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  • Molecular Determinants of Surface Colonisation in Diarrhoeagenic Escherichia coli (DEC): from Bacterial Adhesion to Biofilm Formation
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Ageorges V, Monteiro R, Leroy S, et al.

    Escherichia coli is primarily known as a commensal colonising the gastrointestinal tract of infants very early in life but some strains being responsible for diarrhoea, which can be especially severe in young children. Intestinal pathogenic E. coli include six pathotypes of diarrhoeagenic E. coli (DEC), namely the (i) enterotoxigenic E. coli, (ii) enteroaggregative E. coli, (iii) enteropathogenic E

  • Human Anelloviruses: diverse, omnipresent and commensal members of the virome
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Kaczorowska J, van der Hoek L.

    Anelloviruses are small, single stranded circular DNA viruses. They are extremely diverse and have not been associated with any disease so far. Strikingly, these small entities infect most probably the complete human population, and there are no convincing examples demonstrating viral clearance from infected individuals. The main transmission could be via fecal-oral or airway route, as infections occur

  • Propulsive nanomachines: the convergent evolution of archaella, flagella, and cilia
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Beeby M, Ferreira J, Tripp P, et al.

    Echoing the repeated convergent evolution of flight and vision in large eukaryotes, propulsive swimming motility has evolved independently in microbes in each of the three domains of life. Filamentous appendages—archaella in Archaea, flagella in Bacteria, and cilia in Eukaryotes—wave, whip, or rotate to propel microbes, overcoming diffusion and enabling colonization of new environments. The implementations

  • Mechanistic insights into host adaptation, virulence and epidemiology of the phytopathogen Xanthomonas.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Shi-Qi An,Neha Potnis,Max Dow,Frank-Jörg Vorhölter,Yong-Qiang He,Anke Becker,Doron Teper,Yi Li,Nian Wang,Leonidas Bleris,Ji-Liang Tang

    Xanthomonas is a well-studied genus of bacterial plant pathogens whose members cause a variety of diseases in economically important crops worldwide. Genomic and functional studies of these phytopathogens have provided significant understanding of microbial-host interactions, bacterial virulence and host adaptation mechanisms including microbial ecology and epidemiology. In addition, several strains

  • Protein aggregation in bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Frederic D Schramm,Kristen Schroeder,Kristina Jonas

    Protein aggregation occurs as a consequence of perturbations in protein homeostasis that can be triggered by environmental and cellular stresses. The accumulation of protein aggregates has been associated with aging and other pathologies in eukaryotes, and in bacteria with changes in growth rate, stress resistance and virulence. Numerous past studies, mostly performed in Escherichia coli, have led

  • Carbon/nitrogen homeostasis control in cyanobacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Karl Forchhammer,Khaled A Selim

    Carbon/nitrogen (C/N) balance sensing is a key requirement for the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. Therefore, cyanobacteria have evolved a sophisticated signal transduction network targeting the metabolite 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG), the carbon skeleton for nitrogen assimilation. It serves as a status reporter for the cellular C/N balance that is sensed by transcription factors NtcA and NdhR and the

  • How bacteria recognise and respond to surface contact.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Tom E P Kimkes,Matthias Heinemann

    Bacterial biofilms can cause medical problems and issues in technical systems. While a large body of knowledge exists on the phenotypes of planktonic and of sessile cells in mature biofilms, our understanding of what happens when bacteria change from the planktonic to the sessile state is still very incomplete. Fundamental questions are unanswered: for instance, how do bacteria sense that they are

  • Gardnerella and vaginal health: the truth is out there.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Aliona S Rosca,Joana Castro,Lúcia G V Sousa,Nuno Cerca

    The human vagina is a dynamic ecosystem in which homeostasis depends on mutually beneficial interactions between the host and their microorganisms. However, the vaginal ecosystem can be thrown off balance by a wide variety of factors. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age but its etiology is not yet fully understood, with different controversial

  • Development of a vaccine against Staphylococcus aureus invasive infections: Evidence based on human immunity, genetics and bacterial evasion mechanisms.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Lloyd S Miller,Vance G Fowler,Sanjay K Shukla,Warren E Rose,Richard A Proctor

    Invasive Staphylococcus aureus infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in both hospital and community settings, especially with the widespread emergence of virulent and multi-drug resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus strains. There is an urgent and unmet clinical need for non-antibiotic immune-based approaches to treat these infections as the increasing antibiotic resistance

  • A minimum set of regulators to thrive in the ocean.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    S Joke Lambrecht,Claudia Steglich,Wolfgang R Hess

    Marine cyanobacteria of the genus Prochlorococcus thrive in high cell numbers throughout the euphotic zones of the world's subtropical and tropical oligotrophic oceans, making them some of the most ecologically relevant photosynthetic microorganisms on Earth. The ecological success of these free-living phototrophs suggests that they are equipped with a regulatory system competent to address many different

  • Physiological limits to life in anoxic subseafloor sediment.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-02-17
    William D Orsi,Bernhard Schink,Wolfgang Buckel,William F Martin

    In subseafloor sediment, microbial cell densities exponentially decrease with depth into the fermentation zone. Here, we address the classical question of "why are cells dying faster than they are growing?' from the standpoint of physiology. The stoichiometries of fermentative ATP production and consumption in the fermentation zone place bounds on the conversion of old cell biomass into new. Most fermentable

  • Do phenothiazines possess antimicrobial and efflux inhibitory properties?
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Elizabeth M Grimsey,Laura J V Piddock

    Antibiotic resistance is a global health concern; the rise of drug-resistant bacterial infections is compromising the medical advances that resulted from the introduction of antibiotics at the beginning of the 20th century. Considering that the presence of mutations within individuals in a bacterial population may allow a subsection to survive and propagate in response to selective pressure, as long

  • Chromatin-dependent regulation of secondary metabolite biosynthesis in fungi: is the picture complete?
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Jérôme Collemare,Michael F Seidl

    Fungal secondary metabolites are small molecules that exhibit diverse biological activities exploited in medicine, industry and agriculture. Their biosynthesis is governed by co-expressed genes that often co-localize in gene clusters. Most of these secondary metabolite gene clusters are inactive under laboratory conditions, which is due to a tight transcriptional regulation. Modifications of chromatin

  • Impact of nanosystems in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms treatment.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Rita M Pinto,Daniela Lopes-de-Campos,M Cristina L Martins,Patrick Van Dijck,Cláudia Nunes,Salette Reis

    Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is considered by the World Health Organization as a high priority pathogen for which new therapies are needed. This is particularly important for biofilm implant-associated infections once the only available treatment option implies a surgical procedure combined with antibiotic therapy. Consequently, these infections represent an economic burden for Healthcare Systems

  • Global patterns of avian influenza A (H7): virus evolution and zoonotic threats.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Mahmoud M Naguib,Josanne H Verhagen,Ahmed Mostafa,Michelle Wille,Ruiyun Li,Annika Graaf,Josef D Järhult,Patrik Ellström,Siamak Zohari,Åke Lundkvist,Björn Olsen

    Avian influenza viruses (AIVs) continue to impose a negative impact on animal and human health worldwide. In particular, the emergence of highly pathogenic AIV H5 and, more recently, the emergence of low pathogenic AIV H7N9 have led to enormous socioeconomical losses in the poultry industry and resulted in fatal human infections. While H5N1 remains infamous, the number of zoonotic infections with H7N9

  • Epithelial cell infection by Epstein-Barr virus.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Jia Chen,Richard Longnecker

    Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is etiologically associated with multiple human malignancies including Burkitt lymphoma and Hodgkin disease as well as nasopharyngeal and gastric carcinoma. Entry of EBV into target cells is essential for virus to cause disease and is mediated by multiple viral envelope glycoproteins and cell surface associated receptors. The target cells of EBV include B cells and epithelial

  • Fungal plasma membrane domains.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Alexandros Athanasopoulos,Bruno André,Vicky Sophianopoulou,Christos Gournas

    The plasma membrane (PM) performs a plethora of physiological processes, the coordination of which requires spatial and temporal organization into specialized domains of different sizes, stability, protein/lipid composition and overall architecture. Compartmentalization of the PM has been particularly well studied in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, where five non-overlapping domains have been described:

  • Transcriptional regulation of organohalide pollutant utilisation in bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Bruno Maucourt,Stéphane Vuilleumier,Françoise Bringel

    Organohalides are organic molecules formed biotically and abiotically, both naturally and through industrial production. They are usually toxic and represent a health risk for living organisms, including humans. Bacteria capable of degrading organohalides for growth express dehalogenase genes encoding enzymes that cleave carbon-halogen bonds. Such bacteria are of potential high interest for bioremediation

  • Translation Elongation Factor P (EF-P).
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Katherine R Hummels,Daniel B Kearns

    Translation elongation factor P (EF-P) is conserved in all three domains of life (called eIF5A and aIF5A in eukaryotes and archaea, respectively) and functions to alleviate ribosome pausing during the translation of specific sequences, including consecutive proline residues. EF-P was identified in 1975 as a factor that stimulated the peptidyltransferase reaction in vitro but its involvement in the

  • Antibiotic resistance: turning evolutionary principles into clinical reality.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Dan I Andersson,Nathalie Q Balaban,Fernando Baquero,Patrice Courvalin,Philippe Glaser,Uri Gophna,Roy Kishony,Søren Molin,Tone Tønjum

    Antibiotic resistance is one of the major challenges facing modern medicine worldwide. The past few decades have witnessed rapid progress in our understanding of the multiple factors that affect the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance at the population level and the level of the individual patient. However, the process of translating this progress into health policy and clinical practice

  • The Shewanella genus: ubiquitous organisms sustaining and preserving aquatic ecosystems.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Olivier N Lemaire,Vincent Méjean,Chantal Iobbi-Nivol

    The Gram-negative Shewanella bacterial genus currently includes about 70 species of mostly aquatic γ-proteobacteria, which were isolated around the globe in a multitude of environments such as surface freshwater and the deepest marine trenches. Their survival in such a wide range of ecological niches is due to their impressive physiological and respiratory versatility. Some strains are among the organisms

  • Structure and genetics of Escherichia coli O antigens
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Liu B, Furevi A, Perepelov A, et al.

    Escherichia coli includes clonal groups of both commensal and pathogenic strains, with some of the latter causing serious infectious diseases. O antigen variation is current standard in defining strains for taxonomy and epidemiology, providing the basis for many serotyping schemes for Gram-negative bacteria. This review covers the diversity in E. coli O antigen structures and gene clusters, and the

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Physiology, ecology and industrial applications of aroma formation in yeast.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Maria C Dzialo,Rahel Park,Jan Steensels,Bart Lievens,Kevin J Verstrepen

    Yeast cells are often employed in industrial fermentation processes for their ability to efficiently convert relatively high concentrations of sugars into ethanol and carbon dioxide. Additionally, fermenting yeast cells produce a wide range of other compounds, including various higher alcohols, carbonyl compounds, phenolic compounds, fatty acid derivatives and sulfur compounds. Interestingly, many

  • Editorial: Lactic acid bacteria-a continuing journey in science and application.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Michiel Kleerebezem,Oscar P Kuipers,Eddy J Smid

  • Using murine colitis models to analyze probiotics-host interactions.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Rebeca Martín,Florian Chain,Sylvie Miquel,Jean-Paul Motta,Nathalie Vergnolle,Harry Sokol,Philippe Langella

    Probiotics are defined as 'live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host'. So, to consider a microorganism as a probiotic, a demonstrable beneficial effect on the health host should be shown as well as an adequate defined safety status and the capacity to survive transit through the gastrointestinal tract and to storage conditions. In this review

  • Oenococcus oeni and the genomic era.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Eveline J Bartowsky

    Oenococcus oeni is the main lactic acid bacteria species associated with grapes and wine. It is a bacterium that has adapted itself to the harsh conditions of wine, and demonstrated its importance in the production of quality wines. It has a small genome (1.8 Mb); over 200 strains have had their genome sequenced. Genomic analyses have proposed that there are two major branches of O. oeni strains that

  • The Evolution of gene regulation research in Lactococcus lactis.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Jan Kok,Lieke A van Gijtenbeek,Anne de Jong,Sjoerd B van der Meulen,Ana Solopova,Oscar P Kuipers

    Lactococcus lactis is a major microbe. This lactic acid bacterium (LAB) is used worldwide in the production of safe, healthy, tasteful and nutritious milk fermentation products. Its huge industrial importance has led to an explosion of research on the organism, particularly since the early 1970s. The upsurge in the research on L. lactis coincided not accidentally with the advent of recombinant DNA

  • Phase-variable methylation and epigenetic regulation by type I restriction-modification systems.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Megan De Ste Croix,Irene Vacca,Min Jung Kwun,Joseph D Ralph,Stephen D Bentley,Richard Haigh,Nicholas J Croucher,Marco R Oggioni

    Epigenetic modifications in bacteria, such as DNA methylation, have been shown to affect gene regulation, thereby generating cells that are isogenic but with distinctly different phenotypes. Restriction-modification (RM) systems contain prototypic methylases that are responsible for much of bacterial DNA methylation. This review focuses on a distinctive group of type I RM loci that , through phase

  • Bacteriocins and bacteriophage; a narrow-minded approach to food and gut microbiology.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Susan Mills,R Paul Ross,Colin Hill

    Bacteriocins and bacteriophage (phage) are biological tools which exhibit targeted microbial killing, a phenomenon which until recently was seen as a major drawback for their use as antimicrobial agents. However, in an age when the deleterious consequences of broad-spectrum antibiotics on human health have become apparent, there is an urgent need to develop narrow-spectrum substitutes. Indeed, disruption

  • Practical considerations for large-scale gut microbiome studies.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Doris Vandeputte,Raul Y Tito,Rianne Vanleeuwen,Gwen Falony,Jeroen Raes

    First insights on the human gut microbiome have been gained from medium-sized, cross-sectional studies. However, given the modest portion of explained variance of currently identified covariates and the small effect size of gut microbiota modulation strategies, upscaling seems essential for further discovery and characterisation of the multiple influencing factors and their relative contribution. In

  • Unexpected complexity in the lactate racemization system of lactic acid bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Benoît Desguin,Patrice Soumillion,Robert P Hausinger,Pascal Hols

    Analysis of lactate racemase (Lar) in lactic acid bacteria (LAB) has been a scientific challenge for many years, as indicated by the numerous contradictory reports on this activity. Recently, genetic and biochemical studies of the Lar system of Lactobacillus plantarum have unveiled the complexity of this particular enzymatic system. Lar activity is associated with LarA and its nickel-containing cofactor

  • Host recognition by lactic acid bacterial phages.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Jennifer Mahony,Christian Cambillau,Douwe van Sinderen

    Bacteriophage infection of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) is one of the most significant causes of inconsistencies in the manufacture of fermented foods, affecting production schedules and organoleptic properties of the final product. Consequently, LAB phages, and particularly those infecting Lactococcus lactis, have been the focus of intensive research efforts. During the past decade, multidisciplinary

  • Polysaccharide production by lactic acid bacteria: from genes to industrial applications.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-08-24
    Ahmad A Zeidan,Vera Kuzina Poulsen,Thomas Janzen,Patrizia Buldo,Patrick M F Derkx,Gunnar Øregaard,Ana Rute Neves

    The ability to produce polysaccharides with diverse biological functions is widespread in bacteria. In lactic acid bacteria (LAB), production of polysaccharides has long been associated with the technological, functional and health-promoting benefits of these microorganisms. In particular, the capsular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides have been implicated in modulation of the rheological properties

  • Lifestyles in transition: evolution and natural history of the genus Lactobacillus.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-07-05
    Rebbeca M Duar,Xiaoxi B Lin,Jinshui Zheng,Maria Elena Martino,Théodore Grenier,María Elisa Pérez-Muñoz,François Leulier,Michael Gänzle,Jens Walter

    Lactobacillus species are found in nutrient-rich habitats associated with food, feed, plants, animals and humans. Due to their economic importance, the metabolism, genetics and phylogeny of lactobacilli have been extensively studied. However, past research primarily examined lactobacilli in experimental settings abstracted from any natural history, and the ecological context in which these bacteria

  • Experimental evolution and the adjustment of metabolic strategies in lactic acid bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2017-06-22
    Herwig Bachmann,Douwe Molenaar,Filipe Branco Dos Santos,Bas Teusink

    Experimental evolution of microbes has gained lots of interest in recent years, mainly due to the ease of strain characterisation through next-generation sequencing. While evolutionary and systems biologists use experimental evolution to address fundamental questions in their respective fields, studies with lactic acid bacteria are often more directed by applied questions. Insight into population and

  • Structural diversity in Salmonella O antigens and its genetic basis.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2013-07-16
    Bin Liu,Yuriy A Knirel,Lu Feng,Andrei V Perepelov,Sof'ya N Senchenkova,Peter R Reeves,Lei Wang

    This review covers the structures and genetics of the 46 O antigens of Salmonella, a major pathogen of humans and domestic animals. The variation in structures underpins the serological specificity of the 46 recognized serogroups. The O antigen is important for the full function and virulence of many bacteria, and the considerable diversity of O antigens can confer selective advantage. Salmonella O

  • Genome analysis of microorganisms living in amoebae reveals a melting pot of evolution.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2010-02-06
    Claire Moliner,Pierre-Edouard Fournier,Didier Raoult

    Amoebae-resistant microorganisms exhibit a specific lifestyle. Unlike allopatric specialized intracellular pathogens, they have not specialized because they infect the amoebae via amoebal attack and present a sympatric lifestyle with species from different phyla. In this review, we compare the genomes from bacteria (Legionella pneumophila, Legionella drancourtii, Candidatus'Protochlamydia amoebophila

  • The extracellular biology of the lactobacilli.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2010-01-22
    Michiel Kleerebezem,Pascal Hols,Elvis Bernard,Thomas Rolain,Miaomiao Zhou,Roland J Siezen,Peter A Bron

    Lactobacilli belong to the lactic acid bacteria, which play a key role in industrial and artisan food raw-material fermentation, including a large variety of fermented dairy products. Next to their role in fermentation processes, specific strains of Lactobacillus are currently marketed as health-promoting cultures or probiotics. The last decade has witnessed the completion of a large number of Lactobacillus

  • Magnificent seven: roles of G protein-coupled receptors in extracellular sensing in fungi.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-09-25
    Chaoyang Xue,Yen-Ping Hsueh,Joseph Heitman

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) represent the largest family of transmembrane receptors and are responsible for transducing extracellular signals into intracellular responses that involve complex intracellular-signaling networks. This review highlights recent research advances in fungal GPCRs, including classification, extracellular sensing, and G protein-signaling regulation. The involvement of

  • Protein secretion and outer membrane assembly in Alphaproteobacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-09-02
    Xenia Gatsos,Andrew J Perry,Khatira Anwari,Pavel Dolezal,P Peter Wolynec,Vladimir A Likić,Anthony W Purcell,Susan K Buchanan,Trevor Lithgow

    The assembly of beta-barrel proteins into membranes is a fundamental process that is essential in Gram-negative bacteria, mitochondria and plastids. Our understanding of the mechanism of beta-barrel assembly is progressing from studies carried out in Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Comparative sequence analysis suggests that while many components mediating beta-barrel protein assembly

  • Transport of carboxylic acids in yeasts.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-09-02
    Margarida Casal,Sandra Paiva,Odília Queirós,Isabel Soares-Silva

    Carboxylic acid transporters form a heterogeneous group of proteins, presenting diverse mechanisms of action and regulation, and belonging to several different families. Multiple physiological and genetic studies in several organisms, from yeast to mammals, have allowed the identification of various genes coding for carboxylate transporters. Detailed understanding of the metabolism and transport of

  • Epidemiology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis and laboratory detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Thomas Prescott Atkinson,Mitchell F Balish,Ken B Waites

    Since its initial description in the 1940s and eventual elucidation as a highly evolved pathogenic bacterium, Mycoplasma pneumoniae has come to be recognized as a worldwide cause of primary atypical pneumonia. Beyond its ability to cause severe lower respiratory illness and milder upper respiratory symptoms it has become apparent that a wide array of extrapulmonary infectious and postinfectious events

  • Metabolic reconstruction of aromatic compounds degradation from the genome of the amazing pollutant-degrading bacterium Cupriavidus necator JMP134.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-08-12
    Danilo Pérez-Pantoja,Rodrigo De la Iglesia,Dietmar H Pieper,Bernardo González

    Cupriavidus necator JMP134 is a model for chloroaromatics biodegradation, capable of mineralizing 2,4-D, halobenzoates, chlorophenols and nitrophenols, among other aromatic compounds. We performed the metabolic reconstruction of aromatics degradation, linking the catabolic abilities predicted in silico from the complete genome sequence with the range of compounds that support growth of this bacterium

  • Microbial biodegradation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-07-30
    Ri-He Peng,Ai-Sheng Xiong,Yong Xue,Xiao-Yan Fu,Feng Gao,Wei Zhao,Yong-Sheng Tian,Quan-Hong Yao

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are widespread in various ecosystems and are pollutants of great concern due to their potential toxicity, mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Because of their hydrophobic nature, most PAHs bind to particulates in soil and sediments, rendering them less available for biological uptake. Microbial degradation represents the major mechanism responsible for the ecological

  • Sweet antibiotics - the role of glycosidic residues in antibiotic and antitumor activity and their randomization.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Vladimír Kren,Tomás Rezanka

    A large number of antibiotics are glycosides. In numerous cases the glycosidic residues are crucial to their activity; sometimes, glycosylation only improves their pharmacokinetic parameters. Recent developments in molecular glycobiology have improved our understanding of aglycone vs. glycoside activities and made it possible to develop new, more active or more effective glycodrugs based on these findings

  • Ins and outs of glucose transport systems in eubacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-07-24
    Knut Jahreis,Elisângela F Pimentel-Schmitt,Reinhold Brückner,Fritz Titgemeyer

    Glucose is the classical carbon source that is used to investigate the transport, metabolism, and regulation of nutrients in bacteria. Many physiological phenomena like nutrient limitation, stress responses, production of antibiotics, and differentiation are inextricably linked to nutrition. Over the years glucose transport systems have been characterized at the molecular level in more than 20 bacterial

  • DNA damage-induced gene expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-07-12
    Yu Fu,Landon Pastushok,Wei Xiao

    After exposure to DNA-damaging agents, both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells activate stress responses that result in specific alterations in patterns of gene expression. Bacteria such as Escherichia coli possess both lesion-specific responses as well as an SOS response to general DNA damage, and the molecular mechanisms of these responses are well studied. Mechanisms of DNA damage response in lower

  • Influence of BCG vaccine strain on the immune response and protection against tuberculosis.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-07-12
    Nicole Ritz,Willem A Hanekom,Roy Robins-Browne,Warwick J Britton,Nigel Curtis

    The Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine has been used for more than 80 years to protect against tuberculosis. Worldwide, over 90% of children are immunized with BCG, making it the most commonly administered vaccine, with more than 120 million doses used each year. Although new tuberculosis vaccines are under investigation, BCG will remain the cornerstone of the strategy to fight the worsening tuberculosis

  • The diversity of small eukaryotic phytoplankton (< or =3 microm) in marine ecosystems.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-20
    Daniel Vaulot,Wenche Eikrem,Manon Viprey,Hervé Moreau

    Small cells dominate photosynthetic biomass and primary production in many marine ecosystems. Traditionally, picoplankton refers to cells < or =2 microm. Here we extend the size range of the organisms considered to 3 microm, a threshold often used operationally in field studies. While the prokaryotic component of picophytoplankton is dominated by two genera, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus, the eukaryotic

  • The early steps of glucose signalling in yeast.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Juana M Gancedo

    In the presence of glucose, yeast undergoes an important remodelling of its metabolism. There are changes in the concentration of intracellular metabolites and in the stability of proteins and mRNAs; modifications occur in the activity of enzymes as well as in the rate of transcription of a large number of genes, some of the genes being induced while others are repressed. Diverse combinations of input

  • Quorum sensing and virulence regulation in Xanthomonas campestris.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Ya-Wen He,Lian-Hui Zhang

    It is now clear that cell-cell communication, often referred to as quorum sensing (QS), is the norm in the prokaryotic kingdom and this community-wide genetic regulatory mechanism has been adopted for regulation of many important biological functions. Since the 1980s, several types of QS signals have been identified, which are associated commonly with different types of QS mechanisms. Among them, the

  • Role of microorganisms in the evolution of animals and plants: the hologenome theory of evolution.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-14
    Ilana Zilber-Rosenberg,Eugene Rosenberg

    We present here the hologenome theory of evolution, which considers the holobiont (the animal or plant with all of its associated microorganisms) as a unit of selection in evolution. The hologenome is defined as the sum of the genetic information of the host and its microbiota. The theory is based on four generalizations: (1) All animals and plants establish symbiotic relationships with microorganisms

  • Genetics and cell biology of magnetosome formation in magnetotactic bacteria.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-10
    Dirk Schüler

    The ability of magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) to orient in magnetic fields is based on the synthesis of magnetosomes, which are unique prokaryotic organelles comprising membrane-enveloped, nano-sized crystals of a magnetic iron mineral that are aligned in well-ordered intracellular chains. Magnetosome crystals have species-specific morphologies, sizes, and arrangements. The magnetosome membrane, which

  • Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complexes: molecular multitasking revealed.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-06-05
    Corinne D Hausmann,Michael Ibba

    The accurate synthesis of proteins, dictated by the corresponding nucleotide sequence encoded in mRNA, is essential for cell growth and survival. Central to this process are the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (aaRSs), which provide amino acid substrates for the growing polypeptide chain in the form of aminoacyl-tRNAs. The aaRSs are essential for coupling the correct amino acid and tRNA molecules, but are

  • Species divergence and the measurement of microbial diversity.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-04-26
    Catherine A Lozupone,Rob Knight

    Diversity measurement is important for understanding community structure and dynamics, but has been particularly challenging for microorganisms. Microbial community characterization using small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) gene sequences has revealed an extensive, previously unsuspected diversity that we are only now beginning to understand, especially now that advanced sequencing technologies are producing

  • From soil to gut: Bacillus cereus and its food poisoning toxins.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Lotte P Stenfors Arnesen,Annette Fagerlund,Per Einar Granum

    Bacillus cereus is widespread in nature and frequently isolated from soil and growing plants, but it is also well adapted for growth in the intestinal tract of insects and mammals. From these habitats it is easily spread to foods, where it may cause an emetic or a diarrhoeal type of food-associated illness that is becoming increasingly important in the industrialized world. The emetic disease is a

  • Diversity and occurrence of Burkholderia spp. in the natural environment.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Stéphane Compant,Jerzy Nowak,Tom Coenye,Christophe Clément,Essaïd Ait Barka

    Both in natural and in managed ecosystems, bacteria are common inhabitants of the phytosphere and the internal tissues of plants. Probably the most diverse and environmentally adaptable plant-associated bacteria belong to the genus Burkholderia. This genus is well-known for its human, animal and plant pathogenic members, including the Burkholderia cepacia complex. However, it also contains species

  • Structure and genetics of Shigella O antigens.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-04-22
    Bin Liu,Yuriy A Knirel,Lu Feng,Andrei V Perepelov,Sof'ya N Senchenkova,Quan Wang,Peter R Reeves,Lei Wang

    This review covers the O antigens of the 46 serotypes of Shigella, but those of most Shigella flexneri are variants of one basic structure, leaving 34 Shigella distinct O antigens to review, together with their gene clusters. Several of the structures and gene clusters are reported for the first time and this is the first such group for which structures and DNA sequences have been determined for all

  • Heterogeneity of large clostridial toxins: importance of Clostridium difficile toxinotypes.
    FEMS Microbiol. Rev. (IF 11.524) Pub Date : 2008-04-10
    Maja Rupnik

    Clostridium difficile toxinotypes are groups of strains defined by changes in the PaLoc region encoding two main virulence factors: toxins TcdA and TcdB. Currently, 24 variant toxinotypes (I-XXIV) are known, in addition to toxinotype 0 strains, which contain a PaLoc identical to the reference strain VPI 10463. Variant toxinotypes can also differ from toxinotype 0 strains in their toxin production pattern

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿