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  • Mucoromycota: going to the roots of plant-interacting fungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Paola Bonfante; Francesco Venice
    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Entomopathogenic Fusarium species: a review of their potential for the biological control of insects, implications and prospects
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Ana Carla da Silva Santos; Athaline Gonçalves Diniz; Patricia Vieira Tiago; Neiva Tinti de Oliveira

    The genus Fusarium is noted for including important plant pathogens and mycotoxin producers. Furthermore, many Fusarium lineages have been reported to be efficient in controlling insects and to exhibit promising characteristics for agricultural pest control such as causing high mortality rates and having fast action and abundant sporulation. In this review we present a survey of peer-reviewed papers published from 2000 to 2019, demonstrating the widespread pathogenicity of Fusarium to insects. This survey was made using search strings in a number of databases. We list the major complexes and species of Fusarium reported as entomopathogenic and highlight the features of interest for insect control as well as the advantages and implications of this practice. Out of a total of forty papers, at least 30 species and 273 isolates of Fusarium were reported as pathogenic to at least one species of insect. Ten complexes of Fusarium species harbor entomopathogenic fungi, of which F. incarnatum-equiseti, F. fujikuroi, F. oxysporum and F. solani (= Neocosmospora solani) species complexes represented the most abundant number of entomopathogenic strains. The entomopathogenic interactions of these fungi have received greater attention in recent years, but much remains to be explored, especially regarding the specificity of these fungi for the host insect, the production of undesirable secondary metabolites, and side-effect and safety tests organisms not targets. Detailed investigations in this regard will be crucial if we are to fully exploit the potential of Fusarium for controlling insect pests.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Dual Purpose of ligninolytic- basidiomycetes: mycoremediation of bioethanol distillation vinasse coupled to sustainable bio-based compounds production
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Pablo M. Ahmed; Lucía I.C. de Figueroa; Hipólito F. Pajot

    Agro-industrial wastes consist of various agriculture and food industry residues produced worldwide at an estimated rate of a thousand million tons per year. Vinasse is the main wastewater resulting from sugarcane bioethanol production. This agro-industrial effluent is highly polluting and, when discarded with no previous treatment, may cause nutrient imbalance and salt saturation in the soil as well as a reduction in photosynthesis in aquatic ecosystems. Environmentally safe vinasse disposal requires reliable mechanisms, preferably involving the production of goods or services. Various cleanup technologies have been implemented and different microorganisms are being studied as viable remediation agents. Ligninolytic basidiomycetes, which have the ability to store, release and mineralize a wide variety of toxic materials and compounds, are a source of valuable biochemicals for agricultural and industrial uses. This review discusses the use of filamentous fungi in the bioremediation of distillery vinasses, their main characteristics, the enzymes implicated and the transformation processes involved in the production of several high-value bio-based compounds.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Occurrence and possible roles of melanic pigments in lichenized ascomycetes
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-01-18
    Tshepiso Coral Mafole, Knut Asbjørn Solhaug, Farida Vilevna Minibayeva, Richard Peter Beckett

    Many species of lichenized ascomycetes are capable of synthesizing darkly colored melanin pigments by polymerizing phenolic compounds. Available data suggest that different clades of lichens produce various kinds of melanins, with N2-fixing Peltigeralean lichens producing N-rich DOPA or “eumelanins” and lichens from other orders producing N-poor “allomelanins.” In general, melanic lichens seem to be more common in environments with high levels of abiotic stress such as polar and montane regions, but they are by no means restricted to these habitats. Here, we review the occurrence of melanins in lichens, their chemical structure, methods of quantification and biological roles. Good evidence exists that melanins in lichens protect the mycobiont from high UV, and the photobiont against high PAR. However, given their many unique properties, it seems likely that melanins help lichens to survive a range of biotic and abiotic stresses.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Comprehensive, classical and molecular characterization methods of Saprolegnia (Oomycota; Stramnipila), an important fungal pathogen of fish
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-01-19
    Aqib Rehman Magray, Showkat Ahmad Lone, Bashir Ahmad Ganai, Fayaz Ahmad, Gulam Jeelani Dar, Jehangir Shafi Dar, Sabeehah Rehman
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Role of Candida albicans mating in genetic variability and adaptation to the host
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-06-26
    Inês Correia, Elvira Román, Daniel Prieto, Susana Hidalgo-Vico, Rebeca Alonso-Monge, Jesús Pla

    Since its discovery at the end of the XIX century, Candida albicans has emerged as one of the most important human pathogenic fungi. This yeast efficiently colonizes the gastrointestinal cavity of humans, which is an important source for gastrointestinal-mediated dissemination of the fungus to internal organs under immune suppression. Controlling colonization may therefore lead to the eradication of C. albicans which may, in turn, be a useful strategy in the prevention of candidiasis. Recent studies indicate that colonization is influenced by -and related to-the white opaque (wo) transition, an epigenetic transition that has been shown to mediate several aspects of the biology of this fungus. Efficient mating in C. albicans occurs by a two-step process which involves the conversion to a homozygous mating type cell followed by a transition to the opaque state. The discovery of the opaque cell as the mating competent phase of this fungus provided an interesting evolutionary example of the role of mating in the adaptation to a mammalian host in a pathogenic fungus. A full sexual cycle has not been observed; rather, after mating, return to a diploid state is achieved by concerted chromosome loss, being this an important source of genetic variability for this opportunistic pathogen.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Fungal diversity from communities to genes
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Sara Branco

    Fungi are hyperdiverse organisms and assemble in complex communities, characterized by high levels of species richness, turnover, and endemism. However, the origins and maintenance of such high diversity and the role environments play in fungal adaptation are still elusive. Traditionally, efforts to understand fungal diversity in their environment have been divided between studies at the species level and below species level, with separate disciplines such as community ecology and population genetics working independently and with little communication. Here I argue that linking these different approaches is required to fully document the diversity of fungi in nature. Understanding the patterns and mechanisms of fungal diversity and composition requires not only the study of species assemblies and ranges, but also relies on comprehending fungal intra-specific variation, dispersal and establishment, including identifying key traits influencing fitness. This implies better integration and cross-fertilization between disciplines addressing fungi at a multitude of biological levels, ranging from genes to whole communities. Such approach will yield direct links between variation, adaptation and environments and provide a much more comprehensive understanding of fungal diversity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Enzymatic demethylation of lignin for potential biobased polymer applications
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Balaji Venkatesagowda

    Lignin is a highly methylated, recalcitrant biopolymer available aplenty in nature, and is highly heteropolymer in nature, but yet it has been an under-utilized biopolymer. Modifying it chemically, biologically or enzymatically could render it a good candidate for phenol formaldehyde resin or into fine chemicals, fuels, and plastics applications. Lignin demethylation is facilitated by the enzymes called the O-demethylases, which are able to strip-off of the –OCH3 group in lignin, that give rise to the more widely accessible phenolic hydroxyls groups. Biological demethylation of lignins can be accomplished by means of the microorganisms, such as the white-rot, soft-rot and brown-rot fungi, besides some species of bacteria. Although the enzymes responsible for the lignin demethylation process have not been identified and purified adequately, it is perhaps possible that the O-demethylases, which have the ability to remove the O-methyl groups at the C-3 and (or) C-4 positions of the benzyl ring of low molecular weight lignin-like model compounds (LMCs) and lignin makes them the suitable candidate. These LMCs resemble the aromatic moieties inherent in the molecular structure of lignins, such as the vanillate, syringate, and veratrate. Thus, these enzymes are known as vanillate-O-demethylases, syringate O-demethylases, veratrate O-demethylases and Tetrahydrofolate (THF)-dependent O-demethylase (LigM), respectively. Whereas, some ligninolytic enzymes are known to cause damage to the structure of lignins (e.g., laccases, manganese-dependent peroxidase and lignin peroxidases). The O-demethylase enzymes are believed to be capable of removing the O-methyl groups from the lignins without affecting the complex backbone structure of the lignins. The mechanism of action of O-demethylases on lignin degradation is still largely unexplored, and their ability to remove the O-methyl groups from lignins has not been elucidated sufficiently. In this review, the recent advances made on the molecular approaches in the lignin demethylation (O-demethylases and ligninolytic enzymes), degradation and the probable strategies to tone up the lignin quality have been discussed in detail. The demethylation process of lignins by means of enzymes is envisaged to open up new vistas for its application as a biopolymer in various bioprocess and biorefinery process.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Systematics is crucial for the traditional Chinese medicinal studies and industry of macrofungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Li-Wei Zhou

    Recently, it has been indicated that systematics is of no value to the traditional Chinese medicinal studies and industry of macrofungi. As a fungal taxonomist, I use three genera of the most famous medicinal macrofungi, viz. Sanghuangporus, Ganoderma and Ophiocordyceps, as examples to rebut this opinion. Generally, the well-established systematics are helpful in using correct Latin names for fungal species in medicinal studies; furthermore, the resulting medicinal functions can be exactly matched to a particular species; finally, the particular species can be applied for permissions of utilization in traditional Chinese medicinal industry. Therefore, systematics is crucial for unlocking the potential of macrofungi as valuable resources to be developed in the traditional Chinese medicinal studies and industry, and should continue to be of interest to not just fungal taxonomists but also biochemists, pharmacists and businessmen.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antifungal proteins: More than antimicrobials?
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2013-02-16
    Nikoletta Hegedüs,Florentine Marx

    Antimicrobial proteins (AMPs) are widely distributed in nature. In higher eukaryotes, AMPs provide the host with an important defence mechanism against invading pathogens. AMPs of lower eukaryotes and prokaryotes may support successful competition for nutrients with other microorganisms of the same ecological niche. AMPs show a vast variety in structure, function, antimicrobial spectrum and mechanism of action. Most interestingly, there is growing evidence that AMPs also fulfil important biological functions other than antimicrobial activity. The present review focuses on the mechanistic function of small, cationic, cysteine-rich AMPs of mammals, insects, plants and fungi with antifungal activity and specifically aims at summarizing current knowledge concerning additional biological properties which opens novel aspects for their future use in medicine, agriculture and biotechnology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sex and speciation: the paradox that non-recombining DNA promotes recombination.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2012-11-09
    Alexander Idnurm

    The benefits of sexual reproduction that outweigh its costs have long puzzled biologists. Increased genetic diversity generated by new allelic combinations, as enhanced by recombination during meiosis, is considered to be a primary benefit of sex. Sex-determining systems have evolved independently on numerous occasions. One of the most familiar is the use of sex chromosomes in vertebrates. Other eukaryotic groups also use sex chromosomes or smaller sex-determining regions within their chromosomes, such as the mating type loci in the fungi. In these organisms, sexual reproduction and its associated meiotic recombination is controlled by regions of the genome that are themselves blocked in recombination. Non-recombining DNA that is essential for recombination presents a paradox. One hypothesis is that sex-determination requires or leads to highly diverse alleles, establishing this block in recombination. A second hypothesis to account for the common occurrence of these types of sex-determining systems is that they combine mechanisms for recombination suppression and reproductive isolation, thereby promoting the evolution of new species. The fungal kingdom represents the ideal eukaryotic lineage to elucidate the functions of non-recombining regions in sex-determination and speciation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microbial Pathogens in the Fungal Kingdom.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2011-04-30
    Joseph Heitman

    The fungal kingdom is vast, spanning ~1.5 to as many as 5 million species diverse as unicellular yeasts, filamentous fungi, mushrooms, lichens, and both plant and animal pathogens. The fungi are closely aligned with animals in one of the six to eight supergroups of eukaryotes, the opisthokonts. The animal and fungal kingdoms last shared a common ancestor ~1 billion years ago, more recently than other groups of eukaryotes. As a consequence of their close evolutionary history and shared cellular machinery with metazoans, fungi are exceptional models for mammalian biology, but prove more difficult to treat in infected animals. The last common ancestor to the fungal/metazoan lineages is thought to have been unicellular, aquatic, and motile with a posterior flagellum, and certain extant species closely resemble this hypothesized ancestor. Species within the fungal kingdom were traditionally assigned to four phyla, including the basal fungi (Chytridiomycota, Zygomycota) and the more recently derived monophyletic lineage, the dikarya (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota). The fungal tree of life project has revealed that the basal lineages are polyphyletic, and thus there are as many as eight to ten fungal phyla. Fungi that infect vertebrates are found in all of the major lineages, and virulence arose multiple times independently. A sobering recent development involves the species Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis from the basal fungal phylum, the Chytridiomycota, which has emerged to cause global amphibian declines and extinctions. Genomics is revolutionizing our view of the fungal kingdom, and genome sequences for zygomycete pathogens (Rhizopus, Mucor), skin-associated fungi (dermatophytes, Malassezia), and the Candida pathogenic species clade promise to provide insights into the origins of virulence. Here we survey the diversity of fungal pathogens and illustrate key principles revealed by genomics involving sexual reproduction and sex determination, loss of conserved pathways in derived fungal lineages that are retained in basal fungi, and shared and divergent virulence strategies of successful human pathogens, including dimorphic and trimorphic transitions in form. The overarching conclusion is that fungal pathogens of animals have arisen repeatedly and independently throughout the fungal tree of life, and while they share general properties, there are also unique features to the virulence strategies of each successful microbial pathogen.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determinants of virulence in the pathogenic fungi.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2007-11-01
    Arturo Casadevall

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Aimless mutants of Cryptococcus neoformans: failure to disseminate.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2012-11-29
    E J Griffiths,M Kretschmer,J W Kronstad

    The pathogenic fungus Cryptococcus neoformans exhibits a striking propensity to cause central nervous system (CNS) disease in people with HIV/AIDS. Given that cryptococcal infections are generally initiated by pulmonary colonization, dissemination requires that the fungus withstand phagocytic killing, cross the alveolar-capillary interface in the lung, survive in the circulatory system and breach the blood-brain barrier. We know little about the molecular mechanisms underlying dissemination, but there is a rapidly growing list of mutants that fail to cause CNS disease. These mutants reveal a remarkable diversity of functions and therefore illustrate the complexity of the cryptococcal-host interaction. The challenge now is to extend the analysis of these mutants to acquire a detailed understanding of each step in dissemination.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endoplasmic reticulum stress and fungal pathogenesis.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2014-11-25
    Karthik Krishnan,David S Askew

    The gateway to the secretory pathway is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an organelle that is responsible for the accurate folding, post-translational modification and final assembly of up to a third of the cellular proteome. When secretion levels are high, errors in protein biogenesis can lead to the accumulation of abnormally folded proteins, which threaten ER homeostasis. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an adaptive signaling pathway that counters a buildup in misfolded and unfolded proteins by increasing the expression of genes that support ER protein folding capacity. Fungi, like other eukaryotic cells that are specialized for secretion, rely upon the UPR to buffer ER stress caused by fluctuations in secretory demand. However, emerging evidence is also implicating the UPR as a central regulator of fungal pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss how diverse fungal pathogens have adapted ER stress response pathways to support the expression of virulence-related traits that are necessary in the host environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Calcineurin as a Multifunctional Regulator: Unraveling Novel Functions in Fungal Stress Responses, Hyphal Growth, Drug Resistance, and Pathogenesis.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2014-11-11
    Praveen R Juvvadi,Frédéric Lamoth,William J Steinbach

    Calcineurin signaling plays diverse roles in fungi in regulating stress responses, morphogenesis and pathogenesis. Although calcineurin signaling is conserved among fungi, recent studies indicate important divergences in calcineurin-dependent cellular functions among different human fungal pathogens. Fungal pathogens utilize the calcineurin pathway to effectively survive the host environment and cause life-threatening infections. The immunosuppressive calcineurin inhibitors (FK506 and cyclosporine A) are active against fungi, making targeting calcineurin a promising antifungal drug development strategy. Here we summarize current knowledge on calcineurin in yeasts and filamentous fungi, and review the importance of understanding fungal-specific attributes of calcineurin to decipher fungal pathogenesis and develop novel antifungal therapeutic approaches.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contrasted patterns in mating-type chromosomes in fungi: hotspots versus coldspots of recombination.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2015-12-22
    Alexander Idnurm,Michael E Hood,Hanna Johannesson,Tatiana Giraud

    It is striking that, while central to sexual reproduction, the genomic regions determining sex or mating-types are often characterized by suppressed recombination that leads to a decrease in the efficiency of selection, shelters genetic load, and inevitably contributes to their genic degeneration. Research on model and lesser-explored fungi has revealed similarities in recombination suppression of the genomic regions involved in mating compatibility across eukaryotes, but fungi also provide opposite examples of enhanced recombination in the genomic regions that determine their mating types. These contrasted patterns of genetic recombination (sensu lato, including gene conversion and ectopic recombination) in regions of the genome involved in mating compatibility point to important yet complex processes occurring in their evolution. A number of pieces in this puzzle remain to be solved, in particular on the unclear selective forces that may cause the patterns of recombination, prompting theoretical developments and experimental studies. This review thus points to fungi as a fascinating group for studying the various evolutionary forces at play in the genomic regions involved in mating compatibility.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Orchestration of Morphogenesis in Filamentous Fungi: Conserved Roles for Ras Signaling Networks.
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2015-08-11
    Jarrod R Fortwendel

    Filamentous fungi undergo complex developmental programs including conidial germination, polarized morphogenesis, and differentiation of sexual and asexual structures. For many fungi, the coordinated completion of development is required for pathogenicity, as specialized morphological structures must be produced by the invading fungus. Ras proteins are highly conserved GTPase signal transducers and function as major regulators of growth and development in eukaryotes. Filamentous fungi typically express two Ras homologues, comprising distinct groups of Ras1-like and Ras2-like proteins based on sequence homology. Recent evidence suggests shared roles for both Ras1 and Ras2 homologues, but also supports the existence of unique functions in the areas of stress response and virulence. This review focuses on the roles played by both Ras protein groups during growth, development, and pathogenicity of a diverse array of filamentous fungi.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Twenty years of research on cerato-platanin family proteins: clues, conclusions, and unsolved issues
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Simone Luti, Luca Sella, Alessandra Quarantin, Luigia Pazzagli, Ivan Baccelli

    Twenty years of research on cerato-platanin family proteins (CPPs) have led to some clear conclusions: CPPs are exclusively present in the fungal kingdom and possess an outstanding capacity to stimulate the immune system of plants. Recent discoveries have highlighted remarkable structural and functional similarities between CPPs and expansins, a class of non-enzymatic proteins found in both plants and microbes possessing loosening ability on the cell wall structure. Nevertheless, the determination of a biological role for CPPs in fungi is becoming a complicated puzzle to solve, since experimental data are often divergent and point to functional diversification. A general consensus appears however possible: CPPs from pathogenic and beneficial fungi may be considered as microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) and likely play a dual role, exerting functions in the fungal cell wall and/or in plant colonization. In this review, which celebrates 20 y of research on CPPs, we trace the history of these proteins and highlight experimental evidence and still unsolved issues.

    更新日期:2019-10-29
  • Micronutrient transport in mycorrhizal symbiosis; zinc steals the show
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-09-30
    Joske Ruytinx, Arjun Kafle, Muhammad Usman, Laura Coninx, Sabine D. Zimmermann, Kevin Garcia

    Mycorrhizas are mutually beneficial associations between soil-borne fungi and plant roots. Mycorrhizal fungi provide their host plant with essential nutrients in exchange for sugars and/or lipids. Traditionally, transport and translocation of macronutrients, including nitrogen and phosphorus, throughout the fungal mycelium and towards the host plant are well studied. However, the regulation of nutrient exchange and their contribution in the morphogenesis and development of mycorrhizas remains unclear. In this Opinion, we argue that adding micronutrients in the current models of symbiotic transport is essential to fully understand the establishment, maintenance, and functioning of mycorrhizal associations. Homeostatic mechanisms at the cellular level and the first transport proteins involved have been recently documented for zinc (Zn) in arbuscular mycorrhizal, ectomycorrhizal, and ericoid mycorrhizal fungi. Mycorrhizal plants benefit from an improved Zn status in control conditions and are better protected when environmental Zn availability fluctuates. These recent progresses are paving the way for a better understanding of micronutrient allocation in mycorrhizas. Revising our vision on the role of micronutrients, particularly of Zn, in these interactions will allow a better use of mycorrhizal fungi in sustainable agriculture and forestry, and will increase management practices in waste land, as well as in agricultural and natural ecosystems.

    更新日期:2019-09-30
  • Killer toxin-like chitinases in filamentous fungi: Structure, regulation and potential roles in fungal biology
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-12-19
    Georgios Tzelepis, Magnus Karlsson

    Fungal chitinases are hydrolytic enzymes responsible for degradation of chitin. Chitinases are involved in several aspects of fungal biology, including cell wall remodelling during hyphal growth, conidial germination, autolysis, mycoparasitism and nutrient acquisition. They are divided into three distinct phylogenetic groups; A, B and C. Chitinases from the C group show structural similarities with the killer toxin zymocin produced by the yeast Kluyveromyces lactis and it is speculated that they have a similar function in filamentous ascomycetes, by facilitating penetration of toxins into cells of competing individuals. Genome analyses show that certain fungal species with a mycoparasitic lifestyle contain high numbers of killer toxin-like chitinases, compared with specialized saprotrophs and plant pathogens. Recent developments within this research field have revealed considerable variation in the modular structure and regulation of killer toxin-like chitinases, suggesting more diverse roles than merely fungal-fungal interactions. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge about this intriguing class of chitinases, including their modular structure, evolution, gene regulation, and functional analyses in mycoparasitic as well as in saprotrophic species. We also propose important questions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Diversity of natural products of the genera Curvularia and Bipolaris
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-10-16
    Afra Khiralla, Rosella Spina, Sahar Saliba, Dominique Laurain-Mattar
    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Use of endophytes as biocontrol agents
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2019-01-18
    Nimali I. De Silva, Siraprapa Brooks, Saisamorn Lumyong, Kevin D. Hyde

    Plant diseases, caused by various microorganisms, including viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa and nematodes, affect agricultural practices and result in significant crop losses. Fungal pathogens are the major cause of plant diseases and infect most plants. Agrochemicals play a significant role in plant disease management to ensure a sustainable and productive agricultural system. However, the intensive use of chemicals has adverse effects on humans and ecosystem functioning and also reduces agricultural sustainability. A sustainable agriculture is achieved through reduction or elimination of fertilizers and agrochemicals, resulting in minimal impact to the environment. Recently, the use of antagonistic endophytes as biocontrol agents is drawing special attention as an attractive option for management of some plant diseases, resulting in minimal impact to the environment. Endophytes that resides asymptomatically within a plant, have the potential to provide a source of candidate strains for potential biocontrol applications. This review addresses biocontrol methods using endophytic fungi such as Colletotrichum, Cladosporium, Fusarium, Pestalotiopsis and Trichoderma species as an attractive option for management of some plant diseases. Potential endophytes are screened in vitro and in vivo to test their antagonistic actions by different mechanisms, including mycoparasitism, production of lytic enzymes and/or antibiotics and induction of plant defenses. Currently, efforts are being made to commercialize these biocontrol agents. A continued research pipeline consisting of screening, in vitro and in vivo testing, biomass production and commercialization of endophytes as biocontrol agents may contribute to sustainable agriculture.

    更新日期:2019-07-05
  • 更新日期:2019-07-05
  • Flow cytometry and FACS applied to filamentous fungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-07-25
    Robert-Jan Bleichrodt, Nick D. Read

    Flow cytometry is an automated, laser- or impedance-based, high throughput method that allows very rapid analysis of multiple chemical and physical characteristics of single cells within a cell population. It is an extremely powerful technology that has been used for over four decades with filamentous fungi. Although single cells within a cell population are normally analysed rapidly on a cell-by-cell basis using the technique, flow cytometry can also be used to analyse cell (e.g. spore) aggregates or entire microcolonies. Living or fixed cells can be stained with a wide range of fluorescent reporters to label different cell components or measure different physiological processes. Flow cytometry is also suited for measurements of cell size, interaction, aggregation or shape using non-labelled cells by means of analysing their light scattering characteristics. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) is a specialized form of flow cytometry that provides a method for sorting a heterogeneous mixture of cells into two or more containers based upon the fluorescence and/or light scattering properties of each cell. The major advantage of analysing cells by flow cytometry over microscopy is the speed of analysis: thousands of cells can be analysed per second or sorted in minutes. Drawbacks of flow cytometry are that specific cells cannot be followed in time and normally spatial information relating to individual cells is lacking. A big advantage over microscopy is when using FACS, cells with desired characteristics can be sorted for downstream experimentation (e.g. for growth, infection, enzyme production, gene expression assays or ‘omics’ approaches). In this review, we explain the basic concepts of flow cytometry and FACS, define its advantages and disadvantages in comparison with microscopy, and describe the wide range of applications in which these powerful technologies have been used with filamentous fungi.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Insights into the social life and obscure side of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species: ubiquitous, emerging and multidrug-resistant opportunistic pathogens
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-08-07
    Thaís P. Mello, Vera Carolina B. Bittencourt, Livia C. Liporagi-Lopes, Ana Carolina Aor, Marta H. Branquinha, André L.S. Santos

    The undeniable relevance of fungal infections caused by both yeasts and molds has considerably augmented over the last four decades, becoming a serious health public problem in hospitals worldwide. In this scenario, several fungal species have emerged as human pathogens able to cause diseases in both immucompromised and immunocompetent individuals. In this context, species belonging to the Scedosporium and Lomentospora genera are awakening global attention due to their ubiquitous distribution in human-impacted environments, multidrug–resistance profile and ability to cause severe and debilitating illnesses, which culminate in laborious and meticulous medical care, substantial treatment costs and high (and unacceptable!) morbidity and mortality rates. Together, these reasons have been stimulating the international scientific community to take a hard work in order to circumvent these undesirable situations. In this way, the researchers are trying to decipher the main physiopathological events behind the successful capacity of Scedosporium/Lomentospora species to escape from host immune attacks and to resist the available chemotherapeutic treatment options. Therefore, in an attempt to add some pieces to this puzzle, the present review compiles the main published data on taxonomy, genomic, ecology, diagnosis, epidemiology, clinical manifestations, relevant clinic-epidemiological statistics/metrics, current treatment options, promising alternative therapeutic approaches, expression of virulence attributes, in vitro interaction with phagocytic and non-phagocytic cells, in vivo animal infections and host immune defenses in the Scedosporium/Lomentospora field.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Essential, deadly, enigmatic: Polyamine metabolism and roles in fungal cells
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-08-09
    Raquel O. Rocha, Richard A. Wilson

    Polyamines are essential metabolites found in all organisms. Intracellular polyamine levels are tightly maintained by biosynthesis, degradation, uptake and excretion processes that involve regulatory mechanisms – such as the antizyme inhibitory protein – that are conserved across the kingdoms of life, indicating that polyamine levels are critical to cell function. Nonetheless, the biochemical roles of polyamines and their involvement in numerous fundamental cellular processes including aging, cell cycle progression and growth only become apparent when polyamine homeostasis is perturbed. Thus, while polyamines are present in most cells and essential for cell growth, their biochemical functions are largely enigmatic. Studies in fungi have contributed to our basic understanding of polyamines, and might continue to bridge knowledge gaps regarding polyamine metabolism and cell function. Moreover, when considering the impact of fungi – directly or indirectly, for good or for ill – on human society, closing gaps in our understanding of polyamine functions in fungal physiology is an important goal in itself that might lead to the discovery of new targets for enhancing beneficial fungal interactions and diminishing those detrimental to crop and human health. To facilitate progress towards this prospect, here we appraise what is known about polyamine metabolism in fungi, how prevalent polyamines impact fungal physiology and metabolism, and how the levels of each polyamine are maintained in the fungal cell – thus pointing to how they might be perturbed.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Fungi in acidic fire: A potential source of industrially important enzymes
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Noor Hassan, Muhammad Rafiq, Maliha Rehman, Wasim Sajjad, Fariha Hasan, Swaid Abdullah

    The microbial life that exists in harsh habitats of low pH possess several unique characteristics, which assign interesting qualities to these microorganisms and enable them to thrive in such a harsh environment. Among microorganisms inhabiting low pH environments, fungi are the second largest reported organisms. These acidophilic fungi are the main source of acid–stable enzymes that could be utilized in many industries including paper, leather making, food and feed industries, where the efficacy of commonly available enzymes is limited by challenges like stability and functional kinetics. The current review discusses the acidophilic fungi with emphasis on their diversity and pH homeostasis mechanisms adopted against low pH environments. In addition, an overview about the acid–stable enzymes obtained from these acidophilic fungi, their main sources and potential applications have also been discussed.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Endohyphal bacteria; the prokaryotic modulators of host fungal biology
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-10-15
    Palak Arora, Syed Riyaz-Ul-Hassan

    Fungi interact with bacteria in specific environmental niches through microbial cell–cell interactions and carry out various ecological functions collectively. However, there are a number of known associations wherein some bacteria reside within the hyphae of fungi, leveraging their growth, development, distribution and secondary metabolism. These bacteria are referred to as endohyphal bacteria (EHB). The EHB have been found to regulate key components of host reproductive machinery, induce the production of phytohormones, and play a complementary protective role for the host fungus under stress conditions. In a unique endohyphal association of Burkholderia with Rhizopus sp., it was found that the phytotoxin which is essential for pathogenecity of the fungus, was produced by the endosymbiont rather than the host fungus causing the rice seedling blight. The EHB were also found to influence the ecology and diversity of endophytic fungi colonizing higher plants. In some cases, the EHB help in activation of genes involved in the recognition processes, transcription regulation, and synthesis of primary metabolism proteins. Although, methods have been developed to isolate EHB in axenic culture, this symbiotic association provides enormous opportunities for new discoveries and new insights into fungal biology. In this review article, we present a discussion on EHB, their significance, and diverse functions in nature as unraveled by the latest research to understand this unique microbial association.

    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Origin of fungal biomass degrading enzymes: Evolution, diversity and function of enzymes of early lineage fungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-10-19
    Lene Lange, Bo Pilgaard, Florian-Alexander Herbst, Peter Kamp Busk, Frank Gleason, Anders Gorm Pedersen
    更新日期:2019-03-12
  • Complex fungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-09-10
    Ursula Kües, Weeradej Khonsuntia, Shanta Subba

    Filamentous fungi grow in form of multicellular tubular hyphae (‘simple multicellularity’). When hyphae aggregate, more complex three-dimensional structures emerge. Differentiation of hyphal cells adds to morphological and functional complexity of aggregated fungal organs (‘complex multicellularity’) that serve such different biological purposes as sustenance, resilience, or sexual or asexual reproduction. The most complex structures in the fungal kingdom are the multicellular sexual fruiting bodies with distinct fungal tissues and multiple cell types. Between fungal taxa, fruiting bodies come in various morphological shapes, colors and sizes. So far, it is largely unclear what genetically determines such complex multicellularity in fungi and how and how often core functions of such multicellularity evolved. Research targets at to find out what is behind the complex multicellularity in fungal fruiting body development. Combined inputs of environmental signals to transcription of participating genes are coordinated in the nuclei by distinctive transcription factors. Comparative analyses of big data sets derived from sequenced genomes of different fungal species and from sequenced situational transcriptomes can extract what is common in developmental programs as potential core functions in multicellularity and also identify that what is specific in individual development.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Genomics and transcriptomics to study fruiting body development: An update
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-03-10
    Minou Nowrousian

    Fruiting bodies of asco- and basidiomycetes are complex three-dimensional structures that protect and disperse the sexual spores. Their differentiation requires the concerted action of many genes, therefore "omics" techniques to analyze fungal genomes and gene expression at a genome-wide level provide excellent means to gain insights into this differentiation process. This review summarizes some recent examples of the use of “omics” techniques to study fruiting body morphogenesis. These include genome-centered analyses, and studies to analyze the regulation of gene expression including the analysis of RNA editing as a novel layer in the regulation of gene expression during fruiting body development in ascomycetes.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Influences of environmental factors on fruiting body induction, development and maturation in mushroom-forming fungi
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-03-17
    Yuichi Sakamoto

    Mushroom-forming fungi (restricted to basidiomycetous fungi in this review) differentiate by sensing several environmental factors for fruiting body formation. For fruiting body induction, nutrient, temperature and light conditions are critical environmental factors. Higher nitrogen and carbon sources in the media will suppress fruiting body induction in many mushroom-forming fungi, with induction being triggered by lower nitrogen and carbon concentrations. Low temperature or temperature downshift is another critical influencing factor for fruiting body induction in many cultivated mushrooms, such as Flammulina velutipes, Lentinula edodes, and Volvariella volvacea. Fungal response toward starvation and cold involves the production of sexual spores as the next generation. Species like F. velutipes and Coprinopsis cinerea can form fruiting bodies in the dark; however, light accelerates fruiting body induction in some mushroom-forming fungi. Remarkably, fruiting bodies formed in the dark have tiny or no pileus on heads (called dark stipe, pinhead fruiting body, or etiolated stipe). Light is essential for pileus differentiation in many, but not all mushroom species; one exception is Agaricus bisporus. Mushrooms have positive phototropism and negative gravitropism for effective dispersal of spores. Carbon dioxide concentrations also affect fruiting body development; pileus differentiation is suppressed at a high concentration of carbon dioxide. Thus, the pileus differentiation system of mushrooms may allow the most effective diffusion of spores. Full expansion of the pileus is followed by pileus autolysis or senescence. In C. cinerea, pileus autolysis occurs during spore diffusion. Fruiting body senescence, browning of gill, and softening occur after harvesting in several mushroom species. Fruiting body induction, development, and maturation in mushroom-forming fungi are discussed in this review.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Using evolutionary genomics, transcriptomics, and systems biology to reveal gene networks underlying fungal development
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-03-02
    Zheng Wang, Aditya Gudibanda, Ugochukwu Ugwuowo, Frances Trail, Jeffrey P. Townsend
    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • The role of homeodomain transcription factors in fungal development
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-05-18
    Peter Jan Vonk, Robin A. Ohm

    The role of homeodomain (HD) transcription factors during development in animals is well established since the identification of the homeobox gene clusters. In the kingdom Fungi homeodomain genes also play a crucial role during multicellular development. They were first identified in mating type loci, which regulate sexual development. Later, other HD genes were shown to be involved in fruiting body development in several members of Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. In this review we describe recent research on HD transcription factors in fungi. An evolutionary framework is provided by reanalyzing 222 previously published fungal genomes to identify potential functions of HD transcription factors in multicellular development and fructification.

    更新日期:2019-02-26
  • Aphanomyces invadans, the causal agent of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome, is a global threat to wild and farmed fish
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-05-21
    Nurul Aqilah Iberahim, Franziska Trusch, Pieter van West

    Aphanomyces invadans is a eukaryotic pathogen and the causative agent of Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS) in fish and is responsible for mortalities of up to 100% in aquaculture. A. invadans was first discovered in Japan in 1971, and since then it has been found in Australia, North America, Southern African countries and Asia. Methods for the correct identification of A. invadans are well established now and involve PCR-based detection and microscopy. However, the pathogenesis of A. invadans is poorly understood. Environmental stress (mainly temperature) and the associated immunocompromised fish seem to induce infections of A. invadans and outbreaks of EUS. Understanding the process of infection in more depth is fundamental for the discovery of novel effective treatments to combat the disease. In this review, we discuss morphological characteristics of A. invadans and its pathogenicity as well as various approaches of treatment.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Some like it hot, some not – Tropical and arctic mushrooms
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-07-13
    Hans Halbwachs, Josef Simmel

    Fungi are of pivotal importance for terrestrial ecosystems. They occur globally and show extremely high species diversities. In this review, we compiled information about the adaptability of pileate basidiomycetes by illustrating their habits in contrasting biomes, the arctic regions and tropical lowland rainforests. Mushrooms are faced with differing stress factors and levels in the two ecozones. They fight such challenges by using, by and large, similar physiological and morphological toolkits. They make them fit for extreme environmental conditions, by expressing traits according to biome characteristics. This way, fungal assemblages are formed and pheno- and genotypic plasticity is capitalised. Still, many questions remain open and need further clarification, such as trade-offs between thermal protection and predator defence, prevailing dispersal modes in the main ecozones, interactions with animals and the mechanisms that create genetic plasticity.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Biological, biochemical and molecular aspects of Scedosporium aurantiacum, a primary and opportunistic fungal pathogen
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-04-04
    Helena Nevalainen, Jashanpreet Kaur, Zhiping Han, Liisa Kautto, Marc Ramsperger, Wieland Meyer, Sharon C.-A. Chen

    The present review summarises the current knowledge of the biology, biochemistry and molecular aspects of S. aurantiacum in context with the broader knowledge on Scedosporium spp, generated over the past decade. Recently, the genus has undergone two taxonomical reviews. S. aurantiacum is widely distributed in all ecological niches and geographical locations. It is a highly pathogenic opportunist capable of causing a broad range of diseases via infections occurring in the lungs, sinuses, eyes, bones, central nervous system and internal organs. While S. aurantiacum has a minor role in the colonisation of lungs in Germany and France, in Australia, it comprises approximately one-third of Scedosporium spp. recovered from cystic fibrosis lungs where it may co-exist with other prokaryotic lung inhabitants such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. However, very little is known about mixed bacterial–fungal interactions or host–fungal interactions in the lungs, all of which may have an impact on disease outcome. Also, the nature of potential virulence factors such as production of particular proteases would require more research. A wide range of molecular diagnostic techniques now available can facilitate rapid and accurate identification of Scedosporium spp. in clinical specimens and environmental samples. However, molecular tools allowing gene overexpression and knockout studies are yet to be fully developed. A draft genome is currently available for S. aurantiacum strain WM 09.24 (CBS136047), an Australian environmental isolate. The emerging genomic tools and metabolic and transcriptomic studies discussed will further advance understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of members of the genus Scedosporium, including S. aurantiacum.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Carotenoid pigments in rust fungi: Extraction, separation, quantification and characterisation
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-03-09
    Erpei Wang, Chongmei Dong, Robert F. Park, Thomas H. Roberts

    Diseases caused by rust fungi represent critical constraints to global plant production. A characteristic feature of rust pathogens is the striking pigments they produce in one or more spore forms, which give them a rusty appearance. Here, we review the literature published to date on the extraction, separation, quantification and characterisation of carotenoid pigments in rust fungi. These pigments are thought to protect rust fungi against UV radiation and oxidative stress, and possibly act as virulence factors. The yellow-orange colour of some rust species is due to carotenoid pigments. Four carotenoids have been found in rust fungi: phytoene, lycopene, γ-carotene and β-carotene, but their relative contributions to biological functions are largely unknown. Different pre-processes and storage of spore materials, as well as different extraction processes, have been applied in a wide range of investigations on rust spore pigments. We find that the value of the current literature on rust carotenoids for taxonomic diagnostics in understanding the evolution of pigment biosynthesis and in assessing their role in pathogenesis is limited. Re-investigation of rust carotenoid composition using modern analytical technologies is therefore critical to further these fields of research. Our review includes detailed guidance on choice of techniques for rust carotenoid experimental analyses.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • 更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Fungal cytochrome P450 protein Cyp51: What we can learn from its evolution, regulons and Cyp51-based azole resistance
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-05-25
    Jinxing Song, Shizhu Zhang, Ling Lu

    Cyp51 (Sterol 14α-demethylase) is the single cytochrome P450 (Cyp) required for sterol biosynthesis in different phyla. Among hundreds of P450 proteins, Cyp51 is evolutionarily the oldest P450 protein and is the only cytochrome P450 protein present in most biological kingdoms including fungi, bacteria, plants and animals. A valuable class of antifungals such as azoles, amphotericin B, specifically target the fungal Cyp51 (Erg11), a lanosterol demethylase that is critical for the specific component of the fungal plasma membrane ergosterol biosynthesis. However, pathogenic fungi worldwide have developed resistance to azoles, largely through mutations in the Cyp51/Erg11 protein. Structural studies have elucidated the resistance mechanisms associated with these mutations are mostly caused by decreased the binding affinity of the azoles to the Cyp51 protein and affect the stability of Cyp51 protein. In addition, the overexpression of the cyp51 gene will also increase azole resistance, which addresses the critical role of Cyp51 regulators. In this review, we explore the fungal Cyp51 from the evolution, regulation and the contribution of Cyp51 mutations to azole resistance aspects. Knowledge gained from Cyp51 research will benefit to develop novel Cyp51-based antifungals.

    更新日期:2018-11-29
  • Molecular dialogues between Trichoderma and roots: Role of the fungal secretome
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2018-01-19
    Artemio Mendoza-Mendoza, Rinat Zaid, Robert Lawry, Rosa Hermosa, Enrique Monte, Benjamin A. Horwitz, Prasun K. Mukherjee

    Trichoderma species are opportunistic fungi residing primarily in soil, tree bark and on wild mushrooms. Trichoderma is capable of killing other fungi and penetrating plant roots, and is commonly used as both a biofungicide and inducer of plant defence against pathogens. These fungi also exert other beneficial effects on plants including growth promotion and tolerance to abiotic stresses, primarily mediated by their intimate interactions with roots. In root–microbe interactions (both beneficial and harmful), fungal secreted proteins play a crucial role in establishing contact with the roots, fungal attachment, root penetration and triggering of plant responses. In Trichoderma–root interactions, the sucrose present in root exudates has been demonstrated to be important in fungal attraction. Attachment to roots is mediated by hydrophobin-like proteins, and secreted swollenins and plant cell wall degrading enzymes facilitate internalization of the fungal hyphae. During the early stage of penetration, suppression of plant defence is vital to successful initial root colonisation; this is mediated by small soluble cysteine-rich secreted proteins (effector-like proteins). Up to this stage, Trichoderma's behaviour is similar to that of a plant pathogen invading root structures. However, subsequent events like oxidative bursts, the synthesis of salicylic acid by the plants, and secretion of elicitor-like proteins by Trichoderma spp. differentiate this fungus from pathogens. These processes induce immunity in plants that help counter subsequent invasion by plant pathogens and insects. In this review, we present an inventory of soluble secreted proteins from Trichoderma that might play an active role in beneficial Trichoderma–plant interactions, and review the function of such proteins where known.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • LOVe across kingdoms: Blue light perception vital for growth and development in plant–fungal interactions
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-12-16
    Johan Liversage, Martin P.A. Coetzee, Burt H. Bluhm, Dave K. Berger, Bridget G. Crampton
    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Warfare and defense: The host response to Cryptococcus infection
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-10-05
    Fabianno F. Dutra, Priscila C. Albuquerque, Marcio L. Rodrigues, Fernanda L. Fonseca

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gatti are the etiological agents of cryptococcosis, a life-threatening mycosis affecting the central nervous system. Cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is the most fatal mycosis in AIDS patients, resulting almost 200 000 deaths annually. High cost, side effects and drug resistance are constant elements during treatment of cryptococcosis, encouraging the development of novel therapeutic strategies including immunomodulatory protocols. Thereby, to understand how the host responds to Cryptococcus is essential. In this review, we discuss the immune response against Cryptococcus and immunoevasion strategies.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • What has happened to the “aquatic phycomycetes” (sensu Sparrow)? Part II: Shared properties of zoosporic true fungi and fungus-like microorganisms
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-11-06
    Frank H. Gleason, Osu Lilje, Lene Lange

    Many species of zoosporic heterotrophic parasites, saprotrophs and mutualists in the Phyla Perkinsozoa (dinoflagellates), Oomycota, Hyphochytriomycota, Labyrinthulomycota and Phyomyxea share morphological characteristics with zoosporic true fungi especially with some of the Chytridiomycota and with fungus-like organisms in the Phyla Mesomycetozoea, Chytridiomycota and Aphelidae. These characteristics include chemotactic motile zoospores, zoosporangia which produce zoospores, thick walled resistant cysts, rhizoid-like structures, hyphal-like structures and cell walls surrounding the cells in several phases of their life cycle. These assemblages also inhabit both marine and freshwater ecosystems in which aquatic fungi and fungus-like organisms are found, have similar life cycles, grow on similar substrates, use similar infection strategies and infect some of the same host plants and animals. Many of these species were once included in the aquatic phycomycetes, an ecological assemblage of microorganisms but not a valid taxonomic group. Some of the shared characteristics are discussed in this review.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Fungal species and their boundaries matter – Definitions, mechanisms and practical implications
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-12-18
    Emma T. Steenkamp, Michael J. Wingfield, Alistair R. McTaggart, Brenda D. Wingfield

    Recent scientific and technological advances have improved and streamlined our ability to recognise and describe fungal species. Detailed comparative genomics studies have also expanded our understanding of species boundaries. Against this background, we explore the nature of fungal species and consider how this impacts our understanding of their genetics and evolution. The current body of evidence suggests that fungal species are unique evolutionary units that are separated from one another by boundaries that are “porous” under certain conditions (“semipermeable” in analogy to the differential permeability of membranes). Overall, the penetrability of these boundaries depends on the relatedness between donor and recipient species, the spatial proximity of related species to one another during their evolution, and the evolutionary potential associated with the breach of a boundary. Furthermore, the semipermeable nature of species boundaries fundamentally affects the population genetics of a species, with potentially profound effects on its overall evolution and biology. This also influences the methodologies used in taxonomy, because some species appear capable of maintaining their genetic isolation despite extensive penetrability of their boundaries. Most analytical procedures are also not able to distinguish the signals of species boundary permeability from those associated with incomplete lineage sorting or intraspecific diversity. Collectively, these issues greatly complicate how we study and name fungi. An awareness of the nature of species, their boundaries and the biological and genomic signatures of boundary breaches, will enhance our ability to identify them and, perhaps more importantly, to develop realistic strategies to manage and manipulate their growth and distribution.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Current updates on fungal endocarditis
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-11-28
    Neema Negi, Aijaz Ahmad

    Fungal endocarditis (FE) is a rare disease but in recent years its incidence as well as mortality is increasing particularly in developing nations. Candida and Aspergillus species occupy the prominent position as etiological agents of this invasive disease. Intravenous devices such as pacemakers, central line related thrombosis and prolonged use of antibiotics are major risk factors for FE. The epidemiology of endocarditis cases is also evolving over time with exceptionally rare species causing more invasive disease. Research over the last decade has also delineated the underlying pathogenic mechanism of FE. Improved understanding of these mechanisms will help to combat the increasing problem of antimicrobial drug resistance. The diagnosis of FE is dependent on the sensitivity and specificity of the method as fungi generally do not grow well in blood cultures. More advanced techniques including molecular and immunological assays now play a central role in accurate identification of causative fungal pathogens especially in culture negative scenario. In developing nations such as India, blood culture reports are generally negative due to prior antibiotic therapy. Echocardiography has emerged as the potential imaging technique for identifying invasive endocarditis including small masses of vegetation or abscess. Successful treatment often requires both the surgical interventions and prolonged antifungal therapy. In the present review, we briefly highlight the mechanisms of pathogenesis of this rare emerging disease along with the risk factors involved, the diagnostic criteria and the treatment strategy.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Epigenetic determinants of phenotypic plasticity in Candida albicans
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Laxmi Shanker Rai, Rima Singha, Priya Brahma, Kaustuv Sanyal

    Epigenetics literally means heritable changes in gene expression without any modification in the DNA sequence. The field of epigenetics is revolutionising our understanding of basic fundamental principles behind the normal development and the diseased state of an individual. However, chromatin modifications during infection, wherein the pathogen interacts with its host, received comparatively little attention. Nevertheless, the role of epigenetics in the establishment of infectious diseases by breaching the host defense system is an emerging area of research. Epigenetic regulation impacts differentiation and expression of virulence attributes of a pathogen. For example, antigenic variations in parasites such as Giardia lamblia and Plasmodium falciparum are epigenetically determined. Similarly, chromatin modifying elements have been implicated in fungal morphogenesis and virulence. In particular, chromatin modifying enzymes including histone methyl transferases (KMTs), histone acetyl transferases (KATs), and histone deacetylases (KDACs) have been shown to epigenetically modulate pathogenicity of the human opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans. The significance of chromatin modifications has the potential for explaining the mechanistic basis for distinct lifestyles of the fungus. In this review, we summarize the existing body of evidence that emphasizes the importance of various chromatin modulations involved in providing phenotypic plasticity of the medically important fungal pathogen C. albicans.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • The role of anaerobic fungi in fundamental biogeochemical cycles in the deep biosphere
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-11-02
    Henrik Drake, Magnus Ivarsson

    A major part of the biologic activity on Earth is hidden underneath our feet in an environment coined the deep biosphere which stretches several kilometers down into the bedrock. The knowledge about life in this vast energy-poor deep system is, however, extremely scarce, particularly for micro-eukaryotes such as fungi, as most studies have focused on prokaryotes. Recent findings suggest that anaerobic fungi indeed thrive at great depth in fractures and cavities of igneous rocks in both the oceanic and the continental crust. Here we discuss the potential importance of fungi in the deep biosphere, in particular their involvement in fundamental biogeochemical processes such as symbiotic relationships with prokaryotes that may have significant importance for the overall energy cycling within this vast subsurface realm. Due to severe oligotrophy, the prokaryotic metabolism at great depth in the crust is very slow and dominantly autotrophic and thus dependent on e.g. hydrogen gas, but the abiotic production of this gas is thought to be insufficient to fuel the deep autotrophic biosphere. Anaerobic fungi are heterotrophs that produce hydrogen gas in their metabolism and have therefore been put forward as a hypothetical provider of this substrate to the prokaryotes. Recent in situ findings of fungi and isotopic signatures within co-genetic sulfide minerals formed from bacterial sulfate reduction in the deep continental biosphere indeed seem to confirm the fungi-prokaryote hypothesis. This suggests that fungi play a fundamental biogeochemical role in the deep biosphere.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • What has happened to the “aquatic phycomycetes” (sensu Sparrow)? Part I: A brief historical perspective
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-10-24
    Frank H. Gleason, Agostina V. Marano, Osu Lilje, Lene Lange

    The “aquatic phycomycetes” constitute an ecologically and economically important assemblage of eukaryotic microorganisms, because they share many morphological traits and important ecological functions and they interact with each other in aquatic ecosystems. The last two decades of research have provided both molecular and structural evidence that the “aquatic phycomycetes” are a diverse, polyphyletic grouping and therefore not a valid taxonomic entity. Very little research has been conducted for many years with the “aquatic phycomycetes”, possibly because in general these microorganisms are often hard to isolate and maintain in most laboratory facilities, little background data has been available to identify the species, the studies were time consuming, the state of the art technology in many cases did not permit studies on these groups and they were thought to be economically and ecologically unimportant. However, this perception has changed recently. For example, some of these species (1) are now known to play important roles in biomass conversion and sequestration of CO2, (2) are parasites of many fungal, plant and animal species, (3) may harbor genes of important enzymes for industrial applications and (4) can serve as indicator species for eco-tox monitoring. This review discusses the assemblages of microorganisms which Sparrow placed into the aquatic phycomycetes, their history in brief and their current phylogenetic placement.

    更新日期:2018-07-12
  • Armed and dangerous – Chemical warfare in wood decay communities
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-08-18
    Jennifer Hiscox, Lynne Boddy

    Fungal community structure and development in decaying woody resources are largely dependent on interspecific antagonistic interactions that determine the distribution of territory – and hence the nutrients within – between different individuals occupying that resource. Interactions are mediated by antagonistic mechanisms, which determine the combative outcome: either deadlock, where neither mycelium loses any territory, or replacement, where one mycelium displaces the other. These mechanisms function aggressively and/or defensively, and include changes in primary metabolism and growth, as well as secondary metabolite production and stress mitigation responses. This chemical warfare may occur as a constitutive defence through modification of the territory occupied by an individual, and the deposition of antimicrobial compounds within. Following detection of a competitor, the metabolite and enzymic profile of a mycelium alters both qualitatively and quantitatively, and different mechanisms may be stimulated when confronted with different competitors. Biotic and abiotic factors, even small alterations, can affect the deployment of these antagonistic mechanisms, altering the general hierarchy of combative ability between species and making it impossible to predict outcomes with certainty. Here we explore recent advances in our understanding of combative interactions between wood decayers, and explain why future research priorities involving the application of emerging biochemical and molecular technologies must focus on interactions in more ecologically realistic and meaningful scenarios.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Biotechnological use of Candida yeasts in the food industry: A review
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-07-22
    Marek Kieliszek, Anna M. Kot, Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Stanisław BŁażejak, Iwona Gientka, Agnieszka Kurcz

    Yeasts of the Candida genus comprise a group of microbes with a significant potential for industrial use. This work presents some directions for biotechnological use of these microbes. The first includes utilization of biomass of Candida utilis yeasts as a source of microbial proteins, rich in exogenous amino acids, including lysine. Biomass of Candida yeasts is also a source of β-glucans, glucomannan, and mannoproteins with anti-genotoxic, anti-neoplastic, and antioxidative properties. Candida yeast cells may collect and accumulate elements from their cultivation medium, often in amounts exceeding their natural demand, forming bioplexes, for example, with selenium or magnesium. Thanks to these properties, biomasses of these yeasts may provide a fully valuable additive to feedstocks. The second direction of biotechnological use of Candida yeasts is related to the production of extracellular metabolites such as citric acid, ethanol, xylitol, erythritol, biosurfactants, and exopolysaccharides. These substances are used in the food processing industry, the pharmaceutical industry, and the cosmetic industry.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Which MAT gene? Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota) mating-type gene nomenclature reconsidered
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-07-02
    P. Markus Wilken, Emma T. Steenkamp, Michael J. Wingfield, Z. Wilhelm de Beer, Brenda D. Wingfield

    Filamentous fungi in the subdivision Pezizomycotina (Ascomycota) display an impressive diversity of mating strategies. These mating systems are all controlled by the mating-type (MAT) genes, some of which are conserved, even among distantly related genera. In order to facilitate effective communication between researchers, a system was established in 2000 to name these genes and this has subsequently been widely applied. However, due to the rapid growth in the number of described MAT genes in the Pezizomycotina, an evaluation of the manner in which the nomenclature system has been applied is warranted and revisions should be considered. We address this challenge by doing a systematic review of the nomenclature associated with the MAT1 locus and its associated genes described in the Pezizomycotina. Several problems in the application of the nomenclature system were identified and addressed. These included proposed revisions of the nomenclature system to provide a more accurate description of the mating-type genes. We anticipate that this review will reduce confusion and that it will be useful in future characterisation of mating-type genes.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Occurrence of indoor wood decay basidiomycetes in Europe
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Jiří Gabriel, Karel Švec

    Brown-rot fungi are considered to be the most important wood-inhabiting fungi economically, as they also deteriorate the wood that has been used in buildings. In the northern hemisphere, coniferous wood is the main source of interior structural timber. White-rot fungi, which degrade lignin and preferentially attack hardwood, are less common. Emphasis is usually placed on Serpula lacrymans or Coniophora puteana, which are the most common indoor basidiomycetes found in buildings in Europe. In this review, we summarize available data on the occurrence of wood decay fungi in the Czech Republic, Poland, Germany (both former East and West), Belgium, France, Norway, Denmark, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, Romania and Albania reported in the past few decades. The total number of occurrences was near 20,000; original data were collected between 1946 and 2008. The most abundant basidiomycetes were S. lacrymans and C. puteana, with the exception of Norway, where the genus Antrodia was the most frequent.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Antifungal activities of wood extractives
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-02-15
    Nicolas Valette, Thomas Perrot, Rodnay Sormani, Eric Gelhaye, Mélanie Morel-Rouhier

    Extractives are non-structural wood molecules that represent a minor fraction in wood. However, they are source of diverse molecules putatively bioactive. Inhibition of fungal growth is one of the most interesting properties of wood extractives in a context of wood preservation, crop protection or medical treatments. The antifungal effect of molecules isolated from wood extractives has been mainly attributed to various mechanisms such as metal and free radical scavenging activity, direct interaction with enzymes, disruption of membrane integrity and perturbation of ionic homeostasis. Lignolytic fungi, which are microorganisms adapted to wood substrates, have developed various strategies to protect themselves against this toxicity. A better knowledge of these strategies could help both developing new systems for extractive removal in biomass valorization processes and using these molecules as antifungal agents.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • The next generation fungal diversity researcher
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-03-23
    Martin Grube, Ester Gaya, Håvard Kauserud, Adrian M. Smith, Simon V. Avery, Sara J. Fernstad, Lucia Muggia, Michael D. Martin, Tove Eivindsen, Urmas Kõljalg, Mika Bendiksby

    Fungi are more important to our lives than is assumed by the general public. They can comprise both devastating pathogens and plant-associated mutualists in nature, and several species have also become important workhorses of biotechnology. Fungal diversity research has in a short time transcended from a low-tech research area to a method-intensive high-tech discipline. With the advent of the new genomic and post-genomic methodologies, large quantities of new fungal data are currently becoming available each year. Whilst these new data and methodologies may help modern fungal diversity researchers to explore and discover the yet hidden diversity within a context of biological processes and organismal diversity, they need to be reconciled with the traditional approaches. Such a synthesis is actually difficult to accomplish given the current discouraging situation of fungal biology education, especially in the areas of biodiversity and taxonomic research. The number of fungal diversity researchers and taxonomists in academic institutions is decreasing, as are opportunities for mycological education in international curricula. How can we educate and stimulate students to pursue a career in fungal diversity research and taxonomy and avoid the situation whereby only those few institutions with strong financial support are able to conduct excellent research? Our short answer is that we need a combination of increased specialization and increased collaboration, i.e. that scientists with specialized expertise (e.g., in data generation, compilation, interpretation, and communication) consistently work together to generate and deliver new fungal knowledge in a more integrative manner – closing the gap between both traditional and modern approaches and academic and non-academic environments. Here we discuss how this perspective could be implemented in the training of the ‘next generation fungal diversity researcher’.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Large-scale genomic analyses of in vitro yeast-mycelium dimorphism in human, insect and plant pathogenic fungi: From ESTs to RNAseq experiments
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-05-05
    M. Nigg, L. Bernier

    Yeast-mycelium fungal dimorphism is a complex trait studied for many years, particularly in pathogenic fungi for which the morphological switch is often associated with virulence. It is a characteristic shared by many species from very different taxonomic classes. In this review, we present 26 dimorphic fungal species which are pathogens of mammals, insects or plants. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate the morphological switch from yeast to mycelium, or vice-versa, is necessary for the comprehension of virulence. In the last two decades, the development of genome-scale transcriptomic analysis techniques such as Expressed Sequence Tags, DNA microarrays and total messenger RNA sequencing has accelerated the discovery of genes and gene networks that control biological processes. We briefly discuss the three different large-scale transcriptomic techniques, their advantages and disadvantages, and we further detail the studies that used them on seven fungal species in order to understand dimorphism. We compiled the main processes highlighted in these studies and found interesting overlaps with potential conserved molecular regulatory mechanisms among species. With next-generation sequencing technologies becoming increasingly affordable to investigators worldwide, we expect that more exhaustive transcriptomic studies of dimorphism will soon be conducted on a broader range of pathogens including many non-model species.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Climate change, food security and mycotoxins: Do we know enough?
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-05-18
    Angel Medina, Asya Akbar, Alaa Baazeem, Alicia Rodriguez, Naresh Magan

    Climate change (CC) scenarios are predicted to have significant effects on the security of staple commodities. A key component of this impact is the infection of such crops by mycotoxigenic moulds and contamination with mycotoxins. The impacts of CC on mycotoxigenic fungi requires examination of the impacts of the three-way interactions between elevated CO2 (350–400 vs 650–1200 ppm), temperature increases (+2–5 °C) and drought stress on growth/mycotoxin production by key spoilage fungi in cereals and nuts. This review examines the available evidence on the impacts of interacting CC factors on growth and mycotoxin production by key mycotoxigenic fungi including Alternaria, Aspergillus, Fusarium and Penicillium species. Aspergillus flavus responsible for producing aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a class 1A carcinogen and its growth appears to be unaffected by CC factors. However, there is a significant stimulation of AFB1 production both in vitro and in vivo in maize. In contrast, studies on Aspergillus section Circumdati and Nigri species responsible for ochratoxin A contamination of a range of commodities and F. verticillioides and fumonisins suggest that some species are more resilient than others, especially in terms of mycotoxin production. Acclimatisation of mycotoxigenic fungal pathogens to CC factors may result in increased disease and perhaps mycotoxin contamination of staple cereals. Predictive modelling approaches to help identify regions where maximum impact may occur in terms of infection by mycotoxigenic fungi and toxin contamination of staple crops is hindered by the lack of reliable inputs on effects of the interacting CC factors. The present available knowledge is discussed in the context of the resilience of staple food chains and the impact that interacting CC factors may have on the availability of food in the future.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Life styles of Colletotrichum species and implications for plant biosecurity
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-06-20
    Dilani D. De Silva, Pedro W. Crous, Peter K. Ades, Kevin D. Hyde, Paul W.J. Taylor

    Colletotrichum is a genus of major plant pathogens causing anthracnose diseases in many plant crops worldwide. The genus comprises a highly diverse group of pathogens that infect a wide range of plant hosts. The life styles of Colletotrichum species can be broadly categorised as necrotrophic, hemibiotrophic, latent or quiescent and endophytic; of which hemibiotrophic is the most common. The differences in life style depend on the Colletotrichum species, the host species, the physiological maturity of the host and environmental conditions. Thus, the genus Colletotrichum provides a unique opportunity for analysing different life style patterns and features underlying a diverse range of plant–pathogen interactions. This review describes the various modes of life styles of Colletotrichum species, the underlying mechanisms of infection and colonisation, and implications the life styles have for plant biosecurity. Knowledge of life styles of Colletotrichum species will enable the development of improved diagnostics and application of integrated disease control methods to mitigate the risk of incursion of exotic Colletotrichum species.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
  • Aerobic and anaerobic fungal metabolism and Omics insights for increasing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons biodegradation
    Fungal Biol. Rev. (IF 5.563) Pub Date : 2017-01-13
    Sevcan Aydin, Hatice Aygün Karaçay, Aiyoub Shahi, Selen Gökçe, Bahar Ince, Orhan Ince

    During the 19th century, increasing human activity followed by great use of fossil fuels and the production of manifold aromatics including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) induced the generation of aromatic end-products. PAH are toxic to human health since they have been classified as pollutants and may reduce the biodiversity of natural ecosystems. They may form extensive global contaminants which pose a threat to entire world. This study focuses on summarizes recent information of PAHs biodegradation by aerobic and anaerobic fungi. Such information develops a new point of view on how organic molecules including PAHs are metabolically degraded in a complicated ecosystem and assists the foundation of new decontamination strategies due to the microbial interactions between fungi and their associates. Emerging integrative approaches including metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metabolomics, and metaproteomics are studied in order to understand how these approaches give insight into decipher the molecular mechanisms of degradation of PAHs by fungi at the single species and community levels.

    更新日期:2018-06-03
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