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  • A Na + /H + antiporter, K2-NhaD, improves salt and drought tolerance in cotton ( Gossypium hirsutum L.)
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Wenfang Guo, Gangqiang Li, Nan Wang, Caifeng Yang, Yanan Zhao, Huakang Peng, Dehu Liu, Sanfeng Chen

    Key message Overexpression of K2-NhaD in transgenic cotton resulted in phenotypes with strong salinity and drought tolerance in greenhouse and field experiments, increased expression of stress-related genes, and improved regulation of metabolic pathways, such as the SOS pathway. Abstract Drought and salinity are major abiotic stressors which negatively impact cotton yield under field conditions. Here, a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter gene, K2-NhaD, was introduced into upland cotton R15 using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system. Homozygous transgenic lines K9, K17, and K22 were identified by PCR and glyphosate-resistance. TAIL-PCR confirmed that T-DNA carrying the K2-NhaD gene in transgenic lines K9, K17 and K22 was inserted into chromosome 3, 19 and 12 of the cotton genome, respectively. Overexpression of K2-NhaD in transgenic cotton plants grown in greenhouse conditions and subjected to drought and salinity stress resulted in significantly higher relative water content, chlorophyll, soluble sugar, proline levels, and SOD, CAT, and POD activity, relative to non-transgenic plants. The expression of stress-related genes was significantly upregulated, and this resulted in improved regulation of metabolic pathways, such as the salt overly sensitive pathway. K2-NhaD transgenic plants growing under field conditions displayed strong salinity and drought tolerance, especially at high levels of soil salinity and drought. Seed cotton yields in transgenic line were significantly higher than in wild-type plants. In conclusion, the data indicate that K2-NhaD transgenic lines have great potential for the production of stress-tolerant cotton under field conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Comprehensive transcriptome analysis provides insights into metabolic and gene regulatory networks in trichomes of Nicotiana tabacum
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Abhishek Kumar Nautiyal, Umar Gani, Priyanka Sharma, Maridul Kundan, Mohd. Fayaz, Surrinder K. Lattoo, Prashant Misra

    Abstract Key message Comprehensive transcriptome analysis suggested that the primary metabolism is modulated to augment the supply of substrates towards secondary metabolism operating in the glandular trichomes of Nicotiana tabacum. The comparative gene expression and co-expression network analysis revealed that certain members of transcription factor genes belonging to the MYB, HD-ZIP, ERF, TCP, SRS, WRKY and DOF families may be involved in the regulation of metabolism and/other aspects in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum Abstract The glandular trichomes of Nicotiana tabacum are highly productive in terms of secondary metabolites and therefore have been projected to be used as a prognostic platform for metabolic engineering of valuable natural products. For obvious reasons, detailed studies pertaining to the metabolic and gene regulatory networks operating in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum are of pivotal significance to be undertaken. We have carried out next-generation sequencing of glandular trichomes of N. tabcaum and investigated differential gene expression among different tissues, including trichome-free leaves. We identified a total of 37,269 and 37,371 genes, expressing in trichome free leaf and glandular trichomes, respectively, at a cutoff of FPKM ≥ 1. The analysis revealed that different pathways involved with the primary metabolism are modulated in glandular trichomes of N. tabacum, providing a plausible explanation for the enhanced biosynthesis of secondary metabolism in the glandular trichomes. Further, comparative gene expression analysis revealed several genes, which display preferential expression in the glandular trichomes and thereby seem to be potential candidate genes for future studies in connection to the discovery of novel trichome specific promoters. The present study also led to the comprehensive identification of 1750 transcription factor genes expressing at a cutoff of FPKM ≥ 1 in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum. The clustering and co-expression analysis suggested that transcription factor genes belonging to HD-ZIP, ERF, WRKY, MYB, TCP, SRS and DOF families may be the major players in the regulation of gene expression in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum. To the best of our knowledge, the present work is the first effort towards detailed identification of genes, especially regulatory genes expressing in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum. The data resource and the empirical findings from present work in all probability must, therefore, provide a reference and background context for future work aiming at deciphering molecular mechanism of regulation of secondary metabolism and gene expression in the glandular trichomes of N. tabacum.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases of lavender ( Lavandula )
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Ayelign M. Adal, Soheil S. Mahmoud

    We reported the functional characterization of cDNAs encoding short-chain isoprenyl diphosphate synthases that control the partitioning of precursors for lavender terpenoids.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • PRPs localized to the middle lamellae are required for cortical tissue integrity in Medicago truncatula roots
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    B. Joy Erickson, Nathan C. Staples, Nicole Hess, Michelle A. Staples, Christian Weissert, Ruth R. Finkelstein, James B. Cooper

    A family of repetitive proline-rich proteins interact with acidic pectins and play distinct roles in legume root cell walls affecting cortical and vascular structure.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • ES5 is involved in the regulation of phosphatidylserine synthesis and impacts on early senescence in rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Mohammad Hasanuzzaman Rani, Qunen Liu, Ning Yu, Yingxin Zhang, Beifang Wang, Yongrun Cao, Yue Zhang, Md Anowerul Islam, Workie Anley Zegeye, Liyong Cao, Shihua Cheng

    Leaf senescence, which affects plant growth and yield in rice, is an ideal target for crop improvement and remarkable advances have been made to identify the mechanism underlying this process. We have characterized an early senile mutant es5 (early leaf senescence 5) in rice exhibiting leaf yellowing phenotype after the 4-leaf stage. This phenotype was confirmed by the higher accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), the disintegration of chloroplasts, reduction in chlorophyll content and photosynthetic rate and up-regulation of senescence-associated genes (SAGs) like Osh36, OsI57, and OsI85. Positional cloning revealed that the es5 phenotype is the result of one base substitution in ES5, encoding phosphatidylserine synthase (PSS) family protein, which is involved in the base-exchange type reaction to synthesize the minor membrane phospholipid phosphatidylserine. Functional complementation of ES5 in the es5 plants completely restored the wild-type phenotype. Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) analysis showed that es5 plants had increased levels of phosphatidylserine (PS) and decreased level of phosphatidylcholine (PC). These results provide evidence about the role of PS in rice leaf senescence.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • SlCAND1 , encoding cullin-associated Nedd8-dissociated protein 1, regulates plant height, flowering time, seed germination, and root architecture in tomato
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Wenjing Cheng, Shuangqin Yin, Yun Tu, Hu Mei, Yongzhong Wang, Yingwu Yang

    Silencing of SlCAND1 expression resulted in dwarfish, loss of apical dominance, early flowering, suppression of seed germination, and abnormal root architecture in tomato

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • MKK4/MKK5-MPK1/MPK2 cascade mediates SA-activated leaf senescence via phosphorylation of NPR1 in Arabidopsis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Jianjian Zhang, Jiong Gao, Zheng Zhu, Yi Song, Xiaoyan Wang, Xiaolei Wang, Xin Zhou

    The mechanism by which endogenous salicylic acid (SA) regulates leaf senescence remains elusive. Here we provide direct evidence that an enhancement of endogenous SA level, via chemical-induced upregulation of ISOCHORISMATE SYNTHASE 1 (ICS1), could significantly accelerate the senescence process of old leaves through mediation of the key SA signaling component NON EXPRESSOR OF PATHOGENESIS RELATED GENES 1 (NPR1) in Arabidopsis. Importantly, by taking advantage of this chemically induced leaf senescence system, we identified a mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade MKK4/5-MPK1/2 that is required for the SA/NPR1-mediated leaf senescence. Both MKK4/5 and MPK1/2 exhibited SA-induced kinase activities, with MPK1/2 being the immediate targets of MKK4/5. Double mutants of mkk4 mkk5 and mpk1 mpk2 displayed delayed leaf senescence, while constitutive overexpression of the kinase genes led to premature leaf senescence. Such premature leaf senescence was suppressed when they were overexpressed in an SA synthesis defective mutant (sid2) or signaling detective mutant (npr1). We further showed that MPK1, but not MPK2, could directly phosphorylate NPR1. Meanwhile, MPK1 also mediated NPR1 monomerization. Notably, induction of disease resistance was significantly compromised in the single and double mutants of the kinase genes. Taken together, our data demonstrate that the MKK4/5-MPK1/2 cascade plays a critical role in modulating SA signaling through a complex regulatory network in Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Mimosine facilitates metallic cation uptake by plants through formation of mimosine–cation complexes
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Michael D. H. Honda, Dulal Borthakur

    Abstract Key message Iron deficiency conditions as well as iron supplied as a Fe(III)–mimosine complex induced a number of strategy I and strategy II genes for iron uptake in leucaena. Abstract Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena) is a tree-legume that can grow in alkaline soils, where metal-cofactors like Fe(III) are sparingly available. Mimosine, a known chelator of Fe(III), may facilitate Fe(III) uptake in leucaena by serving as a phytosiderophore. To test if mimosine can serve as a phytosiderophore, three sets of experiments were carried out. First, the binding properties and solubility of metal–mimosine complexes were assessed through spectrophotometry. Second, to study mimosine uptake in plants, pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants were supplied with mimosine alone and metal–mimosine complexes. Third, the expression of strategy I (S1) and strategy II (S2) genes for iron uptake from the soil was studied in leucaena plants exposed to different Fe(III) complexes. The results of this study show that (i) mimosine has high binding affinity for metallic cations at alkaline pH, Fe(III)–mimosine complexes are water soluble at alkaline pH, and that mimosine can bind soil iron under alkaline pH; (ii) pole bean, common bean, and tomato plants can uptake mimosine and transport it throughout the plant; and (iii) a number of S1 and S2 genes were upregulated in leucaena under iron-deficiency condition or when Fe(III) was supplied as a Fe(III)–mimosine complex. These findings suggest that leucaena may utilize both S1 and S2 strategies for iron uptake; and mimosine may play an important role in both strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Full-length transcriptome analysis of Coptis deltoidea and identification of putative genes involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloids biosynthesis based on combined sequencing platforms
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Furong Zhong, Ling Huang, Luming Qi, Yuntong Ma, Zhuyun Yan

    Abstract Key message The study carry out comprehensive transcriptome analysis of C. deltoidea and exploration of BIAs biosynthesis and accumulation based on UHPLC-MS/MS and combined sequencing platforms. Abstract Coptis deltoidea is an important medicinal plant with a long history of medicinal use, which is rich in benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs). In this study, Ultra performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS) and combined sequencing platforms were performed for exploration of BIAs biosynthesis, accumulation and comprehensive transcriptome analysis of C. deltoidea. By metabolism profiling, the accumulation of ten BIAs was analyzed using UHPLC-MS/MS and different contents were observed in different organs. From transcriptome sequencing result, we applied single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing to C. deltoidea and generated a total of 75,438 full-length transcripts. We proposed the candidate biosynthetic pathway of tyrosine, precursor of BIAs, and identified 64 full length-transcripts encoding enzymes putatively involved in BIAs biosynthesis. RNA-Seq data indicated that the majority of genes exhibited relatively high expression level in roots. Transport of BIAs was also important for their accumulation. Here, 9 ABC transporters and 2 MATE transporters highly homologous to known alkaloid transporters related with BIAs transport in roots and rhizomes were identified. These findings based on the combined sequencing platforms provide valuable genetic information for C. deltoidea and the results of transcriptome combined with metabolome analysis can help us better understand BIAs biosynthesis and transport in this medicinal plant. The information will be critical for further characterization of C. deltoidea transcriptome and molecular-assisted breeding for this medicinal plant with scarce resources.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Involvement of MEM1 in DNA demethylation in Arabidopsis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Yanke Lu, Jie Dai, Liu Yang, Yumei La, Shaoxia Zhou, Sheng Qiang, Qianqian Wang, Feng Tan, Yufeng Wu, Weiwen Kong, Honggui La

    MEM1 participates in ROS1-mediated DNA demethylation pathway, and acts functionally as ROS3 to counteract the effects of RdDM pathway. mem1 mutation leads to large numbers of hyper-DMRs in Arabidopsis genome.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Functional characterization of cytochrome P450 CYP81A subfamily to disclose the pattern of cross-resistance in Echinochloa phyllopogon
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Niña Gracel Dimaano, Takuya Yamaguchi, Kanade Fukunishi, Tohru Tominaga, Satoshi Iwakami

    CYP81A P450s armor Echinochloa phyllopogon against diverse and several herbicide chemistries. CYP81A substrate preferences can be a basis for cross-resistance prediction and management in E. phyllopogon and other related species.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, ZjICE2 from Zoysia japonica confers abiotic stress tolerance to transgenic plants via activating the DREB / CBF regulon and enhancing ROS scavenging
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Zhi-Fang Zuo, Hong-Gyu Kang, Quan-Chun Hong, Mi-Young Park, Hyeon-Jin Sun, Jeongsik Kim, Pill-Soon Song, Hyo-Yeon Lee

    Abstract Key message ZjICE2 works as a positive regulator in abiotic stress responses and ZjICE2 is a valuable genetic resource to improve abiotic stress tolerance in the molecular breeding program of Zoysia japonica. Abstract The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) family transcription factors (TFs) play an important role in response to biotic or abiotic stresses in plants. However, the functions of bHLH TFs in Zoysia japonica, one of the warm-season turfgrasses, remain poorly understood. Here, we identified ZjICE2 from Z. japonica, a novel MYC-type bHLH transcription factor that was closely related to ICE homologs in the phylogenetic tree, and its expression was regulated by various abiotic stresses. Transient expression of ZjICE2-GFP in onion epidermal cells revealed that ZjICE2 was a nuclear-localized protein. Also, ZjICE2 bound the MYC cis-element in the promoter of dehydration responsive element binding 1 of Z. japonica (ZjDREB1) using yeast one-hybrid assay. A phenotypic analysis showed that overexpression of the ZjICE2 in Arabidopsis enhanced tolerance to cold, drought, and salt stresses. The transgenic Arabidopsis and Z. japonica accumulated more transcripts of cold-responsive DREB/CBFs and their downstream genes than the wild type (WT) after cold treatment. Furthermore, the transgenic plants exhibited an enhanced Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging ability, which resulted in an efficient maintenance of oxidant–antioxidant homeostasis. In addition, overexpression of the ZjICE2 in Z. japonica displayed intensive cold tolerance with increases in chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic efficiency. Our study suggests that ZjICE2 works as a positive regulator in abiotic stress responses and the ICE-DREB/CBFs response pathway involved in cold stress tolerance is also conserved in Z. japonica. These results provide a valuable genetic resource for the molecular breeding program especially for warm-season grasses as well as other leaf crop plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The PAP/SAL1 retrograde signaling pathway is involved in iron homeostasis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Manuel Balparda, Alejandro M. Armas, Gonzalo M. Estavillo, Hannetz Roschzttardtz, María A. Pagani, Diego F. Gomez-Casati

    There is a link between PAP/SAL retrograde pathway, ethylene signaling and Fe metabolism in Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Genome-wide identification and functional analysis of JmjC domain-containing genes in flower development of Rosa chinensis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yuwei Dong, Jun Lu, Jinyi Liu, Abdul Jalal, Changquan Wang

    Key message We genome-wide identified 28 JmjC domain-containing genes, further spatio-temporal expression profiling and genetic analysis defined them as epigenetic regulators in flowering initiation of Rosa chinensis. Abstract The JmjC domain-containing histone demethylases play critical roles in maintaining homeostasis of histone methylations, thus are vital for plant growth and development. Genome-wide identification of the JmjC domain-containing genes have been reported in several species, however, no systematic study has been performed in rose plants. In this paper, we identified 28 JmjC domain-containing genes from the newly published genome database of Rosa chinensis. The JmjC domain-containing proteins in R. chinensis were divided into seven groups, KDM3 was the largest group with 13 members, and JmjC domain-only A and KDM5B were the smallest clades both with only one member. Although all the JmjC domain proteins having a conserved JmjC domain, the gene and protein structure experienced differentiation and specification during the evolution, especially in KDM3 clade, one gene (RcJMJ40) was found carrying site deletions for cofactors Fe (II) and α-KG binding which were crucial for demethylase activities, three genes (RcJMJ41, RcJMJ43 and RcJMJ44) had no intron while two of them had tandem JmjC domains. Spatial expression pattern analysis of these JmjC domain-containing genes in different tissues showed most of them were highly expressed in reproductive tissues such as floral meristem and closed flowers than vegetative tissues, demonstrating their important functions in developmental switch from vegetative to reproductive growth of roses. Temporal expression profiling indicated majority of JmjC domain-containing genes from R. chinensis fluctuated along with floral bud differentiation and development, further proving their essential roles in flower organogenesis. VIGS induced silencing of RcJMJ12 led to delayed flowering time, and decreased the expression levels of flowering integrator such as RcFT, RcSOC1, RcFUL, RcLFY and RcAP1, therefore providing the genetic evidence of RcJMJ12 in flowering initiation. Collectively, spatio-temporal expression profiling and genetic analysis defined the JmjC domain-containing genes as important epigenetic regulators in flower development of R. chinensis.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Maize NCP1 negatively regulates drought and ABA responses through interacting with and inhibiting the activity of transcription factor ABP9
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Na Zong, Hanqian Wang, Zaoxia Li, Li Ma, Li Xie, Junling Pang, Yunliu Fan, Jun Zhao

    Abstract Key message NCP1, a NINJA family protein lacking EAR motif, acts as a negative regulator of ABA signaling by interacting with and inhibiting the activity of transcriptional activator ABP9. Abstract The phytohormone abscisic acid plays a pivotal role in regulating plant responses to a variety of abiotic stresses including drought and salinity. Maize ABP9 is an ABRE-binding bZIP transcription activator that enhances plant tolerance to multiple stresses by positively regulating ABA signaling, but the molecular mechanism by which ABP9 is regulated in mediating ABA responses remains unknown. Here, we report the identification of an ABP9-interacting protein, named ABP Nine Complex Protein 1 (NCP1) and its functional characterization. NCP1 belongs to the recently identified NINJA family proteins, but lacks the conserved EAR motif, which is a hallmark of this class of transcriptional repressors. In vitro and in vivo assays confirmed that NCP1 physically interacts with ABP9 and that they are co-localized in the nucleus. In addition, NCP1 and ABP9 are similarly induced with similar patterns by ABA treatment and osmotic stress. Interestingly, NCP1 over-expressing Arabidopsis plants exhibited a reduced sensitivity to ABA and decreased drought tolerance. Transient assay in maize protoplasts showed that NCP1 inhibits the activity of ABP9 in activating ABRE-mediated reporter gene expression, a notion further supported by genetic analysis of drought and ABA responses in the transgenic plants over-expressing both ABP9 and NCP1. These data together suggest that NCP1 is a novel negative regulator of ABA signaling via interacting with and inhibiting the activity of ABP9.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • The Arabidopsis UDP-glycosyltransferase75B1, conjugates abscisic acid and affects plant response to abiotic stresses
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Ting-Ting Chen, Fang-Fei Liu, Dong-Wang Xiao, Xiao-Yi Jiang, Pan Li, Shu-Man Zhao, Bing-kai Hou, Yan-jie Li

    This study revealed that the Arabidopsis UGT75B1 plays an important role in modulating ABA activity by glycosylation when confronting stress environments.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • A cytokinin-activation enzyme-like gene improves grain yield under various field conditions in rice
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Changgui Wang, Guokui Wang, Yang Gao, Guihua Lu, Jeffrey E. Habben, Guanfan Mao, Guangwu Chen, Jiantao Wang, Fan Yang, Xiaoqiang Zhao, Jing Zhang, Hua Mo, Pingping Qu, Junhua Liu, Thomas W. Greene

    CRISPR-edited variants at the 3′-end of OsLOGL5's coding sequence (CDS), significantly increased rice grain yield under well-watered, drought, normal nitrogen, and low nitrogen field conditions at multiple geographical locations.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • RNA-Seq analysis of compatible and incompatible styles of Pyrus species at the beginning of pollination
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Kun Li, Yongzhang Wang, Haiyong Qu

    Key message At the early stage of pollination, the difference in gene expression between compatibility and incompatibility is highly significant about the pollen-specific expression of the LRR gene, resistance, and defensin genes. Abstract In Rosaceae, incompatible pollen can penetrate into the style during the gametophytic self-incompatibility response. It is therefore considered a stylar event rather than a stigmatic event. In this study, we explored the differences in gene expression between compatibility and incompatibility in the early stage of pollination. The self-compatible pear variety “Jinzhuili” is a naturally occurring bud mutant from “Yali”, a leading Chinese native cultivar exhibiting typical gametophytic self-incompatibility. We collected the styles of ‘Yali’ and ‘Jinzhuili’ at 0.5 and 2 h after self-pollination and then performed high-throughput sequencing. According to the KEGG analysis of the differentially expressed genes, several metabolic pathways, such as “Plant hormone signal transduction”, “Plant-pathogen interaction”, are the main pathways was the most represented pathway. Quantitative PCR was used to validate these differential genes. The expression levels of genes related to pollen growth and disease inhibition, such as LRR (Leucine-rich repeat extensin), resistance, defensin, and auxin, differed significantly between compatible and incompatible pollination. Interestingly, at 0.5 h, most of these genes were upregulated in the compatible pollination system compared with the incompatible pollination system. Calcium transport, which requires ATPase, also demonstrated upregulated expression. In summary, the self-incompatibility reaction was initiated when the pollen land on the stigma.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • The protein turnover of Arabidopsis BPM1 is involved in regulation of flowering time and abiotic stress response
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Andreja Škiljaica, Esther Lechner, Mateja Jagić, Kristina Majsec, Nenad Malenica, Pascal Genschik, Natasa Bauer

    Protein degradation is essential in plant growth and development. The stability of Cullin3 substrate adaptor protein BPM1 is regulated by multiple environmental cues pointing on manifold control of targeted protein degradation.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Metabolome and transcriptome profiling reveals quality variation and underlying regulation of three ecotypes for Cistanche deserticola
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Xiao Sun, Lin Li, Jin Pei, Chang Liu, Lin-Fang Huang

    Cistanche deserticola is a plant used both as food and medicine. We are interested in understanding how C. deserticola responds to environmental conditions. Samples were collected from three ecotypes grown in saline–alkali land, grassland and sandy land. Transcriptome and metabolome analysis were performed by using RNA-seq and LC–ESI–MS/MS. Among 578 metabolites identified, 218, 209 and 215 compounds were found differentially produced among the three ecotypes. Particularly, 2′-acetylacteoside, belonging to phenylethanoid glycosides (PhGs) is the most significantly differentially produced with a VIP > 0.5 and fold change > 2, representing a potential chemical marker to distinguish the three ecotypes. RNA-Seq analysis revealed 52,043 unigenes, and 947, 632 and 97 of them were found differentially expressed among the three ecotypes. Analysis of the correlation between the metabolome profiles and transcriptome profiles among three ecotypes identified that the 12 key genes related to PhGs biosynthesis were differentially expressed. Particularly, the expression of PAL, ALDH and GOT genes were significantly up-regulated in saline–alkali land compared to the other two. In summary, we found PhGs content was higher in saline–alkali land compared with other ecotypes. This is likely due to the up-regulation of the PhGs biosynthetic genes in response to the saline–alkali conditions.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Transcriptome changes in reciprocal grafts involving watermelon and bottle gourd reveal molecular mechanisms involved in increase of the fruit size, rind toughness and soluble solids
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Marleny Garcia-Lozano, Sudip Kumar Dutta, Purushothaman Natarajan, Yan R. Tomason, Carlos Lopez, Ramesh Katam, Amnon Levi, Padma Nimmakayala, Umesh K. Reddy

    Transcriptome landscape reveals the molecular mechanisms involved in the improvement of fruit traits by the grafting of watermelon and bottle gourd.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Hydrogen gas alleviates postharvest senescence of cut rose ‘Movie star’ by antagonizing ethylene
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Chunlei Wang, Hua Fang, Tingyu Gong, Jing Zhang, Lijuan Niu, Dengjing Huang, Jianqiang Huo, Weibiao Liao

    H2 prolonged the vase life and improved the vase quality of cut roses through repressing endogenous ethylene production and alleviating ethylene signal transduction during the entire senescing period.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Transcriptome and weighted correlation network analyses provide insights into inflorescence stem straightness in Paeonia lactiflora
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Yingling Wan, Min Zhang, Aiying Hong, Xinyu Lan, Huiyan Yang, Yan Liu

    Lack of structural components results in inflorescence stem bending. Differentially expressed genes involved in lignin and hemicellulose biosynthesis are vital; genes involved in cellulose and glycan biosynthesis are also relevant.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A multi-epitope plant-made chimeric protein (LTBentero) targeting common enteric pathogens is immunogenic in mice
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Edgar Trujillo, Sergio Rosales-Mendoza, Carlos Angulo

    A plant-based multiepitopic protein (LTBentero) containing epitopes from ETEC, S. typhimurium, and V. parahaemolyticus was produced in plants cells and triggered systemic and intestinal humoral responses in immunized mice.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Analyzing the action of evolutionarily conserved modules on HMW-GS 1Ax1 promoter activity
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Luning Duan, Shichen Han, Ke Wang, Peihong Jiang, Yunsong Gu, Lin Chen, Junyi Mu, Xingguo Ye, Yaxuan Li, Yueming Yan, Xiaohui Li

    The specific and high-level expression of 1Ax1 is determined by different promoter regions. HMW-GS synthesis occurs in aleurone layer cells. Heterologous proteins can be stored in protein bodies.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Identification of soybean drought-tolerant genotypes and loci correlated with agronomic traits contributes new candidate genes for breeding
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Limiao Chen, Yisheng Fang, Xiangyong Li, Kai Zeng, Haifeng Chen, Hengbin Zhang, Hongli Yang, Dong Cao, Qingnan Hao, Songli Yuan, Chanjuan Zhang, Wei Guo, Shuilian Chen, Zhonglu Yang, Zhihui Shan, Xiaojuan Zhang, Dezhen Qiu, Yong Zhan, Xin-An Zhou

    Drought tolerance level of 136 soybean genotypes, the correlations among traits were evaluated, and several important drought-tolerant genotypes, traits, SNPs and genes were possibly useful for soybean genetic breeding.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • The Arabidopsis kinase-associated protein phosphatase KAPP, interacting with protein kinases SnRK2.2/2.3/2.6, negatively regulates abscisic acid signaling
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Kai Lu, Ya-Dong Zhang, Chun-Fang Zhao, Li-Hui Zhou, Qing-Yong Zhao, Tao Chen, Cai-Lin Wang

    The kinase-associated protein phosphatase, KAPP, is negatively involved in abscisic acid (ABA) signaling. KAPP interacts physically with SnRK2.2, SnRK2.3 and SnRK2.6, and functionally acts upstream of SnRK2.2 and SnRK2.3.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • A phylogenetically conserved APETALA2/ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR, ERF12, regulates Arabidopsis floral development
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    J. W. Chandler, W. Werr

    Arabidopsis ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR12 (ERF12), the rice MULTIFLORET SPIKELET1 orthologue pleiotropically affects meristem identity, floral phyllotaxy and organ initiation and is conserved among angiosperms.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • The dual-targeted RNA editing factor AEF1 is universally conserved among angiosperms and reveals only minor adaptations upon loss of its chloroplast or its mitochondrial target
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Anke Hein, Sarah Brenner, Monika Polsakiewicz, Volker Knoop

    Upon loss of either its chloroplast or mitochondrial target, a uniquely dual-targeted factor for C-to-U RNA editing in angiosperms reveals low evidence for improved molecular adaptation to its remaining target.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Differential expression of major genes involved in the biosynthesis of aliphatic glucosinolates in intergeneric Baemoochae ( Brassicaceae ) and its parents during development
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Adji Baskoro Dwi Nugroho, Narae Han, Aditya Nurmalita Pervitasari, Dong-Hwan Kim, Jongkee Kim

    Thus study found the temporal and spatial relationship between production of aliphatic glucosinolate compounds and the expression profile of glucosinolate-related genes during growth and development in radish, Chinese cabbage, and their intergeneric hybrid baemoochae plants.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • Golgi-localized cyclophilin 21 proteins negatively regulate ABA signalling via the peptidyl prolyl isomerase activity during early seedling development
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Haemyeong Jung, Seung Hee Jo, Hyun Ji Park, Areum Lee, Hyun-Soon Kim, Hyo-Jun Lee, Hye Sun Cho

    Plant possesses particular Golgi-resident cyclophilin 21 proteins (CYP21s) and the catalytic isomerase activities have a negative effect on ABA signalling gene expression during early seedling development.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Zinc finger protein 5 ( ZFP5 ) associates with ethylene signaling to regulate the phosphate and potassium deficiency-induced root hair development in Arabidopsis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Linli Huang, Qining Jiang, Junyu Wu, Lijun An, Zhongjing Zhou, ChuiEng Wong, Minjie Wu, Hao Yu, Yinbo Gan

    Zinc finger protein transcription factor ZFP5 positively regulates root hair elongation in response to Pi and potassium deficiency by mainly activating the expression of EIN2 in Arabidopsis.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Molecular characterization and expression analysis reveal the roles of Cys 2 /His 2 zinc-finger transcription factors during flower development of Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Tianqi Lyu, Weimiao Liu, Ziwei Hu, Xun Xiang, Tingting Liu, Xingpeng Xiong, Jiashu Cao

    Conserved motif, gene structure, expression and interaction analysis of C2H2-ZFPs in Brassica rapa, and identified types of genes may play essential roles in flower development, and BrZFP38 was proved to function in flower development by affecting pollen formation.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase OsPUB67 is positively involved in drought tolerance in rice
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Qiao Qin, Yinxiao Wang, Liyu Huang, Fengping Du, Xiuqin Zhao, Zhikang Li, Wensheng Wang, Binying Fu

    OsPUB67, a U-box E3 ubiquitin ligase, may interact with two drought tolerance negative regulators (OsRZFP34 and OsDIS1) and improve drought tolerance by enhancing the reactive oxygen scavenging ability and stomatal closure.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Evolution of small RNA expression following hybridization and allopolyploidization: insights from Spartina species (Poaceae, Chloridoideae)
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Armand Cavé-Radet, Delphine Giraud, Oscar Lima, Abdelhak El Amrani, Malika Aïnouche, Armel Salmon

    Differential expression of mi-RNAs targeting developmental processes and progressive downregulation of repeat-associated siRNAs following genome merger and genome duplication in the context of allopolyploid speciation in Spartina.

    更新日期:2019-11-21
  • Identification of transcription factors that bind to the 5′-UTR of the barley PHO2 gene
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Paweł Sega, Katarzyna Kruszka, Łukasz Szewc, Zofia Szweykowska-Kulińska, Andrzej Pacak

    In barley and other higher plants, phosphate homeostasis is maintained by a regulatory network involving the PHO2 (PHOSPHATE2) encoding ubiquitin-conjugating (UBC) E2 enzyme, the PHR1 (PHOSPHATE STARVATION RESPONSE 1) transcription factor (TF), IPS1 (INDUCED BYPHOSPHATESTARVATION1) RNA, and miR399. During phosphate ion (Pi) deprivation, PHR1 positively regulates MIR399 expression, after transcription and processing mature miR399 guides the Ago protein to the 5′-UTR of PHO2 transcripts. Non-coding IPS1 RNA is highly expressed during Pi starvation, and the sequestration of miR399 molecules protects PHO2 mRNA from complete degradation. Here, we reveal new cis- and trans-regulatory elements that are crucial for efficient PHO2 gene expression in barley. We found that the 5′-UTR of PHO2 contains two PHR1 binding sites (P1BSs) and one Pi-responsive PHO element. Using a yeast one-hybrid (Y1H) assay, we identified two candidate proteins that might mediate this transcriptional regulation: a barley PHR1 ortholog and a TF containing an uncharacterized MYB domain. Additional results classified this new potential TF as belonging to the APL (ALTERED PHLOEM DEVELOPMENT) protein family, and we observed its nuclear localization in barley protoplasts. Pi starvation induced the accumulation of barley APL transcripts in both the shoots and roots. Interestingly, the deletion of the P1BS motif from the first intron of the barley 5′-UTR led to a significant increase in the transcription of a downstream β-glucuronidase (GUS) reporter gene in tobacco leaves. Our work extends the current knowledge about putative cis- and trans-regulatory elements that may affect the expression of the barley PHO2 gene.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • Evolution of MIR159/319 genes in Brassica campestris and their function in pollen development
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Ziwei Hu, Xiuping Shen, Xun Xiang, Jiashu Cao

    MIR159/319 have conserved evolution and diversified function after WGT in Brassica campestris, both of them can lead pollen vitality and germination abnormality, Bra-MIR319c also can function in flower development.

    更新日期:2019-11-20
  • The lignin toolbox of the model grass Setaria viridis
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Sávio Siqueira Ferreira, Marcella Siqueira Simões, Gabriel Garon Carvalho, Leydson Gabriel Alves de Lima, Raphael Mendes de Almeida Svartman, Igor Cesarino

    The core set of biosynthetic genes potentially involved in developmental lignification was identified in the model C4 grass Setaria viridis.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • HLMethy: a machine learning-based model to identify the hidden labels of m 6 A candidates
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Ze Liu, Wei Dong, WenJie Luo, Wei Jiang, QuanWu Li, ZiLi He

    We developed a machine learning-based model to identify the hidden labels of m6A candidates from noisy m6A-seq data.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Benno Parthier (1932-2019).
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Claus Wasternack,Bettina Hause,Steffen Abel

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The maize retinoblastoma protein homologue ZmRb-1 is regulated during leaf development and displays conserved interactions with G1/S regulators and plant cyclin D (CycD) proteins.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 1998-06-10
    R Huntley,S Healy,D Freeman,P Lavender,S de Jager,J Greenwood,J Makker,E Walker,M Jackman,Q Xie,A J Bannister,T Kouzarides,C Gutiérrez,J H Doonan,J A Murray

    Recent discoveries of plant retinoblastoma (Rb) protein homologues and D-type cyclins suggest that control of the onset of cell division in plants may have stronger parallels with mammalian G1/S controls than with yeasts. In mammals, the Rb protein interacts specifically with D-type cyclins and regulates cell proliferation by binding and inhibiting E2F transcription factors. However, the developmental role of Rb in plants and its potential interaction with cell cycle regulators is unknown. We show that the maize Rb homologue ZmRb-1 is temporally and spatially regulated during maize leaf development. ZmRb-1 is highly expressed in differentiating cells, but almost undetectable in proliferating cells. In vitro, both ZmRb-1 and human Rb bind all classes of plant D-type cyclins with the involvement of a conserved N-terminal Leu-x-Cys-x-Glu (LxCxE) Rb-interaction motif. This binding is strongly reduced by mutation of the conserved Cys-470 of ZmRb-1. ZmRb-1 binds human and Drosophila E2F, and inhibits transcriptional activation of human E2F. We also show that ZmRb-1 is a good in vitro substrate for all human G1/S protein kinases. The functional conservation of proteins that control the G1/S transition in mammals and plants points to the existence of plant E2F homologues. We conclude that evolution of Rb and cyclin D proteins occurred after separation of the fungi from the higher eukaryotic lineage, but preceded the divergence of plant and animal kingdoms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • High throughput transcriptome analysis of coffee reveals prehaustorial resistance in response to Hemileia vastatrix infection.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2017-11-03
    Juan Carlos Florez,Luciana Souto Mofatto,Rejane do Livramento Freitas-Lopes,Sávio Siqueira Ferreira,Eunize Maciel Zambolim,Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle,Laércio Zambolim,Eveline Teixeira Caixeta

    We provide a transcriptional profile of coffee rust interaction and identified putative up regulated resistant genes Coffee rust disease, caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, is one of the major diseases in coffee throughout the world. The use of resistant cultivars is considered to be the most effective control strategy for this disease. To identify candidate genes related to different mechanism defense in coffee, we present a time-course comparative gene expression profile of Caturra (susceptible) and Híbrido de Timor (HdT, resistant) in response to H. vastatrix race XXXIII infection. The main objectives were to obtain a global overview of transcriptome in both interaction, compatible and incompatible, and, specially, analyze up-regulated HdT specific genes with inducible resistant and defense signaling pathways. Using both Coffea canephora as a reference genome and de novo assembly, we obtained 43,159 transcripts. At early infection events (12 and 24 h after infection), HdT responded to the attack of H. vastatrix with a larger number of up-regulated genes than Caturra, which was related to prehaustorial resistance. The genes found in HdT at early hours were involved in receptor-like kinases, response ion fluxes, production of reactive oxygen species, protein phosphorylation, ethylene biosynthesis and callose deposition. We selected 13 up-regulated HdT-exclusive genes to validate by real-time qPCR, which most of them confirmed their higher expression in HdT than in Caturra at early stage of infection. These genes have the potential to assist the development of new coffee rust control strategies. Collectively, our results provide understanding of expression profiles in coffee-H. vastatrix interaction over a time course in susceptible and resistant coffee plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plant root-microbe communication in shaping root microbiomes.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2016-01-06
    Andrew Lareen,Frances Burton,Patrick Schäfer

    A growing body of research is highlighting the impacts root-associated microbial communities can have on plant health and development. These impacts can include changes in yield quantity and quality, timing of key developmental stages and tolerance of biotic and abiotic stresses. With such a range of effects it is clear that understanding the factors that contribute to a plant-beneficial root microbiome may prove advantageous. Increasing demands for food by a growing human population increases the importance and urgency of understanding how microbiomes may be exploited to increase crop yields and reduce losses caused by disease. In addition, climate change effects may require novel approaches to overcoming abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity as well as new emerging diseases. This review discusses current knowledge on the formation and maintenance of root-associated microbial communities and plant-microbe interactions with a particular emphasis on the effect of microbe-microbe interactions on the shape of microbial communities at the root surface. Further, we discuss the potential for root microbiome modification to benefit agriculture and food production.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The purification of the Chlamydomonas reinhardtii chloroplast ClpP complex: additional subunits and structural features.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2012-07-10
    Benoît Derrien,Wojciech Majeran,Grégory Effantin,Joseph Ebenezer,Giulia Friso,Klaas J van Wijk,Alasdair C Steven,Michael R Maurizi,Olivier Vallon

    The ClpP peptidase is a major constituent of the proteolytic machinery of bacteria and organelles. The chloroplast ClpP complex is unusual, in that it associates a large number of subunits, one of which (ClpP1) is encoded in the chloroplast, the others in the nucleus. The complexity of these large hetero-oligomeric complexes has been a major difficulty in their overproduction and biochemical characterization. In this paper, we describe the purification of native chloroplast ClpP complex from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using a strain that carries the Strep-tag II at the C-terminus of the ClpP1 subunit. Similar to land plants, the algal complex comprises active and inactive subunits (3 ClpP and 5 ClpR, respectively). Evidence is presented that a sub-complex can be produced by dissociation, comprising ClpP1 and ClpR1, 2, 3 and 4, similar to the ClpR-ring described in land plants. Our Chlamydomonas ClpP preparation also contains two ClpT subunits, ClpT3 and ClpT4, which like the land plant ClpT1 and ClpT2 show 2 Clp-N domains. ClpTs are believed to function in substrate binding and/or assembly of the two heptameric rings. Phylogenetic analysis indicates that ClpT subunits have appeared independently in Chlorophycean algae, in land plants and in dispersed cyanobacterial genomes. Negative staining electron microscopy shows that the Chlamydomonas complex retains the barrel-like shape of homo-oligomeric ClpPs, with 4 additional peripheral masses that we speculate represent either the additional IS1 domain of ClpP1 (a feature unique to algae) or ClpTs or extensions of ClpR subunits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A clade in the QUASIMODO2 family evolved with vascular plants and supports a role for cell wall composition in adaptation to environmental changes.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2010-05-14
    Sara Fuentes,Nuno Pires,Lars Østergaard

    The evolution of plant vascular tissue is tightly linked to the evolution of specialised cell walls. Mutations in the QUASIMODO2 (QUA2) gene from Arabidopsis thaliana were previously shown to result in cell adhesion defects due to reduced levels of the cell wall component homogalacturonic acid. In this study, we provide additional information about the role of QUA2 and its closest paralogues, QUASIMODO2 LIKE1 (QUL1) and QUL2. Within the extensive QUA2 family, our phylogenetic analysis shows that these three genes form a clade that evolved with vascular plants. Consistent with a possible role of this clade in vasculature development, QUA2 is highly expressed in the vascular tissue of embryos and inflorescence stems and overexpression of QUA2 resulted in temperature-sensitive xylem collapse. Moreover, in-depth characterisation of qua2 qul1 qul2 triple mutant and 35S::QUA2 overexpression plants revealed contrasting temperature-dependent stem development with dramatic effects on stem width. Taken together, our results suggest that the QUA2-specific clade contributed to the evolution of vasculature and illustrate the important role that modification of cell wall composition plays in the adaptation to changing environmental conditions, including changes in temperature.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dissecting regulatory pathways of G1/S control in Arabidopsis: common and distinct targets of CYCD3;1, E2Fa and E2Fc.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2009-08-08
    Sarah M de Jager,Simon Scofield,Rachael P Huntley,Alastair S Robinson,Bart G W den Boer,James A H Murray

    Activation of E2F transcription factors at the G1-to-S phase boundary, with the resultant expression of genes needed for DNA synthesis and S-phase, is due to phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma-related (RBR) protein by cyclin D-dependent kinase (CYCD-CDK), particularly CYCD3-CDKA. Arabidopsis has three canonical E2F genes, of which E2Fa and E2Fb are proposed to encode transcriptional activators and E2Fc a repressor. Previous studies have identified genes regulated in response to high-level constitutive expression of E2Fa and of CYCD3;1, but such plants display significant phenotypic abnormalities. We have sought to identify targets that show responses to lower level induced changes in abundance of these cell cycle regulators. Expression of E2Fa, E2Fc or CYCD3;1 was induced using dexamethasone and the effects analysed using microarrays in a time course allowing short and longer term effects to be observed. Overlap between CYCD3;1 and E2Fa modulated genes substantiates their action in a common pathway with a key role in controlling the G1/S transition, with additional targets for CYCD3;1 in chromatin modification and for E2Fa in cell wall biogenesis and development. E2Fc induction led primarily to gene downregulation, but did not antagonise E2Fa action and hence E2Fc appears to function outside the CYCD3-RBR pathway, does not have a direct effect on cell cycle genes, and promoter analysis suggests a distinct binding site preference.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interactions between circadian and hormonal signalling in plants.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2008-10-16
    Fiona C Robertson,Alastair W Skeffington,Michael J Gardner,Alex A R Webb

    Growth and development of plants is controlled by external and internal signals. Key internal signals are those generated by hormones and the circadian clock. We highlight interactions between the circadian clock and hormonal signalling networks in regulating the physiology and growth of plants. Microarray analysis has shown that a significant proportion of transcripts involved in hormonal metabolism, catabolism, perception and signalling are also regulated by the circadian clock. In particular, there are interactions between the clock and abscisic acid, auxin, cytokinin and ethylene signalling. We discuss the role of circadian modulation ('gating') of hormonal signals in preventing temporally inappropriate responses. A consideration of the daily changes in physiology provides evidence that circadian gating of hormonal signalling couples the rhythmic regulation of carbon and water utilisation to rhythmic patterns of growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cloning and characterization of the durable tomato mosaic virus resistance gene Tm-2(2) from Lycopersicon esculentum.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2003-10-16
    Frank C Lanfermeijer,Jos Dijkhuis,Marcel J G Sturre,Peter de Haan,Jacques Hille

    In tomato, infections by tomato mosaic virus are controlled by durable Tm-2(2) resistance. In order to gain insight into the processes underlying disease resistance and its durability, we cloned and analysed the Tm-2(2) resistance gene and the susceptible allele, tm-2. The Tm-2(20 gene was isolated by transposon tagging using a screen in which plants with a destroyed Tm-2(2) gene survive. The Tm-2(2) locus consists of a single gene that encodes an 861 amino acid polypeptide, which belongs to the CC-NBS-LRR class of resistance proteins. The putative tm-2 allele was cloned from susceptible tomato lines via PCR with primers based on the Tm-2(2) sequence. Interestingly, the tm-2 gene has an open reading frame that is comparable to the Tm-2(2) allele. Between the tm-2 and the Tm-2(2) polypeptide 38 amino acid differences are present of which 26 are located in the second half of the LRR-domain. Susceptible tomato plants, which were transformed with the Tm-2(2) gene, displayed resistance against ToMV infection. In addition, virus specificity, displayed by the Tm-2(2) resistance was conserved in these transgenic lines. To explain the durability of this resistance, it is proposed that the Tm-2(2)-encoded resistance is aimed at the Achilles' heel of the virus.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A collection of sequenced and mapped Ds transposon insertion sites in Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Surabhi Raina,Ramamurthy Mahalingam,Fuqiang Chen,Nina Fedoroff

    Insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool for generating knockout mutations that facilitate associating biological functions with as yet uncharacterized open reading frames (ORFs) identified by genomic sequencing or represented in EST databases. We have generated a collection of Dissociation (Ds) transposon lines with insertions on all 5 Arabidopsis chromosomes. Here we report the insertion sites in 260 independent single-transposon lines, derived from four different Ds donor sites. We amplified and determined the genomic sequence flanking each transposon, then mapped its insertion site by identity of the flanking sequences to the corresponding sequence in the Arabidopsis genome database. This constitutes the largest collection of sequence-mapped Ds insertion sites unbiased by selection against the donor site. Insertion site clusters have been identified around three of the four donor sites on chromosomes 1 and 5, as well as near the nucleolus organizers on chromosomes 2 and 4. The distribution of insertions between ORFs and intergenic sequences is roughly proportional to the ratio of genic to intergenic sequence. Within ORFs, insertions cluster near the translational start codon, although we have not detected insertion site selectivity at the nucleotide sequence level. A searchable database of insertion site sequences for the 260 transposon insertion sites is available at http://sgio2.biotec.psu.edu/sr. This and other collections of Arabidopsis lines with sequence-identified transposon insertion sites are a valuable genetic resource for functional genomics studies because the transposon location is precisely known, the transposon can be remobilized to generate revertants, and the Ds insertion can be used to initiate further local mutagenesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Divergent regulation of the HEMA gene family encoding glutamyl-tRNA reductase in Arabidopsis thaliana: expression of HEMA2 is regulated by sugars, but is independent of light and plastid signalling.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    M L Ujwal,Alex C McCormac,Ann Goulding,A Madan Kumar,Dieter Söll,Matthew J Terry

    The synthesis of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is a key regulatory step for the production of hemes and chlorophyll via the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway. The first enzyme committed to ALA synthesis is glutamyl-tRNA reductase encoded in Arabidopsis by a small family of nuclear-encoded HEMA genes. To better understand the regulation of the tetrapyrrole synthesis pathway we have made a detailed study of HEMA2 expression with transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana L. Col. plants carrying chimeric HEMA2 promoter:gusA fusion constructs. Our results show that the HEMA2 promoter directs expression predominantly to roots and flowers, but that HEMA2 is also expressed at low levels in photosynthetic tissues. Deletion analysis of the HEMA2 promoter indicates that a ca. 850 bp fragment immediately upstream of the HEMA2 coding region is sufficient to drive regulated gusA expression. In contrast to HEMA1, HEMA2 is not up-regulated by red, far-red, blue, UV or white light. In addition, elimination of a promotive plastid signal by Norflurazon-induced photobleaching of plastids had no effect on HEMA2 expression while being required for normal white-light induction of HEMA1. HEMA2 expression in the cotyledons is inhibited by the presence of sucrose or glucose, but not fructose, and this response is light-independent. HEMA1 expression in cotyledons is also inhibited by sugars, but in a strictly light-dependent manner. The roles of HEMA1 and HEMA2 in meeting cellular tetrapyrrole requirements are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular cloning and characterization of RAD51-like genes from Arabidopsis thaliana.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Keishi Osakabe,Toji Yoshioka,Hiroaki Ichikawa,Seiichi Toki

    Homologous recombination is an essential process for the maintenance and variability of the genome. In eukaryotes, the Rad52 epistasis group proteins serve the main role for meiotic recombination and/or homologous recombinational repair. Rad51-like proteins, such as Rad55 and Rad57 in yeast, play a role in assembly or stabilization of multimeric Rad51 that promotes homologous pairing and strand exchange reactions. We cloned two RAD51-like genes named AtXRCC3 and AtRAD51C from Arabidopsis thaliana. Both AtXRCC3 and AtRAD51C expressed two alternatively spliced transcripts, and AtRAD51C produced two different sizes of isoforms, a long (AtRAD51Calpha) and a short one (AtRAD51Cbeta). The predicted protein sequences of these genes showed characteristic features of the RecA/Rad51 family; especially the amino acids around the ATP-binding motifs were well conserved. The transcripts of AtXRCC3 and AtRAD51C were detected in various tissues, with the highest level of expression in flower buds. Expression of both genes was induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The results of yeast two-hybrid assays suggested that Arabidopsis Rad51 family proteins form a complex, which could participate in meiotic recombination and/or homologous recombinational repair.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characterization of a stamen-specific cDNA encoding a novel plant defensin in Chinese cabbage.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Hyeong Cheol Park,Yun Hwan Kang,Hyun Jin Chun,Ja Choon Koo,Yong Hwa Cheong,Cha Young Kim,Min Chul Kim,Woo Sik Chung,Jong Cheol Kim,Jae Hyuk Yoo,Yoon Duck Koo,Sung Chul Koo,Chae Oh Lim,Sang Yeol Lee,Moo Je Cho

    We isolated a stamen-specific cDNA, BSD1 (Brassica stamen specific plant defensin 1) that encodes a novel plant defensin peptide in Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L. ssp. pekinensis). Plant defensins are antimicrobial peptides containing eight highly conserved cysteine residues linked by disulfide bridges. In BSD1, the eight cysteine residues and a glutamate residue at position 29 are conserved whereas other amino acid residues of the plant defensins consensus sequence are substituted. BSD1 transcripts accumulate specifically in the stamen of developing flowers and its level drops as the flowers mature. The recombinant BSD1 produced in Escherichia coli showed antifungal activity against several phytopathogenic fungi. Furthermore, constitutive over-expression of the BSD1 gene under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) 35S promoter conferred enhanced tolerance against the Phytophthora parasitica in the transgenic tobacco plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Identification and mapping of a putative stress response regulator gene in barley.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Marina Malatrasi,Timothy J Close,Nelson Marmiroli

    Plants respond to environmental stress with a number of physiological and developmental changes. Water deficit is one of the major factors limiting plant growth and development and crop productivity. One response of plants to water deficit is accumulation of abscisic acid (ABA). An increase of ABA is responsible for the induction of many genes, presumably some of which contribute to drought tolerance. Analysis of gene expression in barley seedling shoots by differential display reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) led to the isolation of several drought-, cold- and ABA-induced partial cDNA fragments. Here we extensively characterize one of these cDNAs, designated DD6. First, a larger cDNA was extended from DD6 by 5'-RACE (rapid amplification of cDNA ends). Subsequently, the corresponding gene was isolated by screening a barley BAC library, and the sequences of the transcribed and flanking regions were determined. The deduced amino acid sequence has similarity to an Arabidopsis hypothetical protein and to a human and mouse DNA-binding protein. The corresponding gene, named Srg6 (stress-responsive gene), was mapped in a barley doubled haploid mapping population to chromosome 7H between markers ABC455 and salfp76, within a region that previously has been linked to osmotic adaptation in barley and other grass genomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expression of a bacterial carotene hydroxylase gene (crtZ) enhances UV tolerance in tobacco.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Thomas Götz,Gerhard Sandmann,Susanne Römer

    Carotenoids are essential components of the photosynthetic apparatus involved in plant photoprotection. To investigate the protective role of zeaxanthin under high light and UV stress we have increased the capacity for its biosynthesis in tobacco plants (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun) by transformation with a heterologous carotenoid gene encoding beta-carotene hydroxylase (crtZ) from Erwinia uredovora under constitutive promoter control. This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of beta-carotene into zeaxanthin. Although the total pigment content of the transgenics was similar to control plants, the transformants synthesized zeaxanthin more rapidly and in larger quantities than controls upon transfer to high-intensity white light. Low-light-adapted tobacco plants were shown to be susceptible to UV exposure and therefore chosen for comparative analysis of wild-type and transgenics. Overall effects of UV irradiation were studied by measuring bioproductivity and pigment content. The UV exposed transformed plants maintained a higher biomass and a greater amount of photosynthetic pigments than controls. For revelation of direct effects, photosynthesis, pigment composition and chlorophyll fluorescence were examined immediately after UV treatment. Low-light-adapted plants of the crtZ transgenics showed less reduction in photosynthetic oxygen evolution and had higher chlorophyll fluorescence levels in comparison to control plants. After 1 h of high-light pre-illumination and subsequent UV exposure a greater amount of xanthophyll cycle pigments was retained in the transformants. In addition, the transgenic plants suffered less lipid peroxidation than the wild-type after treatment with the singlet-oxygen generator rose bengal. Our results indicate that an enhancement of zeaxanthin formation in the presence of a functional xanthophyll cycle contributes to UV stress protection and prevention of UV damage.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characterization of cis-acting element involved in cell cycle phase-independent activation of Arath;CycB1;1 transcription and identification of putative regulatory proteins.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-07-26
    Séverine Planchais,Claudette Perennes,Nathalie Glab,Vladimir Mironov,Dirk Inzé,Catherine Bergounioux

    Progression through the cell cycle is driven by cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) whose activity is controlled by regulatory subunits called cyclins. The expression of cyclins is subject to numerous controls at multiple levels, not least at the level of transcription. As a first step to unravel the mechanisms that regulate expression of B-cyclins in plants, we undertook the identification of the required promoter elements of the Arath;CycB1;1 gene. A detailed analysis of different promoter fragments consisted in analysing their ability to mediate cell cycle-dependent transcriptional oscillations of the gus reporter gene in transformed BY-2 cell lines. We showed that different promoter regions took part in transcriptional activation. Furthermore, 202 bp upstream of the ATG were sufficient to induce M-phase-specific expression. This region contains an 18 bp sequence including a Myb-binding core (AACGG) which is able to activate reporter gene without leading to M-phase-specific expression. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that this 18 bp sequence specifically binds protein complexes from Arabidopsis cell suspension enriched either in G1 or G2 phase. Furthermore, the Myb core, AACGG, was characterized as necessary for the binding of proteins. DNA affinity purification of the complexes bound to the 18 bp sequence allowed the isolation of three different complexes and two proteins from these complexes were identified by mass spectrometry analyses. A new putative Myb transcription factor and a hypothetical protein, HYP containing with a leucine zipper and Myc-type dimerization domains were identified. When over-expressed in plants, HYP factor is able to trans-activate the expression of gus reporter gene downstream from the -202 promoter fragment as well as the endogenous CycB1;1 gene.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Inducibility by pathogen attack and developmental regulation of the rice Ltp1 gene.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-06-26
    Emmanuel Guiderdoni,Maria José Cordero,Florence Vignols,José Manuel Garcia-Garrido,Magali Lescot,Didier Tharreau,Donaldo Meynard,Nicole Ferrière,Jean-Loup Notteghem,Michel Delseny

    Using a genomic clone encoding a rice lipid transfer protein, LTP1, we analysed the activity of the 5' region of the Ltp1 gene in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa L.) during plant development and under pathogen attack. The -1176/+13, -556/+13 and -284/+13 regions of the promoter were fused upstream from the uidA reporter gene and nos 3' polyadenylation signal, resulting in the pdelta1176Gus, pdelta556Gus and pdelta284Gus constructs which were transferred to rice by microprojectile bombardment. Histochemical and fluorometric GUS assays and in situ detection of uidA transcripts in transgenic homozygous lines harbouring the pdelta1176Gus construct demonstrated that the Ltp1 promoter is preferentially active in aerial vegetative and reproductive organs and that both specificity and level of expression are regulated during organ development. In leaf sheath, GUS activity which is initially strictly localized in the epidermis of growing tissue, becomes restricted to the vascular system in mature tissues. In expanded leaf blade, expression of the uidA gene was restricted to the cutting level suggesting inducibility by wounding. Strong activity was detected in lemma and palea, sterile glumes, and immature anther walls and microspores but not in female reproductive organs. No GUS activity was detected during seed embryo maturation whereas the uidA gene was strongly expressed at early stages of somatic embryogenesis in scutellum tissue. The Ltp1 transcripts were found to strongly accumulate in response to inoculation with the fungal agent of the blast disease, Magnaporthe grisea, in two rice cultivars exhibiting compatible or incompatible host-pathogen interactions. Analysis of pdelta1176Gus leaf samples inoculated with the blast fungus demonstrated that the Ltp1 promoter is induced in all cell types of tissues surrounding the lesion and notably in stomata guard cells. In plants harbouring the Ltp1 promoter deletion construct pdelta556Gus, activity was solely detected in the vascular system of mature leaves whereas no uidA gene expression was observed in pdelta284Gus plants. These observations are consistent with the proposed role of LTP1 in strenghtening of structural barriers and organ protection against mechanical disruption and pathogen attack.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 5' deletion of a gbss1 promoter region from wheat leads to changes in tissue and developmental specificities.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-06-26
    Antje Kluth,Stefanie Sprunck,Dirk Becker,Horst Lörz,Stephanie Lütticke

    Expression of granule-bound starch synthase 1 (GBSS1) in wheat is restricted to the grain filling process. In order to identify promoter regions which are involved in transcriptional control of the observed expression pattern, we isolated about 8 kb of a wheat gbss1-upstream region. Within this sequence several putative cis-acting elements were identified. In addition, an untranslated leader region is located in the 5' region of the gbss1 gene. To investigate promoter activity of the isolated region, the proximal 4.0 kb and progressively 5'-deleted fragments were transcriptionally fused to a beta-glucuronidase reporter gene. The function of the promoter constructs was tested by transient expression assays in various wheat tissues and in transgenic wheat plants, which were selected for low number and integrity of transgene copies. Analysis of stable transformants revealed that the -4.0 kb promoter region mediates reporter gene expression that is in accordance with the endogenous gbss1 expression. Promoter deletion to -1.9 kb or to -1.0 kb did not change the expression profile with regard to grain and pollen specificity. However, the profile of beta-glucuronidase expression during the grain filling process is altered in such a way that the level of beta-glucuronidase activity declines due to the decreasing promoter length. It is proposed that enhancer elements and cis-acting elements, which are involved in gbss1 transcription during the grain filling process, are located -1.9 kb upstream of the promoter. In addition, participation of the untranslated leader region in tissue-specific gene expression is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The upstream Sal repeat-containing segment of Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal DNA intergenic region (IGR) enhances the activity of adjacent protein-coding genes.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-06-26
    Peter Schlögelhofer,Victoria Nizhynska,Nicholas Feik,Céline Chambon,Thomas Potuschak,Eva-Maria Wanzenböck,Dieter Schweizer,Andreas Bachmair

    The sequence containing 'upstream Sal repeats' (USR) from the Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomal DNA intergenic region (IGR) was tested for its influence on the in vivo activity of nearby protein coding genes. On average, the presence of the IGR fragment leads to a four-fold increase in the expression of a reporter gene, beta-glucuronidase, under control of the strong CaMV 35S promoter. With the help of the site-specific cre-lox recombination system, we have also obtained pairs of transgenic lines with or without the USR-containing fragment, both integrated at the same chromosomal position. Results with these transgenic lines, which contain an NPT II (kanamycin resistance) gene under control of the nos promoter as a test gene, confirmed the results obtained with the CaMV 35S-driven GUS gene. Moreover, they show that the IGR sequence can oppose tendencies of gene silencing. We hypothesize that the described effect relates to features of the chromatin structure in the proximity of the upstream Sal repeats.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell cycle-dependent and lysine residue-specific dynamic changes of histone H4 acetylation in barley.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-06-26
    Toshiyuki Wako,Michiyo Fukuda,Rieko Furushima-Shimogawara,Nikolai D Belyaev,Kiichi Fukui

    Histone acetylation affects chromatin conformation and regulates various cellular functions, such as transcription and cell cycle progression. Although mitosis dependent transcriptional silencing and large-scale chromatin structural changes are well established, acetylation of histone H4 during the mitosis is poorly understood in plants. Here, the dynamics of acetylation of histone H4 in defined genome regions has been examined in the fixed barley cells throughout the mitosis by three-dimensional microscopy. Patterns of strong acetylation of the two lysine residues K5 and K16 of histone H4 in the barley genomes were found to be different. In interphase nuclei, H4 acetylated at K 16 was associated with the gene-rich, telomere-associated hemispheres, whereas K5 acetylation was detected in centromeric regions where the heterochromatin is distributed. Regions of strong K5 acetylation changed dynamically as the cell cycle proceeded. At prometaphase, centromeric acetylation at K5 decreased suddenly, with accompanying rapid increases of acetylation in the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs). Reverse changes occurred at telophase. On the other hand, the strongly acetylated regions of the K16 showed changes compatible with transcriptional activities and chromosome condensation throughout the cell cycle. Telomeric acetylation at K16 was detected throughout the cell cycle, although it was reduced at metaphase which corresponds to the most condensed stage of the chromosomes. It is concluded that dynamic changes in H4 acetylation occur in a lysine residue-, stage-, and region-specific manner and that they correlate with changes in the chromosome structure through the cell cycle.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • AtHVA22 gene family in Arabidopsis: phylogenetic relationship, ABA and stress regulation, and tissue-specific expression.
    Plant Mol. Biol. (IF 3.928) Pub Date : 2002-06-26
    Ching-Nen Chen,Chiung-Chih Chu,Rodolfo Zentella,Shu-Mei Pan,Tuan-Hua David Ho

    HVA22 is an ABA- and stress-inducible gene first isolated from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Homologues of HVA22 have been found in plants, animals, fungi and protozoa, but not in prokaryotes, suggesting that HVA22 plays a unique role in eukaryotes. Five HVA22 homologues, designated AtHVA22a, b, c, d and e, have been identified in Arabidopsis. These five AtHVA22 homologues can be separated into two subfamilies, with AtHVA22a, b and c grouped in one subfamily and AtHVA22d and e in the other. Phylogenetic analyses show that AtHVA22d and e are closer to barley HVA22 than to AtHVA22a, b and c, suggesting that the two subfamilies had diverged before the divergence of monocots and dicots. The distribution and size of exons of AtHVA22 homologues and barley HVA22 are similar, suggesting that these genes are descendents of a common ancestor. AtHVA22 homologues are differentially regulated by ABA, cold, dehydration and salt stresses. These four treatments enhance AtHVA22a, d and e expression, but have little or even suppressive effect on AtHVA22c expression. ABA and salt stress induce AtHVA22b expression, but cold stress suppresses ABA induction of this gene. Expression of AtHVA22d is the most tightly regulated by these four treatments among the five homologues. In general, AtHVA22 homologues are expressed at a higher level in flower buds and inflorescence stems than in rosette and cauline leaves. The expression level of these homologues in immature siliques is the lowest among all tissues analyzed. It is suggested that some of these AtHVA22 family members may play a role in stress tolerance, and others are involved in plant reproductive development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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