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  • Novel Imaging Modalities Shedding Light on Plant Biology: Start Small and Grow Big.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Natalie M Clark,Lisa Van den Broeck,Marjorie Guichard,Adam Stager,Herbert G Tanner,Ikram Blilou,Guido Grossmann,Anjali S Iyer-Pascuzzi,Alexis Maizel,Erin E Sparks,Rosangela Sozzani

    The acquisition of quantitative information on plant development across a range of temporal and spatial scales is essential to understand the mechanisms of plant growth. Recent years have shown the emergence of imaging methodologies that enable the capture and analysis of plant growth, from the dynamics of molecules within cells to the measurement of morphometric and physiological traits in field-grown

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Ancient Plant Genomics in Archaeology, Herbaria, and the Environment.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Logan Kistler,Vanessa C Bieker,Michael D Martin,Mikkel Winther Pedersen,Jazmín Ramos Madrigal,Nathan Wales

    The ancient DNA revolution of the past 35 years has driven an explosion in the breadth, nuance, and diversity of questions that are approachable using ancient biomolecules, and plant research has been a constant, indispensable facet of these developments. Using archaeological, paleontological, and herbarium plant tissues, researchers have probed plant domestication and dispersal, plant evolution and

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Phenotyping: New Windows into the Plant for Breeders.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Michelle Watt,Fabio Fiorani,Björn Usadel,Uwe Rascher,Onno Muller,Ulrich Schurr

    Plant phenotyping enables noninvasive quantification of plant structure and function and interactions with environments. High-capacity phenotyping reaches hitherto inaccessible phenotypic characteristics. Diverse, challenging, and valuable applications of phenotyping have originated among scientists, prebreeders, and breeders as they study the phenotypic diversity of genetic resources and apply increasingly

    更新日期:2020-02-25
  • Dynamic Construction, Perception, and Remodeling of Plant Cell Walls.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-21
    Charles T Anderson,Joseph J Kieber

    Plant cell walls are dynamic structures that are synthesized by plants to provide durable coverings for the delicate cells they encase. They are made of polysaccharides, proteins, and other biomolecules and have evolved to withstand large amounts of physical force and to resist external attack by herbivores and pathogens but can in many cases expand, contract, and undergo controlled degradation and

    更新日期:2020-02-21
  • Starch: A Flexible, Adaptable Carbon Store Coupled to Plant Growth.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Alison M Smith,Samuel C Zeeman

    Research in the past decade has uncovered new and surprising information about the pathways of starch synthesis and degradation. This includes the discovery of previously unsuspected protein families required for both processes and for the long-sought mechanism of initiation of starch granules. There is also growing recognition of the central role of leaf starch turnover in making carbon available

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Desiccation Tolerance: Avoiding Cellular Damage During Drying and Rehydration.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Melvin J Oliver,Jill M Farrant,Henk W M Hilhorst,Sagadevan Mundree,Brett Williams,J Derek Bewley

    Desiccation of plants is often lethal but is tolerated by the majority of seeds and by vegetative tissues of only a small number of land plants. Desiccation tolerance is an ancient trait, lost from vegetative tissues following the appearance of tracheids but reappearing in several lineages when selection pressures favored its evolution. Cells of all desiccation-tolerant plants and seeds must possess

    更新日期:2020-02-10
  • Genetic Engineering and Editing of Plants: An Analysis of New and Persisting Questions.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Rebecca Mackelprang,Peggy G Lemaux

    Genetic engineering is a molecular biology technique that enables a gene or genes to be inserted into a plant's genome. The first genetically engineered plants were grown commercially in 1996, and the most common genetically engineered traits are herbicide and insect resistance. Questions and concerns have been raised about the effects of these traits on the environment and human health, many of which

    更新日期:2020-02-05
  • Evolution of Plant Hormone Response Pathways.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Miguel A Blázquez,David C Nelson,Dolf Weijers

    This review focuses on the evolution of plant hormone signaling pathways. Like the chemical nature of the hormones themselves, the signaling pathways are diverse. Therefore, we focus on a group of hormones whose primary perception mechanism involves an Skp1/Cullin/F-box-type ubiquitin ligase: auxin, jasmonic acid, gibberellic acid, and strigolactone. We begin with a comparison of the core signaling

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Modeling Plant Metabolism: From Network Reconstruction to Mechanistic Models.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Teresa J Clark,Longyun Guo,John Morgan,Jorg Schwender

    Mathematical modeling of plant metabolism enables the plant science community to understand the organization of plant metabolism, obtain quantitative insights into metabolic functions, and derive engineering strategies for manipulation of metabolism. Among the various modeling approaches, metabolic pathway analysis can dissect the basic functional modes of subsections of core metabolism, such as photorespiration

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Seed storage oil mobilization.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Ian A Graham

    Storage oil mobilization starts with the onset of seed germination. Oil bodies packed with triacylglycerol (TAG) exist in close proximity with glyoxysomes, the single membrane-bound organelles that house most of the biochemical machinery required to convert fatty acids derived from TAG to 4-carbon compounds. The 4-carbon compounds in turn are converted to soluble sugars that are used to fuel seedling

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of salinity tolerance.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Rana Munns,Mark Tester

    The physiological and molecular mechanisms of tolerance to osmotic and ionic components of salinity stress are reviewed at the cellular, organ, and whole-plant level. Plant growth responds to salinity in two phases: a rapid, osmotic phase that inhibits growth of young leaves, and a slower, ionic phase that accelerates senescence of mature leaves. Plant adaptations to salinity are of three distinct

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant aquaporins: membrane channels with multiple integrated functions.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Christophe Maurel,Lionel Verdoucq,Doan-Trung Luu,Véronique Santoni

    Aquaporins are channel proteins present in the plasma and intracellular membranes of plant cells, where they facilitate the transport of water and/or small neutral solutes (urea, boric acid, silicic acid) or gases (ammonia, carbon dioxide). Recent progress was made in understanding the molecular bases of aquaporin transport selectivity and gating. The present review examines how a wide range of selectivity

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation and identity of florigen: FLOWERING LOCUS T moves center stage.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Franziska Turck,Fabio Fornara,George Coupland

    The transition from vegetative to reproductive growth is controlled by day length in many plant species. Day length is perceived in leaves and induces a systemic signal, called florigen, that moves through the phloem to the shoot apex. At the shoot apical meristem (SAM), florigen causes changes in gene expression that reprogram the SAM to form flowers instead of leaves. Analysis of flowering of Arabidopsis

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structural and signaling networks for the polar cell growth machinery in pollen tubes.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Alice Y Cheung,Hen-Ming Wu

    Pollen tubes elongate within the pistil to transport sperms to the female gametophytes for fertilization. Pollen tubes grow at their tips through a rapid and polarized cell growth process. This tip growth process is supported by an elaborate and dynamic actin cytoskeleton and a highly active membrane trafficking system that together provide the driving force and secretory activities needed for growth

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Coordinating nodule morphogenesis with rhizobial infection in legumes.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Giles E D Oldroyd,J Allan Downie

    The formation of nitrogen-fixing nodules on legumes requires an integration of infection by rhizobia at the root epidermis and the initiation of cell division in the cortex, several cell layers away from the sites of infection. Several recent developments have added to our understanding of the signaling events in the epidermis associated with the perception of rhizobial nodulation factors and the role

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of cullin RING ligases.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Sara K Hotton,Judy Callis

    The ubiquitin/26S proteasome pathway largely mediates selective proteolysis in the nucleus and cytosol. This pathway catalyzes covalent attachment of ubiquitin (UBQ) to substrate proteins in an E1-E2-E3 cascade. Ubiquitin E3 ligases interact with substrates to catalyze UBQ transfer from E2 to substrate. Within the E3 ligase superfamily, cullin RING ligases (CRLs) are significant in plants because they

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Auxin: the looping star in plant development.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    René Benjamins,Ben Scheres

    The phytohormone auxin is a key factor in plant growth and development. Forward and reverse genetic strategies have identified important molecular components in auxin perception, signaling, and transport. These advances resulted in the identification of some of the underlying regulatory mechanisms as well as the emergence of functional frameworks for auxin action. This review focuses on the feedback

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Roots, nitrogen transformations, and ecosystem services.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Louise E Jackson,Martin Burger,Timothy R Cavagnaro

    This review considers some of the mechanistic processes that involve roots in the soil nitrogen (N) cycle, and their implications for the ecological functions that retain N within ecosystems: 1) root signaling pathways for N transport systems, and feedback inhibition, especially for NO(3)(-) uptake; 2) dependence on the mycorrhizal and Rhizobium/legume symbioses and their tradeoffs for N acquisition;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Flooding stress: acclimations and genetic diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    J Bailey-Serres,L A C J Voesenek

    Flooding is an environmental stress for many natural and man-made ecosystems worldwide. Genetic diversity in the plant response to flooding includes alterations in architecture, metabolism, and elongation growth associated with a low O(2) escape strategy and an antithetical quiescence scheme that allows endurance of prolonged submergence. Flooding is frequently accompanied with a reduction of cellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular basis of plant architecture.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Yonghong Wang,Jiayang Li

    Higher plants display a variety of architectures that are defined by the degree of branching, internodal elongation, and shoot determinancy. Studies on the model plants of Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato and on crop plants such as rice and maize have greatly strengthened our understanding on the molecular genetic bases of plant architecture, one of the hottest areas in plant developmental biology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Algal sensory photoreceptors.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Peter Hegemann

    Only five major types of sensory photoreceptors (BLUF-proteins, cryptochromes, phototropins, phytochromes, and rhodopsins) are used in nature to regulate developmental processes, photosynthesis, photoorientation, and control of the circadian clock. Sensory photoreceptors of algae and protists are exceptionally rich in structure and function; light-gated ion channels and photoactivated adenylate cyclases

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of glutathione in photosynthetic organisms: emerging functions for glutaredoxins and glutathionylation.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Nicolas Rouhier,Stéphane D Lemaire,Jean-Pierre Jacquot

    Glutathione, a tripeptide with the sequence gamma-Glu-Cys-Gly, exists either in a reduced form with a free thiol group or in an oxidized form with a disulfide between two identical molecules. We describe here briefly the pathways involved in the synthesis, reduction, polymerization, and degradation of glutathione, as well as its distribution throughout the plant and its redox buffering capacities.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chlorophyll fluorescence: a probe of photosynthesis in vivo.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-05-01
    Neil R Baker

    The use of chlorophyll fluorescence to monitor photosynthetic performance in algae and plants is now widespread. This review examines how fluorescence parameters can be used to evaluate changes in photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry, linear electron flux, and CO(2) assimilation in vivo, and outlines the theoretical bases for the use of specific fluorescence parameters. Although fluorescence parameters

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plastid evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-03-05
    Sven B Gould,Ross F Waller,Geoffrey I McFadden

    The ancestors of modern cyanobacteria invented O(2)-generating photosynthesis some 3.6 billion years ago. The conversion of water and CO(2) into energy-rich sugars and O(2) slowly transformed the planet, eventually creating the biosphere as we know it today. Eukaryotes didn't invent photosynthesis; they co-opted it from prokaryotes by engulfing and stably integrating a photoautotrophic prokaryote in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetically Engineered Plants and Foods: A Scientist's Analysis of the Issues (Part I).
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-21
    Peggy G Lemaux

    Through the use of the new tools of genetic engineering, genes can be introduced into the same plant or animal species or into plants or animals that are not sexually compatible-the latter is a distinction with classical breeding. This technology has led to the commercial production of genetically engineered (GE) crops on approximately 250 million acres worldwide. These crops generally are herbicide

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decoding of light signals by plant phytochromes and their interacting proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Gabyong Bae,Giltsu Choi

    Phytochromes are red/far-red light photoreceptors that convert the information contained in external light into biological signals. The decoding process starts with the perception of red light, which occurs through photoisomerization of a chromophore located within the phytochrome, leading to structural changes that include the disruption of intramolecular interactions between the N- and C-terminal

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular aspects of seed dormancy.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Ruth Finkelstein,Wendy Reeves,Tohru Ariizumi,Camille Steber

    Seed dormancy provides a mechanism for plants to delay germination until conditions are optimal for survival of the next generation. Dormancy release is regulated by a combination of environmental and endogenous signals with both synergistic and competing effects. Molecular studies of dormancy have correlated changes in transcriptomes, proteomes, and hormone levels with dormancy states ranging from

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A genetic regulatory network in the development of trichomes and root hairs.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Tetsuya Ishida,Tetsuya Kurata,Kiyotaka Okada,Takuji Wada

    Trichomes and root hairs differentiate from epidermal cells in the aerial tissues and roots, respectively. Because trichomes and root hairs are easily accessible, particularly in the model plant Arabidopsis, their development has become a well-studied model of cell differentiation and growth. Molecular genetic analyses using Arabidopsis mutants have demonstrated that the differentiation of trichomes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Trehalose metabolism and signaling.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Matthew J Paul,Lucia F Primavesi,Deveraj Jhurreea,Yuhua Zhang

    Trehalose metabolism and signaling is an area of emerging significance. In less than a decade our views on the importance of trehalose metabolism and its role in plants have gone through something of a revolution. An obscure curiosity has become an indispensable regulatory system. Mutant and transgenic plants of trehalose synthesis display wide-ranging and unprecedented phenotypes for the perturbation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant proteases: from phenotypes to molecular mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Renier A L van der Hoorn

    Plant genomes encode hundreds of proteases, which represent dozens of unrelated families. The biological role of these proteases is mostly unknown, but mutant alleles, gene silencing, and overexpression studies have provided phenotypes for a growing number of proteases. The aim of this review is to show the diversity of the processes that are regulated by proteases, and to summarize the current knowledge

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic flux analysis in plants: from intelligent design to rational engineering.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-09
    Igor G L Libourel,Yair Shachar-Hill

    Metabolic flux analysis (MFA) is a rapidly developing field concerned with the quantification and understanding of metabolism at the systems level. The application of MFA has produced detailed maps of flow through metabolic networks of a range of plant systems. These maps represent detailed metabolic phenotypes, contribute significantly to our understanding of metabolism in plants, and have led to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ionomics and the study of the plant ionome.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-07
    David E Salt,Ivan Baxter,Brett Lahner

    The ionome is defined as the mineral nutrient and trace element composition of an organism and represents the inorganic component of cellular and organismal systems. Ionomics, the study of the ionome, involves the quantitative and simultaneous measurement of the elemental composition of living organisms and changes in this composition in response to physiological stimuli, developmental state, and genetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sealing plant surfaces: cuticular wax formation by epidermal cells.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-07
    Lacey Samuels,Ljerka Kunst,Reinhard Jetter

    The vital importance of plant surface wax in protecting tissue from environmental stresses is reflected in the huge commitment of epidermal cells to cuticle formation. During cuticle deposition, a massive flux of lipids occurs from the sites of lipid synthesis in the plastid and the endoplasmic reticulum to the plant surface. Recent genetic studies in Arabidopsis have improved our understanding of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Alkaloid biosynthesis: metabolism and trafficking.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-02-07
    Jörg Ziegler,Peter J Facchini

    Alkaloids represent a highly diverse group of compounds that are related only by the occurrence of a nitrogen atom in a heterocyclic ring. Plants are estimated to produce approximately 12,000 different alkaloids, which can be organized into groups according to their carbon skeletal structures. Alkaloid biosynthesis in plants involves many catalytic steps, catalyzed by enzymes that belong to a wide

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gibberellin metabolism and its regulation.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2008-01-05
    Shinjiro Yamaguchi

    Bioactive gibberellins (GAs) are diterpene plant hormones that are biosynthesized through complex pathways and control diverse aspects of growth and development. Biochemical, genetic, and genomic approaches have led to the identification of the majority of the genes that encode GA biosynthesis and deactivation enzymes. Recent studies have highlighted the occurrence of previously unrecognized deactivation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant immunity to insect herbivores.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-11-23
    Gregg A Howe,Georg Jander

    Herbivorous insects use diverse feeding strategies to obtain nutrients from their host plants. Rather than acting as passive victims in these interactions, plants respond to herbivory with the production of toxins and defensive proteins that target physiological processes in the insect. Herbivore-challenged plants also emit volatiles that attract insect predators and bolster resistance to future threats

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Patterning and polarity in seed plant shoots.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-11-23
    John L Bowman,Sandra K Floyd

    Leaves and stems are ultimately derived from the shoot apical meristem (SAM); leaves arise from the peripheral zone of the SAM and stem tissue is derived from both the peripheral and central zones of the SAM. Both the peripheral and central regions of the SAM are formed during embryogenesis when the basic body plan of the plant is established. Interplay between points of maximal concentration of auxin

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New insights into nitric oxide signaling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-11-23
    Angélique Besson-Bard,Alain Pugin,David Wendehenne

    A decade-long investigation of nitric oxide (NO) functions in plants has led to its characterization as a biological mediator involved in key physiological processes. Despite the wealth of information gathered from the analysis of its functions, until recently little was known about the mechanisms by which NO exerts its effects. In the past few years, part of the gap has been bridged. NO modulates

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Our work with cyanogenic plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-11-09
    Eric E Conn

    The author identifies three individuals who played major roles in the development of his scientific career: his chemistry professor at the University of Colorado, Reuben Gustavson; his Ph.D. supervisor at the University of Chicago, Birgit Vennesland; and his friend and departmental colleague of 55 years at the University of California, Paul Stumpf. He also mentions students, postdoctoral scholars,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tracheary element differentiation.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-05-03
    Simon Turner,Patrick Gallois,David Brown

    Tracheary elements (TEs) are cells in the xylem that are highly specialized for transporting water and solutes up the plant. TEs undergo a very well-defined process of differentiation that involves specification, enlargement, patterned cell wall deposition, programmed cell death and cell wall removal. This process is coordinated such that adjacent TEs are joined together to form a continuous network

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The production of unusual fatty acids in transgenic plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-05-03
    Johnathan A Napier

    The ability to genetically engineer plants has facilitated the generation of oilseeds synthesizing non-native fatty acids. Two particular classes of fatty acids are considered in this review. First, so-called industrial fatty acids, which usually contain functional groups such as hydroxyl, epoxy, or acetylenic bonds, and second, very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids normally found in fish oils

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gibberellin receptor and its role in gibberellin signaling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-05-03
    Miyako Ueguchi-Tanaka,Masatoshi Nakajima,Ashikari Motoyuki,Makoto Matsuoka

    Gibberellins (GAs) are a large family of tetracyclic, diterpenoid plant hormones that induce a wide range of plant growth responses. It has been postulated that plants have two types of GA receptors, including soluble and membrane-bound forms. Recently, it was determined that the rice GIBBERELLIN INSENSITIVE DWARF1 (GID1) gene encodes an unknown protein with similarity to the hormone-sensitive lipases

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Oxidative modifications to cellular components in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-02-10
    Ian M Møller,Poul Erik Jensen,Andreas Hansson

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are produced in many places in living cells and at an increased rate during biotic or abiotic stress. ROS and RNS participate in signal transduction, but also modify cellular components and cause damage. We first look at the most common ROS and their properties. We then consider the ways in which the cell can regulate their production

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetic and epigenetic mechanisms for gene expression and phenotypic variation in plant polyploids.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-02-07
    Z Jeffrey Chen

    Polyploidy, or whole-genome duplication (WGD), is an important genomic feature for all eukaryotes, especially many plants and some animals. The common occurrence of polyploidy suggests an evolutionary advantage of having multiple sets of genetic material for adaptive evolution. However, increased gene and genome dosages in autopolyploids (duplications of a single genome) and allopolyploids (combinations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Populus: a model system for plant biology.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-02-07
    Stefan Jansson,Carl J Douglas

    With the completion of the Populus trichocarpa genome sequence and the development of various genetic, genomic, and biochemical tools, Populus now offers many possibilities to study questions that cannot be as easily addressed in Arabidopsis and rice, the two prime model systems of plant biology and genomics. Tree-specific traits such as wood formation, long-term perennial growth, and seasonality are

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant ATP-binding cassette transporters.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-02-01
    Philip A Rea

    The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein superfamily is one of the largest known, with over 120 members in both Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa). Most, but not all, ABC proteins are modularly organized membrane proteins ("ABC transporters") that mediate MgATP-energized transmembrane transport and/or regulate other transporters. The range of processes in which members of the various subclasses

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in higher plants.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-18
    Ryouichi Tanaka,Ayumi Tanaka

    Tetrapyrroles play vital roles in various biological processes, including photosynthesis and respiration. Higher plants contain four classes of tetrapyrroles, namely, chlorophyll, heme, siroheme, and phytochromobilin. All of the tetrapyrroles are derived from a common biosynthetic pathway. Here we review recent progress in the research of tetrapyrrole biosynthesis from a cellular biological view. The

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Alternative splicing of pre-messenger RNAs in plants in the genomic era.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-16
    Anireddy S N Reddy

    Primary transcripts (precursor-mRNAs) with introns can undergo alternative splicing to produce multiple transcripts from a single gene by differential use of splice sites, thereby increasing the transcriptome and proteome complexity within and between cells and tissues. Alternative splicing in plants is largely an unexplored area of gene expression, as this phenomenon used to be considered rare. However

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Light regulation of stomatal movement.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-11
    Ken-ichiro Shimazaki,Michio Doi,Sarah M Assmann,Toshinori Kinoshita

    Stomatal pores, each surrounded by a pair of guard cells, regulate CO2 uptake and water loss from leaves. Stomatal opening is driven by the accumulation of K+ salts and sugars in guard cells, which is mediated by electrogenic proton pumps in the plasma membrane and/or metabolic activity. Opening responses are achieved by coordination of light signaling, light-energy conversion, membrane ion transport

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The plant heterotrimeric G-protein complex.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Brenda R S Temple,Alan M Jones

    Heterotrimeric G-protein complexes couple extracellular signals via cell surface receptors to downstream enzymes called effectors. Heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, together with their cognate receptors and effectors, operate at the apex of signal transduction. In plants, the number of G-protein complex components is dramatically less than in other multicellular eukaryotes. An understanding of how

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cyclic electron transport around photosystem I: genetic approaches.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Toshiharu Shikanai

    The light reactions in photosynthesis convert light energy into chemical energy in the form of ATP and drive the production of NADPH from NADP+. The reactions involve two types of electron flow in the chloroplast. While linear electron transport generates both ATP and NADPH, photosystem I cyclic electron transport is exclusively involved in ATP synthesis. The physiological significance of photosystem

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The biology of arabinogalactan proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Georg J Seifert,Keith Roberts

    Arabinogalactan proteins is an umbrella term applied to a highly diverse class of cell surface glycoproteins, many of which contain glycosylphosphatidylinositol lipid anchors. The structures of protein and glycan moieties of arabinogalactan proteins are overwhelmingly diverse while the "hydroxproline contiguity hypothesis" predicts arabinogalactan modification of members of many families of extracellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stomatal development.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Dominique C Bergmann,Fred D Sack

    Stomata are cellular epidermal valves in plants central to gas exchange and biosphere productivity. The pathways controlling their formation are best understood for Arabidopsis thaliana where stomata are produced through a series of divisions in a dispersed stem cell compartment. The stomatal pathway is an accessible system for analyzing core developmental processes including position-dependent patterning

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Leaf senescence.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-12-21
    Pyung Ok Lim,Hyo Jung Kim,Hong Gil Nam

    Leaf senescence constitutes the final stage of leaf development and is critical for plants' fitness as nutrient relocation from leaves to reproducing seeds is achieved through this process. Leaf senescence involves a coordinated action at the cellular, tissue, organ, and organism levels under the control of a highly regulated genetic program. Major breakthroughs in the molecular understanding of leaf

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hidden branches: developments in root system architecture.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-12-21
    Karen S Osmont,Richard Sibout,Christian S Hardtke

    The root system is fundamentally important for plant growth and survival because of its role in water and nutrient uptake. Therefore, plants rely on modulation of root system architecture (RSA) to respond to a changing soil environment. Although RSA is a highly plastic trait and varies both between and among species, the basic root system morphology and its plasticity are controlled by inherent genetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hydrogenases and hydrogen photoproduction in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-12-08
    Maria L Ghirardi,Matthew C Posewitz,Pin-Ching Maness,Alexandra Dubini,Jianping Yu,Michael Seibert

    The photobiological production of H2 gas, using water as the only electron donor, is a property of two types of photosynthetic microorganisms: green algae and cyanobacteria. In these organisms, photosynthetic water splitting is functionally linked to H(2) production by the activity of hydrogenase enzymes. Interestingly, each of these organisms contains only one of two major types of hydrogenases, [FeFe]

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phototropin blue-light receptors.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-10-28
    John M Christie

    Phototropins are blue-light receptors controlling a range of responses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. These include phototropism, light-induced stomatal opening, and chloroplast movements in response to changes in light intensity. Since the isolation of the Arabidopsis PHOT1 gene in 1997, phototropins have been identified in ferns and mosses where their physiological

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nutrient sensing and signaling: NPKS.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-10-28
    Daniel P Schachtman,Ryoung Shin

    Plants often grow in soils that contain very low concentrations of the macronutrients nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur. To adapt and grow in nutrient-deprived environments plants must sense changes in external and internal mineral nutrient concentrations and adjust growth to match resource availability. The sensing and signal transduction networks that control plant responses to nutrient

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • From analysis of mutants to genetic engineering.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-10-28
    Diter von Wettstein

    This chapter describes the research of developing transgenic barley for synthesis of recombinant proteins with practical significance and of metabolic engineering of proanthocyanidin-free barley. The results were obtained by graduate students, postdoctoral researchers, and visiting scientists at the Carlsberg Laboratory from 1972-1996 and during the past ten years at Washington State University. It

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phytochrome structure and signaling mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Plant Biol. (IF 18.918) Pub Date : 2006-05-04
    Nathan C Rockwell,Yi-Shin Su,J Clark Lagarias

    Phytochromes are a widespread family of red/far-red responsive photoreceptors first discovered in plants, where they constitute one of the three main classes of photomorphogenesis regulators. All phytochromes utilize covalently attached bilin chromophores that enable photoconversion between red-absorbing (P(r)) and far-red-absorbing (P(fr)) forms. Phytochromes are thus photoswitchable photosensors;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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