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  • A titanic drug resistance threat in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Hanna Zafar, Sophie Altamirano, Elizabeth R Ballou, Kirsten Nielsen

    Increasing resistance to frontline antifungals is a growing threat to global health. In the face of high rates of relapse for patients with cryptococcal meningitis and frequent drug resistance in clinical isolates, recent insights into Cryptococcus neoformans morphogenesis and genome plasticity take on new and urgent meaning. Here we review the state of the understanding of mechanisms of drug resistance in the context of host-relevant changes in Cryptococcus morphology and cell ploidy.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Candida albicans biofilm growth and dispersal: contributions to pathogenesis
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Gina Wall, Daniel Montelongo-Jauregui, Bruna Vidal Bonifacio, Jose L Lopez-Ribot, Priya Uppuluri

    The fungal species Candida albicans is most frequently associated with biofilm formation in immune-compromised and medically compromised patients, and it is now firmly established that biofilm formation represents a major virulence factor during candidiasis. A growing body of evidence has demonstrated that C. albicans biofilm development is a highly regulated and coordinated process, where adhesive interactions, morphogenetic conversions, and consortial behavior play significant roles. Cells within the biofilms are protected from environmental stresses including host immune defenses and antifungal treatment, which carries important clinical consequences for the treatment of biofilm-associated infections. Dispersal of cells from biofilms represents one of the hallmarks of the biofilm life-style, and in the case of C. albicans dispersed cells are responsible for candidemia and dissemination leading to the establishment of invasive disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Connecting iron regulation and mitochondrial function in Cryptococcus neoformans
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-11
    Linda C Horianopoulos, James W Kronstad
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Host defense mechanisms against Aspergillus fumigatus lung colonization and invasion
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Joseph J Mackel, Chad Steele

    The human lung is continually exposed to airborne conidia of the fungus Aspergillus fumigatus (AF) and related species. The innate immune system efficiently eliminates inhaled AF conidia from the lung in normal individuals, but immunocompromised patients are at risk for highly lethal invasive aspergillosis (IA). Some individuals not at risk for IA may still suffer from failed clearance of AF in the form of noninvasive colonization associated with conditions such as allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis. Understanding of normal innate immune function against AF as well as failures of these functions will enable better treatment of these patient groups. In this review, we will focus on recent research that elucidates mechanisms of host defense and their failures resulting in colonization as well as tissue invasion.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The role of Aspergillus fumigatus polysaccharides in host–pathogen interactions
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-20
    Caitlin A Zacharias, Donald C Sheppard

    Aspergillus fumigatus is a saprophytic mold that can cause infection in patients with impaired immunity or chronic lung diseases. The polysaccharide-rich cell wall of this fungus is a key point of contact with the host immune system. The availability of purified cell wall polysaccharides and mutant strains deficient in the production of these glycans has revealed that these glycans play an important role in the pathogenesis of A. fumigatus infections. Herein, we review our current understanding of the key polysaccharides present within the A. fumigatus cell wall, and their interactions with host cells and secreted factors during infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • 更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The intersection of host and fungus through the zinc lens
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-24
    Duncan Wilson, George S Deepe

    In this review, we summarize data regarding the influence of zinc on host defenses to human pathogenic fungi and how the fungus acquires zinc to sustain biological functions. Mammals have evolved several extracellular and intracellular mechanisms to withhold zinc from the fungus. Specific immune cells release zinc binding proteins such as calprotectin to capture the metal and deny it to the fungus. Intracellularly, several zinc binding proteins such as metallothioneins starve the fungus of zinc. The net result in both situations is depriving the fungus of a crucial micronutrient. To combat this struggle, fungi have developed means to capture zinc and store it. The mechanisms of transport for various fungi are discussed herein.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Mechanisms of genome evolution in Candida albicans
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Iuliana V Ene, Richard J Bennett, Matthew Z Anderson

    The fungus Candida albicans exists as a prevalent commensal and an important opportunistic pathogen that can infect multiple niches of its human host. Recent studies have examined the diploid genome of C. albicans by performing both short-term microevolution studies and comparative genomics on collections of clinical isolates. Common mechanisms driving genome dynamics include accumulation of point mutations, loss of heterozygosity (LOH) events, large-scale chromosomal rearrangements, and even ploidy change, with important consequences for both drug resistance and host adaptation. Evidence for recombination between C. albicans lineages also highlights a role for (para)sex in shaping the species population structure. Ongoing work will continue to define the contributions of genome evolution to phenotypic variation and the role of host pressures in driving adaptive processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Candida albicans dwelling in the mammalian gut
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-25
    J Christian Pérez

    The yeast Candida albicans inhabits the gastrointestinal tract of most healthy adults, seemingly living there as a harmless commensal. The fungus on occasion disseminates from the gut to other internal organs causing life-threatening infections. Here, I review some of the most exciting advances in the study of gut colonization by C. albicans in the last few years. These developments highlight the close interplay between C. albicans and cohabiting microbes, the responses that commensal fungi elicit from the mammalian host, and the genetic determinants that allow the fungus to thrive in such a crowded and demanding ecosystem.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Fantastic yeasts and where to find them: the hidden diversity of dimorphic fungal pathogens
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Marley C Caballero Van Dyke, Marcus M Teixeira, Bridget M Barker

    Dimorphic fungal pathogens are a significant cause of human disease worldwide. Notably, the dimorphic fungal pathogens within the order Onygenales are considered primary pathogens, causing disease in healthy hosts. Current changes in taxonomy are underway due to advances in molecular phylogenetics, population genetics, and new emerging dimorphic fungal pathogens causing human disease. In this review, we highlight evolutionary relationships of dimorphic fungal pathogens that cause human disease within the order Onygenales and provide rationale to support increased investment in studies understanding the evolutionary relationships of these pathogens to improve rapid diagnostics, help identify mechanisms of antifungal resistance, understand adaptation to human host, and factors associated with virulence.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Global epidemiology of emerging Candida auris
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-03
    Johanna Rhodes, Matthew C Fisher

    The discovery in 2009 of a new species of yeast, Candida auris, heralded the arrival of a novel emerging human infectious disease. This review highlights the unique characteristics of C. auris that have lled to it being of public health concern worldwide, namely public health concern, namely its global emergence, its ability to cause nosocomial outbreaks in healthcare settings, its innate and emerging resistance to multiple antifungal drugs and its resilience in the face of hygiene and infection control measures. Genomic epidemiology has identified four emergences of C. auris marked by four clades of the pathogen. These clades of C. auris are genetically dissimilar and are associated with differential resistance to antifungal drugs, suggesting that they will continue to phenotypically diverge into the future. The global emergence of C. auris testifies to the unmapped nature of Kingdom Fungi, and represents a new nosocomial threat that will require enhanced infection control across diverse healthcare and community settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Heme-iron acquisition in fungi
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-29
    Udita Roy, Daniel Kornitzer
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Extracellular vesicles of human pathogenic fungi
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-04
    Ewa Bielska, Robin C May

    Extracellular vesicles play a significant role in many aspects of cellular life including cell-to-cell communication, pathogenesis and cancer progression. However very little is known about their role in fungi and we are just at the beginning of understanding their influence on fungal pathophysiology and host–pathogen interactions. Recent findings have revealed a role for fungal vesicles in triggering anti-microbial activities as well as in modulating virulence strategies, suggesting potential new avenues for antifungal therapies. In this review, we summarize our current understanding of fungal extracellular vesicles, including their biogenesis, secretion and size variation, and discuss how they may influence the human immune response and some key questions that remain unanswered.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Molecular regulation of Histoplasma dimorphism
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Anita Sil

    Temperature serves as a fundamental signal in biological systems. In some microbial pathogens of humans, mammalian body temperature triggers establishment and maintenance of a developmental program that allows the microbe to survive and thrive in the host. Histoplasma capsulatum is one of a group of fungal pathogens called thermally dimorphic fungi, all of which respond to mammalian body temperature by converting from an environmental mold form that inhabits the soil into a parasitic form that causes disease in the host. It has been known for decades that temperature is a key signal that is sufficient to trigger the switch from the soil to host form (and vice versa) in the laboratory. Recent molecular studies have identified a number of key regulators that are required to specify each of the developmental forms in response to temperature. Here we review the regulatory circuits that govern temperature-dependent dimorphism in Histoplasma.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Candidalysin: discovery and function in Candida albicans infections
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-06
    Julian R Naglik, Sarah L Gaffen, Bernhard Hube

    Candidalysin is a cytolytic peptide toxin secreted by the invasive form of the human pathogenic fungus, Candida albicans. Candidalysin is critical for mucosal and systemic infections and is a key driver of host cell activation, neutrophil recruitment and Type 17 immunity. Candidalysin is regarded as the first true classical virulence factor of C. albicans but also triggers protective immune responses. This review will discuss how candidalysin was discovered, the mechanisms by which this peptide toxin contributes to C. albicans infections, and how its discovery has advanced our understanding of fungal pathogenesis and disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Genome and transcriptome analyses of Leishmania spp.: opening Pandora’s box
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-15
    Angela Kaysel Cruz, Felipe Freitas-Castro
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Inflammasomes and Leishmania: in good times or bad, in sickness or in health
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Dario S Zamboni, David L Sacks

    The inflammasomes are multi-molecular platforms that are activated in host cell cytoplasm when the innate immune cells are infected with pathogens or exposed to damage signals. Many independent groups reported that Leishmania infection trigger activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in macrophages for restriction of intracellular parasite replication. Accordingly, Leishmania can dampen NLRP3 activation as an evasion strategy. In vivo, the NLRP3 inflammasome can promote parasite clearance, but the failure to eliminate parasites in the tissues together with sustained inflammasome activation can promote IL-1β-mediated disease pathology. In this review, we discuss the recent data regarding activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in response to Leishmania and the beneficial and detrimental effects of the inflammasome during development of Leishmaniasis.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The impact of arginase activity on virulence factors of Leishmania amazonensis
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-12
    Juliana Ide Aoki, Maria Fernanda Laranjeira-Silva, Sandra Marcia Muxel, Lucile Maria Floeter-Winter
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Intracellular protozoan parasites: living probes of the host cell surface molecular repertoire
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Georgios Pavlou, Geneviève Milon, Isabelle Tardieux

    Intracellular protozoans co-evolved with their mammalian host cells a range of strategies to cope with the composite and dynamic cell surface features they encounter during migration and infection. Therefore, these single-celled eukaryotic parasites represent a fascinating source of living probes for precisely capturing the dynamic coupling between the membrane and contractile cortex components of the cell surface. Such biomechanical changes drive a constant re-sculpting of the host cell surface, enabling rapid adjustments that contribute to cellular homeostasis. As emphasized in this review, through the design of specific molecular devices and stratagems to interfere with the biomechanics of the mammalian cell surface these parasitic microbes escape from dangerous or unfavourable microenvironments by breaching host cell membranes, directing the membrane repair machinery to wounded membrane areas, or minimizing membrane assault using discretion and speed when invading host cells for sustained residence.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Timescales of gut microbiome dynamics.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Brandon H Schlomann,Raghuveer Parthasarathy

    Vast communities of microorganisms inhabit the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals. Understanding their initial development, fluctuations in composition, stability over long times, and responses to transient perturbations - in other words their dynamics - is important both for gaining basic insights into these ecosystems and for rationally manipulating them for therapeutic ends. Gut microbiome dynamics, however, remain poorly understood. We review here studies of gut microbiome dynamics in the presence and absence of external perturbations, noting especially the long timescales associated with overall stability and the short timescales associated with various underlying biological processes. Integrating these disparate timescales, we suggest, is an important goal for future work and is necessary for developing a predictive understanding of microbiome dynamics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Engineering enzymatic assembly lines to produce new antibiotics.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Kenan Aj Bozhüyük,Jason Micklefield,Barrie Wilkinson

    Numerous important therapeutic agents, including widely-used antibiotics, anti-cancer drugs, immunosuppressants, agrochemicals and other valuable compounds, are produced by microorganisms. Many of these are biosynthesised by modular enzymatic assembly line polyketide synthases, non-ribosomal peptide synthetases, and hybrids thereof. To alter the backbone structure of these valuable but difficult to modify compounds, the respective enzymatic machineries can be engineered to create even more valuable molecules with improved properties and/or to bypass resistance mechanisms. In the past, many attempts to achieve assembly line pathway engineering failed or led to enzymes with compromised activity. Recently our understanding of assembly line structural biology, including an appreciation of the conformational changes that occur during the catalytic cycle, have improved hugely. This has proven to be a driving force for new approaches and several recent examples have demonstrated the production of new-to-nature molecules, including anti-infectives. We discuss the developments of the last few years and highlight selected, illuminating examples of assembly line engineering.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Natural products discovery and potential for new antibiotics.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Olga Genilloud

    Microbial natural products have been one of the most important sources for the discovery of potential new antibiotics. However, the decline in the number of new chemical scaffolds discovered and the rediscovery problem of old known molecules has become a limitation for discovery programs developed by an industry confronted by a lack of incentives and a broken economic model. In contrast, the emergence of multidrug resistance in key pathogens has continued to progress and this issue is compounded by a lack of new antibiotics in development to address most of the difficult to treat infections. Advances in genome mining have confirmed the richness of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in the majority of microbial sources, and this suggests that an untapped chemical diversity is waiting to be discovered. The development of new genome engineering and synthetic biology tools, and the implementation of comparative omic approaches is fostering the development of new integrated culture-based strategies and genomic-driven approaches aimed at delivering new chemical classes of antibiotics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antibiotics: past, present and future.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Matt Hutchings,Andrew Truman,Barrie Wilkinson

    The first antibiotic, salvarsan, was deployed in 1910. In just over 100 years antibiotics have drastically changed modern medicine and extended the average human lifespan by 23 years. The discovery of penicillin in 1928 started the golden age of natural product antibiotic discovery that peaked in the mid-1950s. Since then, a gradual decline in antibiotic discovery and development and the evolution of drug resistance in many human pathogens has led to the current antimicrobial resistance crisis. Here we give an overview of the history of antibiotic discovery, the major classes of antibiotics and where they come from. We argue that the future of antibiotic discovery looks bright as new technologies such as genome mining and editing are deployed to discover new natural products with diverse bioactivities. We also report on the current state of antibiotic development, with 45 drugs currently going through the clinical trials pipeline, including several new classes with novel modes of action that are in phase 3 clinical trials. Overall, there are promising signs for antibiotic discovery, but changes in financial models are required to translate scientific advances into clinically approved antibiotics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antibiotic discovery through microbial interactions.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-26
    Chengxi Zhang,Paul D Straight

    Microorganisms produce biologically active natural products, some of which are useful as antibiotics and other medicines. A great demand for new antibiotics exists due to the diversity of pathogens and their mechanisms of drug resistance. Antibiotics were discovered as natural metabolites that enable a microorganism to suppress the growth of a competitor. Although the pace of discovery has slowed dramatically, new approaches to identifying antibiotics show promise for the future. Among many modern approaches to discovery, co-culturing different species and understanding the molecular bases of their interactions is opening new windows to antibiotic discovery. Here we review several examples to illustrate how co-culturing as an approach is producing new insights into the biology of specialized metabolism. Understanding the varied functions of specialized metabolites, combined with use of innovative and advanced analytical tools, indicates that studies of microbial interactions will enhance the discovery of new antibiotics and other natural products.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Environmental and clinical antibiotic resistomes, same only different.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-23
    Gerard D Wright

    The history of antibiotic use in the clinic is one of initial efficacy followed inevitably by the emergence of resistance. Often this resistance is the result of the capture and mobilization of genes that have their origins in environmental reservoirs. Both antibiotic production and resistance are ancient and widely distributed among microbes in the environment. This deep reservoir of resistance offers the opportunity for gene flow into susceptible disease-causing bacteria. Not all resistance genes are equally successfully mobilized, and some dominate in the clinic. The differences and similarities in resistance mechanisms and associated genes among environments reveal a complex interplay between gene capture and mobilization that requires study of gene diversity and gene product function to fully understand the breadth and depth of resistance and the risk to human health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The evolution and transmission of multi-drug resistant Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae: the complexity of clones and plasmids.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Steven J Dunn,Christopher Connor,Alan McNally

    The vast majority of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from human clinical extra-intestinal infections are now multi-drug resistant (MDR). Extended Spectrum Beta Lactamase (ESBL) carriage in clinical isolates of these bacteria is now commonplace, and carriage of carbapenemases is continuing to increase. MDR is primarily concentrated in a small number of globally disseminated clones, which generally differ between ESBL and carbapenemase carrying-clones in E. coli, but seem to converge in K. pneumoniae. In both species MDR is mediated by acquisition and maintenance of MDR plasmids. The plasmids associated with ESBL and carbapenemases also differ, and when both resistances are present in the same strain they are generally on distinct plasmids. Recent research is attempting to provide clues as to why some lineages appear better suited to acquisition and maintenance of these plasmids without a fitness cost. Central to this is the appearance of adaptive mutations in intergenic regions, and selection on genes involved in anaerobic metabolism, hinting at a process whereby these clones can outcompete commensal strains of the same species to initiate long-term intestinal colonization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Stronger together? Perspectives on phage-antibiotic synergy in clinical applications of phage therapy.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-06-22
    Anca M Segall,Dwayne R Roach,Steffanie A Strathdee

    Increasingly, clinical infections are becoming recalcitrant or completely resistant to antibiotics treatment and multidrug resistance is rising alarmingly. Patients suffering from infections that used to be treated successfully by antibiotic regimens are running out of the treatment options. Bacteriophage (phage) therapy, long practiced in parts of Eastern Europe and the states of the former Soviet Union, is now being reevaluated as a treatment option complementary to and synergistic with antibiotic treatments. We discuss some current studies that have addressed synergistic killing activity between phages and antibiotics, the issues of treatment order and antibiotic class, and point to considerations that will have to be addressed by future studies. Overall, co-treatments with phages and antibiotics promise to extend the utility of antibiotics in current use. Nevertheless, a lot of work, both basic and clinical, remains to be done before such co-treatments become routine options in the hospital setting.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toward computer-made artificial antibiotics.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Marcelo Der Torossian Torres,Cesar de la Fuente-Nunez

    Merging concepts from synthetic biology and computational biology may yield antibiotics that are less likely to elicit resistance than existing drugs and that yet can fight drug-resistant infections. Indeed, computer-guided strategies coupled with massively parallel high-throughput experimental methods represent a new paradigm for antibiotic discovery. Infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms are increasingly deadly. In the current post-antibiotic era, many of these infections cannot be treated with our existing antimicrobial arsenal. Furthermore, we may have already exhausted the category of large molecules produced in nature having antimicrobial activity: the antibiotic scaffolds we have discovered so far may represent the majority of those that exist. The rise in drug-resistant bacteria and lack of new antibiotic classes clearly call for out-of-the-box strategies. Recent advances in computational synthetic biology have enabled the development of antimicrobials. New molecular descriptors and genetic and pattern recognition algorithms are powerful tools that bring us a step closer to developing efficient antibiotics. We review several computational tools for drug design and a number of recently generated antibiotic candidates, with an emphasis on peptide-based molecules. Design strategies can generate a diversity of synthetic antimicrobial peptides, which may help to mitigate the spread of resistance and combat multidrug-resistant microorganisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reductionist synthetic community approaches in root microbiome research.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Yong-Xin Liu,Yuan Qin,Yang Bai

    Synthetic community (SynCom) approaches can provide functional and mechanistic insights into how plants regulate their microbiomes, and how the microbiome in turn influences plant growth and health. Microbial cultivation and reconstruction play pivotal roles in this process, which enables researchers to reproducibly investigate the interactions between plants and a major proportion of plant-associated microbes in controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we summarize the emergence, current achievements, and future opportunities for using SynCom experiments in plant microbiome research, with a focus on plant root-associated bacteria.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of nutrient balance in shaping plant root-fungal interactions: facts and speculation.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Izabela Fabiańska,Esperanza Sosa-Lopez,Marcel Bucher

    Microbiota colonizing plant roots and their vicinity were shown not to be just random associations, but compose, at least to some extent, host-selected microbial consortia. The plant physiological status, especially the nutrient status, prompts changes in plant morphology and metabolism, which successively imposes a selective pressure on microbial communities. It is well established that a low phosphate status of the host plant activates the molecular machinery underlying the development of mutualistic associations in the host root with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). We hypothesize that the plant´s response to changing nutrient stoichiometry affects processes at the root-mycosphere interface which promote or repress also root interactions with microbial taxa other than AMF. As a consequence, fundamental mechanisms underlying these interactions would be shared in AM host and non-host plants. A detailed understanding of the processes involved in maintenance of plant nutrient homeostasis could contribute to novel strategies in tailoring predominantly parasitic or commensalistic plant-microbe interactions towards beneficial associations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microbial associations enabling nitrogen acquisition in plants.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Ke Tao,Simon Kelly,Simona Radutoiu

    Large flows of nitrogen between the atmosphere, terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems contribute to the global cycle on Earth. When balanced, this cycle ensures that life at every level can flourish and diversify. However, in the past 50 years, humans have had a large, negative influence on nitrogen cycle pushing it beyond safe boundaries at the global level. Alternative, wholesome strategies are needed for the agricultural systems to achieve sustainability without compromising crop yields. Decades of research in the field of biological nitrogen fixation in symbiotic root nodules paved the way for ambitious bioengineering projects aiming to meet the nitrogen request in a sustainable manner. Parallel studies of the other microbes that associate with healthy plants in nature unveiled a tremendous, untapped resource for biostimulants. Many of these interactions are now worth investigating in detail to enable understanding at the molecular and ecological level and facile transfer into agricultural settings.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Crying out for help with root exudates: adaptive mechanisms by which stressed plants assemble health-promoting soil microbiomes.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Stephen A Rolfe,Joseph Griffiths,Jurriaan Ton

    Plants employ immunological and ecological strategies to resist biotic stress. Recent evidence suggests that plants adapt to biotic stress by changing their root exudation chemistry to assemble health-promoting microbiomes. This so-called 'cry-for-help' hypothesis provides a mechanistic explanation for previously characterized soil feedback responses to plant disease, such as the development of disease-suppressing soils upon successive cultivations of take all-infected wheat. Here, we divide the hypothesis into individual stages and evaluate the evidence for each component. We review how plant immune responses modify root exudation chemistry, as well as what impact this has on microbial activities, and the subsequent plant responses to these activities. Finally, we review the ecological relevance of the interaction, along with its translational potential for future crop protection strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contribution of bacterial-fungal balance to plant and animal health.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Felix Getzke,Thorsten Thiergart,Stéphane Hacquard

    Surfaces of plants and animals are colonized by complex multi-kingdom microbial communities that comprise prokaryotic (i.e. archaea, bacteria) and eukaryotic (i.e. fungi, protists) microbes. Composition and variation in these multi-kingdom microbial communities are influenced by host and environmental cues that drive microbial community differentiation between host niches. Recent evidence indicates that, beyond these major forces, interactions between microbiota members also contribute to the establishment, the stability, and the resilience of host-associated microbial communities. Particularly, the interplay between bacteria and fungi in host niches appears critical for community functionality and alteration of the balance between these microbes emerges as a potential cause of disease. Here, we discuss the extent to which interactions between these microbes drive variation in community composition across plant and animal niches and we provide examples illustrating that altering bacterial-fungal balance in the microbiome can lead to disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Next generation microbiome applications for crop production - limitations and the need of knowledge-based solutions.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Birgit Mitter,Günter Brader,Nikolaus Pfaffenbichler,Angela Sessitsch

    Plants are associated with highly diverse microbiota, which are crucial partners for their host carrying out important functions. Essentially, they are involved in nutrient supply, pathogen antagonism and protection of their host against different types of stress. The potential of microbial inoculants has been demonstrated in numerous studies, primarily under greenhouse conditions. However, field application, for example, as biofertilizer or biocontrol agent, is still a challenge as the applied microorganisms often are not provided in sufficiently high cell numbers, are rapidly outcompeted and cannot establish or require specific conditions to mediate the desired effects. We still have limited understanding on the fate of inoculants and on holobiont interactions, that is, interactions between plants, micro-biota and macro-biota and the environment, under field conditions. A better understanding will provide the basis for establishing models predicting the behaviour of strains or consortia and will help identifying microbiome members being able to establish and to mediate desired effects under certain conditions. Such models may also inform about the best management practices modulating microbiota in a desired way. Also, smart delivery approaches of microbial inoculants as well as the selection or breeding of plant genotypes better able to interact with microbiota may represent promising avenues.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Abundance-occupancy distributions to prioritize plant core microbiome membership.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Ashley Shade,Nejc Stopnisek

    Core microbiome members are consistent features of a dataset that are hypothesized to reflect underlying functional relationships with the host. A review of the recent plant-microbiome literature reveals a variety of study-specific approaches used to define the core, which presents a challenge to building a general plant-microbiome framework. Abundance-occupancy distributions, used in macroecology to describe changes in community diversity over space, offer an ecological approach for prioritizing core membership for both spatial and temporal studies. Additionally, neutral models fit to the abundance-occupancy distributions can provide insights into deterministically selected core members. We provide examples and code to systematically explore a core plant microbiome from abundance-occupancy distributions. Though we focus on examples from and discussions relevant to the plant microbiome, the abundance-occupancy method can be widely and generally applied to prioritize core membership for any microbiome.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A brief from the leaf: latest research to inform our understanding of the phyllosphere microbiome.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Johan Hj Leveau

    The plant leaf surface, or phyllosphere, represents a unique and challenging microbial biome with a diverse and dynamic community of commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic agents of microscopic proportions. This mini-review offers a digest of recently published research dedicated to the study of phyllosphere microbiota, framed in the context of processes and outcomes of microbial community assembly, structure, and (inter)activity in the phyllosphere, with particular focus on the contributions of environment, plant, and microbe, and on the potential benefits of interrogating those contributions at finer resolutions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tracing the evolutionary routes of plant-microbiota interactions.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Carmen Escudero-Martinez,Davide Bulgarelli

    The microbiota thriving at the root-soil interface plays a crucial role in supporting plant growth, development and health. The interactions between plant and soil microbes can be traced back to the initial plant's colonisation of dry lands. Understanding the evolutionary drivers of these interactions will be key to re-wire them for the benefit of mankind. Here we critically assess recent insights into the evolutionary history of plant-microbiota interactions in natural and agricultural ecosystems. We identify distinctive features, as well as commonalities, of these two distinct scenarios and areas requiring further research efforts. Finally, we propose strategies that combining advances in molecular microbiology and crop genomics will be key towards a predictable manipulation of plant-microbiota interactions for sustainable crop production.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Harnessing the microbiome to control plant parasitic weeds.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Raul Masteling,Lorenzo Lombard,Wietse de Boer,Jos M Raaijmakers,Francisco Dini-Andreote

    Microbiomes can significantly expand the genomic potential of plants, contributing to nutrient acquisition, plant growth promotion and tolerance to (a)biotic stresses. Among biotic stressors, root parasitic weeds (RPWs), mainly of the genera Orobanche, Phelipanche and Striga, are major yield-limiting factors of a wide range of staple crops, particularly in developing countries. Here, we provide a conceptual synthesis of putative mechanisms by which soil and plant microbiomes could be harnessed to control RPWs. These mechanisms are partitioned in direct and indirect modes of action and discussed in the context of past and present studies on microbe-mediated suppression of RPWs. Specific emphasis is given to the large but yet unexplored potential of root-associated microorganisms to interfere with the chemical signalling cascade between the host plant and the RPWs. We further provide concepts and ideas for future research directions and prospective designs of novel control strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The mycobiota: fungi take their place between plants and bacteria.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Paola Bonfante,Francesco Venice,Luisa Lanfranco

    Eukaryotes host numerous intracellular and associated microbes in their microbiota. Fungi, the so-called Mycobiota, are important members of both human and plant microbiota. Moreover, members of the plant mycobiota host their own microbiota on their surfaces and inside their hyphae. The microbiota of the mycobiota includes mycorrhizal helper bacteria (for mycorrhizal fungi) and fungal endobacteria, which are critical for the fungal host and, as such, likely affect the plant. This review discusses the contribution that these often-overlooked members make to the composition and performance of the plant microbiota.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Beyond pathogens: microbiota interactions with the plant immune system.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Paulo José Pl Teixeira,Nicholas R Colaianni,Connor R Fitzpatrick,Jeffery L Dangl

    Plant immune receptors perceive microbial molecules and initiate an array of biochemical responses that are effective against most invaders. The role of the plant immune system in detecting and controlling pathogenic microorganism has been well described. In contrast, much less is known about plant immunity in the context of the wealth of commensals that inhabit plants. Recent research indicates that, just like pathogens, commensals in the plant microbiome can suppress or evade host immune responses. Moreover, the plant immune system has an active role in microbiome assembly and controls microbial homeostasis in response to environmental variation. We propose that the plant immune system shapes the microbiome, and that the microbiome expands plant immunity and acts as an additional layer of defense against pathogenic organisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Causes and consequences of a conserved bacterial root microbiome response to drought stress.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Ling Xu,Devin Coleman-Derr

    Plant-associated microbial communities contribute to host fitness, and perturbations in the plant microbiome can have a major impact on plant health. Drought has recently been shown to lead to enrichment of monoderm bacteria within the roots of many plant species across many environments. However, the underlying causes of this shift, and the consequences for plant fitness, remain largely unexplored. We present the hypotheses that drought-induced shifts in plant metabolism may be responsible for the observed monoderm enrichment, and that increased monoderm abundance may promote increased drought tolerance in the host. Finally, we discuss how these recent discoveries may inform ongoing efforts to use microbially mediated strategies to improve crop productivity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gut mycobiota under scrutiny: fungal symbionts or environmental transients?
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    William D Fiers,Iris H Gao,Iliyan D Iliev

    The human gastrointestinal tract is home to a thriving community of microbes including the fungal 'mycobiota'. Although sequencing methodology has enumerated diverse fungal genera within this niche, discerning persistent symbiotic residents from contaminants and purely environmental transients remains a challenge. Recent advances in culturomics and sequencing employing metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and longitudinal studies have begun to reveal a human symbiont 'core mycobiome' that may contribute to human health and disease. Trans-kingdom interactions between the bacterial microbiota and evolution within the niche have defined C. albicans as a true symbiont, setting a bar for defining other fungi. Additionally, elegant investigations of mammalian antifungal immunity have examined mononuclear phagocytes, neutrophils, antigen-specific recognition by T cells and other mechanisms important for local and systemic effects on the host, providing further evidence supporting gut persistence. In this review we discuss current research aimed at investigating the symbiotic mycobiota and propose four criteria aiding in the differentiation of fungal symbionts from environmental transients.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Convergent evolution of signal-structure interfaces for maintaining symbioses.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Reed M Stubbendieck,Hongjie Li,Cameron R Currie

    Symbiotic microbes are essential to the ecological success and evolutionary diversification of multicellular organisms. The establishment and stability of bipartite symbioses are shaped by mechanisms ensuring partner fidelity between host and symbiont. In this minireview, we demonstrate how the interface of chemical signals and host structures influences fidelity between legume root nodules and rhizobia, Hawaiian bobtail squid light organs and Allivibrio fischeri, and fungus-growing ant crypts and Pseudonocardia. Subsequently, we illustrate the morphological diversity and widespread phylogenetic distribution of specialized structures used by hosts to house microbial symbionts, indicating the importance of signal-structure interfaces across the history of multicellular life. These observations, and the insights garnered from well-studied bipartite associations, demonstrate the need to concentrate on the signal-structure interface in complex and multipartite systems, including the human microbiome.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The emerging role of gut microbial metabolism on cardiovascular disease.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Kazuyuki Kasahara,Federico E Rey

    The gut microbiome has been implicated in the progression of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, thrombosis, heart failure, and ischemic stroke. Metabolomics studies in humans and diverse mouse populations have revealed associations between diet-derived gut bacterial metabolites, including trimethylamine-N-oxide, short-chain fatty acids, and intermediates of aromatic amino acid breakdown, with progression of CVD. Functional studies in animals fed diets of defined composition have been instrumental for establishing causal links between these metabolites, the microbes that produce them, dietary substrates and disease. The purpose of this review is to discuss recent progress in our understanding of how gut microbial metabolism of food influences the development of CVD and to outline experimental approaches that can be useful for addressing crucial knowledge gaps in the field. Together, this body of work supports the notion that the gut microbiomes mediate many of the effects of diet.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The internationalization of human microbiome research.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ana Maria Porras,Ilana Lauren Brito

    The human microbiome has now been linked with myriad diseases, yet most of this research has been conducted on American and European populations that make up only 1/6th of the world's population. With growing recognition that human microbiomes differ tremendously across global populations, it is especially important to understand how these compositional differences impact health outcomes. Recent advances in infectious disease and malnutrition research have demonstrated the potential for microbiome-based strategies to address the biggest challenges in global health. This review highlights major advances toward understanding microbiome diversity across the world and its contributions to disease, and outlines key questions, challenges, and opportunities to broaden the scope of and promote inclusivity within microbiome research.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Scales of persistence: transmission and the microbiome.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-20
    Catherine D Robinson,Brendan Jm Bohannan,Robert A Britton

    Historically microbiomes have been studied on the scale of the individual host, giving little consideration for the role of extra-host microbial populations in microbiome assembly. However, work in recent years has brought to light the importance of inter-host transmission and its influence on microbiome composition and dynamics. We now appreciate that microbiomes do not exist in isolation, but exchange constituents with the microbial communities of other hosts and the environment. Moving forward, fully understanding the role of transmission in microbiome assembly and dynamics will require a high-resolution view of the colonization and persistence patterns of particular microbial lineages (i.e. strains) across individuals and the environment. Yet, accomplishing this level of resolution will be an immense challenge, requiring improved sampling and bioinformatics approaches as well as employment of tractable experimental models. Insight gained from these investigations will contribute to our understanding of microbiome composition and variation, and lead to improved strategies for modulating microbiomes to improve human health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Causes and consequences of biotic interactions within microbiomes.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-19
    Casey M Cosetta,Benjamin E Wolfe

    An integrative pattern-process-mechanism approach is revealing the roles of biotic interactions in microbiome assembly. Patterns of microbiome diversity observed in metagenomic studies can be partly explained by interaction processes (e.g. competition, facilitation) and underlying molecular or genetic mechanisms (e.g. antibiotic production, nutrient cross-feeding). Exciting opportunities remain to fully understand the significance and generalizability of biotic interactions within microbiomes. Many microbial interactions have been studied by chasing easily quantifiable phenotypes including changes in growth or pigmentation, but it is likely that diverse cryptic interactions occur without obvious growth changes or macroscopic phenotypes. A narrow phylogenetic breadth of well-studied microbes limits our understanding of whether there are conserved genetic or molecular mechanisms of microbial interactions. Biotic interactions can impose strong selective pressures that could shape rates and modes of microbial evolution, but few studies have examined the evolutionary consequences of interactions within microbiomes. Continued exploration of the chemical and genetic mechanisms underlying biotic interactions may provide novel tools to manipulate and manage microbiomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Recoding the metagenome: microbiome engineering in situ.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-18
    Travis Whitfill,Julia Oh

    Synthetic biology has enabled a new generation of tools for engineering the microbiome, including targeted antibiotics, protein delivery, living biosensors and diagnostics, and metabolic factories. Here, we discuss opportunities and limitations in microbiome engineering, focusing on a new generation of tools for in situ genetic modification of a microbiome that hold particular promise in circumventing these limitations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Incorporating functional trade-offs into studies of the gut microbiota.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Aspen T Reese,Sean M Kearney

    Trade-offs constrain evolution through genetic linkages and environmental limitations, impacting organismal physiology, morphology, and behavior. They are likely to also play a role in modulating functions of the microbiota, but previous research has not included tests of trade-off theory. Here, we review broadly how gut microbial functions are typically studied and outline evolutionarily-informed mechanisms to improve such research. These include measuring a diverse set of functions, with a focus on changes in host phenotype; more explicitly articulating the selective forces relevant to the microbiota; and using functionally relevant models. We present dietary intervention as a case study where trade-offs are likely to be relevant and discuss how the health effects of the modern human diet could be better understood in light of trade-offs. Appreciating microbial functional trade-offs as well as host trade-offs will be necessary to design effective interventions targeting the microbiota and, more generally, to understand the evolution of host-microbe interactions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The impact of Vibrio fischeri strain variation on host colonization.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Clotilde Bongrand,Edward G Ruby

    Strain-level epidemiology is a key approach to understanding the mechanisms underlying establishment of any host-microbe association. The squid-vibrio light organ symbiosis has proven to be an informative and tractable experimental model in which to discover these mechanisms because it involves only one bacterial species, Vibrio fischeri. In this horizontally transmitted symbiosis, the squid presents nutrients to the bacteria located in a bilobed light-emitting organ, while the symbionts provide bioluminescence to their host. To initiate this association, V. fischeri cells go through several distinct stages: from free-living in the bacterioplankton, to forming a multicellular aggregation near pores on the light organ's surface, to migrating through the pores and into crypts deep in the light organ, where the symbiont population grows and luminesces. Because individual cells must successfully navigate these distinct regions, phenotypic differences between strains will have a strong impact on the composition of the population finally colonizing the squid. Here we review recent advances in our understanding of behavioral characteristics that differentially drive a strain's success, including its effectiveness of aggregation, the rapidity with which it reaches the deep crypts, and its deployment of type VI secretion.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Leveraging non-human primates for exploring the social transmission of microbes.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Sahana Kuthyar,Melissa B Manus,Katherine R Amato

    Host social interactions can provide multiple complex pathways for microbial transmission. Here, we suggest non-human primates as models to study the social transmission of commensal or mutualistic microbes due to their high sociality, wide range of group compositions and dominance structures, and diverse group interactions. Microbial sharing from social interactions can positively impact host health by promoting microbial diversity and influencing immunity. Microbes may also drive their own transmission by shaping host behavior, which could lead to fitness benefits for both microbes and hosts. Variation in patterns of social interactions at both the individual and group scale make non-human primates an ideal system to explore the relationship between social behavior, microbial sharing, and their impact on host health and evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transitions and transmission: behavior and physiology as drivers of honey bee-associated microbial communities.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Delaney L Miller,Audrey J Parish,Irene Lg Newton

    Microbial communities have considerable impacts on animal health. However, only in recent years have the host factors impacting microbiome composition been explored. An increasing wealth of microbiome data in combination with decades of research on behavior, physiology, and development have resulted in the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) as a burgeoning model system for studying the influence of host behavior on the microbiota. Honey bees are eusocial insects which exhibit striking behavioral and physiological differences between castes and life stages. These include changes in social contact, environmental exposure, diet, and physiology: all factors which can affect microbial composition and function. The honey bee system offers an opportunity to tease apart the interactive effects of all these factors on microbiota composition, abundance, and diversity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lineage specific gene family enrichment at the microscale in marine systems.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2014-01-01
    Andrew E Allen,Lisa Zeigler Allen,John P McCrow

    Recent advances in metagenomics have generated numerous insights related to the cell biology, ecology, evolution, and biogeochemistry of microbial life in the ocean. Notably, advances in single cell genomics (SCG), fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) capture of specific populations and metagenomic assembly are providing valuable information related to within and between lineage genomic content. Improved reference genome databases have assisted biogeographic studies of particular taxa, including in some cases different ecotypes. Several studies targeting picoplankton, associated with various particle size classes, have begun to define contrasting trends in gene family evolution between free-living compared to particle associated microbes. Also viruses and eukaryotic microbes are increasingly considered in metagenomic studies and specific associations between viruses, bacteria, archaea, and eukaryotic microbes are emerging.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparative genomics: the bacterial pan-genome.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2008-12-18
    Hervé Tettelin,David Riley,Ciro Cattuto,Duccio Medini

    Bacterial genome sequencing has become so easy and accessible that the genomes of multiple strains of more and more individual species have been and will be generated. These data sets provide for in depth analysis of intra-species diversity from various aspects. The pan-genome analysis, whereby the size of the gene repertoire accessible to any given species is characterized together with an estimate of the number of whole genome sequences required for proper analysis, is being increasingly applied. Different models exist for the analysis and their accuracy and applicability depend on the case at hand. Here we discuss current models and suggest a new model of broad applicability, including examples of its implementation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • HIV-host interactions: vital to the virus and key to its inhibition.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2004-10-27
    Alexandra Trkola

    Much progress has been made in recent years in the investigation of the interplay between HIV-1 and its host cells. Most of these interactions are complex and have not yet been fully unraveled. Nevertheless, current knowledge on the molecular interactions between HIV and host-cell factors has substantially broadened our understanding of the viral life cycle and opened new investigative areas for drug intervention.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Non-Mendelian determinants of morphology in fungi.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2003-12-10
    Fabienne Malagnac,Philippe Silar

    Morphological plasticity is a hallmark of eumycetes. In addition to genes and environment, epigenetic factors control cell, colony and thallus forms in many species, by creating reversible switches. Current knowledge indicates that the different shapes are due to structural or regulatory heritable states of cytoplasmic components. Cellular physiology differs in the various forms, permitting adaptation to fluctuation in the environment. These switches are part of the adaptation repertoire that fungi exhibit to colonize most niches.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Long-lost relatives reappear: identification of new members of the tubulin superfamily.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2003-12-10
    Susan K Dutcher

    The identification and analysis of new members of the tubulin superfamily has advanced the belief that these tubulins play important roles in the duplication and assembly of centrioles and basal bodies. This idea is supported by their distribution in organisms with centrioles containing triplet microtubules and by recent functional analysis of the new tubulins. delta- and epsilon-tubulin are found in most organisms that assemble triplet microtubules. delta-tubulin is needed for maintaining triplet microtubules in Chlamydomonas and Paramecium. epsilon-tubulin is needed for centriole and basal body duplication and is an essential gene in Chlamydomonas. The distribution of eta-tubulin is more limited and has been found in only four organisms to date. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is most closely related to delta-tubulin, which suggests that delta- and eta-tubulin could have overlapping functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cytoskeleton and motor proteins in filamentous fungi.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2003-12-10
    Xin Xiang,Michael Plamann

    In filamentous fungi, the actin cytoskeleton is required for polarity establishment and maintenance at hyphal tips and for formation of a contractile ring at sites of septation. Recently, formins have been identified as Arp (actin-related protein) 2/3-independent nucleators of actin polymerization, and filamentous fungi contain a single formin that localizes to both sites. Work on cytoplasmic dynein and members of the kinesin and myosin families of motors has continued to reveal new information regarding the function and regulation of motors as well as demonstrate the importance of microtubules in the long-distance transport of vesicles/organelles in the filamentous fungi.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RNA asymmetric distribution and daughter/mother differentiation in yeast.
    Curr. Opin. Microbiol. (IF 6.916) Pub Date : 2003-12-10
    Xavier Darzacq,Erin Powrie,Wei Gu,Robert H Singer,Daniel Zenklusen

    Active transport and localized translation of the ASH1 mRNA at the bud tip of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an essential process that is required for the regulation of the mating type switching. ASH1 mRNA localization has been extensively studied over the past few years and the core components of the translocation machinery have been identified. It is composed of four localization elements (zipcodes), within the ASH1 mRNA, and at least three proteins, She1p/Myo4p, She2p and She3p. Whereas the movement of the RNA can be attributed to direct interaction with myosin, the regulation of the RNA expression is less well understood. Recent insights have revealed a role for translation that might have a key function in the regulation of Ash1 protein sorting.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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