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  • Comparative transcriptome analysis reveals the molecular regulation underlying the adaptive mechanism of cherry (Cerasus pseudocerasus Lindl.) to shelter covering
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Tian Tian; Guang Qiao; Zhuang Wen; Bin Deng; Zhilang Qiu; Yi Hong; Xiaopeng Wen

    Rain-shelter covering is widely applied during cherry fruit development in subtropical monsoon climates with the aim of decreasing the dropping and cracking of fruit caused by excessive rainfall. Under rain-shelter covering, the characteristics of the leaves and fruit of the cherry plant may adapt to the changes in the microclimate. However, the molecular mechanism underlying such adaptation remains unclear, although clarifying it may be helpful for improving the yield and quality of cherry under rain-shelter covering. To better understand the regulation and adaptive mechanism of cherry under rain-shelter covering, 38,621 and 3584 differentially expressed genes were identified with a combination of Illumina HiSeq and single-molecule real-time sequencing in leaves and fruits, respectively, at three developmental stages. Among these, key genes, such as those encoding photosynthetic-antenna proteins (Lhca and Lhcb) and photosynthetic electron transporters (PsbP, PsbR, PsbY, and PetF), were up-regulated following the application of rain-shelter covering, leading to increased efficiency of light utilization. The mRNA levels of genes involved in carbon fixation, namely, rbcL and rbcS, were clearly increased compared with those under shelter-free conditions, resulting in improved CO2 utilization. Furthermore, the transcription levels of genes involved in chlorophyll (hemA, hemN, and chlH) and carotenoid synthesis (crtB, PDS, crtISO, and lcyB) in the sheltered leaves peaked earlier than those in the unsheltered leaves, thereby promoting organic matter accumulation in leaves. Remarkably, the expression levels of key genes involved in the metabolic pathways of phenylpropanoid (PAL, C4H, and 4CL) and flavonoid (CHS, CHI, F3’H, DFR, and ANS) in the sheltered fruits were also up-regulated earlier than of those in the unsheltered fruits, conducive to an increase in anthocyanin content in the fruits. According to the physiological indicators and transcriptional expression levels of the related genes, the adaptive regulation mechanism of cherry plants was systematically revealed. These findings can help understand the effect of rain-shelter covering on Chinese cherry cultivation in rainy regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Receptor kinase FERONIA regulates flowering time in Arabidopsis
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Long Wang; Tao Yang; Qinlu Lin; Bingqian Wang; Xu Li; Sheng Luan; Feng Yu

    The receptor-like kinase FEROINA (FER) plays a crucial role in controlling plant vegetative growth partially by sensing the rapid alkalinization factor (RALF) peptide. However, the role of RALF1-FER in the vegetative-reproductive growth transition remains unknown. Here, we analyze the mechanism through which FER affects the flowering time in Arabidopsis. We found that the FER mRNA levels exhibit an oscillating pattern with a diurnal rhythm and that the clock oscillator CIRCADIAN CLOCK-ASSOCIATED1 (CCA1) up-regulates the expression of FER by associating with its chromatin. In addition, FER expression is regulated by clock genes, and FER also modulates the expression patterns of clock genes. Consistent with its gene expression pattern, FER positively regulates flowering by modulating the transcript accumulation and mRNA alternative splicing of certain flowering-related genes, including FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC) and its homolog MADS AFFECTING FLOWERING (MAF). However, the RALF1 ligand negatively regulates flowering compared with FER. We found that FER, which is up-regulated by CCA1, controls the flowering time by regulating the transcript accumulation and mRNA alternative splicing (AS) of some important flowering genes, and these findings link FER to the floral transition.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Full moonlight-induced circadian clock entrainment in Coffea arabica
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    J-C. Breitler; D. Djerrab; S. Leran; L. Toniutti; C. Guittin; D. Severac; M. Pratlong; A. Dereeper; H. Etienne; B. Bertrand

    It is now well documented that moonlight affects the life cycle of invertebrates, birds, reptiles, and mammals. The lunisolar tide is also well-known to alter plant growth and development. However, although plants are known to be very photosensitive, few studies have been undertaken to explore the effect of moonlight on plant physiology. Here for the first time we report a massive transcriptional modification in Coffea arabica genes under full moonlight conditions, particularly at full moon zenith and 3 h later. Among the 3387 deregulated genes found in our study, the main core clock genes were affected. Moonlight also negatively influenced many genes involved in photosynthesis, chlorophyll biosynthesis and chloroplast machinery at the end of the night, suggesting that the full moon has a negative effect on primary photosynthetic machinery at dawn. Moreover, full moonlight promotes the transcription of major rhythmic redox genes and many heat shock proteins, suggesting that moonlight is perceived as stress. We confirmed this huge impact of weak light (less than 6 lx) on the transcription of circadian clock genes in controlled conditions mimicking full moonlight.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Copper-induced concomitant increases in photosynthesis, respiration, and C, N and S assimilation revealed by transcriptomic analyses in Ulva compressa (Chlorophyta)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Daniel Laporte; Felipe Rodríguez; Alberto González; Antonio Zúñiga; Eduardo Castro-Nallar; Claudio A. Sáez; Alejandra Moenne

    The marine alga Ulva compressa is the dominant species in copper-polluted coastal areas in northern Chile. It has been shown that the alga tolerates micromolar concentrations of copper and accumulates copper at the intracellular level. Transcriptomic analyses were performed using total RNA of the alga cultivated with 10 μ M copper for 0, 1, 3 and 5 days using RNA-seq in order to identify processes involved in copper tolerance. The levels of transcripts encoding proteins belonging to Light Harvesting Complex II (LHCII), photosystem II (PSII), cytochrome b6f, PSI, LHCI, ATP synthase and proteins involved in repair of PSII and protection of PSI were increased in the alga cultivated with copper. In addition, the level of transcripts encoding proteins of mitochondrial electron transport chain, ATP synthase, and enzymes involved in C, N and S assimilation were also enhanced. The higher percentages of increase in the level of transcripts were mainly observed at days 3 and 5. In contrast, transcripts involved protein synthesis and degradation, signal transduction, and replication and DNA repair, were decreased. In addition, net photosynthesis and respiration increased in the alga cultivated with copper, mainly at days 1 to 3. Furthermore, the activities of enzymes involved in C, N and S assimilation, rubisco, glutamine synthase and cysteine synthase, respectively, were also increased, mainly at days 1 and 3. The marine alga U. compressa tolerates copper excess through a concomitant increase in expression of proteins involved in photosynthesis, respiration, and C, N and S assimilation, which represents an exceptional mechanism of copper tolerance.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Genome-wide association reveals genetic variation of lint yield components under salty field conditions in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Guozhong Zhu; Wenwei Gao; Xiaohui Song; Fenglei Sun; Sen Hou; Na Liu; Yajie Huang; Dayong Zhang; Zhiyong Ni; Quanjia Chen; Wangzhen Guo

    Salinity is one of the most significant environmental factors limiting the productivity of cotton. However, the key genetic components responsible for the reduction in cotton yield in saline-alkali soils are still unclear. Here, we evaluated three main components of lint yield, single boll weight (SBW), lint percentage (LP) and boll number per plant (BNPP), across 316 G. hirsutum accessions under four salt conditions over two years. Phenotypic analysis indicated that LP was unchanged under different salt conditions, however BNPP decreased significantly and SBW increased slightly under high salt conditions. Based on 57,413 high-quality single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and genome-wide association study (GWAS) analysis, a total of 42, 91 and 25 stable quantitative trait loci (QTLs) were identified for SBW, LP and BNPP, respectively. Phenotypic and QTL analysis suggested that there was little correlation among the three traits. For LP, 8 stable QTLs were detected simultaneously in four different salt conditions, while fewer repeated QTLs for SBW or BNPP were identified. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis indicated that their regulatory mechanisms were also quite different. Via transcriptome profile data, we detected that 10 genes from the 8 stable LP QTLs were predominantly expressed during fiber development. Further, haplotype analyses found that a MYB gene (GhMYB103), with the two SNP variations in cis-regulatory and coding regions, was significantly correlated with lint percentage, implying a crucial role in lint yield. We also identified that 40 candidate genes from BNPP QTLs were salt-inducible. Genes related to carbohydrate metabolism and cell structure maintenance were rich in plants grown in high salt conditions, while genes related to ion transport were active in plants grown in low salt conditions, implying different regulatory mechanisms for BNPP at high and low salt conditions. This study provides a foundation for elucidating cotton salt tolerance mechanisms and contributes gene resources for developing upland cotton varieties with high yields and salt stress tolerance.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 is involved in seed oil production in Brassica napus
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Li-Na Ding; Shou-Lai Gu; Fu-Ge Zhu; Zhong-Yan Ma; Juan Li; Ming Li; Zheng Wang; Xiao-Li Tan

    Triacylglycerols (TAGs) are the main composition of plant seed oil. Long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetases (LACSs) catalyze the synthesis of long-chain acyl-coenzyme A, which is one of the primary substrates for TAG synthesis. In Arabidopsis, the LACS gene family contains nine members, among which LACS1 and LACS9 have overlapping functions in TAG biosynthesis. However, functional characterization of LACS proteins in rapeseed have been rarely reported. An orthologue of the Arabidopsis LACS2 gene (BnLACS2) that is highly expressed in developing seeds was identified in rapeseed (Brassica napus). The BnLACS2-GFP fusion protein was mainly localized to the endoplasmic reticulum, where TAG biosynthesis occurs. Interestingly, overexpression of the BnLACS2 gene resulted in significantly higher oil contents in transgenic rapeseed plants compared to wild type, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants had decreased oil contents. Furthermore, quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that the expression of several genes involved in glycolysis, as well as fatty acid (FA) and lipid biosynthesis, was also affected in transgenic plants. A long chain acyl-CoA synthetase, BnLACS2, located in the endoplasmic reticulum was identified in B. napus. Overexpression of BnLACS2 in yeast and rapeseed could increase oil content, while BnLACS2-RNAi transgenic rapeseed plants exhibited decreased oil content. Furthermore, BnLACS2 transcription increased the expression of genes involved in glycolysis, and FA and lipid synthesis in developing seeds. These results suggested that BnLACS2 is an important factor for seed oil production in B. napus.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Proteasome inhibition rapidly exacerbates photoinhibition and impedes recovery during high light stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Felipe Mendoza; Carson Berry; Laura Prestigiacomo; Doug Van Hoewyk

    Proteasomes remove regulatory proteins in eukaryotic cells, and control a variety of plant processes. Proteasomes are localized to the cytosol and nuclear, but their role in plant biology has recently been extended to chloroplasts, where it regulates TOC complex. This is turn controls the import of nuclear-encoded chloroplastic proteins, which remodels the chloroplast proteome and facilitates proper developmental transitions. Proteasomal regulation of the TOC complex also alleviates stressors that generate reactive oxygen species. These recent advances motivated us to determine if proteasome inhibition rapidly alters photosynthetic processes stemming from photoinhibition induced by high light. The short-term effects of proteasome inhibition on photosystem II during light stress was measured in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, which allowed the dual monitoring of both chlorophyll fluorescence and cell viability. After 48 h at low light, proteasome inhibition did not affect viability or photochemistiry, but decreased cell concentration and increased cell volume. Two hours of high light stress impaired the efficiency of photosystem II in proteasome-inhibited cells, as determined by a decrease in Fv/Fm and the electron transport rate. Elevated photoinhibition in proteasome inhibited cells was not caused by a decrease in cell viability or chlorophyll content. Recovery from photoinhibition was attenuated in MG132-treated cells, and suppressed growth of a reestablished culture. Proteasome inhibition decreased de novo protein synthesis, which possibly constrained the ability to remodel the plastid proteome, and thus hampering the ability to adjust to high light stress. The proteasome is implicated in protecting photosystem II from photoinhibition. In addition to high light stress, other stressors- including metals, drought, and salt- are also known to generate reactive oxygen species localized to the chloroplast. Therefore, proteasome maintenance in plants may help protect photosynthesis during abiotic stress, which could increase crop yield during adverse conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Development and characterization of an EMS-mutagenized wheat population and identification of salt-tolerant wheat lines
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Johanna Lethin; Shahriar S. M. Shakil; Sameer Hassan; Nick Sirijovski; Mats Töpel; Olof Olsson; Henrik Aronsson

    Triticum aestivum (wheat) is one of the world’s oldest crops and has been used for >8000 years as a food crop in North Africa, West Asia and Europe. Today, wheat is one of the most important sources of grain for humans, and is cultivated on greater areas of land than any other crop. As the human population increases and soil salinity becomes more prevalent, there is increased pressure on wheat breeders to develop salt-tolerant varieties in order to meet growing demands for yield and grain quality. Here we developed a mutant wheat population using the moderately salt-tolerant Bangladeshi variety BARI Gom-25, with the primary goal of further increasing salt tolerance. After titrating the optimal ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) concentration, ca 30,000 seeds were treated with 1% EMS, and 1676 lines, all originating from single seeds, survived through the first four generations. Most mutagenized lines showed a similar phenotype to BARI Gom-25, although visual differences such as dwarfing, giant plants, early and late flowering and altered leaf morphology were seen in some lines. By developing an assay for salt tolerance, and by screening the mutagenized population, we identified 70 lines exhibiting increased salt tolerance. The selected lines typically showed a 70% germination rate on filter paper soaked in 200 mM NaCl, compared to 0–30% for BARI Gom-25. From two of the salt-tolerant OlsAro lines (OA42 and OA70), genomic DNA was sequenced to 15x times coverage. A comparative analysis against the BARI Gom-25 genomic sequence identified a total of 683,201 (OA42), and 768,954 (OA70) SNPs distributed throughout the three sub-genomes (A, B and D). The mutation frequency was determined to be approximately one per 20,000 bp. All the 70 selected salt-tolerant lines were tested for root growth in the laboratory, and under saline field conditions in Bangladesh. The results showed that all the lines selected for tolerance showed a better salt tolerance phenotype than both BARI Gom-25 and other local wheat varieties tested. The mutant wheat population developed here will be a valuable resource in the development of novel salt-tolerant varieties for the benefit of saline farming.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Comparative transcriptomic and metabolic analysis of wild and domesticated wheat genotypes reveals differences in chemical and physical defense responses against aphids
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Zhaniya S. Batyrshina; Beery Yaakov; Reut Shavit; Anuradha Singh; Vered Tzin

    Young wheat plants are continuously exposed to herbivorous insect attack. To reduce insect damage and maintain their growth, plants evolved different defense mechanisms, including the biosynthesis of deterrent compounds named benzoxazinoids, and/or trichome formation that provides physical barriers. It is unclear whether both of these mechanisms are equally critical in providing an efficient defense for wheat seedlings against aphids—an economically costly pest in cereal production. In this study, we compared the transcriptome, metabolome, benzoxazinoids, and trichome density of three selected wheat genotypes, with a focus on differences related to defense mechanisms. We chose diverse wheat genotypes: two tetraploid wheat genotypes, domesticated durum ‘Svevo’ and wild emmer ‘Zavitan,’ and one hexaploid bread wheat, ‘Chinese Spring.’ The full transcriptomic analysis revealed a major difference between the three genotypes, while the clustering of significantly different genes suggested a higher similarity between the two domesticated wheats than between either and the wild wheat. A pathway enrichment analysis indicated that the genes associated with primary metabolism, as well as the pathways associated with defense such as phytohormones and specialized metabolites, were different between the three genotypes. Measurement of benzoxazinoid levels at the three time points (11, 15, and 18 days after germination) revealed high levels in the two domesticated genotypes, while in wild emmer wheat, they were below detection level. In contrast to the benzoxazinoid levels, the trichome density was dramatically higher in the wild emmer than in the domesticated wheat. Lastly, we tested the bird cherry-oat aphid’s (Rhopalosiphum padi) performance and found that Chinese Spring is more resistant than the tetraploid genotypes. Our results show that benzoxazinoids play a more significant defensive role than trichomes. Differences between the abundance of defense mechanisms in the wild and domesticated plants were observed in which wild emmer possesses high physical defenses while the domesticated wheat genotypes have high chemical defenses. These findings provide new insights into the defense adaptations of wheat plants against aphids.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Genome-wide systematic characterization of the HAK/KUP/KT gene family and its expression profile during plant growth and in response to low-K+ stress in Saccharum
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Xiaomin Feng; Yongjun Wang; Nannan Zhang; Zilin Wu; Qiaoying Zeng; Jiayun Wu; Xiaobin Wu; Lei Wang; Jisen Zhang; Yongwen Qi

    Plant genomes contain a large number of HAK/KUP/KT transporters, which play important roles in potassium uptake and translocation, osmotic potential regulation, salt tolerance, root morphogenesis and plant development. Potassium deficiency in the soil of a sugarcane planting area is serious. However, the HAK/KUP/KT gene family remains to be characterized in sugarcane (Saccharum). In this study, 30 HAK/KUP/KT genes were identified in Saccharum spontaneum. Phylogenetics, duplication events, gene structures and expression patterns were analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis of the HAK/KUP/KT genes from 15 representative plants showed that this gene family is divided into four groups (clades I-IV). Both ancient whole-genome duplication (WGD) and recent gene duplication contributed to the expansion of the HAK/KUP/KT gene family. Nonsynonymous to synonymous substitution ratio (Ka/Ks) analysis showed that purifying selection was the main force driving the evolution of HAK/KUP/KT genes. The divergence time of the HAK/KUP/KT gene family was estimated to range from 134.8 to 233.7 Mya based on Ks analysis, suggesting that it is an ancient gene family in plants. Gene structure analysis showed that the HAK/KUP/KT genes were accompanied by intron gain/loss in the process of evolution. RNA-seq data analysis demonstrated that the HAK/KUP/KT genes from clades II and III were mainly constitutively expressed in various tissues, while most genes from clades I and IV had no or very low expression in the tested tissues at different developmental stages. The expression of SsHAK1 and SsHAK21 was upregulated in response to low-K+ stress. Yeast functional complementation analysis revealed that SsHAK1 and SsHAK21 could rescue K+ uptake in a yeast mutant. This study provided insights into the evolutionary history of HAK/KUP/KT genes. HAK7/9/18 were mainly expressed in the upper photosynthetic zone and mature zone of the stem. HAK7/9/18/25 were regulated by sunlight. SsHAK1 and SsHAK21 played important roles in mediating potassium acquisition under limited K+ supply. Our results provide valuable information and key candidate genes for further studies on the function of HAK/KUP/KT genes in Saccharum.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Novel molecular components involved in callose-mediated Arabidopsis defense against Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli O157:H7
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Paula Rodrigues Oblessuc; Cleverson Carlos Matiolli; Maeli Melotto

    Food contamination with Salmonella enterica and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli is among the leading causes of foodborne illnesses worldwide and crop plants are associated with > 50% of the disease outbreaks. However, the mechanisms underlying the interaction of these human pathogens with plants remain elusive. In this study, we have explored plant resistance mechanisms against these enterobacteria and the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3118, as an opportunity to improve food safety. We found that S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (STm) transcriptionally modulates stress responses in Arabidopsis leaves, including induction of two hallmark processes of plant defense: ROS burst and cell wall modifications. Analyses of plants with a mutation in the potentially STm-induced gene EXO70H4 revealed that its encoded protein is required for stomatal defense against STm and E. coli O157:H7, but not against Pst DC3118. In the apoplast however, EXO70H4 is required for defense against STm and Pst DC3118, but not against E. coli O157:H7. Moreover, EXO70H4 is required for callose deposition, but had no function in ROS burst, triggered by all three bacteria. The salicylic acid (SA) signaling and biosynthesis proteins NPR1 and ICS1, respectively, were involved in stomatal and apoplastic defense, as well as callose deposition, against human and plant pathogens. The results show that EXO70H4 is involved in stomatal and apoplastic defenses in Arabidopsis and suggest that EXO70H4-mediated defense play a distinct role in guard cells and leaf mesophyll cells in a bacteria-dependent manner. Nonetheless, EXO70H4 contributes to callose deposition in response to both human and plant pathogens. NPR1 and ICS1, two proteins involved in the SA signaling pathway, are important to inhibit leaf internalization and apoplastic persistence of enterobacteria and proliferation of phytopathogens. These findings highlight the existence of unique and shared plant genetic components to fight off diverse bacterial pathogens providing specific targets for the prevention of foodborne diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Cytological evidence of BSD2 functioning in both chloroplast division and dimorphic chloroplast formation in maize leaves
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Heying Li; Mei Bai; Xingshan Jiang; Rongxin Shen; Huina Wang; Haiyang Wang; Hong Wu

    Maize bsd2 (bundle sheath defective2) is a classical C4 mutant with defective C4 photosynthesis, accompanied with reduced accumulation of Rubisco (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and aberrant mature chloroplast morphology in the bundle sheath (BS) cells. However, as a hypothetical chloroplast chaperone, the effects of BSD2 on C4 chloroplast development have not been fully examined yet, which precludes a full appreciation of BSD2 function in C4 photosynthesis. The aims of our study are to find out the role ofBSD2 in regulating chloroplasts development in maize leaves, and to add new insights into our understanding of C4 biology. We found that at the chloroplast maturation stage, the thylakoid membranes of chloroplasts in the BS and mesophyll (M) cells became significantly looser, and the granaof chloroplasts in the M cells became thinner stacking in the bsd2 mutant when compared with the wildtype plant. Moreover, at the early chloroplast development stage, the number of dividing chloroplasts and the chloroplast division rate are both reduced in the bsd2 mutant, compared with wild type. Quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of both thylakoid formation-related genesand chloroplast division-related genes is significantly reduced in the bsd2 mutants. Further, we showed that BSD2 interacts physically with the large submit of Rubisco (LS) in Bimolecular Fluorescence Complementation assay. Our combined results suggest that BSD2 plays an essential role in regulating the division and differentiation of the dimorphic BS and M chloroplasts, and that it acts at a post-transcriptional level to regulate LS stability or assembly of Rubisco.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Over-expression of poplar NAC15 gene enhances wood formation in transgenic tobacco
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Wenjing Yao; Dawei Zhang; Boru Zhou; Jianping Wang; Renhua Li; Tingbo Jiang

    NAC (NAM/ATAF/CUC) is one of the largest plant-specific transcription factor (TF) families known to play significant roles in wood formation. Acting as master gene regulators, a few NAC genes can activate secondary wall biosynthesis during wood formation in woody plants. In the present study, firstly, we screened 110 differentially expressed NAC genes in the leaves, stems, and roots of di-haploid Populus simonii×P. nigra by RNA-Seq. Then we identified a nucleus-targeted gene, NAC15 gene, which was one of the highly expressed genes in the stem among 110 NAC family members. Thirdly, we conducted expression pattern analysis of NAC15 gene, and observed NAC15 gene was most highly expressed in the xylem by RT-qPCR. Moreover, we transferred NAC15 gene into tobacco and obtained 12 transgenic lines overexpressing NAC15 gene (TLs). And the relative higher content of hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin was observed in the TLs compared to the control lines containing empty vector (CLs). It also showed darker staining in the culms of the TLs with phloroglucinol staining, compared to the CLs. Furthermore, the relative expression level of a few lignin- and cellulose-related genes was significantly higher in the TLs than that in the CLs. The overall results indicated that NAC15 gene is highly expressed in the xylem of poplar and may be a potential candidate gene playing an important role in wood formation in transgenic tobacco.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genome wide identification and functional characterization of strawberry pectin methylesterases related to fruit softening
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Cheng Xue; Si-Cong Guan; Jian-Qing Chen; Chen-Jin Wen; Jian-Fa Cai; Xu Chen

    Pectin methylesterase (PME) is a hydrolytic enzyme that catalyzes the demethylesterification of homogalacturonans and controls pectin reconstruction, being essential in regulation of cell wall modification. During fruit ripening stage, PME-mediated cell wall remodeling is an important process to determine fruit firmness and softening. Strawberry fruit is a soft fruit with a short postharvest life, due to a rapid loss of firm texture. Hence, preharvest improvement of strawberry fruit rigidity is a prerequisite for extension of fruit refreshing time. Although PME has been well characterized in model plants, knowledge regarding the functionality and evolutionary property of PME gene family in strawberry remain limited. A total of 54 PME genes (FvPMEs) were identified in woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca ‘Hawaii 4’). Phylogeny and gene structure analysis divided these FvPME genes into four groups (Group 1–4). Duplicate events analysis suggested that tandem and dispersed duplications effectively contributed to the expansion of the PME family in strawberry. Through transcriptome analysis, we identified FvPME38 and FvPME39 as the most abundant-expressed PMEs at fruit ripening stages, and they were positively regulated by abscisic acid. Genetic manipulation of FvPME38 and FvPME39 by overexpression and RNAi-silencing significantly influences the fruit firmness, pectin content and cell wall structure, indicating a requirement of PME for strawberry fruit softening. Our study globally analyzed strawberry pectin methylesterases by the approaches of phylogenetics, evolutionary prediction and genetic analysis. We verified the essential role of FvPME38 and FvPME39 in regulation of strawberry fruit softening process, which provided a guide for improving strawberry fruit firmness by modifying PME level.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genome-wide comparative analysis of the BAHD superfamily in seven Rosaceae species and expression analysis in pear (Pyrus bretschneideri)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Chunxin Liu; Xin Qiao; Qionghou Li; Weiwei Zeng; Shuwei Wei; Xin Wang; Yangyang Chen; Xiao Wu; Jun Wu; Hao Yin; Shaoling Zhang

    The BAHD acyltransferase superfamily exhibits various biological roles in plants, including regulating fruit quality, catalytic synthesizing of terpene, phenolics and esters, and improving stress resistance. However, the copy numbers, expression characteristics and associations with fruit aroma formation of the BAHD genes remain unclear. In total, 717 BAHD genes were obtained from the genomes of seven Rosaceae, (Pyrus bretschneideri, Malus domestica, Prunus avium, Prunus persica, Fragaria vesca, Pyrus communis and Rubus occidentalis). Based on the detailed phylogenetic analysis and classifications in model plants, we divided the BAHD family genes into seven groups, I-a, I-b, II-a, II-b, III-a, IV and V. An inter-species synteny analysis revealed the ancient origin of BAHD superfamily with 78 syntenic gene pairs were detected among the seven Rosaceae species. Different types of gene duplication events jointly drive the expansion of BAHD superfamily, and purifying selection dominates the evolution of BAHD genes supported by the small Ka/Ks ratios. Based on the correlation analysis between the ester content and expression levels of BAHD genes at different developmental stages, four candidate genes were selected for verification as assessed by qRT-PCR. The result implied that Pbr020016.1, Pbr019034.1, Pbr014028.1 and Pbr029551.1 are important candidate genes involved in aroma formation during pear fruit development. We have thoroughly identified the BAHD superfamily genes and performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of their phylogenetic relationships, expansion patterns, and expression characteristics in seven Rosaceae species, and we also obtained four candidate genes involved in aroma synthesis in pear fruit. These results provide a theoretical basis for future studies of the specific biological functions of BAHD superfamily members and the improvement of pear fruit quality.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Metabolomic analyses reveal substances that contribute to the increased freezing tolerance of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) after continuous water deficit
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Hongyu Xu; Zhenyi Li; Zongyong Tong; Feng He; Xianglin Li

    Alfalfa is a high-quality forage cultivated widely in northern China. Recently, the failure of alfalfa plants to survive the winter has caused substantial economic losses. Water management has attracted considerable attention as a method for the potential improvement of winter survival. The aim of this study was to determine whether and how changes in the water regime affect the freezing tolerance of alfalfa. The alfalfa variety WL353LH was cultivated under water regimes of 80 and 25% of water-holding capacity, and all the plants were subjected to low temperatures at 4/0 °C (light/dark) and then − 2/− 6 °C (light/dark). The semi-lethal temperatures were lower for water-stressed than well-watered alfalfa. The pool sizes of total soluble sugars, total amino acids, and proline changed substantially under water-deficit and low-temperature conditions. Metabolomics analyses revealed 72 subclasses of differential metabolites, among which lipid and lipid-like molecules (e.g., fatty acids, unsaturated fatty acids, and glycerophospholipids) and amino acids, peptides, and analogues (e.g., proline betaine) were upregulated under water-deficit conditions. Some carbohydrates (e.g., D-maltose and raffinose) and flavonoids were also upregulated at low temperatures. Finally, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analyses revealed 18 significantly enriched pathways involved in the biosynthesis and metabolism of carbohydrates, unsaturated fatty acids, amino acids, and glycerophospholipids. Water deficit significantly enhanced the alfalfa’ freezing tolerance, and this was correlated with increased soluble sugar, amino acid, and lipid and lipid-like molecule contents. These substances are involved in osmotic regulation, cryoprotection, and the synthesis, fluidity, and stability of the cellular membrane. Our study provides a reference for improving alfalfa’ winter survival through water management.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • A highly efficient organogenesis protocol based on zeatin riboside for in vitro regeneration of eggplant
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Edgar García-Fortea; Agustín Lluch-Ruiz; Benito José Pineda-Chaza; Ana García-Pérez; Juan Pablo Bracho-Gil; Mariola Plazas; Pietro Gramazio; Santiago Vilanova; Vicente Moreno; Jaime Prohens

    Efficient organogenesis induction in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) is required for multiple in vitro culture applications. In this work, we aimed at developing a universal protocol for efficient in vitro regeneration of eggplant mainly based on the use of zeatin riboside (ZR). We evaluated the effect of seven combinations of ZR with indoleacetic acid (IAA) for organogenic regeneration in five genetically diverse S. melongena and one S. insanum L. accessions using two photoperiod conditions. In addition, the effect of six different concentrations of indolebutyric acid (IBA) in order to promote rooting was assessed to facilitate subsequent acclimatization of plants. The ploidy level of regenerated plants was studied. In a first experiment with accessions MEL1 and MEL3, significant (p < 0.05) differences were observed for the four factors evaluated for organogenesis from cotyledon, hypocotyl and leaf explants, with the best results obtained (9 and 11 shoots for MEL1 and MEL3, respectively) using cotyledon tissue, 16 h light / 8 h dark photoperiod conditions, and medium E6 (2 mg/L of ZR and 0 mg/L of IAA). The best combination of conditions was tested in the other four accessions and confirmed its high regeneration efficiency per explant when using both cotyledon and hypocotyl tissues. The best rooting media was R2 (1 mg/L IBA). The analysis of ploidy level revealed that between 25 and 50% of the regenerated plantlets were tetraploid. An efficient protocol for organogenesis of both cultivated and wild accessions of eggplant, based on the use of ZR, is proposed. The universal protocol developed may be useful for fostering in vitro culture applications in eggplant requiring regeneration of plants and, in addition, allows developing tetraploid plants without the need of antimitotic chemicals.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into the volatile compounds of citrus leaves and flowers
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Haipeng Zhang; Mengjun Chen; Huan Wen; Zhenhua Wang; Jiajing Chen; Liu Fang; Hongyan Zhang; Zongzhou Xie; Dong Jiang; Yunjiang Cheng; Juan Xu

    Previous reports have mainly focused on the volatiles in citrus fruits, and there have been few reports about the volatiles in citrus leaves and flowers. However, citrus leaves and flowers are also rich in volatile compounds with unique aromas. Here, to investigate the volatiles in citrus leaves and flowers, volatile profiling was performed on leaves from 62 germplasms and flowers from 25 germplasms. In total, 196 and 82 volatile compounds were identified from leaves of 62 citrus germplasms and flowers of 25 citrus germplasms, respectively. The dominant volatile terpenoids were more diverse in citrus leaves than in peels. A total of 34 volatile terpenoids were commonly detected in the leaves of at least 20 germplasms, among which 31 were overaccumulated in the leaves of wild or semiwild germplasms. This result was consistent with the high expression levels of five genes and one key gene of the mevalonate and 2-C-methyl-D-erythritol-4-phosphate (MEP) biosynthetic pathways, respectively, as well as the low expression levels of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase of the MEP pathway, relative to the levels in cultivars. Fully open flowers showed increased levels of four terpene alcohols and a decrease in sabinene content compared with balloon-stage flowers, especially in sweet orange. A monoterpene synthase gene was identified and functionally characterized as a sabinene synthase in vitro. Collectively, our results suggest that 31 important terpenoids are abundant in wild or semiwild citrus germplasms, possibly because of a negative effect of domestication on the volatiles in citrus leaves. The sweet smell of fully open flowers may be attributed to increased levels of four terpene alcohols. In addition, a sabinene synthase gene was identified by combined transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Cytological observation of anther structure and genetic investigation of a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile line 373S in Brassica napus L
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yanyan Sun; Dongsuo Zhang; Zhenzhen Wang; Yuan Guo; Xiaomin Sun; Wei Li; Wenliang Zhi; Shengwu Hu

    Photoperiod and/or thermo-sensitive male sterility is an effective pollination control system in crop two-line hybrid breeding. We previously discovered the spontaneous mutation of a partially male sterile plant and developed a thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) line 373S in Brassica napus L. The present study characterized this TGMS line through cytological observation, photoperiod/ temperature treatments, and genetic investigation. Microscopic observation revealed that the condensed cytoplasm and irregular exine of microspores and the abnormal degradation of tapetum are related to pollen abortion. Different temperature and photoperiod treatments in field and growth cabinet conditions indicated that the fertility alteration of 373S was mainly caused by temperature changes. The effects of photoperiod and interaction between temperature and photoperiod were insignificant. The critical temperature leading to fertility alteration ranged from 10 °C (15 °C/5 °C) to 12 °C (17 °C/7 °C), and the temperature-responding stage was coincident with anther development from pollen mother cell formation to meiosis stages. Genetic analysis indicated that the TGMS trait in 373S was controlled by one pair of genes, with male sterility as the recessive. Multiplex PCR analysis revealed that the cytoplasm of 373S is pol type. Our study suggested that the 373S line in B. napus has a novel thermo-sensitive gene Bnmst1 in Pol CMS cytoplasm background, and its fertility alteration is mainly caused by temperature changes. Our results will broaden the TGMS resources and lay the foundation for two-line hybrid breeding in B. napus.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis reveals the role of CoA in the salt tolerance of Zygophyllum spp
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Jie Wang; Xi Jiang; Chufeng Zhao; Zhongming Fang; Peipei Jiao

    Zygophyllum is an important medicinal plant, with notable properties such as resistance to salt, alkali, and drought, as well as tolerance of poor soils and shifting sand. However, the response mechanism of Zygophyllum spp. to abiotic stess were rarely studied. Here, we aimed to explore the salt-tolerance genes of Zygophyllum plants by transcriptomic and metabolic approaches. We chose Z. brachypterum, Z. obliquum and Z. fabago to screen for salt tolerant and sensitive species. Cytological observation showed that both the stem and leaf of Z. brachypterum were significantly thicker than those of Z. fabago. Then, we treated these three species with different concentrations of NaCl, and found that Z. brachypterum exhibited the highest salt tolerance (ST), while Z. fabago was the most sensitive to salt (SS). With the increase of salt concentration, the CAT, SOD and POD activity, as well as proline and chlorophyll content in SS decreased significantly more than in ST. After salt treatment, the proportion of open stomata in ST decreased significantly more than in SS, although there was no significant difference in stomatal number between the two species. Transcriptomic analysis identified a total of 11 overlapping differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in the leaves and roots of the ST and SS species after salt stress. Two branched-chain-amino-acid aminotransferase (BCAT) genes among the 11 DEGs, which were significantly enriched in pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis, as well as the valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis pathways, were confirmed to be significantly induced by salt stress through qRT-PCR. Furthermore, overlapping differentially abundant metabolites showed that the pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathways were significantly enriched after salt stress, which was consistent with the KEGG pathways enriched according to transcriptomics. In our study, transcriptomic and metabolomic analysis revealed that BCAT genes may affect the pantothenate and CoA biosynthesis pathway to regulate the salt tolerance of Zygophyllum species, which may constitute a newly identified signaling pathway through which plants respond to salt stress.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Comparative transcriptome analysis indicates that a core transcriptional network mediates isonuclear alloplasmic male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Zihan Liu; Sha Li; Wei Li; Qi Liu; Lingli Zhang; Xiyue Song

    Cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) plays a crucial role in the utilization of heterosis and various types of CMS often have different abortion mechanisms. Therefore, it is important to understand the molecular mechanisms related to anther abortion in wheat, which remain unclear at present. In this study, five isonuclear alloplasmic male sterile lines (IAMSLs) and their maintainer were investigated. Cytological analysis indicated that the abortion type was identical in IAMSLs, typical and stainable abortion, and the key abortive period was in the binucleate stage. Most of the 1,281 core shared differentially expressed genes identified by transcriptome sequencing compared with the maintainer in the vital abortive stage were involved in the metabolism of sugars, oxidative phosphorylation, phenylpropane biosynthesis, and phosphatidylinositol signaling, and they were downregulated in the IAMSLs. Key candidate genes encoding chalcone--flavonone isomerase, pectinesterase, and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase were screened and identified. Moreover, further verification elucidated that due to the impact of downregulated genes in these pathways, the male sterile anthers were deficient in sugar and energy, with excessive accumulations of ROS, blocked sporopollenin synthesis, and abnormal tapetum degradation. Through comparative transcriptome analysis, an intriguing core transcriptome-mediated male-sterility network was proposed and constructed for wheat and inferred that the downregulation of genes in important pathways may ultimately stunt the formation of the pollen outer wall in IAMSLs. These findings provide insights for predicting the functions of the candidate genes, and the comprehensive analysis of our results was helpful for studying the abortive interaction mechanism in CMS wheat.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The NAD kinase OsNADK1 affects the intracellular redox balance and enhances the tolerance of rice to drought
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Xiang Wang; Bin-Bin Li; Tian-Tian Ma; Liang-Yu Sun; Li Tai; Chun-Hong Hu; Wen-Ting Liu; Wen-Qiang Li; Kun-Ming Chen

    NAD kinases (NADKs) are the only known enzymes that directly phosphorylate NAD(H) to generate NADP(H) in different subcellular compartments. They participate in multiple life activities, such as modulating the NADP/NAD ratio, maintaining the intracellular redox balance and responding to environmental stresses. However, the functions of individual NADK in plants are still under investigation. Here, a rice NADK, namely, OsNADK1, was identified, and its functions in plant growth regulation and stress tolerance were analysed by employing a series of transgenic plant lines. OsNADK1 is a cytosol-localized NADK in rice. It was expressed in all rice tissues examined, and its transcriptional expression could be stimulated by a number of environmental stress treatments. Compared with wild-type (WT) rice, the mutant plant osnadk1 in which OsNADK1 was knocked out was a dwarf at the heading stage and had decreased NADP(H)/NAD(H), ascorbic acid (ASA)/dehydroascorbate (DHA) and reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) ratios, which led to increased oxidation states in the rice cells and sensitivity to drought. Moreover, certain stress-related genes showed differential expression patterns in osnadk1 under both normal growth and drought-stress conditions compared with WT. Among these genes, OsDREB1B and several WRKY family transcription factors, e.g., OsWRKY21 and OsWRKY42, showed correlated co-expression patterns with OsNADK1 in osnadk1 and the plants overexpressing or underexpressing OsNADK1, implying roles for these transcription factors in OsNADK1-mediated processes. In addition, overexpression of OsNADK1 enhanced the drought tolerance of rice plants, whereas loss of function of the gene reduced the tolerance. Furthermore, the proline content was dramatically increased in the leaves of the OsNADK1-overexpressing lines under drought conditions. Altogether, the results suggest that an OsNADK1-mediated intracellular redox balance is involved in the tolerance of rice plants to drought.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Tissue-specific gene expression and protein abundance patterns are associated with fractionation bias in maize
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jesse R. Walsh; Margaret R. Woodhouse; Carson M. Andorf; Taner Z. Sen

    Maize experienced a whole-genome duplication event approximately 5 to 12 million years ago. Because this event occurred after speciation from sorghum, the pre-duplication subgenomes can be partially reconstructed by mapping syntenic regions to the sorghum chromosomes. During evolution, maize has had uneven gene loss between each ancient subgenome. Fractionation and divergence between these genomes continue today, constantly changing genetic make-up and phenotypes and influencing agronomic traits. Here we regenerate the subgenome reconstructions for the most recent maize reference genome assembly. Based on both expression and abundance data for homeologous gene pairs across multiple tissues, we observed functional divergence of genes across subgenomes. Although the genes in the larger maize subgenome are often expressing more highly than their homeologs in the smaller subgenome, we observed cases where homeolog expression dominance switches in different tissues. We demonstrate for the first time that protein abundances are higher in the larger subgenome, but they also show tissue-specific dominance, a pattern similar to RNA expression dominance. We also find that pollen expression is uniquely decoupled from protein abundance. Our study shows that the larger subgenome has a greater range of functional assignments and that there is a relative lack of overlap between the subgenomes in terms of gene functions than would be suggested by similar patterns of gene expression and protein abundance. Our study also revealed that some reactions are catalyzed uniquely by the larger and smaller subgenomes. The tissue-specific, nonequivalent expression-level dominance pattern observed here implies a change in regulatory control which favors differentiated selective pressure on the retained duplicates leading to eventual change in gene functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Transcriptomic analysis reveals recovery strategies in strawberry roots after using a soil amendment in continuous cropping soil
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Peng Chen; Yu-zhu Wang; Qi-zhi Liu; Wei-hua Li; He-qin Li; Xing-yue Li; Yun-tao Zhang

    In strawberry cultivation, continuous cropping (CC) obstacles seriously threaten production. A patented soil amendment (SA) can effectively relieve the CC obstacles to strawberry cultivation, but knowledge of the recovery mechanisms underlying this phenomenon is limited. In this study, transcriptomic profiling of strawberry roots in soil with and without the SA was conducted using RNA-Seq technology to reveal gene expression changes in response to SA treatment. In total, 188 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), including 144 upregulated and 44 downregulated DEGs, were identified. SA treatment resulted in genotype-dependent responses, and the response pattern, including an overall increase in the expression of nutrient transport genes and a decrease in the expression of defense response genes, may be a possible mechanism underlying recovery strategies in strawberry roots after the application of the SA to CC soil. We also found that 9 Hsp genes involved in plant defense pathways were all downregulated in the SA-treated roots. This research indicated that strawberry plants reallocated defense resources to development when SA treatment alleviated the stress caused by a CC soil environment. The present study provides an opportunity to reveal the fundamental mechanisms of the tradeoff between growth and defense in strawberry.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The pathogen Moniliophthora perniciosa promotes differential proteomic modulation of cacao genotypes with contrasting resistance to witches´ broom disease
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Everton Cruz dos Santos; Carlos Priminho Pirovani; Stephany Cristiane Correa; Fabienne Micheli; Karina Peres Gramacho

    Witches’ broom disease (WBD) of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.), caused by Moniliophthora perniciosa, is the most important limiting factor for the cacao production in Brazil. Hence, the development of cacao genotypes with durable resistance is the key challenge for control the disease. Proteomic methods are often used to study the interactions between hosts and pathogens, therefore helping classical plant breeding projects on the development of resistant genotypes. The present study compared the proteomic alterations between two cacao genotypes standard for WBD resistance and susceptibility, in response to M. perniciosa infection at 72 h and 45 days post-inoculation; respectively the very early stages of the biotrophic and necrotrophic stages of the cacao x M. perniciosa interaction. A total of 554 proteins were identified, being 246 in the susceptible Catongo and 308 in the resistant TSH1188 genotypes. The identified proteins were involved mainly in metabolism, energy, defense and oxidative stress. The resistant genotype showed more expressed proteins with more variability associated with stress and defense, while the susceptible genotype exhibited more repressed proteins. Among these proteins, stand out pathogenesis related proteins (PRs), oxidative stress regulation related proteins, and trypsin inhibitors. Interaction networks were predicted, and a complex protein-protein interaction was observed. Some proteins showed a high number of interactions, suggesting that those proteins may function as cross-talkers between these biological functions. We present the first study reporting the proteomic alterations of resistant and susceptible genotypes in the T. cacao x M. perniciosa pathosystem. The important altered proteins identified in the present study are related to key biologic functions in resistance, such as oxidative stress, especially in the resistant genotype TSH1188, that showed a strong mechanism of detoxification. Also, the positive regulation of defense and stress proteins were more evident in this genotype. Proteins with significant roles against fungal plant pathogens, such as chitinases, trypsin inhibitors and PR 5 were also identified, and they may be good resistance markers. Finally, important biological functions, such as stress and defense, photosynthesis, oxidative stress and carbohydrate metabolism were differentially impacted with M. perniciosa infection in each genotype.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Using whole-genome SNP data to reconstruct a large multi-generation pedigree in apple germplasm
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Hélène Muranty; Caroline Denancé; Laurence Feugey; Jean-Luc Crépin; Yves Barbier; Stefano Tartarini; Matthew Ordidge; Michela Troggio; Marc Lateur; Hilde Nybom; Frantisek Paprstein; François Laurens; Charles-Eric Durel

    Apple (Malus x domestica Borkh.) is one of the most important fruit tree crops of temperate areas, with great economic and cultural value. Apple cultivars can be maintained for centuries in plant collections through grafting, and some are thought to date as far back as Roman times. Molecular markers provide a means to reconstruct pedigrees and thus shed light on the recent history of migration and trade of biological materials. The objective of the present study was to identify relationships within a set of over 1400 mostly old apple cultivars using whole-genome SNP data (~ 253 K SNPs) in order to reconstruct pedigrees. Using simple exclusion tests, based on counting the number of Mendelian errors, more than one thousand parent-offspring relations and 295 complete parent-offspring families were identified. Additionally, a grandparent couple was identified for the missing parental side of 26 parent-offspring pairings. Among the 407 parent-offspring relations without a second identified parent, 327 could be oriented because one of the individuals was an offspring in a complete family or by using historical data on parentage or date of recording. Parents of emblematic cultivars such as ‘Ribston Pippin’, ‘White Transparent’ and ‘Braeburn’ were identified. The overall pedigree combining all the identified relationships encompassed seven generations and revealed a major impact of two Renaissance cultivars of French and English origin, namely ‘Reinette Franche’ and ‘Margil’, and one North-Eastern Europe cultivar from the 1700s, ‘Alexander’. On the contrary, several older cultivars, from the Middle Ages or the Roman times, had no, or only single, identifiable offspring in the set of studied accessions. Frequent crosses between cultivars originating from different European regions were identified, especially from the nineteenth century onwards. The availability of over 1400 apple genotypes, previously filtered for genetic uniqueness and providing a broad representation of European germplasm, has been instrumental for the success of this large pedigree reconstruction. It enlightens the history of empirical selection and recent breeding of apple cultivars in Europe and provides insights to speed-up future breeding and selection.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Genome-wide association study identified candidate genes controlling continuous storage root formation and bulking in hexaploid sweetpotato
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Astère Bararyenya; Bode A. Olukolu; Phinehas Tukamuhabwa; Wolfgang J. Grüneberg; Wellington Ekaya; Jan Low; Mildred Ochwo-Ssemakula; Thomas L. Odong; Herbert Talwana; Arfang Badji; Martina Kyalo; Yao Nasser; Dorcus Gemenet; Mercy Kitavi; Robert O. M. Mwanga

    Continuous storage root formation and bulking (CSRFAB) in sweetpotato is an important trait from agronomic and biological perspectives. Information about the molecular mechanisms underlying CSRFAB traits is lacking. Here, as a first step toward understanding the genetic basis of CSRFAB in sweetpotato, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using phenotypic data from four distinct developmental stages and 33,068 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and insertion-deletion (indel) markers. Based on Bonferroni threshold (p-value < 5 × 10− 7), we identified 34 unique SNPs that were significantly associated with the complex trait of CSRFAB at 150 days after planting (DAP) and seven unique SNPs associated with discontinuous storage root formation and bulking (DCSRFAB) at 90 DAP. Importantly, most of the loci associated with these identified SNPs were located within genomic regions (using Ipomoea trifida reference genome) previously reported for quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling similar traits. Based on these trait-associated SNPs, 12 and seven candidate genes were respectively annotated for CSRFAB and DCSRFAB traits. Congruent with the contrasting and inverse relationship between discontinuous and continuous storage root formation and bulking, a DCSRFAB-associated candidate gene regulates redox signaling, involved in auxin-mediated lateral root formation, while CSRFAB is enriched for genes controlling growth and senescence. Candidate genes identified in this study have potential roles in cell wall remodeling, plant growth, senescence, stress, root development and redox signaling. These findings provide valuable insights into understanding the functional networks to develop strategies for sweetpotato yield improvement. The markers as well as candidate genes identified in this pioneering research for CSRFAB provide important genomic resources for sweetpotato and other root crops.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Pollen-mediated gene flow ensures connectivity among spatially discrete sub-populations of Phalaenopsis pulcherrima, a tropical food-deceptive orchid
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Zhe Zhang; Stephan W. Gale; Ji-Hong Li; Gunter A. Fischer; Ming-Xun Ren; Xi-Qiang Song

    Gene flow in plants via pollen and seeds is asymmetrical at different geographic scales. Orchid seeds are adapted to long-distance wind dispersal but pollinium transfer is often influenced by pollinator behavior. We combined field studies with an analysis of genetic diversity among 155 physically mapped adults and 1105 F1 seedlings to evaluate the relative contribution of pollen and seed dispersal to overall gene flow among three sub-populations of the food-deceptive orchid Phalaenopsis pulcherrima on Hainan Island, China. Phalaenopsis pulcherrima is self-sterile and predominantly outcrossing, resulting in high population-level genetic diversity, but plants are clumped and exhibit fine-scale genetic structuring. Even so, we detected low differentiation among sub-populations, with polynomial regression analysis suggesting gene flow via seed to be more restricted than that via pollen. Paternity analysis confirmed capsules of P. pulcherrima to each be sired by a single pollen donor, probably in part facilitated by post-pollination stigma obfuscation, with a mean pollen flow distance of 272.7 m. Despite limited sampling, we detected no loss of genetic diversity from one generation to the next. Outcrossing mediated by deceptive pollination and self-sterility promote high genetic diversity in P. pulcherrima. Long-range pollinia transfer ensures connectivity among sub-populations, offsetting the risk of genetic erosion at local scales.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • GmWRKY40, a member of the WRKY transcription factor genes identified from Glycine max L., enhanced the resistance to Phytophthora sojae
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Xiaoxia Cui; Qiang Yan; Shuping Gan; Dong Xue; Haitang Wang; Han Xing; Jinming Zhao; Na Guo

    The WRKY proteins are a superfamily of transcription factors and members play essential roles in the modulation of diverse physiological processes, such as growth, development, senescence and response to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the biological roles of the majority of the WRKY family members remains poorly understood in soybean relative to the research progress in model plants. In this study, we identified and characterized GmWRKY40, which is a group IIc WRKY gene. Transient expression analysis revealed that the GmWRKY40 protein is located in the nucleus of plant cells. Expression of GmWRKY40 was strongly induced in soybean following infection with Phytophthora sojae, or treatment with methyl jasmonate, ethylene, salicylic acid, and abscisic acid. Furthermore, soybean hairy roots silencing GmWRKY40 enhanced susceptibility to P. sojae infection compared with empty vector transgenic roots. Moreover, suppression of GmWRKY40 decreased the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and modified the expression of several oxidation-related genes. Yeast two-hybrid experiment combined with RNA-seq analysis showed that GmWRKY40 interacted with 8 JAZ proteins with or without the WRKY domain or zinc-finger domain of GmWRKY40, suggesting there were different interaction patterns among these interacted proteins. Collectively, these results suggests that GmWRKY40 functions as a positive regulator in soybean plants response to P. sojae through modulating hydrogen peroxide accumulation and JA signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Metabolite profiling during graft union formation reveals the reprogramming of primary metabolism and the induction of stilbene synthesis at the graft interface in grapevine
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Duyên Prodhomme; Josep Valls Fonayet; Cyril Hévin; Céline Franc; Ghislaine Hilbert; Gilles de Revel; Tristan Richard; Nathalie Ollat; Sarah Jane Cookson

    Grafting with rootstocks is essential for the culture of many perennial fruit crops and is increasing being used in the production of annual fruits and vegetables. Our previous work based on microarrays showed that transcripts encoding enzymes of both primary and secondary metabolism were differentially expressed during graft union formation in both homo-grafts (a genotype grafted with itself) and hetero-grafts (two different genotypes grafted together). The aim of this study was to profile primary and secondary metabolites, and quantify the activity of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and neutral invertase (NI) in the scion and rootstock tissues and the graft interface of homo and hetero-grafts of grapevine 1 month after grafting. Table-top grafting was done on over-wintering stems (canes) of grapevine and the graft interface tissues (containing some woody stem tissues and callus) were compared to the surrounding rootstock and scion tissues. The objective was to identify compounds involved in graft union formation and hetero-grafting responses. A total of 54 compounds from primary and secondary metabolism (19 amino acids, five primary and 30 secondary compounds metabolites) and the activity of two enzymes were measured. The graft interface was associated with an increase in the accumulation of the branched-chain amino acids, basic amino acids, certain stilbene compounds and higher PAL and NI activity in comparison to the surrounding woody stem tissues. Some amino acids and stilbenes were identified as being accumulated differently between the graft interfaces of the scion/rootstock combinations in a manner which was unrelated to their concentrations in the surrounding woody stem tissues. This study revealed the modification of primary metabolism to support callus cell formation and the stimulation of stilbene synthesis at the graft interface, and how these processes are modified by hetero-grafting. Knowledge of the metabolites and/or enzymes required for successful graft union formation offer us the potential to identify markers that could be used by nurseries and researchers for selection and breeding purposes.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Genome-wide identification and characterization of the ALOG gene family in Petunia
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Feng Chen; Qin Zhou; Lan Wu; Fei Li; Baojun Liu; Shuting Zhang; Jiaqi Zhang; Manzhu Bao; Guofeng Liu

    The ALOG (Arabidopsis LSH1 and Oryza G1) family of proteins, namely DUF640 (domain of unknown function 640) domain proteins, were found in land plants. Functional characterization of a few ALOG members in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice suggested they play important regulatory roles in plant development. The information about its evolution, however, is largely limited, and there was no any report on the ALOG genes in Petunia, an important ornamental species. The ALOG genes were identified in four species of Petunia including P. axillaris, P. inflata, P. integrifolia, and P. exserta based on the genome and/or transcriptome databases, which were further confirmed by cloning from P. hybrida ‘W115’ (Mitchel diploid), a popular laboratorial petunia line susceptible to genetic transformation. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that Petunia ALOG genes (named as LSHs according to their closest Arabidopsis homologs) were grouped into four clades, which can be further divided into eight groups, and similar exon-intron structure and motifs are reflected in the same group. The PhLSH genes of hybrid petunia ‘W115’ were mainly derived from P. axillaris. The qPCR analysis revealed distinct spatial expression patterns among them suggesting potentially functional diversification. Moreover, over-expressing PhLSH7a and PhLSH7b in Arabidopsis uncovered their functions in the development of both vegetative and reproductive organs. Petunia genome includes 11 ALOG genes that can be divided into eight distinct groups, and they also show different expression patterns. Among these genes, PhLSH7b and PhLSH7a play significant roles in plant growth and development, especially in fruit development. Our results provide new insight into the evolution of ALOG gene family and have laid a good foundation for the study of petunia LSH gene in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Colonisation of Oncidium orchid roots by the endophyte Piriformospora indica restricts Erwinia chrysanthemi infection, stimulates accumulation of NBS-LRR resistance gene transcripts and represses their targeting micro-RNAs in leaves
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Wei Ye; Jinlan Jiang; Yuling Lin; Kai-Wun Yeh; Zhongxiong Lai; Xuming Xu; Ralf Oelmüller

    Erwinia chrysanthemi (Ec) is a destructive pathogen which causes soft-rot diseases in diverse plant species including orchids. We investigated whether colonization of Oncidium roots by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) restricts Ec-induced disease development in leaves, and whether this might be related to the regulation of nucleotide binding site-leucine rich repeat (NBS-LRR) Resistance (R) genes. Root colonization of Oncidium stackings by Pi restricts progression of Ec-induced disease development in the leaves. Since Pi does not inhibit Ec growth on agar plates, we tested whether NBS-LRR R gene transcripts and the levels of their potential target miRNAs in Oncidium leaves might be regulated by Pi. Using bioinformatic tools, we first identified NBS-LRR R gene sequences from Oncidium, which are predicted to be targets of miRNAs. Among them, the expression of two R genes was repressed and the accumulation of several regulatory miRNA stimulated by Ec in the leaves of Oncidium plants. This correlated with the progression of disease development, jasmonic and salicylic acid accumulation, ethylene synthesis and H2O2 production after Ec infection of Oncidium leaves. Interestingly, root colonization by Pi restricted disease development in the leaves, and this was accompanied by higher expression levels of several defense-related R genes and lower expression level of their target miRNA. Based on these data we propose that Pi controls the levels of NBS-LRR R mRNAs and their target miRNAs in leaves. This regulatory circuit correlates with the protection of Oncidium plants against Ec infection, and molecular and biochemical investigations will demonstrate in the future whether, and if so, to what extent these two observations are related to each other.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Nitric oxide- induced AtAO3 differentially regulates plant defense and drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Murtaza Khan; Qari Muhammad Imran; Muhammad Shahid; Bong-Gyu Mun; Sang-Uk Lee; Muhammad Aaqil Khan; Adil Hussain; In-Jung Lee; Byung-Wook Yun

    Exposure of plants to different environmental insults instigates significant changes in the cellular redox tone driven in part by promoting the production of reactive nitrogen species. The key player, nitric oxide (NO) is a small gaseous diatomic molecule, well-known for its signaling role during stress. In this study, we focused on abscisic acid (ABA) metabolism-related genes that showed differential expression in response to the NO donor S-nitroso-l-cysteine (CySNO) by conducting RNA-seq-based transcriptomic analysis. CySNO-induced ABA-related genes were identified and further characterized. Gene ontology terms for biological processes showed most of the genes were associated with protein phosphorylation. Promoter analysis suggested that several cis-regulatory elements were activated under biotic and/or abiotic stress conditions. The ABA biosynthetic gene AtAO3 was selected for validation using functional genomics. The loss of function mutant atao3 was found to differentially regulate oxidative and nitrosative stress. Further investigations for determining the role of AtAO3 in plant defense suggested a negative regulation of plant basal defense and R-gene-mediated resistance. The atao3 plants showed resistance to virulent Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (Pst DC3000) with gradual increase in PR1 gene expression. Similarly, atao3 plants showed increased hypersensitive response (HR) when challenged with Pst DC3000 (avrB). The atgsnor1–3 and atsid2 mutants showed a susceptible phenotype with reduced PR1 transcript accumulation. Drought tolerance assay indicated that atao3 and atnced3 ABA-deficient mutants showed early wilting, followed by plant death. The study of stomatal structure showed that atao3 and atnced3 were unable to close stomata even at 7 days after drought stress. Further, they showed reduced ABA content and increased electrolyte leakage than the wild-type (WT) plants. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis suggested that ABA biosynthesis genes were down-regulated, whereas expression of most of the drought-related genes were up-regulated in atao3 than in WT. AtAO3 negatively regulates pathogen-induced salicylic acid pathway, although it is required for drought tolerance, despite the fact that ABA production is not totally dependent on AtAO3, and that drought-related genes like DREB2 and ABI2 show response to drought irrespective of ABA content.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Ectopic expression of citrus UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE gene enhances anthocyanin and proanthocyanidins contents and confers high light tolerance in Arabidopsis
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Muhammad Junaid Rao; Yuantao Xu; Yue Huang; Xiaomei Tang; Xiuxin Deng; Qiang Xu

    Citrus fruits are consumed freshly or as juice to directly provide various dietary flavonoids to humans. Diverse metabolites are present among Citrus genera, and many flavonoids biosynthetic genes were induced after abiotic stresses. To better understand the underlying mechanism, we designed experiments to overexpress a UDP-GLUCOSYL TRANSFERASE gene from sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) to evaluate its possible function in metabolism and response to stress. Our results demonstrated that overexpression of Cs-UGT78D3 resulted in high accumulation of proanthocyanidins in the seed coat and a dark brown color to transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In addition, the total contents of flavonoid and anthocyanin were significantly enhanced in the leaves of overexpressed lines. Gene expression analyses indicated that many flavonoid (flavonol) and anthocyanin genes were up-regulated by 4–15 folds in transgenic Arabidopsis. Moreover, after 14 days of high light stress, the transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed strong antioxidant activity and higher total contents of anthocyanins and flavonoids in leaves compared with the wild type. Our study concluded that the citrus Cs-UGT78D3 gene contributes to proanthocyanidins accumulation in seed coats and confers tolerance to high light stress by accumulating the total anthocyanin and flavonoid contents with better antioxidant potential (due to photoprotective activity of anthocyanin) in the transgenic Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Genome-wide analysis of polygalacturonase gene family from pear genome and identification of the member involved in pear softening
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Suling Zhang; Min Ma; Huping Zhang; Shaoling Zhang; Ming Qian; Zhen Zhang; Weiqi Luo; Jinbu Fan; Zhiqiang Liu; Libin Wang

    Polygalacturonase (PG), as an important hydrolase participating in the degradation of pectin, plays an important role in softening process of fruit. However, information on PG gene family in pear genome and the specific member involved in fruit softening is still rudimentary. In this study, a total of 61 PG genes, which could be divided into six subclasses, were identified from the pear genome with diverse chromosome locations, gene structures, motifs and cis-acting elements. Most PbrPGs were derived from WGD/segmental duplication blocks, and purifying selection was the main driving force for their expansion. The expression profiles of PbrPGs in pear were tissue/development-stage/cultivar-dependent. During ‘Housui’ pear storage, associated with the reduction of firmness was the accumulation of PG activity. Totally, 28 PbrPGs were expressed during fruit storage, which could be classified into five categories based on different expression patterns; most demonstrated an increased trend. Of these, PbrPG6 were proposed to account for pear softening in combination of the phylogenetic and correlation analysis among firmness, PG activity and PbrPGs. By constructing the silencing vector, a higher firmness was observed in PbrPG6-silenced fruit when compared with that of the control (empty vector). In a further study, we found that the expression of PbrPG6 was regulated by postharvest 1-MCP/ethrel treatment, and several PbrERFs might function in this process. We identified 61 PbrPG genes from pear genome; of these, PbrPG6 was involved in fruit softening process; furthermore, the expression of PbrPG6 might be under the control of PbrERF. This study provides a foundation for future work aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying pear softening.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • A high-density genetic map constructed using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing and QTL mapping of seed-related traits in sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Hua Du; Haiyang Zhang; Libin Wei; Chun Li; Yinghui Duan; Huili Wang

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L., 2n = 2x = 26) is an important oilseed crop with high oil content but small seed size. To reveal the genetic loci of the quantitative seed-related traits, we constructed a high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) linkage map of an F2 population by using specific length amplified fragment (SLAF) technique and determined the quantitative trait loci (QTLs) of seed-related traits for sesame based on the phenotypes of F3 progeny. The genetic map comprised 2159 SNP markers distributed on 13 linkage groups (LGs) and was 2128.51 cM in length, with an average distance of 0.99 cM between adjacent markers. QTL mapping revealed 19 major-effect QTLs with the phenotypic effect (R2) more than 10%, i.e., eight QTLs for seed coat color, nine QTLs for seed size, and two QTLs for 1000-seed weight (TSW), using composite interval mapping method. Particularly, LG04 and LG11 contained collocated QTL regions for the seed coat color and seed size traits, respectively, based on their close or identical locations. In total, 155 candidate genes for seed coat color, 22 for seed size traits, and 54 for TSW were screened and analyzed. This report presents the first QTL mapping of seed-related traits in sesame using an F2 population. The results reveal the location of specific markers associated with seed-related traits in sesame and provide the basis for further seed quality traits research.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Maize brachytic2 (br2) suppresses the elongation of lower internodes for excessive auxin accumulation in the intercalary meristem region
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Xiangge Zhang; Xianbin Hou; Yinghong Liu; Lanjie Zheng; Qiang Yi; Haojun Zhang; Xinrong Huang; Junjie Zhang; Yufeng Hu; Guowu Yu; Hanmei Liu; Yangping Li; Huanhuan Huang; Feilong Zhan; Lin Chen; Jihua Tang; Yubi Huang

    Short internodes contribute to plant dwarfism, which is exceedingly beneficial for crop production. However, the underlying mechanisms of internode elongation are complicated and have been not fully understood. Here, we report a maize dwarf mutant, dwarf2014 (d2014), which displays shortened lower internodes. Map-based cloning revealed that the d2014 gene is a novel br2 allele with a splicing variation, resulting in a higher expression of BR2-T02 instead of normal BR2-T01. Then, we found that the internode elongation in d2014/br2 exhibited a pattern of inhibition-normality-inhibition (transient for the ear-internode), correspondingly, at the 6-leaf, 12-leaf and 14-leaf stages. Indeed, BR2 encodes a P-glycoprotein1 (PGP1) protein that functions in auxin efflux, and our in situ hybridization assay showed that BR2 was mainly expressed in vascular bundles of the node and internode. Furthermore, significantly higher auxin concentration was detected in the stem apex of d2014 at the 6-leaf stage and strictly in the node region for the ear-internode at the 14-leaf stage. In such context, we propose that BR2/PGP1 transports auxin from node to internode through the vascular bundles, and excessive auxin accumulation in the node (immediately next to the intercalary meristem) region suppresses internode elongation of d2014. These findings suggest that low auxin levels mediated by BR2/PGP1 in the intercalary meristem region are crucial for internode elongation.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Molecular cytogenetic characterization of wheat–Elymus repens chromosomal translocation lines with resistance to Fusarium head blight and stripe rust
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Biran Gong; Wei Zhu; Sanyue Li; Yuqi Wang; Lili Xu; Yi Wang; Jian Zeng; Xing Fan; Lina Sha; Haiqin Zhang; Pengfei Qi; Lin Huang; Guoyue Chen; Yonghong Zhou; Houyang Kang

    Fusarium head blight (FHB) caused by the fungus Fusarium graminearum Schwabe and stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici are devastating diseases that affect wheat production worldwide. The use of disease-resistant genes and cultivars is the most effective means of reducing fungicide applications to combat these diseases. Elymus repens (2n = 6x = 42, StStStStHH) is a potentially useful germplasm of FHB and stripe rust resistance for wheat improvement. Here, we report the development and characterization of two wheat–E. repens lines derived from the progeny of common wheat–E. repens hybrids. Cytological studies indicated that the mean chromosome configuration of K15–1192-2 and K15–1194-2 at meiosis were 2n = 42 = 0.86 I + 17.46 II (ring) + 3.11 II (rod) and 2n = 42 = 2.45 I + 14.17 II (ring) + 5.50 II (rod) + 0.07 III, respectively. Genomic and fluorescence in situ hybridization karyotyping and simple sequence repeats markers revealed that K15–1192-2 was a wheat–E. repens 3D/?St double terminal chromosomal translocation line. Line K15–1194-2 was identified as harboring a pair of 7DS/?StL Robertsonian translocations and one 3D/?St double terminal translocational chromosome. Further analyses using specific expressed sequence tag-SSR markers confirmed that the wheat–E. repens translocations involved the 3St chromatin in both lines. Furthermore, compared with the wheat parent Chuannong16, K15–1192-2 and K15–1194-2 expressed high levels of resistance to FHB and stripe rust pathogens prevalent in China. Thus, this study has determined that the chromosome 3St of E. repens harbors gene(s) highly resistant to FHB and stripe rust, and chromatin of 3St introgressed into wheat chromosomes completely presented the resistance, indicating the feasibility of using these translocation lines as novel material for breeding resistant wheat cultivars and alien gene mining.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Characterization of a vacuolar sucrose transporter, HbSUT5, from Hevea brasiliensis: involvement in latex production through regulation of intracellular sucrose transport in the bark and laticifers
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Xiangyu Long; Heping Li; Jianghua Yang; Lusheng Xin; Yongjun Fang; Bin He; Debao Huang; Chaorong Tang

    Sucrose (Suc), as the precursor molecule for rubber biosynthesis in Hevea brasiliensis, is transported via phloem-mediated long-distance transport from leaves to laticifers in trunk bark, where latex (cytoplasm of laticifers) is tapped for rubber. In our previous report, six Suc transporter (SUT) genes have been cloned in Hevea tree, among which HbSUT3 is verified to play an active role in Suc loading to the laticifers. In this study, another latex-abundant SUT isoform, HbSUT5, with expressions only inferior to HbSUT3 was characterized especially for its roles in latex production. Both phylogenetic analysis and subcellular localization identify HbSUT5 as a tonoplast-localized SUT protein under the SUT4-clade (=type III). Suc uptake assay in baker’s yeast reveals HbSUT5 to be a typical Suc-H+ symporter, but its high affinity for Suc (Km = 2.03 mM at pH 5.5) and the similar efficiency in transporting both Suc and maltose making it a peculiar SUT under the SUT4-clade. At the transcript level, HbSUT5 is abundantly and preferentially expressed in Hevea barks. The transcripts of HbSUT5 are conspicuously decreased both in Hevea latex and bark by two yield-stimulating treatments of tapping and ethephon, the patterns of which are contrary to HbSUT3. Under the ethephon treatment, the Suc level in latex cytosol decreases significantly, but that in latex lutoids (polydispersed vacuoles) changes little, suggesting a role of the decreased HbSUT5 expression in Suc compartmentalization in the lutoids and thus enhancing the Suc sink strength in laticifers. Our findings provide insights into the roles of a vacuolar sucrose transporter, HbSUT5, in Suc exchange between lutoids and cytosol in rubber-producing laticifers.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Identification and characterization of the TCA cycle genes in maize
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Yongming Liu; Jingtao Qu; Ling Zhang; Xiangyu Xu; Gui Wei; Zhuofan Zhao; Maozhi Ren; Moju Cao

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is crucial for cellular energy metabolism and carbon skeleton supply. However, the detailed functions of the maize TCA cycle genes remain unclear. In this study, 91 TCA genes were identified in maize by a homology search, and they were distributed on 10 chromosomes and 1 contig. Phylogenetic results showed that almost all maize TCA genes could be classified into eight major clades according to their enzyme families. Sequence alignment revealed that several genes in the same subunit shared high protein sequence similarity. The results of cis-acting element analysis suggested that several TCA genes might be involved in signal transduction and plant growth. Expression profile analysis showed that many maize TCA cycle genes were expressed in specific tissues, and replicate genes always shared similar expression patterns. Moreover, qPCR analysis revealed that some TCA genes were highly expressed in the anthers at the microspore meiosis phase. In addition, we predicted the potential interaction networks among the maize TCA genes. Next, we cloned five TCA genes located on different TCA enzyme complexes, Zm00001d008244 (isocitrate dehydrogenase, IDH), Zm00001d017258 (succinyl-CoA synthetase, SCoAL), Zm00001d025258 (α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, αKGDH), Zm00001d027558 (aconitase, ACO) and Zm00001d044042 (malate dehydrogenase, MDH). Confocal observation showed that their protein products were mainly localized to the mitochondria; however, Zm00001d025258 and Zm00001d027558 were also distributed in the nucleus, and Zm00001d017258 and Zm00001d044042 were also located in other unknown positions in the cytoplasm. Through the bimolecular fluorescent complimentary (BiFC) method, it was determined that Zm00001d027558 and Zm00001d044042 could form homologous dimers, and both homologous dimers were mainly distributed in the mitochondria. However, no heterodimers were detected between these five genes. Finally, Arabidopsis lines overexpressing the above five genes were constructed, and those transgenic lines exhibited altered primary root length, salt tolerance, and fertility. Sequence compositions, duplication patterns, phylogenetic relationships, cis-elements, expression patterns, and interaction networks were investigated for all maize TCA cycle genes. Five maize TCA genes were overexpressed in Arabidopsis, and they could alter primary root length, salt tolerance, and fertility. In conclusion, our findings may help to reveal the molecular function of the TCA genes in maize.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Defining the function of SUMO system in pod development and abiotic stresses in Peanut
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Yiyang Liu; Jiao Zhu; Sheng Sun; Feng Cui; Yan Han; Zhenying Peng; Xuejie Zhang; Shubo Wan; Guowei Li

    Posttranslational modification of proteins by small ubiquitin like modifier (SUMO) proteins play an important role during the developmental process and in response to abiotic stresses in plants. However, little is known about SUMOylation in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), one of the world’s major food legume crops. In this study, we characterized the SUMOylation system from the diploid progenitor genomes of peanut, Arachis duranensis (AA) and Arachis ipaensis (BB). Genome-wide analysis revealed the presence of 40 SUMO system genes in A. duranensis and A. ipaensis. Our results showed that peanut also encodes a novel class II isotype of the SCE1, which was previously reported to be uniquely present in cereals. RNA-seq data showed that the core components of the SUMOylation cascade SUMO1/2 and SCE1 genes exhibited pod-specific expression patterns, implying coordinated regulation during pod development. Furthermore, both transcripts and conjugate profiles revealed that SUMOylation has significant roles during the pod development. Moreover, dynamic changes in the SUMO conjugates were observed in response to abiotic stresses. The identification and organization of peanut SUMO system revealed SUMOylation has important roles during stress defense and pod development. The present study will serve as a resource for providing new strategies to enhance agronomic yield and reveal the mechanism of peanut pod development.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • ddRAD sequencing-based identification of inter-genepool SNPs and association analysis in Brassica juncea
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jebi Sudan; Ravinder Singh; Susheel Sharma; Romesh K. Salgotra; Varun Sharma; Gurvinder Singh; Indu Sharma; Swarkar Sharma; Surinder K. Gupta; Sajad Majeed Zargar

    Narrow genetic base, complex allo-tetraploid genome and presence of repetitive elements have led the discovery of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Brassica juncea (AABB; 2n = 4x = 36) at a slower pace. Double digest RAD (ddRAD) - a genome complexity reduction technique followed by NGS was used to generate a total of 23 million paired-end reads from three genotypes each of Indian (Pusa Tarak, RSPR-01 and Urvashi) and Exotic (Donskaja IV, Zem 1 and EC287711) genepools. Sequence data analysis led to the identification of 10,399 SNPs in six genotypes at a read depth of 10x coverage among the genotypes of two genepools. A total of 44 hyper-variable regions (nucleotide variation hotspots) were also found in the genome, of which 93% were found to be a part of coding genes/regions. The functionality of the identified SNPs was estimated by genotyping a subset of SNPs on MassARRAY® platform among a diverse set of B. juncea genotypes. SNP genotyping-based genetic diversity and population studies placed the genotypes into two distinct clusters based mostly on the place of origin. The genotypes were also characterized for six morphological traits, analysis of which revealed a significant difference in the mean values between Indian and Exotic genepools for six traits. The association analysis for six traits identified a total of 45 significant marker-trait associations on 11 chromosomes of A- and B- group of progenitor genomes. Despite narrow diversity, the ddRAD sequencing was able to identify large number of nucleotide polymorphisms between the two genepools. Association analysis led to the identification of common SNPs/genomic regions associated between flowering and maturity traits, thereby underscoring the possible role of common chromosomal regions-harboring genes controlling flowering and maturity in Brassica juncea.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Identification and characterization analysis of sulfotransferases (SOTs) gene family in cotton (Gossypium) and its involvement in fiber development
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Liyuan Wang; Xiyan Liu; Xiaoyang Wang; Zhaoe Pan; Xiaoli Geng; Baojun Chen; Baoshen Liu; Xiongming Du; Xianliang Song

    Sulfotransferases (SOTs) (EC 2.8.2.-) play a crucial role in the sulphate conjugation reaction involved in plant growth, vigor, stress resistance and pathogen infection. SOTs in Arabidopsis have been carried out and divided into 8 groups. However, the systematic analysis and functional information of SOT family genes in cotton have rarely been reported. According to the results of BLASTP and HMMER, we isolated 46, 46, 76 and 77 SOT genes in the genome G. arboreum, G. raimondii, G. barbadense and G. hirsutum, respectively. A total of 170 in 245 SOTs were further classified into four groups based on the orthologous relationships comparing with Arabidopsis, and tandem replication primarily contributed to the expansion of SOT gene family in G. hirsutum. Expression profiles of the GhSOT showed that most genes exhibited a high level of expression in the stem, leaf, and the initial stage of fiber development. The localization analysis indicated that GhSOT67 expressed in cytoplasm and located in stem and leaf tissue. Additionally, the expression of GhSOT67 were induced and the length of stem and leaf hairs were shortened after gene silencing mediated by Agrobacterium, compared with the blank and negative control plants. Our findings indicated that SOT genes might be associated with fiber development in cotton and provided valuable information for further studies of SOT genes in Gossypium.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Construction of a high-density genetic map and QTL mapping of leaf traits and plant growth in an interspecific F1 population of Catalpa bungei × Catalpa duclouxii Dode
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Nan Lu; Miaomiao Zhang; Yao Xiao; Donghua Han; Ying Liu; Yu Zhang; Fei Yi; Tianqing Zhu; Wenjun Ma; Erqin Fan; Guanzheng Qu; Junhui Wang

    Catalpa bungei is an important tree species used for timber in China and widely cultivated for economic and ornamental purposes. A high-density linkage map of C. bungei would be an efficient tool not only for identifying key quantitative trait loci (QTLs) that affect important traits, such as plant growth and leaf traits, but also for other genetic studies. Restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq) was used to identify molecular markers and construct a genetic map. Approximately 280.77 Gb of clean data were obtained after sequencing, and in total, 25,614,295 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 2,871,647 insertions-deletions (InDels) were initially identified in the genomes of 200 individuals of a C. bungei (7080) × Catalpa duclouxii (16-PJ-3) F1 population and their parents. Finally, 9072 SNP and 521 InDel markers that satisfied the requirements for constructing a genetic map were obtained. The integrated genetic map contained 9593 pleomorphic markers in 20 linkage groups and spanned 3151.63 cM, with an average distance between adjacent markers of 0.32 cM. Twenty QTLs for seven leaf traits and 13 QTLs for plant height at five successive time points were identified using our genetic map by inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM). Q16–60 was identified as a QTL for five leaf traits, and three significant QTLs (Q9–1, Q18–66 and Q18–73) associated with plant growth were detected at least twice. Genome annotation suggested that a cyclin gene participates in leaf trait development, while the growth of C. bungei may be influenced by CDC48C and genes associated with phytohormone synthesis. This is the first genetic map constructed in C. bungei and will be a useful tool for further genetic study, molecular marker-assisted breeding and genome assembly.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • An atypical HLH transcriptional regulator plays a novel and important role in strawberry ripened receptacle
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Laura Medina-Puche; Félix J. Martínez-Rivas; Francisco J. Molina-Hidalgo; José A. Mercado; Enriqueta Moyano; Antonio Rodríguez-Franco; José L. Caballero; Juan Muñoz-Blanco; Rosario Blanco-Portales

    In soft fruits, the differential expression of many genes during development and ripening is responsible for changing their organoleptic properties. In strawberry fruit, although some genes involved in the metabolic regulation of the ripening process have been functionally characterized, some of the most studied genes correspond to transcription factors. High throughput transcriptomics analyses performed in strawberry red receptacle (Fragaria x ananassa) allowed us to identify a ripening-related gene that codes an atypical HLH (FaPRE1) with high sequence homology with the PACLOBUTRAZOL RESISTANCE (PRE) genes. PRE genes are atypical bHLH proteins characterized by the lack of a DNA-binding domain and whose function has been linked to the regulation of cell elongation processes. FaPRE1 sequence analysis indicates that this gene belongs to the subfamily of atypical bHLHs that also includes ILI-1 from rice, SlPRE2 from tomato and AtPRE1 from Arabidopsis, which are involved in transcriptional regulatory processes as repressors, through the blockage by heterodimerization of bHLH transcription factors. FaPRE1 presented a transcriptional model characteristic of a ripening-related gene with receptacle-specific expression, being repressed by auxins and activated by abscisic acid (ABA). However, its expression was not affected by gibberellic acid (GA3). On the other hand, the transitory silencing of FaPRE1 transcription by agroinfiltration in receptacle produced the down-regulation of a group of genes related to the ripening process while inducing the transcription of genes involved in receptacle growth and development. In summary, this work presents for the first time experimental data that support an important novel function for the atypical HLH FaPRE1 during the strawberry fruit ripening. We hypothesize that FaPRE1 modulates antagonistically the transcription of genes related to both receptacle growth and ripening. Thus, FaPRE1 would repress the expression of receptacle growth promoting genes in the ripened receptacle, while it would activate the expression of those genes related to the receptacle ripening process.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Transcriptome analysis of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica for gene discovery in the biosyntheses of isoflavones and miroestrol
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Nithiwat Suntichaikamolkul; Kittitya Tantisuwanichkul; Pinidphon Prombutara; Khwanlada Kobtrakul; Julie Zumsteg; Siriporn Wannachart; Hubert Schaller; Mami Yamazaki; Kazuki Saito; Wanchai De-eknamkul; Sornkanok Vimolmangkang; Supaart Sirikantaramas

    Pueraria candollei var. mirifica, a Thai medicinal plant used traditionally as a rejuvenating herb, is known as a rich source of phytoestrogens, including isoflavonoids and the highly estrogenic miroestrol and deoxymiroestrol. Although these active constituents in P. candollei var. mirifica have been known for some time, actual knowledge regarding their biosynthetic genes remains unknown. Miroestrol biosynthesis was reconsidered and the most plausible mechanism starting from the isoflavonoid daidzein was proposed. A de novo transcriptome analysis was conducted using combined P. candollei var. mirifica tissues of young leaves, mature leaves, tuberous cortices, and cortex-excised tubers. A total of 166,923 contigs was assembled for functional annotation using protein databases and as a library for identification of genes that are potentially involved in the biosynthesis of isoflavonoids and miroestrol. Twenty-one differentially expressed genes from four separate libraries were identified as candidates involved in these biosynthetic pathways, and their respective expressions were validated by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Notably, isoflavonoid and miroestrol profiling generated by LC-MS/MS was positively correlated with expression levels of isoflavonoid biosynthetic genes across the four types of tissues. Moreover, we identified R2R3 MYB transcription factors that may be involved in the regulation of isoflavonoid biosynthesis in P. candollei var. mirifica. To confirm the function of a key-isoflavone biosynthetic gene, P. candollei var. mirifica isoflavone synthase identified in our library was transiently co-expressed with an Arabidopsis MYB12 transcription factor (AtMYB12) in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Remarkably, the combined expression of these proteins led to the production of the isoflavone genistein. Our results provide compelling evidence regarding the integration of transcriptome and metabolome as a powerful tool for identifying biosynthetic genes and transcription factors possibly involved in the isoflavonoid and miroestrol biosyntheses in P. candollei var. mirifica.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Metabolite profile comparison of a graft chimera ‘Hongrou Huyou’ (Citrus changshan-huyou + Citrus unshiu) and its two donor plants
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Min Zhang; Luyang Jing; Qun Wu; Kaijie Zhu; Fuzhi Ke; Jianguo Xu; Siqing Zhao; Gang Wang; Chi Zhang

    Chimeras synthesized artificially by grafting are crucial to the breeding of perennial woody plants. ‘Hongrou Huyou’ (Citrus changshan-huyou + Citrus unshiu) is a new graft chimera originating from the junction where a Citrus changshan-huyou (“C”) scion was top-grafted onto a stock Satsuma mandarin ‘Owari’ (C. unshiu, “O”). The chimera was named OCC because the cell layer constitutions were O for Layer 1(L1) and C for L2 and L3. In this study, profiles of primary metabolites, volatiles and carotenoids derived from different tissues in OCC and the two donors were investigated, with the aim of determining the relationship between the layer donors and metabolites. The comparison of the metabolite profiles showed that the amount and composition of metabolites were different between the peels and the juice sacs, as well as between OCC and each of the two donors. The absence or presence of specific metabolites (such as the carotenoids violaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, the volatile hydrocarbon germacrene D, and the primary metabolites citric acid and sorbose) in each tissue was identified in the three phenotypes. According to principal component analysis (PCA), overall, the metabolites in the peel of the chimera were derived from donor C, whereas those in the juice sac of the chimera came from donor O. The profiles of primary metabolites, volatiles and carotenoids derived from the peels and juice sacs of OCC and the two donors were systematically compared. The content and composition of metabolites were different between the tissues and between OCC and the each of the two donors. A clear donor dominant pattern of metabolite inheritance was observed in the different tissues of OCC and was basically consistent with the layer origin; the peel of the chimera was derived from C, and the juice sacs of the chimera came from O. These profiles provide potential chemical markers for genotype differentiation, citrus breeding assessment, and donor selection during artificial chimera synthesis.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Comparative physiological, metabolomic, and transcriptomic analyses reveal developmental stage-dependent effects of cluster bagging on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grape berries
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Run-Ze Sun; Guo Cheng; Qiang Li; Yan-Rong Zhu; Xue Zhang; Yu Wang; Yan-Nan He; Si-Yu Li; Lei He; Wu Chen; Qiu-Hong Pan; Chang-Qing Duan; Jun Wang

    Light conditions significantly influence grape berry ripening and the accumulation of phenolic compounds, but the underlying molecular basis remains partially understood. Here, we applied integrated transcriptomics and pathway-level metabolomics analyses to investigate the effect of cluster bagging during various developmental stages on phenolic metabolism in Cabernet Sauvignon grapes. Bagging treatments had limited effects on berry quality attributes at harvest and did not consistently affect phenolic acid biosynthesis between seasons. Significantly elevated flavan-3-ol and flavonol contents were detected in re-exposed berries after bagging during early-developmental stages, while bagging after véraison markedly inhibited skin anthocyanin accumulation. Several anthocyanin derivatives and flavonol glycosides were identified as marker phenolic metabolites for distinguishing bagged and non-bagged grapes. Coordinated transcriptional changes in the light signaling components CRY2 and HY5/HYHs, transcription regulator MYBA1, and enzymes LAR, ANR, UFGT and FLS4, coincided well with light-responsive biosynthesis of the corresponding flavonoids. The activation of multiple hormone signaling pathways after both light exclusion and re-exposure treatments was inconsistent with the changes in phenolic accumulation, indicating a limited role of plant hormones in mediating light/darkness-regulated phenolic biosynthesis processes. Furthermore, gene-gene and gene-metabolite network analyses discovered that the light-responsive expression of genes encoding bHLH, MYB, WRKY, NAC, and MADS-box transcription factors, and proteins involved in genetic information processing and epigenetic regulation such as nucleosome assembly and histone acetylation, showed a high positive correlation with grape berry phenolic accumulation in response to different light regimes. Altogether, our findings provide novel insights into the understanding of berry phenolic biosynthesis under light/darkness and practical guidance for improving grape features.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Genome-scale mining of root-preferential genes from maize and characterization of their promoter activity
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ye Li; Xiaoqing Liu; Rumei Chen; Jian Tian; Yunliu Fan; Xiaojin Zhou

    Modification of root architecture and improvement of root resistance to stresses can increase crop productivity. Functional analyses of root-specific genes are necessary for root system improvement, and root-specific promoters enable research into the regulation of root development and genetic manipulation of root traits. Maize is an important crop species; however, little systematic mining of root-specific genes and promoters has been performed to date. Genomic-scale mining based on microarray data sets followed by transcript detection resulted in the identification of 222 root-specific genes. Gene Ontology enrichment analyses revealed that these 222 root-specific genes were mainly involved in responses to chemical, biotic, and abiotic stresses. Of the 222 genes, 33 were verified by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and 31 showed root-preferential activity. About 2 kb upstream 5 of the 31 identified root-preferential genes were cloned from the maize genome as putative promoters and named p8463, p5023, p1534, p8531 and p6629. GUS staining of transgenic maize-derived promoter-GUS constructs revealed that the five promoters drove GUS expression in a root-preferential manner. We mined root-preferential genes and their promoters in maize and verified p8463, p5023, p1534, p8531 and p6629 as root-preferential promoters. Our research enables the identification of other tissue-specific genes and promoters in maize and other species. In addition, the five promoters may enable enhancement of target gene(s) of maize in a root-preferential manner to generate novel maize cultivars with resistance to water, fertilizer constraints, or biotic stresses.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Integrated analyses of miRNAome and transcriptome reveal zinc deficiency responses in rice seedlings
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Houqing Zeng; Xin Zhang; Ming Ding; Yiyong Zhu

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is one of the most widespread soil constraints affecting rice productivity, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Zn deficiency response is still limited. Here, we aim to understand the molecular mechanisms of Zn deficiency response by integrating the analyses of the global miRNA and mRNA expression profiles under Zn deficiency and resupply in rice seedlings by integrating Illumina’s high-throughput small RNA sequencing and transcriptome sequencing. The transcriptome sequencing identified 360 genes that were differentially expressed in the shoots and roots of Zn-deficient rice seedlings, and 97 of them were recovered after Zn resupply. A total of 68 miRNAs were identified to be differentially expressed under Zn deficiency and/or Zn resupply. The integrated analyses of miRNAome and transcriptome data showed that 12 differentially expressed genes are the potential target genes of 10 Zn-responsive miRNAs such as miR171g-5p, miR397b-5p, miR398a-5p and miR528-5p. Some miRNA genes and differentially expressed genes were selected for validation by quantitative RT-PCR, and their expressions were similar to that of the sequencing results. These results provide insights into miRNA-mediated regulatory pathways in Zn deficiency response, and provide candidate genes for genetic improvement of Zn deficiency tolerance in rice.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Alleviating dormancy in Brassica oleracea seeds using NO and KAR1 with ethylene biosynthetic pathway, ROS and antioxidant enzymes modifications
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Abdul Sami; Muhammad Waheed Riaz; Xiangyu Zhou; Zonghe Zhu; Kejin Zhou

    Seed dormancy is a prevailing condition in which seeds are unable to germinate, even under favorable environmental conditions. Harvested Brassica oleracea (Chinese cabbage) seeds are dormant and normally germinate (poorly) at 21 °C. This study investigated the connections between ethylene, nitric oxide (NO), and karrikin 1 (KAR1) in the dormancy release of secondary dormant Brassica oleracea seeds. NO and KAR1 were found to induce seed germination, and stimulated the production of ethylene and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), and both ethylene biosynthesis enzyme ACC oxidase (ACO) [1] and ACC synthase (ACS) [2]. In the presence of NO and KAR1, ACS and ACO activity reached maximum levels after 36 and 48 h, respectively. The inhibitor of ethylene 2,5-norbornadiene (NBD) had an adverse effect on Brassica oleracea seed germination (inhibiting nearly 50% of germination) in the presence of NO and KAR1. The benefits from NO and KAR1 in the germination of secondary dormant Brassica oleracea seeds were also associated with a marked increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2˙ˉ) and antioxidant enzyme activity at early germination stages. Catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) activity increased 2 d and 4 d, respectively, after treatment, while no significant changes were observed in superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity under NO and KAR1 applications. An increase in H2O2 and O2˙ˉ levels were observed during the entire incubation period, which increasing ethylene production in the presence of NO and KAR1. Abscisic acid (ABA) contents decreased and glutathione reductase (GA) contents increased in the presence of NO and KAR1. Gene expression studies were carried out with seven ethylene biosynthesis ACC synthases (ACS) genes, two ethylene receptors (ETR) genes and one ACO gene. Our results provide more evidence for the involvement of ethylene in inducing seed germination in the presence of NO and KAR1. Three out of seven ethylene biosynthesis genes (BOACS7, BOACS9 and BOACS11), two ethylene receptors (BOETR1 and BOETR2) and one ACO gene (BOACO1) were up-regulated in the presence of NO and KAR1. Consequently, ACS activity, ACO activity and the expression of different ethylene related genes increased, modified the ROS level, antioxidant enzyme activity, and ethylene biosynthesis pathway and successfully removed (nearly 98%) of the seed dormancy of secondary dormant Brassica olereace seeds after 7 days of NO and KAR1 application.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Target sequencing reveals genetic diversity, population structure, core-SNP markers, and fruit shape-associated loci in pepper varieties
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Heshan Du; Jingjing Yang; Bin Chen; Xiaofen Zhang; Jian Zhang; Kun Yang; Sansheng Geng; Changlong Wen

    The widely cultivated pepper (Capsicum spp.) is one of the most diverse vegetables; however, little research has focused on characterizing the genetic diversity and relatedness of commercial varieties grown in China. In this study, a panel of 92 perfect single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) was identified using re-sequencing data from 35 different C. annuum lines. Based on this panel, a Target SNP-seq genotyping method was designed, which combined multiplex amplification of perfect SNPs with Illumina sequencing, to detect polymorphisms across 271 commercial pepper varieties. The perfect SNPs panel had a high discriminating capacity due to the average value of polymorphism information content, observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and minor allele frequency, which were 0.31, 0.28, 0.4, and 0.31, respectively. Notably, the studied pepper varieties were morphologically categorized based on fruit shape as blocky-, long horn-, short horn-, and linear-fruited. The long horn-fruited population exhibited the most genetic diversity followed by the short horn-, linear-, and blocky-fruited populations. A set of 35 core SNPs were then used as kompetitive allele-specific PCR (KASPar) markers, another robust genotyping technique for variety identification. Analysis of genetic relatedness using principal component analysis and phylogenetic tree construction indicated that the four fruit shape populations clustered separately with limited overlaps. Based on STRUCTURE clustering, it was possible to divide the varieties into five subpopulations, which correlated with fruit shape. Further, the subpopulations were statistically different according to a randomization test and Fst statistics. Nine loci, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, and 12, were identified to be significantly associated with the fruit shape index (p < 0.0001). Target SNP-seq developed in this study appears as an efficient power tool to detect the genetic diversity, population relatedness and molecular breeding in pepper. Moreover, this study demonstrates that the genetic structure of Chinese pepper varieties is significantly influenced by breeding programs focused on fruit shape.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Root system traits impact early fire blight susceptibility in apple (Malus × domestica)
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Jugpreet Singh; Jack Fabrizio; Elsa Desnoues; Julliany Pereira Silva; Wolfgang Busch; Awais Khan

    Although it is known that resistant rootstocks facilitate management of fire blight disease, incited by Erwinia amylovora, the role of rootstock root traits in providing systemic defense against E. amylovora is unclear. In this study, the hypothesis that rootstocks of higher root vigor provide higher tolerance to fire blight infection in apples is tested. Several apple scion genotypes grafted onto a single rootstock genotype and non-grafted ‘M.7’ rootstocks of varying root vigor are used to assess phenotypic and molecular relationships between root traits of rootstocks and fire blight susceptibility of apple scion cultivars. It is observed that different root traits display significant (p < 0.05) negative correlations with fire blight susceptibility. In fact, root surface area partially dictates differential levels of fire blight susceptibility of ‘M.7’ rootstocks. Furthermore, contrasting changes in gene expression patterns of diverse molecular pathways accompany observed differences in levels of root-driven fire blight susceptibility. It is noted that a singular co-expression gene network consisting of genes from defense, carbohydrate metabolism, protein kinase activity, oxidation-reduction, and stress response pathways modulates root-dependent fire blight susceptibility in apple. In particular, WRKY75 and UDP-glycotransferase are singled-out as hub genes deserving of further detailed analysis. It is proposed that low root mass may incite resource-limiting conditions to activate carbohydrate metabolic pathways, which reciprocally interact with plant immune system genes to elicit differential levels of fire blight susceptibility.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Herbicide-tolerant endophytic bacteria of rice plants as the biopriming agents for fertility recovery and disease suppression of unhealthy rice seeds
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Chakrapong Rangjaroen; Saisamorn Lumyong; William T. Sloan; Rungroch Sungthong

    Dirty panicle disease (DPD) caused by several fungal phytopathogens results in damage and depreciation of rice seeds. Unhealthy rice seeds with DPD are potent reservoirs of pathogens and unable to be used as seed stock as they can spread the disease in the paddy fields leading to the severe loss of rice yield and quality. In this study, we aim to search for beneficial endophytes of commercially cultivated rice plants and utilize them as biostimulants in seed biopriming for fertility recovery and disease suppression of unhealthy rice seeds. Forty-three bacterial endophytes were isolated from rice plants grown in the herbicide-treated paddy fields. Five isolates of these endophytes belonging to the genus Bacillus show excellent antifungal activity against fungal pathogens of DPD. Based on germination tests, biopriming unhealthy rice seeds by soaking in bacterial suspensions for 9 or 12 h was optimal as evidenced by the lowest disease incidence and longer shoot and root lengths of seedlings germinated, compared with controls made of non-treated or hydroprimed healthy and unhealthy seeds. Pot experiments were carried out to evaluate the impact of seed biopriming, in which the percentage of healthy rice yield produced by rice plants emerging from bioprimed seeds was not significantly different, compared to the controls originating respectively from non-treated healthy seeds and chemical fungicide-treated unhealthy seeds. Biopriming of unhealthy rice seeds with herbicide-tolerant endophytic bacteria could recover seed fertility and protect the full life cycle of emerging rice plants from fungal pests. With our findings, seed biopriming is a straightforward approach that farmers can apply to recover unhealthy rice seed stock, which enables them to reduce the cost and use of agrochemicals in the commercial production of rice and to promote green technology in sustainable agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Transcriptional induction of capsidiol synthesis genes by wounding can promote pathogen signal-induced capsidiol synthesis
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Tomoya Kojima; Nobuhide Asakura; Shiori Hasegawa; Taishi Hirasawa; Yuri Mizuno; Daigo Takemoto; Shinpei Katou

    Plants are exposed to various forms of environmental stress. Penetration by pathogens is one of the most serious environmental insults. Wounding caused by tissue damage or herbivory also affects the growth and reproduction of plants. Moreover, wounding disrupts physical barriers present at the plant surface and increases the risk of pathogen invasion. Plants cope with environmental stress by inducing a variety of responses. These stress responses must be tightly controlled, because their unnecessary induction is detrimental to plant growth. In tobacco, WIPK and SIPK, two wound-responsive mitogen-activated protein kinases, have been shown to play important roles in regulating wound responses. However, their contribution to downstream wound responses such as gene expression is not well understood. To identify genes regulated by WIPK and SIPK, the transcriptome of wounded WIPK/SIPK-suppressed plants was analyzed. Among the genes down-regulated in WIPK/SIPK-suppressed plants, the largest group consisted of those involved in the production of antimicrobial phytoalexins. Almost all genes involved in the biosynthesis of capsidiol, a major phytoalexin in tobacco, were transcriptionally induced by wounding in WIPK/SIPK-dependent and -independent manners. 5-epi-aristolochene synthase (EAS) is the committing enzyme for capsidiol synthesis, and the promoter of EAS4, a member of the EAS family, was analyzed. Reporter gene analysis revealed that at least two regions each 40–50 bp length were involved in activation of the EAS4 promoter by wounding, as well as by artificial activation of WIPK and SIPK. Unlike transcripts of the capsidiol synthesis genes, accumulation of EAS protein and capsidiol itself were not induced by wounding; however, wounding significantly enhanced their subsequent induction by a pathogen-derived elicitor. Our results suggest a so-called priming phenomenon since the induction of EAS by wounding is only visible at the transcript level. By inducing transcripts, not the proteins, of EAS and possibly other capsidiol synthesis genes at wound sites, plants can produce large quantities of capsidiol quickly if pathogens invade the wound site, whereas plants can minimize energy loss and avoid the cytotoxic effects of capsidiol where pathogens do not gain entry during wound healing.

    更新日期:2019-12-22
  • Mepiquat chloride promotes cotton lateral root formation by modulating plant hormone homeostasis
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Qian Wu; Mingwei Du; Jie Wu; Ning Wang; Baomin Wang; Fangjun Li; Xiaoli Tian; Zhaohu Li

    Mepiquat chloride (MC), a plant growth regulator, enhances root growth by promoting lateral root formation in cotton. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of this phenomenon is still unknown. In this study, we used 10 cotton (Gossypium hirsutum Linn.) cultivars to perform a seed treatment with MC to investigate lateral root formation, and selected a MC sensitive cotton cultivar for dynamic monitor of root growth and transcriptome analysis during lateral root development upon MC seed treatment. The results showed that MC treated seeds promotes the lateral root formation in a dosage-depended manner and the effective promotion region is within 5 cm from the base of primary root. MC treated seeds induce endogenous auxin level by altering gene expression of both gibberellin (GA) biosynthesis and signaling and abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. Meanwhile, MC treated seeds differentially express genes involved in indole acetic acid (IAA) synthesis and transport. Furthermore, MC-induced IAA regulates the expression of genes related to cell cycle and division for lateral root development. Our data suggest that MC orchestrates GA and ABA metabolism and signaling, which further regulates auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signaling to promote the cell division responsible for lateral root formation.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Phenotypic variation of floral organs in Malus using frequency distribution functions
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Ting Zhou; Junjun Fan; Mingming Zhao; Donglin Zhang; Qianhui Li; Guibin Wang; Wangxiang Zhang; Fuliang Cao

    Phenotypic diversity of floral organs plays an important role in plant systematic taxonomy and genetic variation studies. Previous research have focused on the direction of variation but disregarded its degree. Phenotypic variation (including directions and degrees) of 17 floral traits from wild to cultivated crabapples were explored by comparing their distributions and deviations in three different dimensions: floral organ number, size, and the shape. Except for petal number, petal length / petal width, and sepal length / sepal width, the analyzed floral traits of cultivated crabapples all showed downward distributed box bodies in box plot analysis and left deviations of fitted curves in frequency distribution function analysis when compared to the wild, which revealed consistent variation directions of petaloid conversion (pistils or stamens → petals), size miniaturization (large → small), and shape narrowness (petal shape: circular → elliptic; sepal shape: triangular → lanceolate). However, only seven floral traits exhibited significant differences in box plot analysis, while all of the traits in frequency distribution function analysis were obviously offset. The variation degrees were quantitatively characterized by sizing traits > shaping traits > numbering traits and by horizontal dimensions > radial dimensions. Frequency distribution function analysis was more sensitive than the box plot analysis, which constructed a theoretical basis for Malus flower type breeding and would provide a new quantitative method for future evaluation of floral variation among different groups of angiosperms at large.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Full-length transcriptome sequencing reveals the low-temperature-tolerance mechanism of Medicago falcata roots
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Guowen Cui; Hua Chai; Hang Yin; Mei Yang; Guofu Hu; Mingying Guo; Rugeletu Yi; Pan Zhang

    Low temperature is one of the main environmental factors that limits crop growth, development, and production. Medicago falcata is an important leguminous herb that is widely distributed worldwide. M. falcata is related to alfalfa but is more tolerant to low temperature than alfalfa. Understanding the low temperature tolerance mechanism of M. falcata is important for the genetic improvement of alfalfa. In this study, we explored the transcriptomic changes in the roots of low-temperature-treated M. falcata plants by combining SMRT sequencing and NGS technologies. A total of 115,153 nonredundant sequences were obtained, and 8849 AS events, 73,149 SSRs, and 4189 lncRNAs were predicted. A total of 111,587 genes from SMRT sequencing were annotated, and 11,369 DEGs involved in plant hormone signal transduction, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, carbon metabolism, glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, starch and sucrose metabolism, and endocytosis pathways were identified. We characterized 1538 TF genes into 45 TF gene families, and the most abundant TF family was the WRKY family, followed by the ERF, MYB, bHLH and NAC families. A total of 134 genes, including 101 whose expression was upregulated and 33 whose expression was downregulated, were differentially coexpressed at all five temperature points. PB40804, PB75011, PB110405 and PB108808 were found to play crucial roles in the tolerance of M. falcata to low temperature. WGCNA revealed that the MEbrown module was significantly correlated with low-temperature stress in M. falcata. Electrolyte leakage was correlated with most genetic modules and verified that electrolyte leakage can be used as a direct stress marker in physiological assays to indicate cell membrane damage from low-temperature stress. The consistency between the qRT-PCR results and RNA-seq analyses confirmed the validity of the RNA-seq data and the analysis of the regulatory mechanism of low-temperature stress on the basis of the transcriptome. The full-length transcripts generated in this study provide a full characterization of the transcriptome of M. falcata and may be useful for mining new low-temperature stress-related genes specific to M. falcata. These new findings could facilitate the understanding of the low-temperature-tolerance mechanism of M. falcata.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • Transcriptome profiling reveals the response process of tomato carrying Cf-19 and Cladosporium fulvum interaction
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Tingting Zhao; Wenhong Liu; Zhentong Zhao; Huanhuan Yang; Yufang Bao; Dongye Zhang; Ziyu Wang; Jingbin Jiang; Ying Xu; He Zhang; Jingfu Li; Qingshan Chen; Xiangyang Xu

    During tomato cultivation, tomato leaf mould is a common disease caused by Cladosporium fulvum (C. fulvum). By encoding Cf proteins, which can recognize corresponding AVR proteins produced by C. fulvum, Cf genes provide resistance to C. fulvum, and the resistance response patterns mediated by different Cf genes are not identical. Plants carrying the Cf-19 gene show effective resistance to C. fulvum in the field and can be used as new resistant materials in breeding. In this study, to identify key regulatory genes related to resistance and to understand the resistance response process in tomato plants carrying Cf-19, RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was used to analyse the differences between the response of resistant plants (CGN18423, carrying the Cf-19 gene) and susceptible plants (Moneymaker (MM), carrying the Cf-0 gene) at 0, 7 and 20 days after inoculation (dai). A total of 418 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified specifically in the CGN18423 response process. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis revealed that GO terms including “plasma membrane (GO_Component)”, “histidine decarboxylase activity (GO_Function)”, and “carboxylic acid metabolic process (GO_Process)”, as well as other 10 GO terms, were significantly enriched. The “plant hormone signal transduction” pathway, which was unique to CGN18423 in the 0–7 dai comparison, was identified. Moreover, ten key regulatory points were screened from the “plant hormone signal transduction” pathway and the “plant pathogen interaction” pathway. Hormone content measurements revealed that the salicylic acid (SA) contents increased and peaked at 7 dai, after which the contents deceased and reached minimum values in both CGN18423 and MM plants at 20 dai. The jasmonic acid (JA) content increased to a very high level at 7 dai but then decreased to nearly the initial level at 20 dai in CGN18423, while it continued to increase slightly during the whole process from 0 to 20 dai in MM. The initial responses are very different between the resistant and susceptible plants. The “plant hormone signal transduction” pathway is important for the formation of Cf-19-mediated immunity. In addition, both JA and SA play roles in regulating the Cf-19-dependent resistance response.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Direct comparison of Arabidopsis gene expression reveals different responses to melatonin versus auxin
    BMC Plant Biol. (IF 3.670) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Sajal F. Zia; Oliver Berkowitz; Frank Bedon; James Whelan; Ashley E. Franks; Kim M. Plummer

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine) in plants, regulates shoot and root growth and alleviates environmental stresses. Melatonin and the phyto-hormone auxin are tryptophan-derived compounds. However, it largely remains controversial as to whether melatonin and auxin act through similar or overlapping signalling and regulatory pathways. Here, we have used a promoter-activation study to demonstrate that, unlike auxin (1-naphthalene acetic acid, NAA), melatonin neither induces Direct repeat 5 DR5 expression in Arabidopsis thaliana roots under normal growth conditions nor suppresses the induction of Alternative oxidase 1a AOX1a in leaves upon Antimycin A treatment, both of which are the hallmarks of auxin action. Additionally, comparative global transcriptome analysis conducted on Arabidopsis treated with melatonin or NAA revealed differences in the number and types of differentially expressed genes. Auxin (4.5 μM) altered the expression of a diverse and large number of genes whereas melatonin at 5 μM had no significant effect but melatonin at 100 μM had a modest effect on transcriptome compared to solvent-treated control. Interestingly, the prominent category of genes differentially expressed upon exposure to melatonin trended towards biotic stress defence pathways while downregulation of key genes related to photosynthesis was observed. Together these findings indicate that though they are both indolic compounds, melatonin and auxin act through different pathways to alter gene expression in Arabidopsis thaliana. Furthermore, it appears that effects of melatonin enable Arabidopsis thaliana to prioritize biotic stress defence signalling rather than growth. These findings clear the current confusion in the literature regarding the relationship of melatonin and auxin and also have greater implications of utilizing melatonin for improved plant protection.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
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