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  • Multiple functions of DNA polymerases.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2008-05-23
    Miguel Garcia-Diaz,Katarzyna Bebenek

    The primary role of DNA polymerases is to accurately and efficiently replicate the genome in order to ensure the maintenance of the genetic information and its faithful transmission through generations. This is not a simple task considering the size of the genome and its constant exposure to endogenous and environmental DNA damaging agents. Thus, a number of DNA repair pathways operate in cells to protect the integrity of the genome. In addition to their role in replication, DNA polymerases play a central role in most of these pathways. Given the multitude and the complexity of DNA transactions that depend on DNA polymerase activity, it is not surprising that cells in all organisms contain multiple highly specialized DNA polymerases, the majority of which have only recently been discovered. Five DNA polymerases are now recognized in Escherichia coli, 8 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and at least 15 in humans. While polymerases in bacteria, yeast and mammalian cells have been extensively studied much less is known about their counterparts in plants. For example, the plant model organism Arabidopsis thaliana is thought to contain 12 DNA polymerases, whose functions are mostly unknown. Here we review the properties and functions of DNA polymerases focusing on yeast and mammalian cells but paying special attention to the plant enzymes and the special circumstances of replication and repair in plant cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Decoding Ca2+ signals in plants.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2005-07-28
    P V Sathyanarayanan,B W Poovaiah

    Different input signals create their own characteristic Ca2+ fingerprints. These fingerprints are distinguished by frequency, amplitude, duration, and number of Ca2+ oscillations. Ca(2+)-binding proteins and protein kinases decode these complex Ca2+ fingerprints through conformational coupling and covalent modifications of proteins. This decoding of signals can lead to a physiological response with or without changes in gene expression. In plants, Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinases and Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases are involved in decoding Ca2+ signals into phosphorylation signals. This review summarizes the elements of conformational coupling and molecular mechanisms of regulation of the two groups of protein kinases by Ca2+ and Ca2+/calmodulin in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of the early phases of plant gravitropism.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2002-01-25
    J Z Kiss

    Gravitropism is directed growth of a plant or plant organ in response to gravity and can be divided into the following temporal sequence: perception, transduction, and response. This article is a review of the research on the early events of gravitropism (i.e., phenomena associated with the perception and transduction phases). The two major hypotheses for graviperception are the protoplast-pressure and starch-statolith models. While most researchers support the concept of statoliths, there are suggestions that plants have multiple mechanisms of perception. Evidence supports the hypothesis that the actin cytoskeleton is involved in graviperception/transduction, but the details of these mechanisms remain elusive. A number of recent developments, such as increased use of the molecular genetic approach, magnetophoresis, and laser ablation, have facilitated research in graviperception and have allowed for refinement of the current models. In addition, the entire continuum of acceleration forces from hypo- to hyper-gravity have been useful in studying perception mechanisms. Future interdisciplinary molecular approaches and the availability of sophisticated laboratories on the International Space Station should help to develop new insights into mechanisms of gravitropism in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Calcium messenger system in plants.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 1987-01-01
    B W Poovaiah,A S Reddy

    The purpose of this review is to delineate the ubiquitous and pivotal role of Ca2+ in diverse physiological processes. Emphasis will be given to the role of Ca2+ in stimulus-response coupling. In addition to reviewing the present status of research, our intention is to critically evaluate the existing data and describe the newly developing areas of Ca2+ research in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Calcium and signal transduction in plants.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 1993-01-01
    B W Poovaiah,A S Reddy

    Environmental and hormonal signals control diverse physiological processes in plants. The mechanisms by which plant cells perceive and transduce these signals are poorly understood. Understanding biochemical and molecular events involved in signal transduction pathways has become one of the most active areas of plant research. Research during the last 15 years has established that Ca2+ acts as a messenger in transducing external signals. The evidence in support of Ca2+ as a messenger is unequivocal and fulfills all the requirements of a messenger. The role of Ca2+ becomes even more important because it is the only messenger known so far in plants. Since our last review on the Ca2+ messenger system in 1987, there has been tremendous progress in elucidating various aspects of Ca(2+) -signaling pathways in plants. These include demonstration of signal-induced changes in cytosolic Ca2+, calmodulin and calmodulin-like proteins, identification of different Ca2+ channels, characterization of Ca(2+) -dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) both at the biochemical and molecular levels, evidence for the presence of calmodulin-dependent protein kinases, and increased evidence in support of the role of inositol phospholipids in the Ca(2+) -signaling system. Despite the progress in Ca2+ research in plants, it is still in its infancy and much more needs to be done to understand the precise mechanisms by which Ca2+ regulates a wide variety of physiological processes. The purpose of this review is to summarize some of these recent developments in Ca2+ research as it relates to signal transduction in plants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The action of auxin on plant cell elongation.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 1985-01-01
    M L Evans

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quorum sensing is a language of chemical signals and plays an ecological role in algal-bacterial interactions.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2016-01-01
    Jin Zhou,Yihua Lyu,Mindy Richlen,Donald M Anderson,Zhonghua Cai

    Algae are ubiquitous in the marine environment, and the ways in which they interact with bacteria are of particular interest in marine ecology field. The interactions between primary producers and bacteria impact the physiology of both partners, alter the chemistry of their environment, and shape microbial diversity. Although algal-bacterial interactions are well known and studied, information regarding the chemical-ecological role of this relationship remains limited, particularly with respect to quorum sensing (QS), which is a system of stimuli and response correlated to population density. In the microbial biosphere, QS is pivotal in driving community structure and regulating behavioral ecology, including biofilm formation, virulence, antibiotic resistance, swarming motility, and secondary metabolite production. Many marine habitats, such as the phycosphere, harbour diverse populations of microorganisms and various signal languages (such as QS-based autoinducers). QS-mediated interactions widely influence algal-bacterial symbiotic relationships, which in turn determine community organization, population structure, and ecosystem functioning. Understanding infochemicals-mediated ecological processes may shed light on the symbiotic interactions between algae host and associated microbes. In this review, we summarize current achievements about how QS modulates microbial behavior, affects symbiotic relationships, and regulates phytoplankton chemical ecological processes. Additionally, we present an overview of QS-modulated co-evolutionary relationships between algae and bacterioplankton, and consider the potential applications and future perspectives of QS.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Taxonomy and Biogeography of Apomixis in Angiosperms and Associated Biodiversity Characteristics.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2014-09-03
    Diego Hojsgaard,Simone Klatt,Roland Baier,John G Carman,Elvira Hörandl

    Apomixis in angiosperms is asexual reproduction from seed. Its importance to angiospermous evolution and biodiversity has been difficult to assess mainly because of insufficient taxonomic documentation. Thus, we assembled literature reporting apomixis occurrences among angiosperms and transferred the information to an internet database (http://www.apomixis.uni-goettingen.de). We then searched for correlations between apomixis occurrences and well-established measures of taxonomic diversity and biogeography. Apomixis was found to be taxonomically widespread with no clear tendency to specific groups and to occur with sexuality at all taxonomic levels. Adventitious embryony was the most frequent form (148 genera) followed by apospory (110) and diplospory (68). All three forms are phylogenetically scattered, but this scattering is strongly associated with measures of biodiversity. Across apomictic-containing orders and families, numbers of apomict-containing genera were positively correlated with total numbers of genera. In general, apomict-containing orders, families, and subfamilies of Asteraceae, Poaceae, and Orchidaceae were larger, i.e., they possessed more families or genera, than non-apomict-containing orders, families or subfamilies. Furthermore, many apomict-containing genera were found to be highly cosmopolitan. In this respect, 62% occupy multiple geographic zones. Numbers of genera containing sporophytic or gametophytic apomicts decreased from the tropics to the arctic, a trend that parallels general biodiversity. While angiosperms appear to be predisposed to shift from sex to apomixis, there is also evidence of reversions to sexuality. Such reversions may result from genetic or epigenetic destabilization events accompanying hybridization, polyploidy, or other cytogenetic alterations. Because of increased within-plant genetic and genomic heterogeneity, range expansions and diversifications at the species and genus levels may occur more rapidly upon reversion to sexuality. The significantly-enriched representations of apomicts among highly diverse and geographically-extensive taxa, from genera to orders, support this conclusion.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rumble in the Effector Jungle: Candidate Effector Proteins in Interactions of Plants with Powdery Mildew and Rust Fungi
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    Mirna Barsoum, Björn Sabelleck, Pietro D. Spanu, Ralph Panstruga

    Rust and powdery mildew fungi are widespread obligate biotrophic phytopathogens. They colonize a broad range monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous host plant species and in the case of crop plants can cause severe yield losses. While powdery mildews (Ascomycota) grow mainly epiphytically and infect the host epidermis, rust fungi (Basidiomycota) typically enter host tissues through stomata and spread within the intercellular spaces. Both fungal taxa have unusually large genomes that are rich in repetitive elements (mostly derived from retrotransposons) and experienced a convergent loss of genes usually present in free-living fungi compared to their respective relatives. Genomes of rust and powdery mildew fungi encode many candidates for secreted effector proteins thought to aid the suppression of defense and cell death or to mediate nutrient acquisition. Although the precise biochemical activity of most effector proteins remains obscure, candidate host targets have been identified for several of them. In addition, some effectors are perceived by matching plant immune receptors and thus serve as avirulence determinants in plant-fungus interactions. This review article summarizes the current knowledge of rust and powdery mildew effector proteins and raises and discusses urgent questions regarding future research.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Molecular Insights on the Domestication of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Y. L. Wang, H. Ye, L. Liu, J. H. Wu, W. M. Ru, G. L. Sun

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., was first domesticated at about 8000 BCE. Throughout the domestication process, selection in the wild species resulted in the loss of seed shattering, minimization of seed dormancy, and an increase in both seed size and number. Three critical domestication traits were a non-brittle rachis, a six-rowed spike, and a naked caryopsis. After primary domestication, some adaptive traits subsequently developed, such as shortened seed dormancy and early flowering time, which are probably associated with genetic mutations affecting protein structure and function. Multiple genetic pathways formed a complex regulatory network due to interactions between the pathways. Recent studies on barley domestication genes have provided a framework for understanding how these traits evolved and have revealed that drastic changes in gene function occurred during domestication. In this paper, we review the current molecular insights into H. vulgare domestication and discuss the domestication genes that underlie morphological trait changes in the evolutionary history of barley.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • The Genetic Inheritance of Herbicide Resistance in Weeds
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-09-20
    Hossein Ghanizadeh, Christopher E. Buddenhagen, Kerry C. Harrington, Trevor K. James

    The number of herbicide-resistant weeds is increasing globally. A successful management practice requires an understanding of how resistance traits are inherited. Weed scientists worldwide have investigated the mode of inheritance for herbicide resistance in weeds. Depending on the resistance gene/mechanism, varied patterns of inheritance have been documented in weed species. In most of the target-enzyme mechanism cases, the mode of inheritance involves a single nuclear gene. However, maternal (cytoplasmic) inheritance has also been documented for triazine-resistant weeds with the target-enzyme mutation mechanism of resistance. Resistance from target-enzyme overexpression is not always associated with the single-gene model of inheritance. Depending on the type of resistance, allelic dominance varies between complete dominance, semi-dominance and recessive for both target-enzyme mutation and target-enzyme overexpression mechanisms. The nontarget site mechanism of resistance is however, more complex. The pattern of inheritance in weeds with nontarget site resistance is quite variable and should be investigated case by case. The pattern of inheritance has a crucial role in the dynamics of herbicide-resistance within a weed population, and knowledge about the inheritance of herbicide resistance traits could help develop predictive models and novel strategies to prevent the spread of resistance allele(s).

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • The Beast and the Beauty: What Do we know about Black Spot in Roses?
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-09-24
    T. Debener

    Black spot in roses caused by the hemibiotrophic ascomycete Diplocarpon rosae (Wolf) (anamorph Marssonina rosae) is the most devastating disease of field grown roses and, therefore, affects both consumers of ornamental roses and commercial production. Chemical control of the disease is restricted by regulations, and consumers increasingly demand resistant varieties. As breeding black spot resistant rose varieties is complicated by its polyploid nature and the regular emergence of new pathogenic races of the pathogen, a deeper understanding of the biological characteristics of the interaction between the fungal parasite and its host is urgently needed. This review summarizes some investigations of the parasite and its interactions from early descriptions of the pathogen to recent molecular analyses of the fungus.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • Plant Fucosyltransferases and the Emerging Biological Importance of Fucosylated Plant Structures
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Maria J. Soto, Breeanna R. Urbanowicz, Michael G. Hahn

    Plants frequently incorporate the monosaccharide l-fucose (Fuc; 6-deoxy-l-galactose) into glycans and glycopolymers located in diverse cellular locations. The incorporation of Fuc onto these varied glycans is carried out by fucosyltransferases (FUTs), that make up a protein superfamily with equally varied and diverse functions. The structures wherein Fuc is found have numerous proposed and validated functions, ranging from plant growth and development, cell expansion, adhesion, and signaling, to energy metabolism, among others. FUTs from several different plant species have been identified and described; however, very few of them have been extensively characterized biochemically and biologically. In this review, we summarize plant FUTs that have been biochemically characterized and biologically investigated for associated phenotypes, offering greater insight and understanding into the physiological importance of Fuc in plants and in plant cell wall structures, glycans, and proteins.

    更新日期:2019-10-25
  • MYB Transcription Repressors Regulate Plant Secondary Metabolism
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 
    Cheng Chen, Kaixuan Zhang, Muhammad Khurshid, Jinbo Li, Ming He, Milen I. Georgiev, Xinquan Zhang, Meiliang Zhou

    MYB transcription factors (TFs) belong to one of the largest and important gene families, which regulate development under changing environmental conditions, primary and secondary metabolism, and plant response to stresses (biotic and abiotic stresses). MYB repressors have a conserved N-terminal domain like other MYB TFs, but the C-terminal domain makes them structurally and functionally different from the rest. MYB repressors usually possess some repressive motifs, such as EAR (ethylene-responsive element binding factor-associated amphiphilic repression motif), SID (Sensitive to ABA and Drought 2 protein interact motif), and TLLLFR motifs, which contribute to their repression function through a variety of complex regulatory mechanisms. In this review, we summarize recent developments in research of MYB repressors and suggest directions to future research.

    更新日期:2019-08-27
  • The Role of PHT1 Family Transporters in the Acquisition and Redistribution of Phosphorus in Plants
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 
    Gurusunathan Victor Roch, Theivanayagam Maharajan, Stanislaus Antony Ceasar, Savarimuthu Ignacimuthu

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most important macronutrients for plant growth and yield. Low availability of inorganic phosphate (Pi) in soil substantially curbs crop production, whereas excessive Pi fertilization causes economic and ecological problems. The rapid depletion of global rock phosphate (RP) reserves calls for efficient plant Pi-management. To cope with low Pi (LP) stress, plants have evolved morphological, physiological, molecular, and biochemical adaptations. Apart from arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF)-mediated Pi acquisition, Pi uptake, it's export, utilization, and remobilization depend on transport processes mediated by membrane bound PHosphate Transporters (PHTs), which are grouped into five families. Among these, the PHT1 family is the primary transporter involved in the acquisition of Pi from soil and redistribution within plants. In this review, we present a brief account on 5 PHTs (PHT1 to PHT5) and focus on PHT1s. We cover in detail the PHT1s identified and characterized until now in various plants including their phylogenetic relationships, induction by AMF, localization, and affinity. We also discuss the extant understanding of the regulation of PHT1s at transcriptional, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels. Further exploitation of PHT1s will help overcome the problems associated with LP soils and assist in improving crop yields through sustainable agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-08-27
  • Stop the Abuse of Time! Strict Temporal Banding is not the Future of Rank-Based Classifications in Fungi (Including Lichens) and Other Organisms
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 
    R. Lücking

    Classification is the most important approach to cataloging biological diversity. It serves as a principal means of communication between scientific disciplines, as well as between scientists on one hand and lawmakers and the public on the other. Up to the present, classification of plants, fungi, and animals follows the fundamental principles laid out more than 250 years ago by Linnaeus, with less changes in the formalistic approach although with somewhat diverging rules for plants and fungi on one hand and animals on the other. Linnean classifications obey two fundamental rules, the binomial as basic format for species names, including a genus-level name and a specific epithet, and rank-based higher classifications, with the main ranks encompassing genus, family, order, class, phylum (division), and kingdom. Given that molecular phylogenies have reshaped our understanding of natural relationships between organisms, and following the cladistic principle of monophyly which defines groups but not ranks, it has been repeatedly argued that rank assignments are artificial and subjective, with the suggestion to either abandon rank-based classifications altogether or apply more objective criteria to determine ranks. The most fundamental of such approaches has been the correlation of rank with geological (evolutionary) age, first established by Hennig in the middle of the past century and around the turn of the millenium formalized as “temporal banding,” based on the advent of the molecular clock. While initially the temporal banding approach received less attention, in the past ten years several major studies mostly in vertebrates (birds, mammals) and fungi (chiefly lichenized lineages) have proposed novel classifications based on a strict temporal banding approach, partly with highly disruptive results. In this paper, the temporal banding approach is critically revised, pointing out strengths and flaws, and “best practice” recommendations are given how to employ this technique properly and with care to improve existing classifications while avoiding unnecessary disruptions. A main conclusion is that taxa recognized at the same rank do not have to be comparable in age, diversity, or disparity, or any other single criterion, but their ranking should follow integrative principles that best reflect their individual evolutionary history. In a critical appraisal of changes to the classification of Lecanoromycetes (lichenized Fungi) proposed based on temporal banding, the following amendments are accepted: Ostropales split into Graphidales, Gyalectales, Ostropales s.str., and Thelenellales; Arctomiales, Hymeneliales, and Trapeliales subsumed under Baeomycetales; Letrouitiaceae subsumed under Brigantiaeaceae; Lobariaceae and Nephromataceae subsumed under Peltigeraceae; Miltideaceae subsumed under Agyriaceae, and Protoparmeloideae and Austromelanelixia as new subfamily and genus within Parmeliaceae. The following changes are not accepted: Rhizocarpales split into Rhizocarpales s.str. and Sporastatiales (no information gain); Sarrameanales split into Sarrameanales s.str. and Schaereriales (no information gain); Carbonicolaceae subsumed under Lecanoraceae (topological conflict); Graphidaceae split into Diploschistaceae, Fissurinaceae, Graphidaceae s.str., Thelotremataceae (no information gain, topological conflict); Ochrolechiaceae split into Ochrolechiaceae s.str., Varicellariaceae, and Variolariaceae (no information gain, nomenclaturally incorrect); Porinaceae replaced by Trichotheliaceae (nomenclaturally incorrect); Ramalinaceae split into Biatoraceae and Ramalinaceae s.str. (no information gain, topological conflict); Stereocaulaceae subsumed under Cladoniaceae (nomenclaturally incorrect); Thrombiaceae subsumed under Protothelenellaceae (topological conflict); and all proposed genus level synonymies in Parmeliaceae. New fungal taxa: The new order Odontotrematales Lücking ordo nov. is established for the family Odontotremataceae s.str., based on topological grounds.

    更新日期:2019-08-27
  • Crosstalk During Fruit Ripening and Stress Response Among Abscisic Acid, Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase and Phenylpropanoid
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    I. L. Vighi, R. L. Crizel, E. C. Perin, C. V. Rombaldi, V. Galli

    Phenylpropanoids are secondary metabolites produced by plants. They, by differential expression, are involved in responses to biotic and abiotic stresses and confer plant plasticity. In addition, they are synthesized under normal conditions during the fruit-ripening process. Therefore, the understanding of the mechanics involved in the accumulation of these compounds in plants is of extreme importance for the development of plants with greater resistance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and plants with greater functional potential. There is evidence that one of the pathways of the induction of phenylpropanoids is dependent on abscisic acid (ABA) and it is generated by a signaling cascade involving calcium (Ca2+) and Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs). Plants have several Ca2+ binding proteins that act as cellular sensors and represent the first points of signal transduction. CDPKs are mono-molecular Ca2+-sensor/kinase-effector proteins, which perceive Ca2+ signals and translate them into protein phosphorylation and thus represent an ideal tool for signal transduction. However, the mechanisms involved in the ABA–CDPK–phenylpropanoids crosstalk under stress conditions and during fruit ripening remains uncertain. Therefore, this review seeks to surface a new line of evidence as an attempt to understand the manner in which the induction of phenylpropanoids occurs in plants.

    更新日期:2019-05-31
  • Small RNAs from Seed to Mature Plant
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Waqar Islam, Muhammad Adnan, Zhiqun Huang, Guo-dong Lu, Han Y. H. Chen

    Small regulatory RNAs (sRNAs) are being used by plants to direct gene expression. In plants, different classes of sRNAs exist based on their biogenesis and origin. Among them, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) chiefly mask post-transcriptional gene expression. Initiation of translational inhibition or degradation requires the binding of miRNAs with the complementary messenger RNA (mRNA) target sites. From seed germination to plant formation, current studies report that sRNAs have a significant role in various plant developmental phases. Moreover, these sRNAs have been engaged throughout the plant evolutionary pathway, playing an active role in the shaping and functioning of various plant organs. Given the importance of sRNAs in the plant development and life cycle, this review article elaborates on the critical involvement of sRNAs in different phases of plant life starting from the seed and progressing towards the mature plant.

    更新日期:2019-05-31
  • Physiological Mechanisms Underlying Fruit Sunburn
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-05-12
    S. Munné-Bosch, C. Vincent

    Sunburn is a physiological disorder that can be observed in fruits of several crops growing in areas with warm climates, as a result of photodamage due to an excess of heat and/or light irradiance (visible and ultraviolet light). The main cause is thought to be an increase in reactive oxygen species production which causes oxidative damage due to the incapacity of the fruit to recover from stress. This can result in a characteristic morphological and structural phenotype unacceptable to consumers, leading to severe losses in productivity for farmers. Fruits have a great array of mechanisms to mitigate or reduce reactive oxygen species production and the inactivation of photosynthetic apparatus, such as enhanced xanthophyll cycle-dependent energy dissipation, accumulation of photoprotective pigments and heat-shock proteins, and the biosynthesis of antioxidants, among others. Nevertheless, these mechanisms become inefficient when the stress factors altering the fruit surface exceed a certain threshold (of both duration and intensity). Although this disorder has been studied in detail and previous efforts have provided significant advances in understanding the underlying mechanisms causing sunburn in a number of fruits, further research is still needed. This will undoubtedly provide new approaches and tools for improving current mitigation strategies.

    更新日期:2019-05-31
  • Function and Compensatory Mechanisms Among the Components of the Chloroplastic Redox Network
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    Paulo V. L. Souza, Yugo Lima-Melo, Fabricio E. Carvalho, Jean-Philippe Reichheld, Alisdair R. Fernie, Joaquim A. G. Silveira, Danilo M. Daloso

    Life on earth depends on the presence of photoautotrophic organisms that are able to input carbon into the ecosystems through the process of photosynthesis which, with a few specialized exceptions, takes place within the chloroplast. This organelle contains the most complex redox system in plants being composed of numerous players including thiol reductases, peroxidases, and glutathione-related enzymes. It seems likely that these proteins act together to adjust redox metabolism enabling plants to grow efficiently under both normal and stressed conditions. However, our knowledge concerning how these proteins interact and if they can compensate one another is relatively limited. This is in part due to the failure of considering these components from a systemic perspective. Here, we provide a systemic view of the chloroplastic-redox network highlighting how it operates and how its components co-operate to maintain efficient chloroplastic function. We further explore the cross-talk between chloroplastic-redox metabolism and that of other subcellular compartments. Given the complexity of plant redox metabolism and the compensatory role played by different redox systems, we argue that a unique possibility to understand this system is afforded by systems biology approaches and by characterizing mutants for multiple genes. Taking this into account, we highlight how gene co-expression and protein–protein network analyses coupled with different reverse genetic strategies could be used to reveal the function, potential redundancies, and complementarities among the components of the chloroplastic redox network.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Non-Zygotic Embryogenesis in Hardwood Species
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-02-14
    E. Corredoira, S. A. Merkle, M. T. Martínez, M. Toribio, J. M. Canhoto, S. I. Correia, A. Ballester, A. M. Vieitez

    Hardwood species are valuable biological resources that have an important role in the economy and ecology of ecosystems worldwide. Non-zygotic or somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a powerful tool in plant biotechnology as it is a form of clonal propagation, amenable to cryopreservation of valuable germplasm and genetic transformation including gene editing. The SE process involves five steps and includes somatic embryo induction, proliferation, maturation, plantlet conversion, and subsequent plant acclimatization. This review aims to provide a general overview of these steps in different SE systems developed for hardwood species. Factors that influence the induction stage such as the age of the donor plant, genotype and culture media are discussed. The role of different explant types, i.e. zygotic embryos and non-zygotic tissues, such as roots, flower tissues, nodes, internodes, leaves or shoot apices, in SE induction are especially emphasized. Histological studies of the origin of somatic embryos and the sequence of events leading to their development from initial explants are assessed. Maintenance of embryogenic capacity carried out by subculture of embryogenic inocula on semisolid or liquid media through cell suspension cultures or by temporary immersion systems is described. At present, the main concerns associated with the application of SE for large-scale propagation of elite hardwoods are related to the embryo maturation, germination, and plantlet conversion steps, and these are highlighted in this review. Finally, molecular aspects associated with somatic embryo induction and development are also described. Attempts to overcome the hurdles identified in the embryogenic process, and future lines of research are proposed.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Biological Characteristics and Assessment of Virulence Diversity in Pathosystems of Economically Important Biotrophic Oomycetes
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-02-22
    Otmar Spring, Javier Gomez-Zeledon, Denita Hadziabdic, Robert N. Trigiano, Marco Thines, Aleš Lebeda

    Plant biotrophic oomycetes cause significant production problems and economic losses in modern agriculture and are controlled by fungicide applications and resistance breeding. However, high genetic variability and fast adaptation of the pathogens counteract these measures. As a consequence of the “arms race,” new pathogen phenotypes recurrently occur and may rapidly dominate the population when selected through the pressure of control measures. Intensive monitoring with fast and reliable identification of virulence phenotypes is essential to avoid epidemics and the economic consequences in agriculture. For some of the most important downy mildews and white blister rusts, bioassay-based differentiation has been established to classify infectivity of field isolates or cultivated strains on hosts of defined resistance. However, the testing is laborious, time-consuming, logistically demanding, and prone to impreciseness. Alternatively, host independent classification could overcome these problems and enable fast assessment of the infection risk when monitoring the local pathogen population. The prerequisite would be the identification of pathogen characters correlating with the infection behavior. This review examines the current situation of bioassay-based pathotyping in six of the most important biotrophic oomycetes (Plasmopara viticola, Plasmopara halstedii, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Peronospora tabacina, Bremia lactucae, and Albugo candida) and gives an overview on attempts and progress to identify genetic markers of the pathogens that correlate with their infection behavior.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Metabolic Mechanisms of Host Species Against Citrus Huanglongbing (Greening Disease)
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2019-01-18
    Muhammad Junaid Rao, Fang Ding, Nian Wang, Xiuxin Deng, Qiang Xu

    Huanglongbing (HLB), previously known as citrus greening disease, is a devastating disease caused by gram negative, phloem-limited, fastidious bacteria Candidatus Liberibacter spp. HLB exists in nearly all commercially cultivated citrus, causing losses to growers by affecting tree vigor, production, fruit development, and quality. Recently, some promising HLB-tolerant germplasm has been identified, and showed particularly high concentration of metabolites, such as flavone, flavanone, aldehyde, and monoterpene. This review focuses on the citrus metabolic response against the HLB and we have summarized a comprehensive metabolic pathway that is activated in response to HLB. The antibacterial role of these metabolites, which were high in the HLB tolerant varieties are discussed. Generally, most of the amino acids, flavonoids, terpenes, and volatile compounds were significantly higher, even hundreds times of increase, in HLB-tolerant varieties. We also summarized the secondary metabolites, which were differentially altered in leaves, fruits, phloem sap (stem), and roots of infected citrus plants. Different metabolic studies have suggested that particular metabolites may play vital role in restricting the movement and multiplication of pathogens. Moreover, these metabolic signatures can be developed into tolerance markers against HLB. Genome-editing technologies should be used to confirm the functions of candidate genes responsible for increased production of compounds related to HLB tolerance. Engineering the metabolic pathways to create an ideal combination of gene alleles to propel metabolite flow for the antimicrobial activities, is an alternative tool to breed tolerant cultivars against HLB.

    更新日期:2019-03-20
  • Development and Application of Genetic Engineering for Wheat Improvement
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-11-05
    Ashok K. Shrawat, Charles L. Armstrong

    Wheat is one of the most important staple food crops of the world, and continuous genetic improvement is vital to meet the demands of the rapidly growing world population. Conventional breeding has led to the development of current high yielding wheat varieties, and recent achievements in genetic engineering are expected to augment conventional breeding to further increase production. Advances in genome sequencing and molecular breeding have increased the rate of gene discovery, leading to a need for highly efficient and robust transformation systems. Targeted genome editing will require efficient delivery of sequence-specific nucleases, such as zinc fingers (ZFNs), transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), and RNA-guided engineered nucleases such as CRISPR-Cas9. Since the first report of fertile transgenic wheat in 1992, optimization of plant tissue culture techniques, DNA delivery methods, gene expression cassettes, and marker genes have led to reliable transformation protocols for a range of wheat model cultivars. However, like other cereal crops, wheat transformation has also been hampered by genotype effects. The limited range of transformable tissues in wheat is considered another challenge. Several excellent review papers have described the progress made towards developing robust genetic transformation systems for wheat, so we have focused our attention on a detailed analysis of selectable markers and promoters that have been used. The choice of selectable marker and promoter can dramatically influence the outcome of a transformation project. Both Agrobacterium tumefaciens and microprojectile-mediated transformation systems have been employed successfully for genetic transformation of wheat using genes of agronomic importance. Since improvement in agronomic traits of wheat will affect a sizeable population, we have provided an analysis of the progress made towards developing genetically superior wheat containing gene(s) of agronomic importance. Recent efforts on targeted genome editing in wheat are also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-01-30
  • Allohexaploids in the Genus Brassica
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-10-26
    Roman Gaebelein, Annaliese S. Mason

    Allohexaploid Brassica hybrids (2n = AABBCC) have been the subject of plant breeding and research for many years, both to increase our understanding of polyploid plant evolution and to benefit plant breeding. This review summarizes and evaluates the different approaches to producing these hybrids using the six interrelated crop species (three diploids and three allotetraploids) of the famous “U’s Triangle” as starting material. Special emphasis is given to cytogenetic and marker-based analysis of abundant non-homologous chromosome recombination events, and their implications for plant fertility. We discuss mechanisms by which allohexaploid Brassica hybrids could stabilize meiosis and give future perspectives on the establishment of a new allohexaploid Brassica crop.

    更新日期:2019-01-30
  • Fire as a Potent Mutagenic Agent Among Plants
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-04-02
    Tianhua He, Byron B. Lamont

    Many of the earth's species-rich floras are fire-prone and current research is showing a key role for fire in their evolution and diversification. However the mechanisms by which fire might direct evolution at the cellular level are unknown. Mutagenesis is the foundation on which speciation is based and our literature survey shows that burning biomass may be a major source of potent mutagens in the form of heat, combustion products and recycled metals and radionuclides. Even mild heat may cause dysfunctional cell division and induce diploid gametes and genome duplication that are considered one of the cornerstones of speciation among flowering plants. Plant cell walls that undergo pyrolysis yield particulates and gases with strong mutagenic properties, among which polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[α]pyrene, are notable. Plants concentrate essential, nonmetabolic, and radioactive metal/metalloid ions from the soil and air; they are fractionated even further on combustion and may also have mutagenic effects on the chromosomes of stored seeds and regenerating plants. Morphological consequences may be profound, even mimicking traits present among other species in the lineage, and hold promise that fire-related mutagenesis may provide the missing mechanistic explanation for the close historical association between wildfire and speciation among seed plants.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • When Color Really Matters: Horticultural Performance and Functional Quality of High-Lycopene Tomatoes
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-05-15
    Riadh Ilahy, Mohammed Wasim Siddiqui, Imen Tlili, Anna Montefusco, Gabriella Piro, Chafik Hdider, Marcello Salvatore Lenucci

    Introgression of spontaneous or induced mutations has been used to increase the levels and diversify the profile of antioxidants in many fruits including tomato. The high-pigment (hp) and old-gold (og) alleles exemplify this approach as attractive genetic resources suitable to inbred elite high-lycopene (HLY) tomato lines with improved color and nutritional attributes. Although several studies have been published on HLY tomatoes, a systematic analysis of the information on their agronomic performances, processing features, and functional quality is lacking, leaving room for the assumption of their poor competitiveness with conventional tomato cultivars and limiting their agricultural diffusion. Therefore, the aim of this study is to critically review the most important agronomic, horticultural, and functional traits of HLY tomatoes, as well as the advances in some emerging (pre)industrial applications. Field experiments performed in different countries showed that most available HLY lines are productive, vigorous, with excellent foliage cover and with morphologically acceptable fruit. Tomato yield of HLY genotypes ranged from ∼30 to ∼178 t/ha exceeding, in some trials, that of highly productive cultivars. Red-ripe fruits of most HLY lines showed commercially suitable soluble solids and titratable acidity, in addition to increased levels of lycopene (up to 440 mg/kg fw) and other bioactive phytochemicals (mainly flavonoids and vitamin C) compared to their near isogenic conventional counterparts. Innovative (pre)industrial uses of HLY tomato include the following: (1) production of HLY sauces, juices, and powders; (2) supercritical-CO2 extraction of lycopene containing oleoresins; and (3) preparation of lycopene rich micro- and nano-carriers with improved stability and specific tissue delivery. In turn, the use of these innovative high-quality ingredients in the formulation of lycopene fortified foods, cosmetic products, nutraceuticals, and pharmaceuticals has been proposed as the basis of a novel highly profitable tomato product chain.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Plant Species Complexes as Models to Understand Speciation and Evolution: A Review of South American Studies
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Fábio Pinheiro, Marcos Vinicius Dantas-Queiroz, Clarisse Palma-Silva

    Identifying discontinuous entities within species complexes is a major topic in systematic and evolutionary biology. Comprehensive inventories describing and identifying species rapidly and correctly before they or their habitats disappear is especially important in megadiverse regions, such as South America continent, where a large part of the biodiversity is still unknown and remains to be discovered. Species complexes may account for a substantial number of plant groups in the South American flora, and studies investigating species boundaries in such challenging groups are needed. In this context, multidisciplinary approaches are crucial to understanding the species integrity and boundaries within species complexes. Morphometrics, cytogenetics, anatomy, crossing experiments, and molecular markers have been combined in different ways to investigate species complexes and have helped depict the mechanisms underlying the origin of South American species. Here, we review the current knowledge about plant species complexes on the hyperdiverse South American continent based on a detailed examination of the relevant literature. We discuss the main findings in light of the potential evolutionary mechanisms involved in speciation and suggest future directions in terms of integrating multispecies coalescence methods with several complementary types of morphological, ecological, and geographical data in this research field.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • When Less is More: Red Algae as Models for Studying Gene Loss and Genome Evolution in Eukaryotes
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-06-22
    Debashish Bhattacharya, Huan Qiu, JunMo Lee, Hwan Su Yoon, Andreas P. M. Weber, Dana C. Price

    Genome evolution is usually viewed through the lens of growth in size and complexity over time, exemplified by plants and animals. In contrast, genome reduction is associated with a narrowing of ecological potential, such as in parasites and endosymbionts. But, can nuclear genome reduction also occur in, and potentially underpin a major radiation of free-living eukaryotes? An intriguing example of this phenomenon is provided by the red algae (Rhodophyta) that have lost many conserved pathways such as for flagellar motility, macroautophagy regulation, and phytochrome based light sensing. This anciently diverged, species-rich, and ecologically important algal lineage has undergone at least two rounds of large-scale genome reduction during its >1 billion-year evolutionary history. Here, using recent analyses of genome data, we review knowledge about the evolutionary trajectory of red algal nuclear and organelle gene inventories and plastid encoded autocatalytic introns. We compare and contrast Rhodophyta genome evolution to Viridiplantae (green algae and plants), both of which are members of the Archaeplastida, and highlight their divergent paths. We also discuss evidence for the speculative hypothesis that reduction in red algal plastid genome size through endosymbiotic gene transfer is counteracted by ongoing selection for compact nuclear genomes in red algae. Finally, we describe how the spliceosomal intron splicing apparatus provides an example of “evolution in action” in Rhodophyta and how the overall constraints on genome size in this lineage has left significant imprints on this key step in RNA maturation. Our review reveals the red algae to be an exciting, yet under-studied model that offers numerous novel insights as well as many unanswered questions that remain to be explored using modern genomic, genetic, and biochemical methods. The fact that a speciose lineage of free-living eukaryotes has spread throughout many aquatic habitats after having lost about 25% of its primordial gene inventory challenges us to elucidate the mechanisms underlying this remarkable feat.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • The WRKY Transcription Factor Family in Model Plants and Crops
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-03-05
    Fei Chen, Yue Hu, Alessandro Vannozzi, Kangcheng Wu, Hanyang Cai, Yuan Qin, Alison Mullis, Zhenguo Lin, Liangsheng Zhang

    The WRKY gene family in flowering plants encodes a large group of transcription factors (TFs) that play essential roles in diverse stress responses, developmental, and physiological processes. In this review, we provided a comprehensive screenshot about the studies on WRKY TFs in model plants and in crops of economical relevance. Specifically, we discussed the history of discovery and functional characterization, classification, and evolutionary history, 3D structure and physiological functions of WRKY transcription factors. Based on the previous functional studies of WRKY genes in model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice, we summarized various roles of WRKY TFs in a broad range of biological processes as well as their degradation process. We also discussed the characterization and functional studies of WRKY TFs in important crops. Considering the rapid progress of high-throughput techniques, especially genomics and transcriptomics, which have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of the crop genomes, we comment one-by-one on the applications of a suite of new and high-throughput techniques to accelerate the studies of WRKY genes in crops.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Calcium Dependent Protein Kinase, a Versatile Player in Plant Stress Management and Development
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-02-01
    Amarjeet Singh, Sushma Sagar, Dipul Kumar Biswas

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) form the major and unique group of calcium (Ca2+) sensors in plants. Attributed to their peculiar structural features, CDPKs play a dual role of “Ca2+ sensor and responder” and translate the message from specific Ca2+ signature to phosphorylation events. Most of the stress and developmental triggers instigate an increase in Ca2+ level and consequently Ca2+ signaling in plants. Expression and functional analyses across plant species have revealed differential regulation of CDPK transcripts, activity, protein interactions and substrate targeting under different cues, including biotic and abiotic stresses and plant development. Thus, vital roles of CDPKs are proposed in perpetuating stress and development triggered Ca2+ signaling to adaptive responses in plants. Genetic engineering using CDPK genes could be utilitarian in the agricultural biotechnology for imparting higher degree of biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and better productivity. Here, we discuss the recent advancements and update of CDPK gene family organization, domain structure and regulatory mechanism, the role of CDPKs in abiotic stress, biotic stress, development signaling and responses in the model and crop plants.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Artificial MicroRNAs Promote High-Level Production of Biomolecules Through Metabolic Engineering of Phenylpropanoid Pathway
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-03-16
    Sweda Sreekumar, E. V. Soniya

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny RNAs that are crucial for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites such as phenylpropanoids because they regulate the activity of key transcription factors and enzymes. Here, we have discussed the significance of miRNAs that target the mRNAs encoding for enzymes and transcription factors in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Genes encoding the miRNAs involved in the synthesis of phenylpropanoids could be considered as potential candidates for metabolic engineering. We have analyzed the construction and potential value of artificial miRNAs (amiRNAs) that could be used for scrutinizing the functional importance of miRNAs in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis and manipulating the pathway for enhancing the production of secondary metabolites.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Gene Flow and its Consequences in Sorghum spp.
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2018-03-28
    Sara Ohadi, George Hodnett, William Rooney, Muthukumar Bagavathiannan

    Gene flow between crops and their weedy or wild relatives can be problematic in modern agricultural systems, especially if it endows novel adaptive genes that confer tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Alternatively, gene flow from weedy relatives to domesticated crops may facilitate ferality through introgression of weedy characteristics in the progeny. Cultivated sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), is particularly vulnerable to the risks associated with gene flow to several weedy relatives, johnsongrass (S. halepense), shattercane (S. bicolor ssp. drummondii) and columbusgrass (S. almum). Johnsongrass and shattercane are common weeds in many sorghum production areas around the world. Sorghum varieties with adaptive traits developed through conventional breeding or novel transgenesis pose agronomic and ecological risks if transferred into weedy/wild relatives. Knowledge of the nature and characteristics of gene flow among different sorghum species is scarce, and existing knowledge is scattered. Here, we review current knowledge of gene flow between cultivated sorghum and its weedy and wild relatives. We further discuss potential avenues for addressing gene flow through genetic, molecular, and field level containment, mitigation and management strategies to facilitate successful deployment of novel traits in this economically important crop species.

    更新日期:2018-07-14
  • Responses of the Mitochondrial Respiratory System to Low Temperature in Plants
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2017-11-09
    Leila Heidarvand, A. Harvey Millar, Nicolas L. Taylor

    Low-temperature (LT) stress induces significant changes to plant cells including perturbations of various physio-biochemical and metabolic processes, which impact primary metabolism, respiratory rate, and the ATP production for biosynthesis and growth. Mitochondria from LT-tolerant species respond to LT through remodeling their composition that changes the structural and functional properties of the organelles. In this review, we discuss physiological aspects of mitochondrial respiration rate that are affected by LT, as well as, changes in the abundance of respiratory components under LT. The latter includes components of the phosphorylating and non-phosphorylating pathways and adjustments of mitochondrial membrane composition. Our objective is to provide a detailed overview of the often-contrasting reports of mitochondrial-specific changes and responses to LT and look for consensus themes to explain changes and draw more generally applicable observations about the LT response of plant respiration.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
  • Recent Advances in the Regulation of Citric Acid Metabolism in Citrus Fruit
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Syed Bilal Hussain, Cai-Yun Shi, Ling-Xia Guo, Hafiz Muhammad Kamran, Avi Sadka, Yong-Zhong Liu

    The regulation of citric acid metabolism during fruit ripening has a major impact on the production of high-quality fruit. The impact of citric acid on organoleptic fruit quality attributes, fruit storage performance and the synthesis of several secondary metabolites has led to an exponential increase in research efforts during the last two decades. Recent research has focused on the relationship among citric acid biosynthesis, transportation, storage, and utilization. Among citrate metabolic processes, activities of a proton pump, especially the plasma membrane H+-ATPase on tonoplast and citrate catabolism in cytosol play important roles in the regulation of citrate accumulation in cell vacuoles. Moreover, we highlight recent advances and provide an overview of citrate metabolism, postharvest physiology of citrate metabolism, and the influence of agro-climatic factors on citrus fruits. It is the first review that provides a comprehensive model for citrate metabolism in citrus fruit juice sacs. We anticipate that this model for the regulation of citrate metabolism will facilitate the study of fruit acidity in citrus and other nonclimacteric fruits.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
  • Biosynthesis and Regulation of Phenylpropanoids in Plants
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Yuxing Deng, Shanfa Lu

    Phenylpropanoids are a large class of plant secondary metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids phenylalanine in most plants or tyrosine in partial monocots. It mainly includes flavonoids, monolignols, phenolic acids, stilbenes, and coumarins. Phenylpropanoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom and play vital roles in plant development by acting as essential components of cell walls, protectants against high light and UV radiation, phytoalexins against herbivores and pathogens, floral pigments to mediate plant–pollinator interactions. In addition, phenylpropanoids possess diverse biological activities that are beneficial to human health. In the past decades, the structure and function of phenylpropanoids and the biosynthetic pathways of flavonoids, monolignols and phenolic acids have been extensively studied. Recent results showed that miR828, ta-siRNAs and R2R3-MYBs play critical regulatory roles in phenylpropanoid biosynthesis through two modes: either the miR828–MYB–phenylpropanoid biosynthesis cascade in which MYB transcripts are directly cleaved by miR828, or the miR828–ta-siRNA–MYB–phenylpropanoid biosynthesis cascade under the mediation of TAS4- or MYB-derived ta-siRNAs. In this review, we overview the structure, function and biosynthetic pathway of phenylpropanoids and summarize the complex regulatory mechanism of phenylpropanoid biosynthesis with a focus on the two cascades involving miR828, ta-siRNAs and MYBs.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
  • Genome Editing—Principles and Applications for Functional Genomics Research and Crop Improvement
    Crit. Rev. Plant Sci. (IF 4.189) Pub Date : 2017-12-11
    Hui Zhang, Jinshan Zhang, Zhaobo Lang, José Ramón Botella, Jian-Kang Zhu

    Genome editing technologies are powerful tools for studying gene function and for crop improvement. The technologies rely on engineered endonucleases to generate double stranded breaks (DSBs) at target loci. The DSBs are repaired through the error-prone non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways in cells, resulting in mutations and sequence replacement, respectively. In the widely used CRISPR/Cas9 system, the endonuclease Cas9 is targeted by a CRISPR small RNA to DNA sequence of interest. In this review, we describe the four available types of genome editing tools, ZFN, TALEN, CRISPR/Cas9 and CRISPR/Cpf1, and show their applications in functional genomics research and precision molecular breeding of crops.

    更新日期:2018-02-03
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