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  • Evasion of host defenses by intracellular Staphylococcus aureus
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Kate E. Watkins; Meera Unnikrishnan

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the leading causes of hospital and community-acquired infections worldwide. The increasing occurrence of antibiotic resistant strains and the high rates of recurrent staphylococcal infections have placed several treatment challenges on healthcare systems. In recent years, it has become evident that S. aureus is a facultative intracellular pathogen, able to invade and

  • Predetermined clockwork microbial worlds: Current understanding of aquatic microbial diel response from model systems to complex environments
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Daichi Morimoto; Sigitas Šulčius; Kento Tominaga; Takashi Yoshida

    In the photic zone of aquatic ecosystems, microorganisms with different metabolisms and their viruses form complex interactions and food webs. Within these interactions, phototrophic microorganisms such as eukaryotic microalgae and cyanobacteria interact directly with sunlight, and thereby generate circadian rhythms. Diel cycling originally generated in microbial phototrophs is directly transmitted

  • Antimicrobial resistance genes in bacteria from animal-based foods
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Isadora de Alcântara Rodrigues; Rafaela Gomes Ferrari; Pedro Henrique Nunes Panzenhagen; Sergio Borges Mano; Carlos Adam Conte-Junior

    Antimicrobial resistance is a worldwide public health threat. Farm animals are important sources of bacteria containing antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs). Although the use of antimicrobials in aquaculture and livestock has been reduced in several countries, these compounds are still routinely applied in animal production, and contribute to ARGs emergence and spread among bacteria. ARGs are transmitted

  • Peptidoglycan biosynthesis and remodeling revisited
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Moagi Shaku; Christopher Ealand; Ofentse Matlhabe; Rushil Lala; Bavesh D. Kana

    The bacterial peptidoglycan layer forms a complex mesh-like structure that surrounds the cell, imparting rigidity to withstand cytoplasmic turgor and the ability to tolerate stress. As peptidoglycan has been the target of numerous clinically successful antimicrobials such as penicillin, the biosynthesis, remodeling and recycling of this polymer has been the subject of much interest. Herein, we review

  • Microalgae for biofuel production.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    D James Gilmour

    Microalgae have been used commercially since the 1950s and 1960s, particularly in the Far East for human health foods and in the United States for wastewater treatment. Initial attempts to produce bulk chemicals such as biofuels from microalgae were not successful, despite commercially favorable conditions during the 1970s oil crisis. However, research initiatives at this time, many using extremophilic

  • Research progress on the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors of Aspergillus species.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Bao-Teng Wang,Xing-Ye Yu,Yun-Jia Zhu,Miao Zhuang,Zhi-Min Zhang,Long Jin,Feng-Jie Jin

    Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins belong to a superfamily of transcription factors, and they are widely distributed in eukaryotic organisms. Members of the bHLH protein family can form homodimers or heterodimers with themselves or other family members, and they often play bifunctional roles as activators and repressors to uniquely regulate the transcription of downstream target genes. The bHLH

  • Advances in yeast alcoholic fermentations for the production of bioethanol, beer and wine.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-10-25
    Kevy Pontes Eliodório,Gabriel Caetano de Gois E Cunha,Caroline Müller,Ana Carolina Lucaroni,Reinaldo Giudici,Graeme Maxwell Walker,Sérgio Luiz Alves,Thiago Olitta Basso

    Yeasts have a long-standing relationship with humankind that has widened in recent years to encompass production of diverse foods, beverages, fuels and medicines. Here, key advances in the field of yeast fermentation applied to alcohol production, which represents the predominant product of industrial biotechnology, will be presented. More specifically, we have selected industries focused in producing

  • Degradation strategies and associated regulatory mechanisms/features for aromatic compound metabolism in bacteria
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Prashant S. Phale; Harshit Malhotra; Bhavik A. Shah

    As a result of anthropogenic activity, large number of recalcitrant aromatic compounds have been released into the environment. Consequently, microbial communities have adapted and evolved to utilize these compounds as sole carbon source, under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. The constitutive expression of enzymes necessary for metabolism imposes a heavy energy load on the microbe which is overcome

  • Yeasts for low input winemaking: Microbial terroir and flavor differentiation.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Francisco Carrau,Eduardo Boido,David Ramey

    Vitis vinifera flowers and grape fruits are one of the most interesting ecosystem niches for native yeasts development. There are more than a 100 yeast species and millions of strains that participate and contribute to design the microbial terroir. The wine terroir concept is understood when grape and wine micro-regions were delimited by different quality characteristics after humans had been growing

  • Advances in the control of phytopathogenic fungi that infect crops through their root system.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Juan José R Coque,José Manuel Álvarez-Pérez,Rebeca Cobos,Sandra González-García,Ana M Ibáñez,Alba Diez Galán,Carla Calvo-Peña

    Productivity and economic sustainability of many herbaceous and woody crops are seriously threatened by numerous phytopathogenic fungi. While symptoms associated with phytopathogenic fungal infections of aerial parts (leaves, stems and fruits) are easily observable and therefore recognizable, allowing rapid or preventive action to control this type of infection, the effects produced by soil-borne fungi

  • Genetic engineering for enhanced productivity in bioelectrochemical systems.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Laura-Alina Philipp,Miriam Edel,Johannes Gescher

    A shift from petrochemical processes toward a bio-based economy is one of the most advocated developments for a sustainable future. To achieve this will require the biotechnological production of platform chemicals that can be further processed by chemical engineering. Bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) are a novel tool within the biotechnology field. In BESs, microbes serve as biocatalysts for the

  • Engineering transport systems for microbial production.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-02-08
    Moses Onyeabor,Rodrigo Martinez,Gavin Kurgan,Xuan Wang

    The rapid development in the field of metabolic engineering has enabled complex modifications of metabolic pathways to generate a diverse product portfolio. Manipulating substrate uptake and product export is an important research area in metabolic engineering. Optimization of transport systems has the potential to enhance microbial production of renewable fuels and chemicals. This chapter comprehensively

  • Anaerobic and hydrogenogenic carbon monoxide-oxidizing prokaryotes: Versatile microbial conversion of a toxic gas into an available energy.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yuto Fukuyama,Masao Inoue,Kimiho Omae,Takashi Yoshida,Yoshihiko Sako

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gas that is toxic to various organisms including humans and even microbes; however, it has low redox potential, which can fuel certain microbes, namely, CO oxidizers. Hydrogenogenic CO oxidizers utilize an energy conservation system via a CO dehydrogenase/energy-converting hydrogenase complex to produce hydrogen gas, a zero emission fuel, by CO oxidation coupled with proton

  • The versatility of Pseudomonas putida in the rhizosphere environment.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Lázaro Molina,Ana Segura,Estrella Duque,Juan-Luis Ramos

    This article addresses the lifestyle of Pseudomonas and focuses on how Pseudomonas putida can be used as a model system for biotechnological processes in agriculture, and in the removal of pollutants from soils. In this chapter we aim to show how a deep analysis using genetic information and experimental tests has helped to reveal insights into the lifestyle of Pseudomonads. Pseudomonas putida is a

  • Glutathione: A powerful but rare cofactor among Actinobacteria.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Anna C Lienkamp,Thomas Heine,Dirk Tischler

    Glutathione (γ-l-glutamyl-l-cysteinylglycine, GSH) is a powerful cellular redox agent. In nature only the l,l-form is common among the tree of life. It serves as antioxidant or redox buffer system, protein regeneration and activation by interaction with thiol groups, unspecific reagent for conjugation during detoxification, marker for amino acid or peptide transport even through membranes, activation

  • Bacteroidetes bacteria in the soil: Glycan acquisition, enzyme secretion, and gliding motility.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Johan Larsbrink,Lauren Sara McKee

    The secretion of extracellular enzymes by soil microbes is rate-limiting in the recycling of biomass. Fungi and bacteria compete and collaborate for nutrients in the soil, with wide ranging ecological impacts. Within soil microbiota, the Bacteroidetes tend to be a dominant phylum, just like in human and animal intestines. The Bacteroidetes thrive because of their ability to secrete diverse arrays of

  • Detection of the 'Big Five' mold killers of humans: Aspergillus, Fusarium, Lomentospora, Scedosporium and Mucormycetes.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Christopher R Thornton

    Fungi are an important but frequently overlooked cause of morbidity and mortality in humans. Life-threatening fungal infections mainly occur in immunocompromised patients, and are typically caused by environmental opportunists that take advantage of a weakened immune system. The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the most important and well-documented mold pathogen of humans, causing a number

  • Siderophores: From natural roles to potential applications.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2019-01-29
    Magdalena Albelda-Berenguer,Mathilde Monachon,Edith Joseph

    Siderophores are secondary metabolites produced by different organisms in order to scavenge iron from their surrounding environment making this essential element available to the cell. Presenting high affinity for ferric iron, siderophores are secreted out to form soluble ferric complexes that can be taken up by the organisms. Siderophores present complex chemistry that allows them to form the strongest

  • Role and regulation of the stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σB) in the saprophytic and host-associated life stages of Listeria monocytogenes.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-12-24
    Amber Dorey,Catarina Marinho,Pascal Piveteau,Conor O'Byrne

    The stress activated sigma factor sigma B (σB) plays a pivotal role in allowing the food-borne bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes to modulate its transcriptional landscape in order to survive in a variety of harsh environments both outside and within the host. While we have a comparatively good understanding of the systems under the control of this sigma factor much less is known about how the

  • Nitrogen cycling during wastewater treatment.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-12-10
    Dawn E Holmes,Yan Dang,Jessica A Smith

    Many wastewater treatment plants in the world do not remove reactive nitrogen from wastewater prior to release into the environment. Excess reactive nitrogen not only has a negative impact on human health, it also contributes to air and water pollution, and can cause complex ecosystems to collapse. In order to avoid the deleterious effects of excess reactive nitrogen in the environment, tertiary wastewater

  • Bacterial spores, from ecology to biotechnology.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-11-27
    Christophe Paul,Sevasti Filippidou,Isha Jamil,Wafa Kooli,Geoffrey L House,Aislinn Estoppey,Mathilda Hayoz,Thomas Junier,Fabio Palmieri,Tina Wunderlin,Anael Lehmann,Saskia Bindschedler,Torsten Vennemann,Patrick S G Chain,Pilar Junier

    The production of a highly specialized cell structure called a spore is a remarkable example of a survival strategy displayed by bacteria in response to challenging environmental conditions. The detailed analysis and description of the process of sporulation in selected model organisms have generated a solid background to understand the cellular processes leading to the formation of this specialized

  • Oxalic acid, a molecule at the crossroads of bacterial-fungal interactions.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-11-27
    Fabio Palmieri,Aislinn Estoppey,Geoffrey L House,Andrea Lohberger,Saskia Bindschedler,Patrick S G Chain,Pilar Junier

    Oxalic acid is the most ubiquitous and common low molecular weight organic acid produced by living organisms. Oxalic acid is produced by fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. The aim of this review is to give an overview of current knowledge about the microbial cycling of oxalic acid through ecosystems. Here we review the production and degradation of oxalic acid, as well as its implications in the

  • Enhancing Yeast Alcoholic Fermentations.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Graeme M Walker,Roy S K Walker

    The production of ethanol by yeast fermentation represents the largest of all global biotechnologies. Consequently, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the world's premier industrial microorganism, which is responsible not only for the production of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, and distilled spirits, but also for the billions of liters of bioethanol produced annually for use as a renewable

  • Electrochemical Bioreactor Technology for Biocatalysis and Microbial Electrosynthesis.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Clifford Morrison,Elizabeth Heitmann,William Armiger,David Dodds,Mattheos Koffas

    Two seemingly distinct fields, industrial biocatalysis and microbial electrosynthesis, can be viewed together through the lens of electrochemical bioreactor technology in order to highlight the challenges that exist in creating a versatile platform technology for use in chemical and biological applications. Industrial biocatalysis applications requiring NAD(P)H to perform redox transformations often

  • Epigenetic and Posttranslational Modifications in Regulating the Biology of Aspergillus Species.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Xinyi Nie,Bowen Li,Shihua Wang

    Epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have been proved to participate in multiple cellular processes and suggested to be an important regulatory mechanism on transcription of genes in eukaryotes. However, our knowledge about epigenetic and posttranslational modifications mainly comes from the studies of yeasts, plants, and animals. Recently, epigenetic and posttranslational modifications have

  • Diversity-Function Relationships in Natural, Applied, and Engineered Microbial Ecosystems.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Andrew Free,Michael A McDonald,Eulyn Pagaling

    The connection between ecosystem function and taxonomic diversity has been of interest and relevance to macroecologists for decades. After many years of lagging behind due to the difficulty of assigning both taxonomy and function to poorly distinguishable microscopic cells, microbial ecology now has access to a suite of powerful molecular tools which allow its practitioners to generate data relating

  • The Genus Macrococcus: An Insight Into Its Biology, Evolution, and Relationship With Staphylococcus.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-10-22
    Shahneela Mazhar,Colin Hill,Olivia McAuliffe

    The Gram-positive genus Macrococcus is composed of eight species that are evolutionarily closely related to species of the Staphylococcus genus. In contrast to Staphylococcus species, species of Macrococcus are generally regarded to be avirulent in their animal hosts. Recent reports on Macrococcus have focused on the presence of novel methicillin resistance genes in Macrococcus caseolyticus and Macrococcus

  • Ecology of Contaminant Biotransformation in the Mycosphere: Role of Transport Processes.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Anja Worrich,Lukas Y Wick,Thomas Banitz

    Fungi and bacteria often share common microhabitats. Their co-occurrence and coevolution give rise to manifold ecological interactions in the mycosphere, here defined as the microhabitats surrounding and affected by hyphae and mycelia. The extensive structure of mycelia provides ideal "logistic networks" for transport of bacteria and matter in structurally and chemically heterogeneous soil ecosystems

  • Applications of Microbial Processes in Geotechnical Engineering.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Grainne El Mountassir,James M Minto,Leon A van Paassen,Emmanuel Salifu,Rebecca J Lunn

    Over the last 10-15 years, a new field of "biogeotechnics" has emerged as geotechnical engineers seek to find ground improvement technologies which have the potential to be lower carbon, more ecologically friendly, and more cost-effective than existing practices. This review summarizes the developments which have occurred in this new field, outlining in particular the microbial processes which have

  • Enhancement of Metallosphaera sedula Bioleaching by Targeted Recombination and Adaptive Laboratory Evolution.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Samuel McCarthy,Chenbing Ai,Paul Blum

    Thermophilic and lithoautotrophic archaea such as Metallosphaera sedula occupy acidic, metal-rich environments and are used in biomining processes. Biotechnological approaches could accelerate these processes and improve metal recovery by biomining organisms, but systems for genetic manipulation in these organisms are currently lacking. To gain a better understanding of the interplay between metal

  • Salmonella Cold Stress Response: Mechanisms and Occurrence in Foods.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-08-26
    Steven C Ricke,Turki M Dawoud,Sun Ae Kim,Si Hong Park,Young Min Kwon

    Since bacteria in foods often encounter various cold environments during food processing, such as chilling, cold chain distribution, and cold storage, lower temperatures can become a major stress environment for foodborne pathogens. Bacterial responses in stressful environments have been considered in the past, but now the importance of stress responses at the molecular level is becoming recognized

  • Microbial Source Tracking of Cronobacter spp.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Steve Forsythe

    Being able to track bacterial pathogens is essential for epidemiological purposes as well as monitoring in-house production facilities. Common bacterial pathogens, such as Salmonella serovars, are already been well defined, and their detection methods are very advanced. However, this will not be the case for emergent bacterial pathogens, as was the case for Cronobacter. The clinical significance of

  • Biofilm: A Hotspot for Emerging Bacterial Genotypes.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Live L Nesse,Roger Simm

    Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even

  • Bacterial Anaerobic Synthesis Gas (Syngas) and CO2+H2 Fermentation.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Frank R Bengelsdorf,Matthias H Beck,Catarina Erz,Sabrina Hoffmeister,Michael M Karl,Peter Riegler,Steffen Wirth,Anja Poehlein,Dirk Weuster-Botz,Peter Dürre

    Anaerobic bacterial gas fermentation gains broad interest in various scientific, social, and industrial fields. This microbial process is carried out by a specific group of bacterial strains called acetogens. All these strains employ the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway but they belong to different taxonomic groups. Here we provide an overview of the metabolism of acetogens and naturally occurring products.

  • Modeling Bacteria-Phage Interactions and Its Implications for Phage Therapy.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Saptarshi Sinha,Rajdeep K Grewal,Soumen Roy

    Bacteriophages are more abundant than any other organism on our planet. The interaction of bacteriophages and bacteria and their coevolution is well known. In this chapter, we describe various aspects of modeling such systems and their dynamics. We explore their interaction in: (i) liquid media, which leads to well-mixed populations and (ii) solid media, where their interaction is spatially restricted

  • Antimicrobial Resistance in Campylobacter Species: Mechanisms and Genomic Epidemiology.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-06-20
    Chris A Whitehouse,Shaohua Zhao,Heather Tate

    The Campylobacter genus is a large and diverse group of Gram-negative bacteria that are known to colonize humans and other mammals, birds, reptiles, and shellfish. While it is now recognized that several emerging Campylobacter species can be associated with human disease, two species, C. jejuni and C. coli, are responsible for the vast majority of bacterial gastroenteritis in humans worldwide. Infection

  • Fungi in Deep Subsurface Environments.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Magnus Ivarsson,Stefan Bengtson,Henrik Drake,Warren Francis

    The igneous crust of the oceans and the continents represents the major part of Earth's lithosphere and has recently been recognized as a substantial, yet underexplored, microbial habitat. While prokaryotes have been the focus of most investigations, microeukaryotes have been surprisingly neglected. However, recent work acknowledges eukaryotes, and in particular fungi, as common inhabitants of the

  • Fungal Genomes and Genotyping.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Ricardo Araujo,Benedita Sampaio-Maia

    The availability of complete fungal genomes is expanding rapidly and is offering an extensive and accurate view of this "kingdom." The scientific milestone of free access to more than 1000 fungal genomes of different species was reached, and new and stimulating projects have meanwhile been released. The "1000 Fungal Genomes Project" represents one of the largest sequencing initiative regarding fungal

  • Host Sensing by Pathogenic Fungi.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Sarah L Sherrington,Pizga Kumwenda,Courtney Kousser,Rebecca A Hall

    The ability to cause disease extends from the ability to grow within the host environment. The human host provides a dynamic environment to which fungal pathogens must adapt to in order to survive. The ability to grow under a particular condition (i.e., the ability to grow at mammalian body temperature) is considered a fitness attribute and is essential for growth within the human host. On the other

  • Spore Germination of Pathogenic Filamentous Fungi.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Poppy C S Sephton-Clark,Kerstin Voelz

    Fungi, algae, plants, protozoa, and bacteria are all known to form spores, especially hardy and ubiquitous propagation structures that are also often the infectious agents of diseases. Spores can survive for thousands of years, frozen in the permafrost (Kochkina et al., 2012), with the oldest viable spores extracted after 250 million years from salt crystals (Vreeland, Rosenzweig, & Powers, 2000).

  • Twenty-Five Years of Investigating the Universal Stress Protein: Function, Structure, and Applications.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2018-04-24
    Amy C Vollmer,Steven J Bark

    Since the initial discovery of universal stress protein A (UspA) 25 years ago, remarkable advances in molecular and biochemical technologies have revolutionized our understanding of biology. Many studies using these technologies have focused on characterization of the uspA gene and Usp-type proteins. These studies have identified the conservation of Usp-like proteins across bacteria, archaea, plants

  • Microbial Transformation of Iodine: From Radioisotopes to Iodine Deficiency.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Chris M Yeager,Seigo Amachi,Russell Grandbois,Daniel I Kaplan,Chen Xu,Kathy A Schwehr,Peter H Santschi

    Iodine is a biophilic element that is important for human health, both as an essential component of several thyroid hormones and, on the other hand, as a potential carcinogen in the form of radioiodine generated by anthropogenic nuclear activity. Iodine exists in multiple oxidation states (-1, 0, +1, +3, +5, and +7), primarily as molecular iodine (I2), iodide (I-), iodate [Formula: see text] , or organic

  • Toward Genome-Based Metabolic Engineering in Bacteria.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Sabine Oesterle,Irene Wuethrich,Sven Panke

    Prokaryotes modified stably on the genome are of great importance for production of fine and commodity chemicals. Traditional methods for genome engineering have long suffered from imprecision and low efficiencies, making construction of suitable high-producer strains laborious. Here, we review the recent advances in discovery and refinement of molecular precision engineering tools for genome-based

  • The Contribution of Bacteriophages to the Biology and Virulence of Pathogenic Clostridia.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Louis-Charles Fortier

    Bacteriophages are key players in the evolution of most bacteria. Temperate phages have been associated with virulence of some of the deadliest pathogenic bacteria. Among the most notorious cases, the genes encoding the botulinum neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum types C and D and the α-toxin (TcnA) produced by Clostridium novyi are both encoded within prophage genomes. Clostridium difficile

  • Uranium Bioreduction and Biomineralization.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Rehemanjiang Wufuer,Yongyang Wei,Qinghua Lin,Huawei Wang,Wenjuan Song,Wen Liu,Daoyong Zhang,Xiangliang Pan,Geoffrey Michael Gadd

    Following the development of nuclear science and technology, uranium contamination has been an ever increasing concern worldwide because of its potential for migration from the waste repositories and long-term contaminated environments. Physical and chemical techniques for uranium pollution are expensive and challenging. An alternative to these technologies is microbially mediated uranium bioremediation

  • Sodium Chloride Does Not Ensure Microbiological Safety of Foods: Cases and Solutions.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-10-21
    Nam Hee Kim,Tae Jin Cho,Min Suk Rhee

    Addition of salt or salt-containing water to food is one of the oldest and most effective preservation methods in history; indeed, salt-cured foods are generally recognized as microbiologically safe due to their high salinity. However, a number of microbiological risks remain. The microbiological hazards and risks associated with salt-cured foods must be addressed more in-depth as they are likely to

  • Microbial Ecology and Process Technology of Sourdough Fermentation.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Luc De Vuyst,Simon Van Kerrebroeck,Frédéric Leroy

    From a microbiological perspective, sourdough is to be considered as a specific and stressful ecosystem, harboring yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), that is used for the production of baked goods. With respect to the metabolic impact of the sourdough microbiota, acidification (LAB), flavor formation (LAB and yeasts), and leavening (yeasts and heterofermentative LAB species) are most noticeable

  • Diversity, Application, and Synthetic Biology of Industrially Important Aspergillus Fungi.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Hee-Soo Park,Sang-Cheol Jun,Kap-Hoon Han,Seung-Beom Hong,Jae-Hyuk Yu

    The filamentous fungal genus Aspergillus consists of over 340 officially recognized species. A handful of these Aspergillus fungi are predominantly used for food fermentation and large-scale production of enzymes, organic acids, and bioactive compounds. These industrially important Aspergilli primarily belong to the two major Aspergillus sections, Nigri and Flavi. Aspergillus oryzae (section Flavi)

  • Current Interventions for Controlling Pathogenic Escherichia coli.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-07-25
    Nam Hee Kim,Tae Jin Cho,Min Suk Rhee

    This review examined scientific reports and articles published from 2007 to 2016 regarding the major environmental sources of pathogenic Escherichia coli and the routes by which they enter the human gastrointestinal tract. The literature describes novel techniques used to combat pathogenic E. coli transmitted to humans from livestock and agricultural products, food-contact surfaces in processing environments

  • Stone-Eating Fungi: Mechanisms in Bioweathering and the Potential Role of Laccases in Black Slate Degradation With the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Julia Kirtzel,Daniela Siegel,Katrin Krause,Erika Kothe

    Many enzymes, such as laccases, are involved in the saprotrophic lifestyle of fungi and the effects of those may be linked to enhanced bioweathering on stone surfaces. To test this hypothesis, we studied the decomposition of kerogen-enriched lithologies, especially with black slate containing up to 20% of Corg. Indeed, a formation of ditches with attached hyphal material could be observed. To address

  • Fungal Biorecovery of Gold From E-waste.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Saskia Bindschedler,Thi Quynh Trang Vu Bouquet,Daniel Job,Edith Joseph,Pilar Junier

    Waste electric and electronic devices (e-waste) represent a source of valuable raw materials of great interest, and in the case of metals, e-waste might become a prized alternative source. Regarding gold, natural ores are difficult to mine due to their refractory nature and the richest ores have almost all been exploited. Additionally, some gold mining areas are present in geopolitically unstable regions

  • The Arsenic Detoxification System in Corynebacteria: Basis and Application for Bioremediation and Redox Control.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Luis M Mateos,Almudena F Villadangos,Alfonso G de la Rubia,Alvaro Mourenza,Laura Marcos-Pascual,Michal Letek,Brandán Pedre,Joris Messens,Jose A Gil

    Arsenic (As) is widespread in the environment and highly toxic. It has been released by volcanic and anthropogenic activities and causes serious health problems worldwide. To survive arsenic-rich environments, soil and saprophytic microorganisms have developed molecular detoxification mechanisms to survive arsenic-rich environments, mainly by the enzymatic conversion of inorganic arsenate (AsV) to

  • Physiological Role of Two-Component Signal Transduction Systems in Food-Associated Lactic Acid Bacteria.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-04-26
    Vicente Monedero,Ainhoa Revilla-Guarinos,Manuel Zúñiga

    Two-component systems (TCSs) are widespread signal transduction pathways mainly found in bacteria where they play a major role in adaptation to changing environmental conditions. TCSs generally consist of sensor histidine kinases that autophosphorylate in response to a specific stimulus and subsequently transfer the phosphate group to their cognate response regulators thus modulating their activity

  • Microbial Phosphite Oxidation and Its Potential Role in the Global Phosphorus and Carbon Cycles.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-02-13
    I A Figueroa,J D Coates

    Phosphite [Formula: see text] is a highly soluble, reduced phosphorus compound that is often overlooked in biogeochemical analyses. Although the oxidation of phosphite to phosphate is a highly exergonic process (Eo'=-650mV), phosphite is kinetically stable and can account for 10-30% of the total dissolved P in various environments. There is also evidence that phosphite was more prevalent under the

  • Contamination Control for Scientific Drilling Operations.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-02-13
    J Kallmeyer

    Drilling is an integral part of subsurface exploration. Because almost all drilling operations require the use of a drill fluid, contamination by infiltration of drill fluid into the recovered core material cannot be avoided. Because it is impossible to maintain sterile conditions during drilling the drill fluid will contain surface microbes and other contaminants. As contamination cannot be avoided

  • Iron and Fungal Physiology: A Review of Biotechnological Opportunities.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-02-13
    L Comensoli,S Bindschedler,P Junier,E Joseph

    Iron is an essential inorganic micronutrient. Because of its low toxicity only a few studies have dealt with the importance of iron in fungal physiology. Most of the studies published so far focus on iron sequestration by animal fungal pathogens, iron uptake by mycorrhizal fungi, or iron redox activities by fungal wood degraders. However, a general overview on the relationship between fungal physiology

  • Antivirulence Properties of Probiotics in Combating Microbial Pathogenesis.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2017-02-13
    M Surendran Nair,M A Amalaradjou,K Venkitanarayanan

    Probiotics are nonpathogenic microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host when administered in adequate amounts. Ample evidence is documented to support the potential application of probiotics for the prevention and treatment of infections. Health benefits of probiotics include prevention of diarrhea, including antibiotic-associated diarrhea and traveler's diarrhea, atopic eczema, dental

  • Pathogen and Particle Associations in Wastewater: Significance and Implications for Treatment and Disinfection Processes.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2016-12-08
    C Chahal,B van den Akker,F Young,C Franco,J Blackbeard,P Monis

    Disinfection guidelines exist for pathogen inactivation in potable water and recycled water, but wastewater with high numbers of particles can be more difficult to disinfect, making compliance with the guidelines problematic. Disinfection guidelines specify that drinking water with turbidity ≥1 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) is not suitable for disinfection and therefore not fit for purpose. Treated

  • The Oral Microbiome in Health and Its Implication in Oral and Systemic Diseases.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2016-12-08
    B Sampaio-Maia,I M Caldas,M L Pereira,D Pérez-Mongiovi,R Araujo

    The oral microbiome can alter the balance between health and disease, locally and systemically. Within the oral cavity, bacteria, archaea, fungi, protozoa, and viruses may all be found, each having a particular role, but strongly interacting with each other and with the host, in sickness or in health. A description on how colonization occurs and how the oral microbiome dynamically evolves throughout

  • Insights in Waste Management Bioprocesses Using Genomic Tools.
    Adv. Appl. Microbiol. (IF 3.343) Pub Date : 2016-12-08
    H J Purohit,A Kapley,A Khardenavis,A Qureshi,N A Dafale

    Microbial capacities drive waste stabilization and resource recovery in environmental friendly processes. Depending on the composition of waste, a stress-mediated selection process ensures a scenario that generates a specific enrichment of microbial community. These communities dynamically change over a period of time while keeping the performance through the required utilization capacities. Depending

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