredoxins (Prxs) are abundant low-efficiency peroxidases located in distinct cell compartments including the chloroplast and mitochondrion. They are grouped into four clans based on their structural and biochemical properties. The catalytic center contains a cysteinyl residue that reduces diverse peroxides and is regenerated via intramolecular or intermolecular thiol-disulfide-reactions and finally by electron donors such as thioredoxins and glutaredoxins. Prxs show a complex regulation by endogenous and environmental stimuli at both the transcript and protein levels. In addition to their role in antioxidant defense in photosynthesis, respiration, and stress response, they may also be involved in modulating redox signaling during development and adaptation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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中山大学化学工程与技术学院
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天合科研
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