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  • Evolution and Global Transmission of a Multidrug-Resistant, Community-Associated Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Lineage from the Indian Subcontinent.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Eike J Steinig,Sebastian Duchene,D Ashley Robinson,Stefan Monecke,Maho Yokoyama,Maisem Laabei,Peter Slickers,Patiyan Andersson,Deborah Williamson,Angela Kearns,Richard V Goering,Elizabeth Dickson,Ralf Ehricht,Margaret Ip,Matthew V N O'Sullivan,Geoffrey W Coombs,Andreas Petersen,Grainne Brennan,Anna C Shore,David C Coleman,Annalisa Pantosti,Herminia de Lencastre,Henrik Westh,Nobumichi Kobayashi,Helen Heffernan,Birgit Strommenger,Franziska Layer,Stefan Weber,Hege Vangstein Aamot,Leila Skakni,Sharon J Peacock,Derek Sarovich,Simon Harris,Julian Parkhill,Ruth C Massey,Mathew T G Holden,Stephen D Bentley,Steven Y C Tong

    The evolution and global transmission of antimicrobial resistance have been well documented for Gram-negative bacteria and health care-associated epidemic pathogens, often emerging from regions with heavy antimicrobial use. However, the degree to which similar processes occur with Gram-positive bacteria in the community setting is less well understood. In this study, we traced the recent origins and global spread of a multidrug-resistant, community-associated Staphylococcus aureus lineage from the Indian subcontinent, the Bengal Bay clone (ST772). We generated whole-genome sequence data of 340 isolates from 14 countries, including the first isolates from Bangladesh and India, to reconstruct the evolutionary history and genomic epidemiology of the lineage. Our data show that the clone emerged on the Indian subcontinent in the early 1960s and disseminated rapidly in the 1990s. Short-term outbreaks in community and health care settings occurred following intercontinental transmission, typically associated with travel and family contacts on the subcontinent, but ongoing endemic transmission was uncommon. Acquisition of a multidrug resistance integrated plasmid was instrumental in the emergence of a single dominant and globally disseminated clade in the early 1990s. Phenotypic data on biofilm, growth, and toxicity point to antimicrobial resistance as the driving force in the evolution of ST772. The Bengal Bay clone therefore combines the multidrug resistance of traditional health care-associated clones with the epidemiological transmission of community-associated methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA). Our study demonstrates the importance of whole-genome sequencing for tracking the evolution of emerging and resistant pathogens. It provides a critical framework for ongoing surveillance of the clone on the Indian subcontinent and elsewhere.IMPORTANCE The Bengal Bay clone (ST772) is a community-associated and multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus lineage first isolated from Bangladesh and India in 2004. In this study, we showed that the Bengal Bay clone emerged from a virulent progenitor circulating on the Indian subcontinent. Its subsequent global transmission was associated with travel or family contact in the region. ST772 progressively acquired specific resistance elements at limited cost to its fitness and continues to be exported globally, resulting in small-scale community and health care outbreaks. The Bengal Bay clone therefore combines the virulence potential and epidemiology of community-associated clones with the multidrug resistance of health care-associated S. aureus lineages. This study demonstrates the importance of whole-genome sequencing for the surveillance of highly antibiotic-resistant pathogens, which may emerge in the community setting of regions with poor antibiotic stewardship and rapidly spread into hospitals and communities across the world.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Toxin-Antitoxin MazEF Drives Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation, Antibiotic Tolerance, and Chronic Infection.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Dongzhu Ma,Jonathan B Mandell,Niles P Donegan,Ambrose L Cheung,Wanyan Ma,Scott Rothenberger,Robert M Q Shanks,Anthony R Richardson,Kenneth L Urish

    Staphylococcus aureus is the major organism responsible for surgical implant infections. Antimicrobial treatment of these infections often fails, leading to expensive surgical intervention and increased risk of mortality to the patient. The challenge in treating these infections is associated with the high tolerance of S. aureus biofilm to antibiotics. MazEF, a toxin-antitoxin system, is thought to be an important regulator of this phenotype, but its physiological function in S. aureus is controversial. Here, we examined the role of MazEF in developing chronic infections by comparing growth and antibiotic tolerance phenotypes in three S. aureus strains to their corresponding strains with disruption of mazF expression. Strains lacking mazF production showed increased biofilm growth and decreased biofilm antibiotic tolerance. Deletion of icaADBC in the mazF::Tn background suppressed the growth phenotype observed with mazF-disrupted strains, suggesting the phenotype was ica dependent. We confirmed these phenotypes in our murine animal model. Loss of mazF resulted in increased bacterial burden and decreased survival rate of mice compared to its wild-type strain demonstrating that loss of the mazF gene caused an increase in S. aureus virulence. Although lack of mazF gene expression increased S. aureus virulence, it was more susceptible to antibiotics in vivo Combined, the ability of mazF to inhibit biofilm formation and promote biofilm antibiotic tolerance plays a critical role in transitioning from an acute to chronic infection that is difficult to eradicate with antibiotics alone.IMPORTANCE Surgical infections are one of the most common types of infections encountered in a hospital. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common pathogen associated with this infection. These infections are resilient and difficult to eradicate, as the bacteria form biofilm, a community of bacteria held together by an extracellular matrix. Compared to bacteria that are planktonic, bacteria in a biofilm are more resistant to antibiotics. The mechanism behind how bacteria develop this resistance and establish a chronic infection is unknown. We demonstrate that mazEF, a toxin-antitoxin gene, inhibits biofilm formation and promotes biofilm antibiotic tolerance which allows S. aureus to transition from an acute to chronic infection that cannot be eradicated with antibiotics but is less virulent. This gene not only makes the bacteria more tolerant to antibiotics but makes the bacteria more tolerant to the host.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • CD71+ Erythroid Cells Exacerbate HIV-1 Susceptibility, Mediate trans-Infection, and Harbor Infective Viral Particles.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Afshin Namdar,Garett Dunsmore,Shima Shahbaz,Petya Koleva,Lai Xu,Juan Jovel,Stan Houston,Shokrollah Elahi

    CD71+ erythroid cells (CECs) have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. Here, we show that CECs are expanded in the peripheral blood of HIV patients, with a positive correlation between their frequency and the plasma viral load. CECs from HIV patients and human cord blood/placenta exacerbate HIV-1 infection/replication when cocultured with CD4+ T cells, and that preexposure of CD4+ T cells to CECs enhances their permissibility to HIV infection. However, mature red blood cells (RBCs) do not enhance HIV replication when cocultured with CD4+ T cells. We also found CECs express substantial levels of the NOX2 gene and via a mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS)-dependent mechanism possibly upregulate NF-κB in CD4+ T cells once cocultured, which affects the cell cycle machinery to facilitate HIV-1 replication. The complement receptor-1 (CD35) and the Duffy antigen receptor for chemokines (DARC) as potential HIV target molecules are expressed significantly higher on CECs compared to mature red blood cells. Blocking CD35 or DARC substantially abolishes HIV-1 transmission by RBCs to uninfected CD4+ T cells but not by CECs. In contrast, we observed CECs bind to HIV-1 via CD235a and subsequently transfer the virus to uninfected CD4+ T cells, which can be partially blocked by the anti-CD235a antibody. More importantly, we found that CECs from HIV-infected individuals in the presence of antiretroviral therapy harbor infective viral particles, which mediate HIV-1 trans-infection of CD4+ T cells. Therefore, our findings provide a novel insight into the role of CECs in HIV pathogenesis as potential contributing cells in viral persistence and transmission.IMPORTANCE Immature red blood cells (erythroid precursors or CD71+ erythroid cells) have a wide range of immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we found that these erythroid precursors are abundant in the human cord blood/placental tissues, in the blood of HIV-infected and anemic individuals. We observed that these cells exacerbate HIV-1 replication/infection in target cells and even make HIV target cells more permissible to HIV infection. In addition, we found that HIV gets a free ride by binding on the surface of these cells and thus can travel to different parts of the body. In agreement, we noticed a positive correlation between the plasma viral load and the frequency of these cells in HIV patients. More importantly, we observed that infective HIV particles reside inside these erythroid precursors but not mature red blood cells. Therefore, these cells by harboring HIV can play an important role in HIV pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Multicomponent Vaccine Provides Immunity against Local and Systemic Infections by Group A Streptococcus across Serotypes.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Shuai Bi,Meiyi Xu,Ya Zhou,Xinxin Xing,Adong Shen,Beinan Wang

    Group A streptococcus (GAS) species are responsible for a broad spectrum of human diseases, ranging from superficial to invasive infections, and are associated with autoimmune disorders. There is no commercial vaccine against GAS. The clinical manifestations of GAS infection may be attributable to the large repertoire of virulence factors used selectively in different types of GAS disease. Here, we selected five molecules, highly conserved among GAS serotypes, and involved in different pathogenic mechanisms, as a multicomponent vaccine, 5CP. Intranasal (i.n.) immunization with 5CP protected mice against both mucosal and systemic GAS infection across serotypes; the protection lasted at least 6 months. Immunization of mice with 5CP constrained skin lesion development and accelerated lesion recovery. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay analyses revealed that 5CP induced Th17 and antibody responses locally and systemically; however, the Th17 response induced by 5CP resolved more quickly than that to GAS when challenge bacteria were cleared, suggesting that 5CP is less likely to cause autoimmune responses. These findings support that immunization through the i.n. route targeting multiple nonredundant virulence factors can induce immunity against different types of GAS disease and represents an alternative strategy for GAS vaccine development, with favorable efficacy, coverage, duration, and safety.IMPORTANCE GAS is among the most common human pathogens and causes a wide variety of diseases, likely more than any other microorganism. The diverse clinical manifestations of GAS may be attributable to its large repertoire of virulence factors that are selectively and synergistically involved in streptococcal pathogenesis. To date, GAS vaccines have not been successful due to multiple serotypes and postinfection sequelae associated with autoimmunity. In this study, five conserved virulence factors that are involved in GAS pathogenesis were used as a combined vaccine. Intranasal immunization with this vaccine induced humoral and cellular immune responses across GAS serotypes and protected against mucosal, systemic, and skin infections. The significance of this work is to demonstrate that the efficacy of GAS vaccines can be achieved by including multiple nonredundant critical virulence factors and inducing local and systemic immunity. The strategy also provides valuable insights for vaccine development against other pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transmembrane Prolines Mediate Signal Sensing and Decoding in Bacillus subtilis DesK Histidine Kinase.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Pilar Fernández,Lucía Porrini,Daniela Albanesi,Luciano A Abriata,Matteo Dal Peraro,Diego de Mendoza,María C Mansilla

    Environmental awareness is an essential attribute of all organisms. The homeoviscous adaptation system of Bacillus subtilis provides a powerful experimental model for the investigation of stimulus detection and signaling mechanisms at the molecular level. These bacteria sense the order of membrane lipids with the transmembrane (TM) protein DesK, which has an N-terminal sensor domain and an intracellular catalytic effector domain. DesK exhibits autokinase activity as well as phosphotransferase and phosphatase activities toward a cognate response regulator, DesR, that controls the expression of an enzyme that remodels membrane fluidity when the temperature drops below ∼30°C. Membrane fluidity signals are transmitted from the DesK sensor domain to the effector domain via rotational movements of a connecting 2-helix coiled coil (2-HCC). Previous molecular dynamic simulations suggested important roles for TM prolines in transducing the initial signals of membrane fluidity status to the 2-HCC. Here, we report that individual replacement of prolines in DesKs TM1 and TM5 helices by alanine (DesKPA) locked DesK in a phosphatase-ON state, abrogating membrane fluidity responses. An unbiased mutagenic screen identified the L174P replacement in the internal side of the repeated heptad of the 2-HCC structure that alleviated the signaling defects of every transmembrane DesKPA substitution. Moreover, substitutions by proline in other internal positions of the 2-HCC reestablished the kinase-ON state of the DesKPA mutants. These results imply that TM prolines are essential for finely tuned signal generation by the N-terminal sensor helices, facilitating a conformational control by the metastable 2-HCC domain of the DesK signaling state.IMPORTANCE Signal sensing and transduction is an essential biological process for cell adaptation and survival. Histidine kinases (HK) are the sensory proteins of two-component systems that control many bacterial responses to different stimuli, like environmental changes. Here, we focused on the HK DesK from Bacillus subtilis, a paradigmatic example of a transmembrane thermosensor suited to remodel membrane fluidity when the temperature drops below 30°C. DesK provides a tractable system for investigating the mechanism of transmembrane signaling, one of the majors interrogates in biology to date. Our studies demonstrate that transmembrane proline residues modulate the conformational switch of a 2-helix coiled-coil (2-HCC) structural motif that controls input-output in a variety of HK. Our results highlight the relevance of proline residues within sensor domains and could inspire investigations of their role in different signaling proteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Measles Virus Ribonucleoprotein Complexes Rapidly Spread across Well-Differentiated Primary Human Airway Epithelial Cells along F-Actin Rings.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Brajesh K Singh,Christian K Pfaller,Roberto Cattaneo,Patrick L Sinn

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious human pathogen that continues to be a worldwide health burden. One of the challenges for the study of MeV spread is the identification of model systems that accurately reflect how MeV behaves in humans. For our studies, we use unpassaged, well-differentiated primary cultures of airway epithelial cells from human donor lungs to examine MeV infection and spread. Here, we show that the main components of the MeV ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP), the nucleocapsid and phosphoprotein, colocalize with the apical and circumapical F-actin networks. To better understand how MeV infections spread across the airway epithelium, we generated a recombinant virus incorporating chimeric fluorescent proteins in its RNP complex. By live cell imaging, we observed rapid movement of RNPs along the circumapical F-actin rings of newly infected cells. This strikingly rapid mechanism of horizontal trafficking across epithelia is consistent with the opening of pores between columnar cells by the viral membrane fusion apparatus. Our work provides mechanistic insights into how MeV rapidly spreads through airway epithelial cells, contributing to its extremely contagious nature.IMPORTANCE The ability of viral particles to directly spread cell to cell within the airways without particle release is considered to be highly advantageous to many respiratory viruses. Our previous studies in well-differentiated, primary human airway epithelial cells suggest that measles virus (MeV) spreads cell to cell by eliciting the formation of intercellular membrane pores. Based on a newly generated ribonucleoprotein complex (RNP) "tracker" virus, we document by live-cell microscopy that MeV RNPs move along F-actin rings before entering a new cell. Thus, rather than diffusing through the cytoplasm of a newly infected columnar cell, RNPs take advantage of the cytoskeletal infrastructure to rapidly spread laterally across the human airway epithelium. This results in rapid horizontal spread through the epithelium that does not require particle release.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell Cycle-Dependent Flagellar Disassembly in a Firebug Trypanosomatid Leptomonas pyrrhocoris.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Cynthia Y He,Adarsh Singh,Vyacheslav Yurchenko

    Current understanding of flagellum/cilium length regulation focuses on a few model organisms with flagella of uniform length. Leptomonas pyrrhocoris is a monoxenous trypanosomatid parasite of firebugs. When cultivated in vitro, L. pyrrhocoris duplicates every 4.2 ± 0.2 h, representing the shortest doubling time reported for trypanosomatids so far. Each L. pyrrhocoris cell starts its cell cycle with a single flagellum. A new flagellum is assembled de novo, while the old flagellum persists throughout the cell cycle. The flagella in an asynchronous L. pyrrhocoris population exhibited a vast length variation of ∼3 to 24 μm, casting doubt on the presence of a length regulation mechanism based on a single balance point between the assembly and disassembly rate in these cells. Through imaging of live L. pyrrhocoris cells, a rapid, partial disassembly of the existing, old flagellum is observed upon, if not prior to, the initial assembly of a new flagellum. Mathematical modeling demonstrated an inverse correlation between the flagellar growth rate and flagellar length and inferred the presence of distinct, cell cycle-dependent disassembly mechanisms with different rates. On the basis of these observations, we proposed a min-max model that could account for the vast flagellar length range observed for asynchronous L. pyrrhocoris. This model may also apply to other flagellated organisms with flagellar length variation.IMPORTANCE Current understanding of flagellum biogenesis during the cell cycle in trypanosomatids is limited to a few pathogenic species, including Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania spp. The most notable characteristics of trypanosomatid flagella studied so far are the extreme stability and lack of ciliary disassembly/absorption during the cell cycle. This is different from cilia in Chlamydomonas and mammalian cells, which undergo complete absorption prior to cell cycle initiation. In this study, we examined flagellum duplication during the cell cycle of Leptomonas pyrrhocoris With the shortest duplication time documented for all Trypanosomatidae and its amenability to culture on agarose gel with limited mobility, we were able to image these cells through the cell cycle. Rapid, cell cycle-specific flagellum disassembly different from turnover was observed for the first time in trypanosomatids. Given the observed length-dependent growth rate and the presence of different disassembly mechanisms, we proposed a min-max model that can account for the flagellar length variation observed in L. pyrrhocoris.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mycobacterial OtsA Structures Unveil Substrate Preference Mechanism and Allosteric Regulation by 2-Oxoglutarate and 2-Phosphoglycerate.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Vítor Mendes,Marta Acebrón-García-de-Eulate,Nupur Verma,Michal Blaszczyk,Márcio V B Dias,Tom L Blundell

    Trehalose is an essential disaccharide for mycobacteria and a key constituent of several cell wall glycolipids with fundamental roles in pathogenesis. Mycobacteria possess two pathways for trehalose biosynthesis. However, only the OtsAB pathway was found to be essential in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with marked growth and virulence defects of OtsA mutants and strict essentiality of OtsB2. Here, we report the first mycobacterial OtsA structures from Mycobacterium thermoresistibile in both apo and ligand-bound forms. Structural information reveals three key residues in the mechanism of substrate preference that were further confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis. Additionally, we identify 2-oxoglutarate and 2-phosphoglycerate as allosteric regulators of OtsA. The structural analysis in this work strongly contributed to define the mechanisms for feedback inhibition, show different conformational states of the enzyme, and map a new allosteric site.IMPORTANCE Mycobacterial infections are a significant source of mortality worldwide, causing millions of deaths annually. Trehalose is a multipurpose disaccharide that plays a fundamental structural role in these organisms as a component of mycolic acids, a molecular hallmark of the cell envelope of mycobacteria. Here, we describe the first mycobacterial OtsA structures. We show mechanisms of substrate preference and show that OtsA is regulated allosterically by 2-oxoglutarate and 2-phosphoglycerate at an interfacial site. These results identify a new allosteric site and provide insight on the regulation of trehalose synthesis through the OtsAB pathway in mycobacteria.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Heat-Killed Cryptococcus Mutant Strain Induces Host Protection against Multiple Invasive Mycoses in a Murine Vaccine Model.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Yina Wang,Keyi Wang,Jorge A Masso-Silva,Amariliz Rivera,Chaoyang Xue

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a fungal pathogen that infects the lungs and then often disseminates to the central nervous system, causing meningitis. How Cryptococcus is able to suppress host immunity and escape the antifungal activity of macrophages remains incompletely understood. We reported that the F-box protein Fbp1, a subunit of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase, promotes Cryptococcus virulence by regulating host-Cryptococcus interactions. Our recent studies demonstrated that the fbp1Δ mutant elicited superior protective Th1 host immunity in the lungs and that the enhanced immunogenicity of heat-killed fbp1Δ yeast cells can be harnessed to confer protection against a subsequent infection with the virulent parental strain. We therefore examined the use of heat-killed fbp1Δ cells in several vaccination strategies. Interestingly, the vaccine protection remains effective even in mice depleted of CD4+ T cells. This finding is particularly important in the context of HIV/AIDS-induced immune deficiency. Moreover, we observed that vaccinating mice with heat-killed fbp1Δ induces significant cross-protection against challenge with diverse invasive fungal pathogens, including C. neoformans, C. gattii, and Aspergillus fumigatus, as well as partial protection against Candida albicans Thus, our data suggest that the heat-killed fbp1Δ strain has the potential to be a suitable vaccine candidate against cryptococcosis and other invasive fungal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations.IMPORTANCE Invasive fungal infections kill more than 1.5 million people each year, with limited treatment options. There is no vaccine available in clinical use to prevent and control fungal infections. Our recent studies showed that a mutant of the F-box protein Fbp1, a subunit of the SCF(Fbp1) E3 ligase in Cryptococcus neoformans, elicited superior protective Th1 host immunity. Here, we demonstrate that the heat-killed fbp1Δ cells (HK-fbp1) can be harnessed to confer protection against a challenge by the virulent parental strain, even in animals depleted of CD4+ T cells. This finding is particularly important in the context of HIV/AIDS-induced immune deficiency. Moreover, we observed that HK-fbp1 vaccination induces significant cross-protection against challenge with diverse invasive fungal pathogens. Thus, our data suggest that HK-fbp1 has the potential to be a broad-spectrum vaccine candidate against invasive fungal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Population Structure and Genetic Diversity among Isolates of Coccidioides posadasii in Venezuela and Surrounding Regions.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Marcus M Teixeira,Primavera Alvarado,Chandler C Roe,George R Thompson,José S L Patané,Jason W Sahl,Paul Keim,John N Galgiani,Anastasia P Litvintseva,Daniel R Matute,Bridget M Barker

    Coccidioides posadasii is a pathogenic fungus that causes coccidioidomycosis in many arid regions of the Americas. One of these regions is bordered by the Caribbean Sea, and the surrounding landscape may play an important role in the dispersion of C. posadasii across South America through southeastern Mexico, Honduras, Guatemala, and Venezuela. Comparative phylogenomic analyses of C. posadasii reveal that clinical strains from Venezuela are genetically distinct from the North American populations found in (i) Arizona and (ii) Texas, Mexico, and the rest of South America (TX/MX/SA). We find evidence for admixture between the Venezuela and the North American populations of C. posadasii in Central America. Additionally, the proportion of Venezuelan alleles in the admixed population decreases as latitude (and distance from Venezuela) increases. Our results indicate that the population in Venezuela may have been subjected to a recent bottleneck and shows a strong population structure. This analysis provides insight into potential for Coccidioides spp. to invade new regions.IMPORTANCE Valley Fever is a fungal disease caused by two species of fungi: Coccidioides immitis and C. posadasii These fungi are found throughout the arid regions of North and South America; however, our understanding of genetic diversity and disease in South America is limited. In this report, we analyze 10 new genomes of Coccidioides posadasii from regions bordering the Caribbean Sea. We show that these populations are distinct and that isolates from Venezuela are likely a result of a recent bottleneck. These data point to patterns that might be observed when investigating recently established populations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Redox Regulation of a Light-Harvesting Antenna Complex in an Anoxygenic Phototroph.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Kathryn R Fixen,Yasuhiro Oda,Caroline S Harwood

    The purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris is a model for understanding how a phototrophic organism adapts to changes in light intensity because it produces different light-harvesting (LH) complexes under high light (LH2) and low light intensities (LH3 and LH4). Outside of this change in the composition of the photosystem, little is understood about how R. palustris senses and responds to low light intensity. On the basis of the results of transcription analysis of 17 R. palustris strains grown in low light, we found that R. palustris strains downregulate many genes involved in iron transport and homeostasis. The only operon upregulated in the majority of R. palustris exposed to low light intensity was pucBAd, which encodes LH4. In previous work, pucBAd expression was shown to be modulated in response to light quality by bacteriophytochromes that are part of a low-light signal transduction system. Here we found that this signal transduction system also includes a redox-sensitive protein, LhfE, and that its redox sensitivity is required for LH4 synthesis in response to low light. Our results suggest that R. palustris upregulates its LH4 system when the cellular redox state is relatively oxidized. Consistent with this, we found that LH4 synthesis was upregulated under high light intensity when R. palustris was grown semiaerobically or under nitrogen-fixing conditions. Thus, changes in the LH4 system in R. palustris are not dependent on light intensity per se but rather on cellular redox changes that occur as a consequence of changes in light intensity.IMPORTANCE An essential aspect of the physiology of phototrophic bacteria is their ability to adjust the amount and composition of their light-harvesting apparatus in response to changing environmental conditions. The phototrophic purple bacterium R. palustris adapts its photosystem to a range of light intensities by altering the amount and composition of its peripheral LH complexes. Here we found that R. palustris regulates its LH4 complex in response to the cellular redox state rather than in response to light intensity per se Relatively oxidizing conditions, including low light, semiaerobic growth, and growth under nitrogen-fixing conditions, all stimulated a signal transduction system to activate LH4 expression. By understanding how LH composition is regulated in R. palustris, we will gain insight into how and why a photosynthetic organism senses and adapts its photosystem to multiple environmental cues.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functionally Overlapping Variants Control Tuberculosis Susceptibility in Collaborative Cross Mice.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Clare M Smith,Megan K Proulx,Rocky Lai,Michael C Kiritsy,Timothy A Bell,Pablo Hock,Fernando Pardo-Manuel de Villena,Martin T Ferris,Richard E Baker,Samuel M Behar,Christopher M Sassetti

    Host genetics plays an important role in determining the outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. We previously found that Collaborative Cross (CC) mouse strains differ in their susceptibility to M. tuberculosis and that the CC042/GeniUnc (CC042) strain suffered from a rapidly progressive disease and failed to produce the protective cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ) in the lung. Here, we used parallel genetic and immunological approaches to investigate the basis of CC042 mouse susceptibility. Using a population derived from a CC001/Unc (CC001) × CC042 intercross, we mapped four quantitative trait loci (QTL) underlying tuberculosis immunophenotypes (Tip1 to Tip4). These included QTL that were associated with bacterial burden, IFN-γ production following infection, and an IFN-γ-independent mechanism of bacterial control. Further immunological characterization revealed that CC042 animals recruited relatively few antigen-specific T cells to the lung and that these T cells failed to express the integrin alpha L (αL; i.e., CD11a), which contributes to T cell activation and migration. These defects could be explained by a CC042 private variant in the Itgal gene, which encodes CD11a and is found within the Tip2 interval. This 15-bp deletion leads to aberrant mRNA splicing and is predicted to result in a truncated protein product. The ItgalCC042 genotype was associated with all measured disease traits, indicating that this variant is a major determinant of susceptibility in CC042 mice. The combined effect of functionally distinct Tip variants likely explains the profound susceptibility of CC042 mice and highlights the multigenic nature of tuberculosis control in the Collaborative Cross.IMPORTANCE The variable outcome of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection observed in natural populations is difficult to model in genetically homogeneous small-animal models. The newly developed Collaborative Cross (CC) represents a reproducible panel of genetically diverse mice that display a broad range of phenotypic responses to infection. We explored the genetic basis of this variation, focusing on a CC line that is highly susceptible to M. tuberculosis infection. This study identified multiple quantitative trait loci associated with bacterial control and cytokine production, including one that is caused by a novel loss-of-function mutation in the Itgal gene, which is necessary for T cell recruitment to the infected lung. These studies verify the multigenic control of mycobacterial disease in the CC panel, identify genetic loci controlling diverse aspects of pathogenesis, and highlight the utility of the CC resource.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Insect Hsp90 Chaperone Assists Bacillus thuringiensis Cry Toxicity by Enhancing Protoxin Binding to the Receptor and by Protecting Protoxin from Gut Protease Degradation.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Blanca I García-Gómez,Sayra N Cano,Erika E Zagal,Edgar Dantán-Gonzalez,Alejandra Bravo,Mario Soberón

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry proteins are pore-forming insecticidal toxins with specificity against different crop pests and insect vectors of human diseases. Previous work suggested that the insect host Hsp90 chaperone could be involved in Cry toxin action. Here, we show that the interaction of Cry toxins with insect Hsp90 constitutes a positive loop to enhance the performance of these toxins. Plutella xylostella Hsp90 (PxHsp90) greatly enhanced Cry1Ab or Cry1Ac toxicity when fed together to P. xylostella larvae and also in the less susceptible Spodoptera frugiperda larvae. PxHsp90 bound Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac protoxins in an ATP- and chaperone activity-dependent interaction. The chaperone Hsp90 participates in the correct folding of proteins and may suppress mutations of some client proteins, and we show here that PxHsp90 recovered the toxicity of the Cry1AbG439D protoxin affected in receptor binding, in contrast to the Cry1AbR99E or Cry1AbE129K mutant, affected in oligomerization or membrane insertion, respectively, which showed a slight toxicity improvement. Specifically, PxHsp90 enhanced the binding of Cry1AbG439D protoxin to the cadherin receptor. Furthermore, PxHsp90 protected Cry1A protoxins from degradation by insect midgut proteases. Our data show that PxHsp90 assists Cry1A proteins by enhancing their binding to the receptor and by protecting Cry protoxin from gut protease degradation. Finally, we show that the insect cochaperone protein PxHsp70 also increases the toxicity of Cry1Ac in P. xylostella larvae, in contrast to a bacterial GroEL chaperone, which had a marginal effect, indicating that the use of insect chaperones along with Cry toxins could have important biotechnological applications for the improvement of Cry insecticidal activity, resulting in effective control of insect pests.IMPORTANCE Bacillus thuringiensis took advantage of important insect cellular proteins, such as chaperones, involved in maintaining protein homeostasis, to enhance its insecticidal activity. This constitutes a positive loop where the concentrations of Hsp90 and Hsp70 in the gut lumen are likely to increase as midgut cells burst due to Cry1A pore formation action. Hsp90 protects Cry1A protoxin from degradation and enhances receptor binding, resulting in increased toxicity. The effect of insect chaperones on Cry toxicity could have important biotechnological applications to enhance the toxicity of Cry proteins to insect pests, especially those that show low susceptibility to these toxins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacterial Pathogens Hijack the Innate Immune Response by Activation of the Reverse Transsulfuration Pathway.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Alain P Gobert,Yvonne L Latour,Mohammad Asim,Jordan L Finley,Thomas G Verriere,Daniel P Barry,Ginger L Milne,Paula B Luis,Claus Schneider,Emilio S Rivera,Kristie Lindsey-Rose,Kevin L Schey,Alberto G Delgado,Johanna C Sierra,M Blanca Piazuelo,Keith T Wilson

    The reverse transsulfuration pathway is the major route for the metabolism of sulfur-containing amino acids. The role of this metabolic pathway in macrophage response and function is unknown. We show that the enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) is induced in macrophages infected with pathogenic bacteria through signaling involving phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/MTOR and the transcription factor SP1. This results in the synthesis of cystathionine, which facilitates the survival of pathogens within myeloid cells. Our data demonstrate that the expression of CTH leads to defective macrophage activation by (i) dysregulation of polyamine metabolism by depletion of S-adenosylmethionine, resulting in immunosuppressive putrescine accumulation and inhibition of spermidine and spermine synthesis, and (ii) increased histone H3K9, H3K27, and H3K36 di/trimethylation, which is associated with gene expression silencing. Thus, CTH is a pivotal enzyme of the innate immune response that disrupts host defense. The induction of the reverse transsulfuration pathway by bacterial pathogens can be considered an unrecognized mechanism for immune escape.IMPORTANCE Macrophages are professional immune cells that ingest and kill microbes. In this study, we show that different pathogenic bacteria induce the expression of cystathionine γ-lyase (CTH) in macrophages. This enzyme is involved in a metabolic pathway called the reverse transsulfuration pathway, which leads to the production of numerous metabolites, including cystathionine. Phagocytized bacteria use cystathionine to better survive in macrophages. In addition, the induction of CTH results in dysregulation of the metabolism of polyamines, which in turn dampens the proinflammatory response of macrophages. In conclusion, pathogenic bacteria can evade the host immune response by inducing CTH in macrophages.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Differential In Vitro Infection of Neural Cells by Astroviruses.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
    Andrew B Janowski,Robyn S Klein,David Wang

    Recent advances in unbiased pathogen discovery have implicated astroviruses as pathogens of the central nervous system (CNS) of mammals, including humans. However, the capacity of astroviruses to be cultured in CNS-derived cells in vitro has not been reported to date. Both astrovirus VA1/HMO-C (VA1; mamastrovirus 9) and classic human astrovirus 4 (HAstV4; mamastrovirus 1) have been previously detected from cases of human encephalitis. We tested the ability of primary human neurons, primary human astrocytes, and other immortalized human nervous system cell lines (SK-N-SH, U87 MG, and SW-1088) to support infection and replication of these two astrovirus genotypes. Primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells supported the full viral life cycle of VA1 with a >100-fold increase in viral RNA levels during a multistep growth curve, detection of viral capsid, and a >100-fold increase in viral titer. Primary astrocytes were permissive with respect to HAstV4 infection and replication but did not yield infectious virus, suggesting abortive infection. Similarly, abortive infection of VA1 was observed in SW-1088 and U87 MG cells. Elevated expression of the chemokine CXCL10 was detected in VA1-infected primary astrocytes and SK-N-SH cells, suggesting that VA1 infection can induce a proinflammatory host response. These findings establish an in vitro cell culture model that is essential for investigation of the basic biology of astroviruses and their neuropathogenic potential.IMPORTANCE Encephalitis remains a diagnostic conundrum in humans as over 50% of cases are managed without the identification of an etiology. Astroviruses have been detected from the central nervous system of mammals in association with disease, suggesting that this family of RNA viruses could be responsible for cases of some neurological diseases that are currently without an ascribed etiology. However, there are significant barriers to understanding astrovirus infection as the capacity of these viruses to replicate in nervous system cells in vitro has not been determined. We describe primary and immortalized cultured cells of the nervous system that support infection by astroviruses. These results further corroborate the role of astroviruses in causing neurological diseases and will serve as an essential model to interrogate the neuropathogenesis of astrovirus infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • NusG-Dependent RNA Polymerase Pausing and Tylosin-Dependent Ribosome Stalling Are Required for Tylosin Resistance by Inducing 23S rRNA Methylation in Bacillus subtilis.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Helen Yakhnin,Alexander V Yakhnin,Brandon L Mouery,Zachary F Mandell,Catherine Karbasiafshar,Mikhail Kashlev,Paul Babitzke

    Macrolide antibiotics bind to 23S rRNA within the peptide exit tunnel of the ribosome, causing the translating ribosome to stall when an appropriately positioned macrolide arrest motif is encountered in the nascent polypeptide. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fradiae Resistance to tylosin in S. fradiae is conferred by methylation of 23S rRNA by TlrD and RlmAII Here, we demonstrate that yxjB encodes RlmAII in Bacillus subtilis and that YxjB-specific methylation of 23S rRNA in the peptide exit tunnel confers tylosin resistance. Growth in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of tylosin results in increased rRNA methylation and increased resistance. In the absence of tylosin, yxjB expression is repressed by transcription attenuation and translation attenuation mechanisms. Tylosin-dependent induction of yxjB expression relieves these two repression mechanisms. Induction requires tylosin-dependent ribosome stalling at an RYR arrest motif at the C terminus of a leader peptide encoded upstream of yxjB Furthermore, NusG-dependent RNA polymerase pausing between the leader peptide and yxjB coding sequences is essential for tylosin-dependent induction. Pausing synchronizes the position of RNA polymerase with ribosome position such that the stalled ribosome prevents transcription termination and formation of an RNA structure that sequesters the yxjB ribosome binding site. On the basis of our results, we are renaming yxjB as tlrB IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a growing health concern. Resistance mechanisms have evolved that provide bacteria with a growth advantage in their natural habitat such as the soil. We determined that B. subtilis, a Gram-positive soil organism, has a mechanism of resistance to tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic commonly used in the meat industry. Tylosin induces expression of yxjB, which encodes an enzyme that methylates 23S rRNA. YxjB-dependent methylation of 23S rRNA confers tylosin resistance. NusG-dependent RNA polymerase pausing and tylosin-dependent ribosome stalling induce yxjB expression, and hence tylosin resistance, by preventing transcription termination upstream of the yxjB coding sequence and by preventing repression of yxjB translation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • In Situ Molecular Architecture of the Helicobacter pylori Cag Type IV Secretion System.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Bo Hu,Pratick Khara,Liqiang Song,Aung Soe Lin,Arwen E Frick-Cheng,M Lorena Harvey,Timothy L Cover,Peter J Christie

    Helicobacter pylori colonizes about half of humans worldwide, and its presence in the gastric mucosa is associated with an increased risk of gastric adenocarcinoma, gastric lymphoma, and peptic ulcer disease. H. pylori strains carrying the cag pathogenicity island (cagPAI) are associated with increased risk of disease progression. The cagPAI encodes the Cag type IV secretion system (CagT4SS), which delivers the CagA oncoprotein and other effector molecules into human gastric epithelial cells. We visualized structures of native and mutant CagT4SS machines on the H. pylori cell envelope by cryoelectron tomography. Individual H. pylori cells contain multiple CagT4SS nanomachines, each composed of a wheel-shaped outer membrane complex (OMC) with 14-fold symmetry and an inner membrane complex (IMC) with 6-fold symmetry. CagX, CagY, and CagM are required for assembly of the OMC, whereas strains lacking Cag3 and CagT produce outer membrane complexes lacking peripheral components. The IMC, which has never been visualized in detail, is configured as six tiers in cross-section view and three concentric rings surrounding a central channel in end-on view. The IMC contains three T4SS ATPases: (i) VirB4-like CagE, arranged as a hexamer of dimers at the channel entrance; (ii) a hexamer of VirB11-like Cagα, docked at the base of the CagE hexamer; and (iii) VirD4-like Cagβ and other unspecified Cag subunits, associated with the stacked CagE/Cagα complex and forming the outermost rings. The CagT4SS and recently solved Legionella pneumophila Dot/Icm system comprise new structural prototypes for the T4SS superfamily.IMPORTANCE Bacterial type IV secretion systems (T4SSs) have been phylogenetically grouped into two subfamilies. The T4ASSs, represented by the Agrobacterium tumefaciens VirB/VirD4T4SS, include "minimized" machines assembled from 12 VirB- and VirD4-like subunits and compositionally larger systems such as the Helicobacter pylori CagT4SS T4BSSs encompass systems closely related in subunit composition to the Legionella pneumophila Dot/IcmT4SS Here, we present structures of native and mutant H. pylori Cag machines determined by in situ cryoelectron tomography. We identify distinct outer and inner membrane complexes and, for the first time, visualize structural contributions of all three "signature" ATPases of T4SSs at the cytoplasmic entrance of the translocation channel. Despite their evolutionary divergence, the CagT4SS aligns structurally much more closely to the Dot/IcmT4SS than an available VirB/VirD4 subcomplex. Our findings highlight the diversity of T4SSs and suggest a structural classification scheme in which T4SSs are grouped as minimized VirB/VirD4-like or larger Cag-like and Dot/Icm-like systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Staphylococcus aureus Transcriptome during Cystic Fibrosis Lung Infection.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Carolyn B Ibberson,Marvin Whiteley

    Laboratory models have been invaluable for the field of microbiology for over 100 years and have provided key insights into core aspects of bacterial physiology such as regulation and metabolism. However, it is important to identify the extent to which these models recapitulate bacterial physiology within a human infection environment. Here, we performed transcriptomics (RNA-seq), focusing on the physiology of the prominent pathogen Staphylococcus aureus in situ in human cystic fibrosis (CF) infection. Through principal-component and hierarchal clustering analyses, we found remarkable conservation in S. aureus gene expression in the CF lung despite differences in the patient clinic, clinical status, age, and therapeutic regimen. We used a machine learning approach to identify an S. aureus transcriptomic signature of 32 genes that can reliably distinguish between S. aureus transcriptomes in the CF lung and in vitro The majority of these genes were involved in virulence and metabolism and were used to improve a common CF infection model. Collectively, these results advance our knowledge of S. aureus physiology during human CF lung infection and demonstrate how in vitro models can be improved to better capture bacterial physiology in infection.IMPORTANCE Although bacteria have been studied in infection for over 100 years, the majority of these studies have utilized laboratory and animal models that often have unknown relevance to the human infections they are meant to represent. A primary challenge has been to assess bacterial physiology in the human host. To address this challenge, we performed transcriptomics of S. aureus during human cystic fibrosis (CF) lung infection. Using a machine learning framework, we defined a "human CF lung transcriptome signature" that primarily included genes involved in metabolism and virulence. In addition, we were able to apply our findings to improve an in vitro model of CF infection. Understanding bacterial gene expression within human infection is a critical step toward the development of improved laboratory models and new therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Fungal Arrestin Protein Contributes to Cell Cycle Progression and Pathogenesis.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Calla L Telzrow,Connie B Nichols,Natalia Castro-Lopez,Floyd L Wormley,J Andrew Alspaugh

    Arrestins, a structurally specialized and functionally diverse group of proteins, are central regulators of adaptive cellular responses in eukaryotes. Previous studies on fungal arrestins have demonstrated their capacity to modulate diverse cellular processes through their adaptor functions, facilitating the localization and function of other proteins. However, the mechanisms by which arrestin-regulated processes are involved in fungal virulence remain unexplored. We have identified a small family of four arrestins, Ali1, Ali2, Ali3, and Ali4, in the human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans Using complementary microscopy, proteomic, and reverse genetics techniques, we have defined a role for Ali1 as a novel contributor to cytokinesis, a fundamental cell cycle-associated process. We observed that Ali1 strongly interacts with proteins involved in lipid synthesis, and that ali1Δ mutant phenotypes are rescued by supplementation with lipid precursors that are used to build cellular membranes. From these data, we hypothesize that Ali1 contributes to cytokinesis by serving as an adaptor protein, facilitating the localization of enzymes that modify the plasma membrane during cell division, specifically the fatty acid synthases Fas1 and Fas2. Finally, we assessed the contributions of the C. neoformans arrestin family to virulence to better understand the mechanisms by which arrestin-regulated adaptive cellular responses influence fungal infection. We observed that the C. neoformans arrestin family contributes to virulence, and that the individual arrestin proteins likely fulfill distinct functions that are important for disease progression.IMPORTANCE To survive under unpredictable conditions, all organisms must adapt to stressors by regulating adaptive cellular responses. Arrestin proteins are conserved regulators of adaptive cellular responses in eukaryotes. Studies that have been limited to mammals and model fungi have demonstrated that the disruption of arrestin-regulated pathways is detrimental for viability. The human fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans causes more than 180,000 infection-related deaths annually, especially among immunocompromised patients. In addition to being genetically tractable, C. neoformans has a small arrestin family of four members, lending itself to a comprehensive characterization of its arrestin family. This study serves as a functional analysis of arrestins in a pathogen, particularly in the context of fungal fitness and virulence. We investigate the functions of one arrestin protein, Ali1, and define its novel contributions to cytokinesis. We additionally explore the virulence contributions of the C. neoformans arrestin family and find that they contribute to disease establishment and progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Regulates Quorum Sensing and Global Gene Expression in Yersinia pestis during Planktonic Growth and Growth in Biofilms.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Jeremy T Ritzert,George Minasov,Ryan Embry,Matthew J Schipma,Karla J F Satchell

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (Crp) is an important transcriptional regulator of Yersinia pestis Expression of crp increases during pneumonic plague as the pathogen depletes glucose and forms large biofilms within lungs. To better understand control of Y. pestis Crp, we determined a 1.8-Å crystal structure of the protein-cAMP complex. We found that compared to Escherichia coli Crp, C helix amino acid substitutions in Y. pestis Crp did not impact the cAMP dependency of Crp to bind DNA promoters. To investigate Y. pestis Crp-regulated genes during plague pneumonia, we performed RNA sequencing on both wild-type and Δcrp mutant bacteria growing in planktonic and biofilm states in minimal media with glucose or glycerol. Y. pestis Crp was found to dramatically alter expression of hundreds of genes in a manner dependent upon carbon source and growth state. Gel shift assays confirmed direct regulation of the malT and ptsG promoters, and Crp was then linked to Y. pestis growth on maltose as a sole carbon source. Iron regulation genes ybtA and fyuA were found to be indirectly regulated by Crp. A new connection between carbon source and quorum sensing was revealed as Crp was found to regulate production of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) through direct and indirect regulation of genes for AHL synthetases and receptors. AHLs were subsequently identified in the lungs of Y. pestis-infected mice when crp expression was highest in Y. pestis biofilms. Thus, in addition to the well-studied pla gene, other Crp-regulated genes likely have important functions during plague infection.IMPORTANCE Bacterial pathogens have evolved extensive signaling pathways to translate environmental signals into changes in gene expression. While Crp has long been appreciated for its role in regulating metabolism of carbon sources in many bacterial species, transcriptional profiling has revealed that this protein regulates many other aspects of bacterial physiology. The plague pathogen Y. pestis requires this global regulator to survive in blood, skin, and lungs. During disease progression, this organism adapts to changes within these niches. In addition to regulating genes for metabolism of nonglucose sugars, we found that Crp regulates genes for virulence, metal acquisition, and quorum sensing by direct or indirect mechanisms. Thus, this single transcriptional regulator, which responds to changes in available carbon sources, can regulate multiple critical behaviors for causing disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional Multigenomic Screening of Human-Associated Bacteria for NF-κB-Inducing Bioactive Effectors.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Andreia B Estrela,Toshiki G Nakashige,Christophe Lemetre,Ian D Woodworth,Jazz L Weisman,Louis J Cohen,Sean F Brady

    The effect of the microbiota on its human host is driven, at least in part, by small-molecule and protein effectors it produces. Here, we report on the use of functional multigenomic screening to identify microbiota-encoded effectors. In this study, genomic DNA from 116 human-associated bacteria was cloned en masse, and the resulting multigenomic library was screened using a nuclear factor-κB reporter (NF-κB) assay. Functional multigenomics builds on the concept of functional metagenomics but takes advantage of increasing advances in cultivating and sequencing human-associated bacteria. Effector genes found to confer NF-κB-inducing activity to Escherichia coli encode proteins in four general categories: cell wall hydrolases, membrane transporters, lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic enzymes, and proteins of unknown function. The compact nature of multigenomic libraries, which results from the ability to normalize input DNA ratios, should simplify screening of libraries using diverse heterologous hosts and reporter assays, increasing the rate of discovery of novel effector genes.IMPORTANCE Human-associated bacteria are thought to encode bioactive small molecules and proteins that play an intimate role in human health and disease. Here, we report on the creation and functional screening of a multigenomic library constructed using genomic DNA from 116 bacteria found at diverse sites across the human body. Individual clones were screened for genes capable of conferring NF-κB-inducing activity to Escherichia coli NF-κB is a useful reporter for a range of cellular processes related to immunity, pathogenesis, and inflammation. Compared to the screening of metagenomic libraries, the ability to normalize input DNA ratios when constructing a multigenomic library should facilitate the more efficient examination of commensal bacteria for diverse bioactivities. Multigenomic screening takes advantage of the growing available resources in culturing and sequencing the human microbiota and generates starting points for more in-depth studies on the mechanisms by which commensal bacteria interact with their human host.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Pseudomonas aeruginosa Leucine Aminopeptidase Influences Early Biofilm Composition and Structure via Vesicle-Associated Antibiofilm Activity.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Caitlin N Esoda,Meta J Kuehn

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa, known as one of the leading causes of disease in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, secretes a variety of proteases. These enzymes contribute significantly to P. aeruginosa pathogenesis and biofilm formation in the chronic colonization of CF patient lungs, as well as playing a role in infections of the cornea, burn wounds, and chronic wounds. We previously characterized a secreted P. aeruginosa peptidase, PaAP, that is highly expressed in chronic CF isolates. This leucine aminopeptidase is highly expressed during infection and in biofilms, and it associates with bacterial outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), structures known to contribute to virulence mechanisms in a variety of Gram-negative species and one of the major components of the biofilm matrix. We hypothesized that PaAP may play a role in P. aeruginosa biofilm formation. Using a lung epithelial cell/bacterial biofilm coculture model, we show that PaAP deletion in a clinical P. aeruginosa background alters biofilm microcolony composition to increase cellular density, while decreasing matrix polysaccharide content, and that OMVs from PaAP-expressing strains but not PaAP alone or in combination with PaAP deletion strain-derived OMVs could complement this phenotype. We additionally found that OMVs from PaAP-expressing strains could cause protease-mediated biofilm detachment, leading to changes in matrix and colony composition. Finally, we showed that the OMVs could also mediate the detachment of biofilms formed by both nonself P. aeruginosa strains and Klebsiella pneumoniae, another respiratory pathogen. Our findings represent novel roles for OMVs and the aminopeptidase in the modulation of P. aeruginosa biofilm architecture.IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation by the bacterial pathogen P. aeruginosa is known to contribute to drug resistance in nosocomial infections and chronic lung infections of cystic fibrosis patients. In order to treat these infections more successfully, the mechanisms of bacterial biofilm development must be elucidated. While both bacterially secreted aminopeptidase and outer membrane vesicles have been shown to be abundant in P. aeruginosa biofilm matrices, the contributions of each of these factors to the steps in biofilm generation have not been well studied. This work provides new insight into how these bacterial components mediate the formation of a robust, drug-resistant extracellular matrix and implicates outer membrane vesicles as active components of biofilm architecture, expanding our overall understanding of P. aeruginosa biofilm biology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enterococcus faecalis Enhances Expression and Activity of the Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli Type III Secretion System.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Elizabeth A Cameron,Vanessa Sperandio,Gary M Dunny

    The gut microbiota can significantly impact invading pathogens and the disease they cause; however, many of the mechanisms that dictate commensal-pathogen interactions remain unclear. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) is a potentially lethal human intestinal pathogen that uses microbiota-derived molecules as cues to efficiently regulate virulence factor expression. Here, we investigate the interaction between EHEC and Enterococcus faecalis, a common human gut commensal, and show that E. faecalis affects both expression and activity of the EHEC type III secretion system (T3SS) via two distinct mechanisms. First, in the presence of E. faecalis there is increased transcription of genes encoding the EHEC T3SS. This leads to increased effector translocation and ultimately greater numbers of pedestals formed on host cells. The same effect was observed with several strains of enterococci, suggesting that it is a general characteristic of this group. In a mechanism separate from E. faecalis -induced transcription of the T3SS, we report that an E. faecalis-secreted protease, GelE, cleaves a critical structural component of the EHEC T3SS, EspB. Our data suggest that this cleavage actually increases effector translocation by the T3SS, supporting a model where EspB proteolysis promotes maximum T3SS activity. Finally, we report that treatment of EHEC with E. faecalis-conditioned cell-free medium is insufficient to induce increased T3SS expression, suggesting that this effect relies on cell contact between E. faecalis and EHEC. This work demonstrates a complex interaction between a human commensal and pathogen that impacts both expression and function of a critical virulence factor.IMPORTANCE This work reveals a complex and multifaceted interaction between a human gut commensal, Enterococcus faecalis, and a pathogen, enterohemorrhagic E. coli We demonstrate that E. faecalis enhances expression of the enterohemorrhagic E. coli type III secretion system and that this effect likely depends on cell contact between the commensal and the pathogen. Additionally, the GelE protease secreted by E. faecalis cleaves a critical structural component of the EHEC type III secretion system. In agreement with previous studies, we find that this cleavage actually increases effector protein delivery into host cells by the secretion system. This work demonstrates that commensal bacteria can significantly shape expression and activity of pathogen virulence factors, which may ultimately shape the progression of disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell-to-Cell Spreading of HIV-1 in Myeloid Target Cells Escapes SAMHD1 Restriction.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Maorong Xie,Héloïse Leroy,Rémi Mascarau,Marie Woottum,Maeva Dupont,Camille Ciccone,Alain Schmitt,Brigitte Raynaud-Messina,Christel Vérollet,Jérôme Bouchet,Lucie Bracq,Serge Benichou

    Dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages as well as osteoclasts (OCs) are emerging as target cells of HIV-1 involved in virus transmission, dissemination, and establishment of persistent tissue virus reservoirs. While these myeloid cells are poorly infected by cell-free viruses because of the high expression levels of cellular restriction factors such as SAMHD1, we show here that HIV-1 uses a specific and common cell-to-cell fusion mechanism for virus transfer and dissemination from infected T lymphocytes to the target cells of the myeloid lineage, including immature DCs (iDCs), OCs, and macrophages, but not monocytes and mature DCs. The establishment of contacts with infected T cells leads to heterotypic cell fusion for the fast and massive transfer of viral material into OC and iDC targets, which subsequently triggers homotypic fusion with noninfected neighboring OCs and iDCs for virus dissemination. These two cell-to-cell fusion processes are not restricted by SAMHD1 and allow very efficient spreading of virus in myeloid cells, resulting in the formation of highly virus-productive multinucleated giant cells. These results reveal the cellular mechanism for SAMHD1-independent cell-to-cell spreading of HIV-1 in myeloid cell targets through the formation of the infected multinucleated giant cells observed in vivo in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of HIV-1-infected patients.IMPORTANCE We demonstrate that HIV-1 uses a common two-step cell-to-cell fusion mechanism for massive virus transfer from infected T lymphocytes and dissemination to myeloid target cells, including dendritic cells and macrophages as well as osteoclasts. This cell-to-cell infection process bypasses the restriction imposed by the SAMHD1 host cell restriction factor for HIV-1 replication, leading to the formation of highly virus-productive multinucleated giant cells as observed in vivo in lymphoid and nonlymphoid tissues of HIV-1-infected patients. Since myeloid cells are emerging as important target cells of HIV-1, these results contribute to a better understanding of the role of these myeloid cells in pathogenesis, including cell-associated virus sexual transmission, cell-to-cell virus spreading, and establishment of long-lived viral tissue reservoirs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Single Salt Bridge in VIM-20 Increases Protein Stability and Antibiotic Resistance under Low-Zinc Conditions.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Zishuo Cheng,Ben A Shurina,Christopher R Bethel,Pei W Thomas,Steven H Marshall,Caitlyn A Thomas,Kundi Yang,Robert L Kimble,Jonathan S Montgomery,Matthew G Orischak,Callie M Miller,Jordan L Tennenbaum,Jay C Nix,David L Tierney,Walter Fast,Robert A Bonomo,Richard C Page,Michael W Crowder

    To understand the evolution of Verona integron-encoded metallo-β-lactamase (VIM) genes (bla VIM) and their clinical impact, microbiological, biochemical, and structural studies were conducted. Forty-five clinically derived VIM variants engineered in a uniform background and expressed in Escherichia coli afforded increased resistance toward all tested antibiotics; the variants belonging to the VIM-1-like and VIM-4-like families exhibited higher MICs toward five out of six antibiotics than did variants belonging to the widely distributed and clinically important VIM-2-like family. Generally, maximal MIC increases were observed when cephalothin and imipenem were tested. Additionally, MIC determinations under conditions with low zinc availability suggested that some VIM variants are also evolving to overcome zinc deprivation. The most profound increase in resistance was observed in VIM-2-like variants (e.g., VIM-20 H229R) at low zinc availability. Biochemical analyses reveal that VIM-2 and VIM-20 exhibited similar metal binding properties and steady-state kinetic parameters under the conditions tested. Crystal structures of VIM-20 in the reduced and oxidized forms at 1.25 Å and 1.37 Å resolution, respectively, show that Arg229 forms an additional salt bridge with Glu171. Differential scanning fluorimetry of purified proteins and immunoblots of periplasmic extracts revealed that this difference increases thermostability and resistance to proteolytic degradation when zinc availability is low. Therefore, zinc scarcity appears to be a selective pressure driving the evolution of multiple metallo-β-lactamase families, although compensating mutations use different mechanisms to enhance resistance.IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a growing clinical threat. One of the most serious areas of concern is the ability of some bacteria to degrade carbapenems, drugs that are often reserved as last-resort antibiotics. Resistance to carbapenems can be conferred by a large group of related enzymes called metallo-β-lactamases that rely on zinc ions for function and for overall stability. Here, we studied an extensive panel of 45 different metallo-β-lactamases from a subfamily called VIM to discover what changes are emerging as resistance evolves in clinical settings. Enhanced resistance to some antibiotics was observed. We also found that at least one VIM variant developed a new ability to remain more stable under conditions where zinc availability is limited, and we determined the origin of this stability in atomic detail. These results suggest that zinc scarcity helps drive the evolution of this resistance determinant.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Immune Protein Calprotectin Impacts Clostridioides difficile Metabolism through Zinc Limitation.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Christopher A Lopez,William N Beavers,Andy Weiss,Reece J Knippel,Joseph P Zackular,Walter Chazin,Eric P Skaar

    The intestines house a diverse microbiota that must compete for nutrients to survive, but the specific limiting nutrients that control pathogen colonization are not clearly defined. Clostridioides difficile colonization typically requires prior disruption of the microbiota, suggesting that outcompeting commensals for resources is critical to establishing C. difficile infection (CDI). The immune protein calprotectin (CP) is released into the gut lumen during CDI to chelate zinc (Zn) and other essential nutrient metals. Yet, the impact of Zn limitation on C. difficile colonization is unknown. To define C. difficile responses to Zn limitation, we performed RNA sequencing on C. difficile exposed to CP. In medium containing CP, C. difficile upregulated genes involved in metal homeostasis and amino acid metabolism. To identify CP-responsive genes important during infection, we measured the abundance of select C. difficile transcripts in a mouse CDI model relative to expression in vitro Gene transcripts involved in selenium (Se)-dependent proline fermentation increased during infection and in response to CP. Increased proline fermentation gene transcription was dependent on CP Zn binding and proline availability, yet proline fermentation was only enhanced when Se was supplemented. CP-deficient mice could not restrain C. difficile proline fermentation-dependent growth, suggesting that CP-mediated Zn sequestration along with limited Se restricts C. difficile proline fermentation. Overall, these results highlight how C. difficile colonization depends on the availability of multiple nutrients whose abundances are dynamically influenced by the host response.IMPORTANCE Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of postantibiotic nosocomial infection. Antibiotic therapy can be successful, yet up to one-third of individuals suffer from recurrent infections. Understanding the mechanisms controlling C. difficile colonization is paramount in designing novel treatments for primary and recurrent CDI. Here, we found that limiting nutrients control C. difficile metabolism during CDI and influence overall pathogen fitness. Specifically, the immune protein CP limits Zn availability and increases transcription of C. difficile genes necessary for proline fermentation. Paradoxically, this leads to reduced C. difficile proline fermentation. This reduced fermentation is due to limited availability of another nutrient required for proline fermentation, Se. Therefore, CP-mediated Zn limitation combined with low Se levels overall reduce C. difficile fitness in the intestines. These results emphasize the complexities of how nutrient availability influences C. difficile colonization and provide insight into critical metabolic processes that drive the pathogen's growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multidrug Resistance in Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Identification of Functionally Important Residues in the MtrD Efflux Protein.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Mohsen Chitsaz,Lauren Booth,Mitchell T Blyth,Megan L O'Mara,Melissa H Brown

    A key mechanism that Neisseria gonorrhoeae uses to achieve multidrug resistance is the expulsion of structurally different antimicrobials by the MtrD multidrug efflux protein. MtrD resembles the homologous Escherichia coli AcrB efflux protein with several common structural features, including an open cleft containing putative access and deep binding pockets proposed to interact with substrates. A highly discriminating N. gonorrhoeae strain, with the MtrD and NorM multidrug efflux pumps inactivated, was constructed and used to confirm and extend the substrate profile of MtrD to include 14 new compounds. The structural basis of substrate interactions with MtrD was interrogated by a combination of long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations and docking studies together with site-directed mutagenesis of selected residues. Of the MtrD mutants generated, only one (S611A) retained a wild-type (WT) resistance profile, while others (F136A, F176A, I605A, F610A, F612C, and F623C) showed reduced resistance to different antimicrobial compounds. Docking studies of eight MtrD substrates confirmed that many of the mutated residues play important nonspecific roles in binding to these substrates. Long-timescale molecular dynamics simulations of MtrD with its substrate progesterone showed the spontaneous binding of the substrate to the access pocket of the binding cleft and its subsequent penetration into the deep binding pocket, allowing the permeation pathway for a substrate through this important resistance mechanism to be identified. These findings provide a detailed picture of the interaction of MtrD with substrates that can be used as a basis for rational antibiotic and inhibitor design.IMPORTANCE With over 78 million new infections globally each year, gonorrhea remains a frustratingly common infection. Continuous development and spread of antimicrobial-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the causative agent of gonorrhea, have posed a serious threat to public health. One of the mechanisms in N. gonorrhoeae involved in resistance to multiple drugs is performed by the MtrD multidrug resistance efflux pump. This study demonstrated that the MtrD pump has a broader substrate specificity than previously proposed and identified a cluster of residues important for drug binding and translocation. Additionally, a permeation pathway for the MtrD substrate progesterone actively moving through the protein was determined, revealing key interactions within the putative MtrD drug binding pockets. Identification of functionally important residues and substrate-protein interactions of the MtrD protein is crucial to develop future strategies for the treatment of multidrug-resistant gonorrhea.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gene Regulation Shifts Shed Light on Fungal Adaption in Plant Biomass Decomposers.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Jiwei Zhang,Kevin A T Silverstein,Jesus David Castaño,Melania Figueroa,Jonathan S Schilling

    Fungi dominate the recycling of carbon sequestered in woody biomass. This process of organic turnover was first evolved among "white rot" fungi that degrade lignin to access carbohydrates and later evolved multiple times toward more efficient strategies to selectively target carbohydrates-"brown rot." The brown rot adaption was often explained by mechanisms to deploy reactive oxygen species (ROS) to oxidatively attack wood structures. However, its genetic basis remains unclear, especially in the context of gene contractions of conventional carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZYs) relative to white rot ancestors. Here, we hypothesized that these apparent gains in brown rot efficiency despite gene losses were due, in part, to upregulation of the retained genes. We applied comparative transcriptomics to multiple species of both rot types grown across a wood wafer to create a gradient of progressive decay and to enable tracking temporal gene expression. Dozens of "decay-stage-dependent" ortho-genes were isolated, narrowing a pool of candidate genes with time-dependent regulation unique to brown rot fungi. A broad comparison of the expression timing of CAZY families indicated a temporal regulatory shift of lignocellulose-oxidizing genes toward early stages in brown rot compared to white rot, enabling the segregation of oxidative treatment ahead of hydrolysis. These key brown rot ROS-generating genes with iron ion binding functions were isolated. Moreover, transcription energy was shifted to be invested on the retained GHs in brown rot fungi to strengthen carbohydrate conversion. Collectively, these results support the hypothesis that gene regulation shifts played a pivotal role in brown rot adaptation.IMPORTANCE Fungi dominate the turnover of wood, Earth's largest pool of aboveground terrestrial carbon. Fungi first evolved this capacity by degrading lignin to access and hydrolyze embedded carbohydrates (white rot). Multiple lineages, however, adapted faster reactive oxygen species (ROS) pretreatments to loosen lignocellulose and selectively extract sugars (brown rot). This brown rot "shortcut" often coincided with losses (>60%) of conventional lignocellulolytic genes, implying that ROS adaptations supplanted conventional pathways. We used comparative transcriptomics to further pursue brown rot adaptations, which illuminated the clear temporal expression shift of ROS genes, as well as the shift toward synthesizing more GHs in brown rot relative to white rot. These imply that gene regulatory shifts, not simply ROS innovations, were key to brown rot fungal evolution. These results not only reveal an important biological shift among these unique fungi, but they may also illuminate a trait that restricts brown rot fungi to certain ecological niches.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacteriophage Adherence to Mucus Mediates Preventive Protection against Pathogenic Bacteria.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Gabriel M F Almeida,Elina Laanto,Roghaieh Ashrafi,Lotta-Riina Sundberg

    Metazoans were proposed to host bacteriophages on their mucosal surfaces in a symbiotic relationship, where phages provide an external immunity against bacterial infections and the metazoans provide phages a medium for interacting with bacteria. However, scarce empirical evidence and model systems have left the phage-mucus interaction poorly understood. Here, we show that phages bind both to porcine mucus and to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary mucus, persist up to 7 days in the mucosa, and provide protection against Flavobacterium columnare Also, exposure to mucus changes the bacterial phenotype by increasing bacterial virulence and susceptibility to phage infections. This trade-off in bacterial virulence reveals ecological benefit of maintaining phages in the metazoan mucosal surfaces. Tests using other phage-bacterium pairs suggest that phage binding to mucus may be widespread in the biosphere, indicating its importance for disease, ecology, and evolution. This phenomenon may have significant potential to be exploited in preventive phage therapy.IMPORTANCE The mucosal surfaces of animals are habitat for microbes, including viruses. Bacteriophages-viruses that infect bacteria-were shown to be able to bind to mucus. This may result in a symbiotic relationship in which phages find bacterial hosts to infect, protecting the mucus-producing animal from bacterial infections in the process. Here, we studied phage binding on mucus and the effect of mucin on phage-bacterium interactions. The significance of our research is in showing that phage adhesion to mucus results in preventive protection against bacterial infections, which will serve as basis for the development of prophylactic phage therapy approaches. Besides, we also reveal that exposure to mucus upregulates bacterial virulence and that this is exploited by phages for infection, adding one additional layer to the metazoan-bacterium-phage biological interactions and ecology. This phenomenon might be widespread in the biosphere and thus crucial for understanding mucosal diseases, their outcome and treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Changes in Aphid Host Plant Diet Influence the Small-RNA Expression Profiles of Its Obligate Nutritional Symbiont, Buchnera.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : null
    Margaret W Thairu,Allison K Hansen

    Plants are a difficult food resource to use, and herbivorous insects have evolved a variety of mechanisms that allow them to fully exploit this poor nutritional resource. One such mechanism is the maintenance of bacterial symbionts that aid in host plant feeding and development. The majority of these intracellular symbionts have highly eroded genomes that lack many key regulatory genes; consequently, it is unclear if these symbionts can respond to changes in the insect's diet to facilitate host plant use. There is emerging evidence that symbionts with highly eroded genomes express small RNAs (sRNAs), some of which potentially regulate gene expression. In this study, we sought to determine if the reduced genome of the nutritional symbiont (Buchnera) in the pea aphid responds to changes in the aphid's host plant diet. Using transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq), Buchnera sRNA expression profiles were characterized within two Buchnera life stages when pea aphids fed on either alfalfa or fava bean. Overall, this study demonstrates that Buchnera sRNA expression changes not only with life stage but also with changes in aphid host plant diet. Of the 321 sRNAs characterized in this study, 47% were previously identified and 22% showed evidence of conservation in two or more Buchnera taxa. Functionally, 13 differentially expressed sRNAs were predicted to target genes related to pathways involved in essential amino acid biosynthesis. Overall, results from this study reveal that host plant diet influences the expression of conserved and lineage-specific sRNAs in Buchnera and that these sRNAs display distinct host plant-specific expression profiles among biological replicates.IMPORTANCE In general, the genomes of intracellular bacterial symbionts are reduced compared to those of free-living relatives and lack many key regulatory genes. Many of these reduced genomes belong to obligate mutualists of insects that feed on a diet that is deficient in essential nutrients, such as essential amino acids. It is unclear if these symbionts respond with their host to changes in insect diet, because of their reduced regulatory capacity. Emerging evidence suggests that these symbionts express small RNAs (sRNAs) that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Therefore, in this study, we sought to determine if the reduced genome of the nutritional symbiont Buchnera in the pea aphid responds to changes in the aphid's host plant diet. This study demonstrates for the first time that Buchnera sRNAs, some conserved in two or more Buchnera lineages, are differentially expressed when aphids feed on different plant species and potentially target genes within essential amino acid biosynthesis pathways.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Composite Metagenome-Assembled Genomes Reduce the Quality of Public Genome Repositories.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Alon Shaiber,A Murat Eren

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reiterative Synthesis by the Ribosome and Recognition of the N-Terminal Formyl Group by Biosynthetic Machinery Contribute to Evolutionary Conservation of the Length of Antibiotic Microcin C Peptide Precursor.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-05-02
    Inna Zukher,Michael Pavlov,Darya Tsibulskaya,Alexey Kulikovsky,Tatyana Zyubko,Dmitry Bikmetov,Marina Serebryakova,Satish K Nair,Måns Ehrenberg,Svetlana Dubiley,Konstantin Severinov

    Microcin C (McC) is a peptide adenylate antibiotic produced by Escherichia coli cells bearing a plasmid-borne mcc gene cluster. Most MccA precursors, encoded by validated mcc operons from diverse bacteria, are 7 amino acids long, but the significance of this precursor length conservation has remained unclear. Here, we created derivatives of E. coli mcc operons encoding longer precursors and studied their synthesis and bioactivities. We found that increasing the precursor length to 11 amino acids and beyond strongly decreased antibiotic production. We found this decrease to depend on several parameters. First, reiterative synthesis of the MccA peptide by the ribosome was decreased at longer mccA open reading frames, leading to less efficient competition with other messenger RNAs. Second, the presence of a formyl group at the N-terminal methionine of the heptameric peptide had a strong stimulatory effect on adenylation by the MccB enzyme. No such formyl group stimulation was observed for longer peptides. Finally, the presence of the N-terminal formyl on the heptapeptide adenylate stimulated bioactivity, most likely at the uptake stage. Together, these factors should contribute to optimal activity of McC-like compounds as 7-amino-acid peptide moieties and suggest convergent evolution of several steps of the antibiotic biosynthesis pathway and their adjustment to sensitive cell uptake machinery to create a potent drug.IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli microcin C (McC) is a representative member of peptide-nucleotide antibiotics produced by diverse microorganisms. The vast majority of biosynthetic gene clusters responsible for McC-like compound production encode 7-amino-acid-long precursor peptides, which are C-terminally modified by dedicated biosynthetic enzymes with a nucleotide moiety to produce a bioactive compound. In contrast, the sequences of McC-like compound precursor peptides are not conserved. Here, we studied the consequences of E. coli McC precursor peptide length increase on antibiotic production and activity. We show that increasing the precursor peptide length strongly decreases McC production by affecting multiple biosynthetic steps, suggesting that the McC biosynthesis system has evolved under significant functional constraints to maintain the precursor peptide length.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • TREM-1 Protects HIV-1-Infected Macrophages from Apoptosis through Maintenance of Mitochondrial Function.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Grant R Campbell,Rachel K To,Stephen A Spector

    Macrophages are a reservoir for latent human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) infection and a barrier to HIV eradication. In contrast to CD4+ T cells, macrophages are resistant to the cytopathic effects of acute HIV infection. Emerging data suggest a role for TREM1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1) in this resistance to HIV-mediated cytopathogenesis. Here, we show that upon HIV infection, macrophages increase the expression of BCL2, BCLXL, TREM1, mitofusin 1 (MFN1), and MFN2 and the translocation of BCL2L11 (BIM) to the mitochondria and decrease the expression of BCL2-associated agonist of cell death (BAD) and BAX while maintaining a 95% survival rate over 28 days. The HIV proteins Tat and gp120 and the GU-rich single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) (RNA40) from the HIV long terminal repeat region (and a natural Toll-like receptor 8 [TLR8] agonist) induced similar effects. TREM1 silencing in HIV-infected macrophages led to decreased expression of BCL2, BCLXL, MFN1, and MFN2 and increased expression of BAD and BAX. This correlated with a significant increase in apoptosis mediated by a disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), leading to the release of cytochrome c and caspase 9 cleavage. Exposure of TREM1-silenced macrophages to Tat, gp120, or RNA40 similarly resulted in the disruption of Δψm, cytochrome c release, caspase 9 cleavage, and apoptosis. Thus, our findings identify a mechanism whereby HIV promotes macrophage survival through TREM1-dependent upregulation of BCL2 family proteins and mitofusins that inhibits BCL2L11-mediated disruption of Δψm and subsequent apoptosis. These findings indicate that TREM1 can be a useful target for elimination of the HIV reservoir in macrophages.IMPORTANCE The major challenge to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) treatment is the development of strategies that lead to viral eradication. A roadblock to accomplishing this goal is the lack of an approach that would safely eliminate HIV from all resting/latent reservoirs, including macrophages. Macrophages are a key part of the innate immune system and are responsible for recognizing invading microbes and sending appropriate signals to other immune cells. Here, we found that HIV induces the upregulation of the protein TREM1 (triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 1), which signals an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins, thus promoting survival of HIV-infected macrophages.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • IRG1 and Inducible Nitric Oxide Synthase Act Redundantly with Other Interferon-Gamma-Induced Factors To Restrict Intracellular Replication of Legionella pneumophila.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Jordan V Price,Daniel Russo,Daisy X Ji,Roberto A Chavez,Lucian DiPeso,Angus Yiu-Fai Lee,Jörn Coers,Russell E Vance

    Interferon gamma (IFN-γ) restricts the intracellular replication of many pathogens, but the mechanism by which IFN-γ confers cell-intrinsic pathogen resistance remains unclear. For example, intracellular replication of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila in macrophages is potently curtailed by IFN-γ. However, consistent with prior studies, no individual genetic deficiency that we tested completely abolished IFN-γ-mediated control. Intriguingly, we observed that the glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) partially rescued L. pneumophila replication in IFN-γ-treated macrophages. 2DG inhibits glycolysis and triggers the unfolded protein response, but unexpectedly, it appears these effects are not responsible for perturbing the antimicrobial activity of IFN-γ. Instead, we found that 2DG rescues bacterial replication by inhibiting the expression of two key antimicrobial factors, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1). Using immortalized and primary macrophages deficient in iNOS and IRG1, we confirmed that loss of both iNOS and IRG1, but not individual deficiency in either gene, partially reduced IFN-γ-mediated restriction of L. pneumophila Further, using a combinatorial CRISPR/Cas9 mutagenesis approach, we found that mutation of iNOS and IRG1 in combination with four other genes (CASP11, IRGM1, IRGM3, and NOX2) resulted in a total loss of L. pneumophila restriction by IFN-γ in primary bone marrow macrophages. Our study defines a complete set of cell-intrinsic factors required for IFN-γ-mediated restriction of an intracellular bacterial pathogen and highlights the combinatorial strategy used by hosts to block bacterial replication in macrophages.IMPORTANCE Legionella pneumophila is one example among many species of pathogenic bacteria that replicate within mammalian macrophages during infection. The immune signaling factor interferon gamma (IFN-γ) blocks L. pneumophila replication in macrophages and is an essential component of the immune response to L. pneumophila and other intracellular pathogens. However, to date, no study has identified the exact molecular factors induced by IFN-γ that are required for its activity. We generated macrophages lacking different combinations of IFN-γ-induced genes in an attempt to find a genetic background in which there is a complete loss of IFN-γ-mediated restriction of L. pneumophila We identified six genes that comprise the totality of the IFN-γ-dependent restriction of L. pneumophila replication in macrophages. Our results clarify the molecular basis underlying the potent effects of IFN-γ and highlight how redundancy downstream of IFN-γ is key to prevent exploitation of macrophages by pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transcriptomic Signatures Predict Regulators of Drug Synergy and Clinical Regimen Efficacy against Tuberculosis.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Shuyi Ma,Suraj Jaipalli,Jonah Larkins-Ford,Jenny Lohmiller,Bree B Aldridge,David R Sherman,Sriram Chandrasekaran

    The rapid spread of multidrug-resistant strains has created a pressing need for new drug regimens to treat tuberculosis (TB), which kills 1.8 million people each year. Identifying new regimens has been challenging due to the slow growth of the pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), coupled with the large number of possible drug combinations. Here we present a computational model (INDIGO-MTB) that identified synergistic regimens featuring existing and emerging anti-TB drugs after screening in silico more than 1 million potential drug combinations using MTB drug transcriptomic profiles. INDIGO-MTB further predicted the gene Rv1353c as a key transcriptional regulator of multiple drug interactions, and we confirmed experimentally that Rv1353c upregulation reduces the antagonism of the bedaquiline-streptomycin combination. A retrospective analysis of 57 clinical trials of TB regimens using INDIGO-MTB revealed that synergistic combinations were significantly more efficacious than antagonistic combinations (P value = 1 × 10-4) based on the percentage of patients with negative sputum cultures after 8 weeks of treatment. Our study establishes a framework for rapid assessment of TB drug combinations and is also applicable to other bacterial pathogens.IMPORTANCE Multidrug combination therapy is an important strategy for treating tuberculosis, the world's deadliest bacterial infection. Long treatment durations and growing rates of drug resistance have created an urgent need for new approaches to prioritize effective drug regimens. Hence, we developed a computational model called INDIGO-MTB that identifies synergistic drug regimens from an immense set of possible drug combinations using the pathogen response transcriptome elicited by individual drugs. Although the underlying input data for INDIGO-MTB was generated under in vitro broth culture conditions, the predictions from INDIGO-MTB correlated significantly with in vivo drug regimen efficacy from clinical trials. INDIGO-MTB also identified the transcription factor Rv1353c as a regulator of multiple drug interaction outcomes, which could be targeted for rationally enhancing drug synergy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Candida albicans rvs161Δ and rvs167Δ Endocytosis Mutants Are Defective in Invasion into the Oral Cavity.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Shamoon Naseem,Lois M Douglas,James B Konopka

    Invasive growth in tissues by the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans is promoted by a switch from budding to hyphal morphogenesis that is stimulated by multiple environmental factors that can vary at different sites of infection. To identify genes that promote invasive growth in the oral cavity to cause oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC), we first identified C. albicans mutants that failed to invade agar medium. Analysis of nine severely defective mutants in a mouse model of OPC revealed that the strongest defects were seen for the rvs161Δ and rvs167Δ mutants, which lack amphiphysin proteins needed for endocytosis. The rvsΔ mutants initially adhered to the tongue but failed to invade efficiently and were lost from the oral cavity. Previous studies indicated that rvsΔ mutants formed filamentous hyphae in the kidney albeit with morphological abnormalities, suggesting that the rvsΔ mutants were influenced by factors that vary at different sites of infection. Consistent with this, increasing concentrations of CO2, an inducer of hyphal growth that is more abundant in internal organs than air, partially rescued the invasive-growth defects of the rvsΔ mutants in vitro Interestingly, preinduction of the rvsΔ mutants to form hyphae prior to introduction into the oral cavity restored their ability to cause OPC, identifying a key role for endocytosis in initiating invasive hyphal growth. These results highlight the influence of distinct environmental factors in promoting invasive hyphal growth in the oral cavity and indicate that blocking endocytosis could have therapeutic value in preventing the initiation of OPC.IMPORTANCE Oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) is a common fungal infection that is associated with severe morbidity. Another concern is that patients at risk for developing OPC often take long courses of antifungal drugs, which can lead to the emergence of drug-resistant C. albicans strains. We therefore identified nine mutants with defects in undergoing invasive hyphal growth in the oral cavity, increasing the number of genes known to be involved in OPC by more than 30%. The two strongest mutants, rvs161Δ and rvs167Δ, have defects in endocytosis. The rvsΔ mutants appear to have a specific defect in initiating invasive growth, as preinducing the cells to form hyphae prior to infection restored their ability to cause OPC. These results indicate that blocking endocytosis could have therapeutic value in preventing the initiation of OPC without leading to development of resistance against drugs currently used to treat fungal infections.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Activation of RNase L in Egyptian Rousette Bat-Derived RoNi/7 Cells Is Dependent Primarily on OAS3 and Independent of MAVS Signaling.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Yize Li,Beihua Dong,Zuzhang Wei,Robert H Silverman,Susan R Weiss

    Bats are reservoirs for many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans yet relatively apathogenic in the natural host. It has been suggested that differences in innate immunity are responsible. The antiviral OAS-RNase L pathway is well characterized in humans, but there is little known about its activation and antiviral activity in bats. During infection, OASs, upon sensing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), produce 2'-5' oligoadenylates (2-5A), leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Humans encode three active OASs (OAS1 to -3). Analysis of the Egyptian Rousette bat genome combined with mRNA sequencing from bat RoNi/7 cells revealed three homologous OAS proteins. Interferon alpha treatment or viral infection induced all three OAS mRNAs, but RNase L mRNA is constitutively expressed. Sindbis virus (SINV) or vaccinia virus (VACVΔE3L) infection of wild-type (WT) or OAS1-KO (knockout), OAS2-KO, or MAVS-KO RoNi/7 cells, but not RNase L-KO or OAS3-KO cells, induces robust RNase L activation. SINV replication is 100- to 200-fold higher in the absence of RNase L or OAS3 than in WT cells. However, MAVS-KO had no detectable effect on RNA degradation or replication. Thus, in RoNi/7 bat cells, as in human cells, activation of RNase L during infection and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required for the activation of RNase L and restriction of infection. Our findings indicate that OAS proteins serve as pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to recognize viral dsRNA and that this pathway is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling.IMPORTANCE Many RNA viruses that are highly pathogenic in humans are relatively apathogenic in their bat reservoirs, making it important to compare innate immune responses in bats to those well characterized in humans. One such antiviral response is the OAS-RNase L pathway. OASs, upon sensing dsRNA, produce 2-5A, leading to activation of RNase L which degrades viral and host RNA, limiting viral replication. Analysis of Egyptian Rousette bat sequences revealed three OAS genes expressing OAS1, OAS2, and OAS3 proteins. Interferon treatment or viral infection induces all three bat OAS mRNAs. In these bat cells as in human cells, RNase L activation and its antiviral activity are dependent primarily on OAS3 while MAVS signaling is not required. Importantly, our findings indicate the OAS-RNase L system is a primary response to virus rather than a secondary effect of interferon signaling and therefore can be activated early in infection or while interferon signaling is antagonized.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • High-Risk International Clones of Carbapenem-Nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa Endemic to Indonesian Intensive Care Units: Impact of a Multifaceted Infection Control Intervention Analyzed at the Genomic Level.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Andreu Coello Pelegrin,Yulia Rosa Saharman,Aurélien Griffon,Mattia Palmieri,Caroline Mirande,Anis Karuniawati,Rudyanto Sedono,Dita Aditianingsih,Wil H F Goessens,Alex van Belkum,Henri A Verbrugh,Corné H W Klaassen,Juliëtte A Severin

    Infection control effectiveness evaluations require detailed epidemiological and microbiological data. We analyzed the genomic profiles of carbapenem-nonsusceptible Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CNPA) strains collected from two intensive care units (ICUs) in the national referral hospital in Jakarta, Indonesia, where a multifaceted infection control intervention was applied. We used clinical data combined with whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of systematically collected CNPA to infer the transmission dynamics of CNPA strains and to characterize their resistome. We found that the number of CNPA transmissions and acquisitions by patients was highly variable over time but that, overall, the rates were not significantly reduced by the intervention. Environmental sources were involved in these transmissions and acquisitions. Four high-risk international CNPA clones (ST235, ST823, ST375, and ST446) dominated, but the distribution of these clones changed significantly after the intervention was implemented. Using resistome analysis, carbapenem resistance was explained by the presence of various carbapenemase-encoding genes (bla GES-5, bla VIM-2-8, and bla IMP-1-7-43) and by mutations within the porin OprD. Our results reveal for the first time the dynamics of P. aeruginosa antimicrobial resistance (AMR) profiles in Indonesia and additionally show the utility of WGS in combination with clinical data to evaluate the impact of an infection control intervention. (This study has been registered at www.trialregister.nl under registration no. NTR5541).IMPORTANCE In low-to-middle-income countries such as Indonesia, work in intensive care units (ICUs) can be hampered by lack of resources. Conducting large epidemiological studies in such settings using genomic tools is rather challenging. Still, we were able to systematically study the transmissions of carbapenem-nonsusceptible strains of P. aeruginosa (CNPA) within and between ICUs, before and after an infection control intervention. Our data show the importance of the broad dissemination of the internationally recognized CNPA clones, the relevance of environmental reservoirs, and the mixed effects of the implemented intervention; it led to a profound change in the clonal make-up of CNPA, but it did not reduce the patients' risk of CNPA acquisitions. Thus, CNPA epidemiology in Indonesian ICUs is part of a global expansion of multiple CNPA clones that remains difficult to control by infection prevention measures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A New Lineage of Cryptococcus gattii (VGV) Discovered in the Central Zambezian Miombo Woodlands.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Rhys A Farrer,Miwha Chang,Michael J Davis,Lucy van Dorp,Dong-Hoon Yang,Terrance Shea,Thomas R Sewell,Wieland Meyer,Francois Balloux,Hannah M Edwards,Duncan Chanda,Geoffrey Kwenda,Mathieu Vanhove,Yun C Chang,Christina A Cuomo,Matthew C Fisher,Kyung J Kwon-Chung

    We discovered a new lineage of the globally important fungal pathogen Cryptococcus gattii on the basis of analysis of six isolates collected from three locations spanning the Central Miombo Woodlands of Zambia, Africa. All isolates were from environments (middens and tree holes) that are associated with a small mammal, the African hyrax. Phylogenetic and population genetic analyses confirmed that these isolates form a distinct, deeply divergent lineage, which we name VGV. VGV comprises two subclades (A and B) that are capable of causing mild lung infection with negligible neurotropism in mice. Comparing the VGV genome to previously identified lineages of C. gattii revealed a unique suite of genes together with gene loss and inversion events. However, standard URA5 restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis could not distinguish between VGV and VGIV isolates. We therefore developed a new URA5 RFLP method that can reliably identify the newly described lineage. Our work highlights how sampling understudied ecological regions alongside genomic and functional characterization can broaden our understanding of the evolution and ecology of major global pathogens.IMPORTANCE Cryptococcus gattii is an environmental pathogen that causes severe systemic infection in immunocompetent individuals more often than in immunocompromised humans. Over the past 2 decades, researchers have shown that C. gattii falls within four genetically distinct major lineages. By combining field work from an understudied ecological region (the Central Miombo Woodlands of Zambia, Africa), genome sequencing and assemblies, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, and phenotypic characterization (morphology, histopathological, drug-sensitivity, survival experiments), we discovered a hitherto unknown lineage, which we name VGV (variety gattii five). The discovery of a new lineage from an understudied ecological region has far-reaching implications for the study and understanding of fungal pathogens and diseases they cause.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Staphylococcus aureus Exploits the Host Apoptotic Pathway To Persist during Infection.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Volker Winstel,Olaf Schneewind,Dominique Missiakas

    Staphylococcus aureus is a deadly pathogen that causes fatal diseases in humans. During infection, S. aureus secretes nuclease (Nuc) and adenosine synthase A (AdsA) to generate cytotoxic deoxyadenosine (dAdo) from neutrophil extracellular traps which triggers noninflammatory apoptosis in macrophages. In this manner, replicating staphylococci escape phagocytic killing without alerting the immune system. Here, we show that mice lacking caspase-3 in immune cells exhibit increased resistance toward S. aureus Caspase-3-deficient macrophages are resistant to staphylococcal dAdo and gain access to abscess lesions to promote bacterial clearance in infected animals. We identify specific single nucleotide polymorphisms in CASP3 as candidate human resistance alleles that protect macrophages from S. aureus-derived dAdo, raising the possibility that the allelic repertoire of caspase-3 may contribute to the outcome of S. aureus infections in humans.IMPORTANCE Caspase-3 controls the apoptotic pathway, a form of programmed cell death designed to be immunologically silent. Polymorphisms leading to reduced caspase-3 activity are associated with variable effects on tumorigenesis and yet arise frequently. Staphylococcus aureus is a human commensal and a frequent cause of soft tissue and bloodstream infections. Successful commensalism and virulence can be explained by the secretion of a plethora of immune evasion factors. One such factor, AdsA, destroys phagocytic cells by exploiting the apoptotic pathway. However, human CASP3 variants with loss-of-function alleles shield phagocytes from AdsA-mediated killing. This finding raises the possibility that some caspase-3 alleles may arise from exposure to S. aureus and other human pathogens that exploit the apoptotic pathway for infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diversity in lac Operon Regulation among Diverse Escherichia coli Isolates Depends on the Broader Genetic Background but Is Not Explained by Genetic Relatedness.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Kelly N Phillips,Scott Widmann,Huei-Yi Lai,Jennifer Nguyen,J Christian J Ray,Gábor Balázsi,Tim F Cooper

    Transcription of bacterial genes is controlled by the coordinated action of cis- and trans-acting regulators. The activity and mode of action of these regulators can reflect different requirements for gene products in different environments. A well-studied example is the regulatory function that integrates the environmental availability of glucose and lactose to control the Escherichia coli lac operon. Most studies of lac operon regulation have focused on a few closely related strains. To determine the range of natural variation in lac regulatory function, we introduced a reporter construct into 23 diverse E. coli strains and measured expression with combinations of inducer concentrations. We found a wide range of regulatory functions. Several functions were similar to the one observed in a reference lab strain, whereas others depended weakly on the presence of cAMP. Some characteristics of the regulatory function were explained by the genetic relatedness of strains, indicating that differences varied on relatively short time scales. The regulatory characteristics explained by genetic relatedness were among those that best predicted the initial growth of strains following transition to a lactose environment, suggesting a role for selection. Finally, we transferred the lac operon, with the lacI regulatory gene, from five natural isolate strains into a reference lab strain. The regulatory function of these hybrid strains revealed the effect of local and global regulatory elements in controlling expression. Together, this work demonstrates that regulatory functions can be varied within a species and that there is variation within a species to best match a function to particular environments.IMPORTANCE The lac operon of Escherichia coli is a classic model for studying gene regulation. This study has uncovered features such as the environmental input logic controlling gene expression, as well as gene expression bistability and hysteresis. Most lac operon studies have focused on a few lab strains, and it is not known how generally those findings apply to the diversity of E. coli strains. We examined the environmental dependence of lac gene regulation in 20 natural isolates of E. coli and found a wide range of regulatory responses. By transferring lac genes from natural isolate strains into a common reference strain, we found that regulation depends on both the lac genes themselves and on the broader genetic background, indicating potential for still-greater regulatory diversity following horizontal gene transfer. Our results reveal that there is substantial natural variation in the regulation of the lac operon and indicate that this variation can be ecologically meaningful.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Translational Regulation Promotes Oxidative Stress Resistance in the Human Fungal Pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Jay Leipheimer,Amanda L M Bloom,Christopher S Campomizzi,Yana Salei,John C Panepinto

    Cryptococcus neoformans is one of the few environmental fungi that can survive within a mammalian host and cause disease. Although many of the factors responsible for establishing virulence have been recognized, how they are expressed in response to certain host-derived cellular stresses is rarely addressed. Here, we characterize the temporal translational response of C. neoformans to oxidative stress. We find that translation is largely inhibited through the phosphorylation of the critical initiation factor eIF2α (α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2) by a sole kinase. Preventing eIF2α-mediated translational suppression resulted in growth sensitivity to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Our work suggests that translational repression in response to H2O2 partly facilitates oxidative stress adaptation by accelerating the decay of abundant non-stress-related transcripts while facilitating the proper expression levels of select oxidative stress response factors. Our results illustrate translational suppression as a critical determinant of select mRNA decay, gene expression, and subsequent survival in response to oxidative stress.IMPORTANCE Fungal survival in a mammalian host requires the coordinated expression and downregulation of a large cohort of genes in response to cellular stresses. Initial infection with C. neoformans occurs in the lungs, where it interacts with host macrophages. Surviving macrophage-derived cellular stresses, such as the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, is believed to promote dissemination into the central nervous system. Therefore, investigating how an oxidative stress-resistant phenotype is brought about in C. neoformans not only furthers our understanding of fungal pathogenesis but also unveils mechanisms of stress-induced gene reprogramming. We discovered that H2O2-derived oxidative stress resulted in severe translational suppression and that this suppression was necessary for the accelerated decay and expression of tested transcripts.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Unusual Metabolism and Hypervariation in the Genome of a Gracilibacterium (BD1-5) from an Oil-Degrading Community.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Christian M K Sieber,Blair G Paul,Cindy J Castelle,Ping Hu,Susannah G Tringe,David L Valentine,Gary L Andersen,Jillian F Banfield

    The candidate phyla radiation (CPR) comprises a large monophyletic group of bacterial lineages known almost exclusively based on genomes obtained using cultivation-independent methods. Within the CPR, Gracilibacteria (BD1-5) are particularly poorly understood due to undersampling and the inherent fragmented nature of available genomes. Here, we report the first closed, curated genome of a gracilibacterium from an enrichment experiment inoculated from the Gulf of Mexico and designed to investigate hydrocarbon degradation. The gracilibacterium rose in abundance after the community switched to dominance by Colwellia Notably, we predict that this gracilibacterium completely lacks glycolysis, the pentose phosphate and Entner-Doudoroff pathways. It appears to acquire pyruvate, acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA), and oxaloacetate via degradation of externally derived citrate, malate, and amino acids and may use compound interconversion and oxidoreductases to generate and recycle reductive power. The initial genome assembly was fragmented in an unusual gene that is hypervariable within a repeat region. Such extreme local variation is rare but characteristic of genes that confer traits under pressure to diversify within a population. Notably, the four major repeated 9-mer nucleotide sequences all generate a proline-threonine-aspartic acid (PTD) repeat. The genome of an abundant Colwellia psychrerythraea population has a large extracellular protein that also contains the repeated PTD motif. Although we do not know the host for the BD1-5 cell, the high relative abundance of the C. psychrerythraea population and the shared surface protein repeat may indicate an association between these bacteria.IMPORTANCE CPR bacteria are generally predicted to be symbionts due to their extensive biosynthetic deficits. Although monophyletic, they are not monolithic in terms of their lifestyles. The organism described here appears to have evolved an unusual metabolic platform not reliant on glucose or pentose sugars. Its biology appears to be centered around bacterial host-derived compounds and/or cell detritus. Amino acids likely provide building blocks for nucleic acids, peptidoglycan, and protein synthesis. We resolved an unusual repeat region that would be invisible without genome curation. The nucleotide sequence is apparently under strong diversifying selection, but the amino acid sequence is under stabilizing selection. The amino acid repeat also occurs in a surface protein of a coexisting bacterium, suggesting colocation and possibly interdependence.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RocA Binds CsrS To Modulate CsrRS-Mediated Gene Regulation in Group A Streptococcus.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-07-18
    Nicola N Lynskey,Jorge J Velarde,Meredith B Finn,Simon L Dove,Michael R Wessels

    The orphan regulator RocA plays a critical role in the colonization and pathogenesis of the obligate human pathogen group A Streptococcus Despite multiple lines of evidence supporting a role for RocA as an auxiliary regulator of the control of virulence two-component regulatory system CsrRS (or CovRS), the mechanism of action of RocA remains unknown. Using a combination of in vitro and in vivo techniques, we now find that RocA interacts with CsrS in the streptococcal membrane via its N-terminal region, which contains seven transmembrane domains. This interaction is essential for RocA-mediated regulation of CsrRS function. Furthermore, we demonstrate that RocA forms homodimers via its cytoplasmic domain. The serotype-specific RocA truncation in M3 isolates alters this homotypic interaction, resulting in protein aggregation and impairment of RocA-mediated regulation. Taken together, our findings provide insight into the molecular requirements for functional interaction of RocA with CsrS to modulate CsrRS-mediated gene regulation.IMPORTANCE Bacterial two-component regulatory systems, comprising a membrane-bound sensor kinase and cytosolic response regulator, are critical in coordinating the bacterial response to changing environmental conditions. More recently, auxiliary regulators which act to modulate the activity of two-component systems, allowing integration of multiple signals and fine-tuning of bacterial responses, have been identified. RocA is a regulatory protein encoded by all serotypes of the important human pathogen group A Streptococcus Although RocA is known to exert its regulatory activity via the streptococcal two-component regulatory system CsrRS, the mechanism by which it functions was unknown. Based on new experimental evidence, we propose a model whereby RocA interacts with CsrS in the streptococcal cell membrane to enhance CsrS autokinase activity and subsequent phosphotransfer to the response regulator CsrR, which mediates transcriptional repression of target genes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolic Remodeling during Biofilm Development of Bacillus subtilis.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Tippapha Pisithkul,Jeremy W Schroeder,Edna A Trujillo,Ponlkrit Yeesin,David M Stevenson,Tai Chaiamarit,Joshua J Coon,Jue D Wang,Daniel Amador-Noguez

    Biofilms are structured communities of tightly associated cells that constitute the predominant state of bacterial growth in natural and human-made environments. Although the core genetic circuitry that controls biofilm formation in model bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis has been well characterized, little is known about the role that metabolism plays in this complex developmental process. Here, we performed a time-resolved analysis of the metabolic changes associated with pellicle biofilm formation and development in B. subtilis by combining metabolomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses. We report surprisingly widespread and dynamic remodeling of metabolism affecting central carbon metabolism, primary biosynthetic pathways, fermentation pathways, and secondary metabolism. Most of these metabolic alterations were hitherto unrecognized as biofilm associated. For example, we observed increased activity of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle during early biofilm growth, a shift from fatty acid biosynthesis to fatty acid degradation, reorganization of iron metabolism and transport, and a switch from acetate to acetoin fermentation. Close agreement between metabolomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic measurements indicated that remodeling of metabolism during biofilm development was largely controlled at the transcriptional level. Our results also provide insights into the transcription factors and regulatory networks involved in this complex metabolic remodeling. Following upon these results, we demonstrated that acetoin production via acetolactate synthase is essential for robust biofilm growth and has the dual role of conserving redox balance and maintaining extracellular pH. This report represents a comprehensive systems-level investigation of the metabolic remodeling occurring during B. subtilis biofilm development that will serve as a useful road map for future studies on biofilm physiology.IMPORTANCE Bacterial biofilms are ubiquitous in natural environments and play an important role in many clinical, industrial, and ecological settings. Although much is known about the transcriptional regulatory networks that control biofilm formation in model bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, very little is known about the role of metabolism in this complex developmental process. To address this important knowledge gap, we performed a time-resolved analysis of the metabolic changes associated with bacterial biofilm development in B. subtilis by combining metabolomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic analyses. Here, we report a widespread and dynamic remodeling of metabolism affecting central carbon metabolism, primary biosynthetic pathways, fermentation pathways, and secondary metabolism. This report serves as a unique hypothesis-generating resource for future studies on bacterial biofilm physiology. Outside the biofilm research area, this work should also prove relevant to any investigators interested in microbial physiology and metabolism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Contemporary Circulating Enterovirus D68 Strains Have Acquired the Capacity for Viral Entry and Replication in Human Neuronal Cells.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2018-10-18
    David M Brown,Alison M Hixon,Lauren M Oldfield,Yun Zhang,Mark Novotny,Wei Wang,Suman R Das,Reed S Shabman,Kenneth L Tyler,Richard H Scheuermann

    Enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) has historically been associated with respiratory illnesses. However, in the summers of 2014 and 2016, EV-D68 outbreaks coincided with a spike in polio-like acute flaccid myelitis/paralysis (AFM/AFP) cases. This raised concerns that EV-D68 could be the causative agent of AFM during these recent outbreaks. To assess the potential neurotropism of EV-D68, we utilized the neuroblastoma-derived neuronal cell line SH-SY5Y as a cell culture model to determine if differential infection is observed for different EV-D68 strains. In contrast to HeLa and A549 cells, which support viral infection of all EV-D68 strains tested, SH-SY5Y cells only supported infection by a subset of contemporary EV-D68 strains, including isolates from the 2014 outbreak. Viral replication and infectivity in SH-SY5Y were assessed using multiple assays: virus production, cytopathic effects, cellular ATP release, and VP1 capsid protein production. Similar differential neurotropism was also observed in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells, primary human neuron cultures, and a mouse paralysis model. Using the SH-SY5Y cell culture model, we determined that barriers to viral binding and entry were at least partly responsible for the differential infectivity phenotype. Transfection of genomic RNA into SH-SY5Y generated virions for all EV-D68 isolates, but only a single round of replication was observed from strains that could not directly infect SH-SY5Y. In addition to supporting virus replication and other functional studies, this cell culture model may help identify the signatures of virulence to confirm epidemiological associations between EV-D68 strains and AFM and allow for the rapid identification and characterization of emerging neurotropic strains.IMPORTANCE Since the EV-D68 outbreak during the summer of 2014, evidence of a causal link to a type of limb paralysis (AFM) has been mounting. In this article, we describe a neuronal cell culture model (SH-SY5Y cells) in which a subset of contemporary 2014 outbreak strains of EV-D68 show infectivity in neuronal cells, or neurotropism. We confirmed the difference in neurotropism in vitro using primary human neuron cell cultures and in vivo with a mouse paralysis model. Using the SH-SY5Y cell model, we determined that a barrier to viral entry is at least partly responsible for neurotropism. SH-SY5Y cells may be useful in determining if specific EV-D68 genetic determinants are associated with neuropathogenesis, and replication in this cell line could be used as rapid screening tool for identification of neurotropic EV-D68 strains. This may assist with better understanding of pathogenesis and epidemiology and with the development of potential therapies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An Amyloid Core Sequence in the Major Candida albicans Adhesin Als1p Mediates Cell-Cell Adhesion.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Vida Ho,Philippe Herman-Bausier,Christopher Shaw,Karen A Conrad,Melissa C Garcia-Sherman,Jeremy Draghi,Yves F Dufrene,Peter N Lipke,Jason M Rauceo

    The human fungal commensal Candida albicans can become a serious opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised hosts. The C. albicans cell adhesion protein Als1p is a highly expressed member of a large family of paralogous adhesins. Als1p can mediate binding to epithelial and endothelial cells, is upregulated in infections, and is important for biofilm formation. Als1p includes an amyloid-forming sequence at amino acids 325 to 331, identical to the sequence in the paralogs Als5p and Als3p. Therefore, we mutated Val326 to test whether this sequence is important for activity. Wild-type Als1p (Als1pWT) and Als1p with the V326N mutation (Als1pV326N) were expressed at similar levels in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae surface display model. Als1pV326N cells adhered to bovine serum albumin (BSA)-coated beads similarly to Als1pWT cells. However, cells displaying Als1pV326N showed visibly smaller aggregates and did not fluoresce in the presence of the amyloid-binding dye Thioflavin-T. A new analysis tool for single-molecule force spectroscopy-derived surface mapping showed that statistically significant force-dependent Als1p clustering occurred in Als1pWT cells but was absent in Als1pV326N cells. In single-cell force spectroscopy experiments, strong cell-cell adhesion was dependent on an intact amyloid core sequence on both interacting cells. Thus, the major adhesin Als1p interacts through amyloid-like β-aggregation to cluster adhesin molecules in cis on the cell surface as well as in trans to form cell-cell bonds.IMPORTANCE Microbial cell surface adhesins control essential processes such as adhesion, colonization, and biofilm formation. In the opportunistic fungal pathogen Candida albicans, the agglutinin-like sequence (ALS) gene family encodes eight cell surface glycoproteins that mediate adherence to biotic and abiotic surfaces and cell-cell aggregation. Als proteins are critical for commensalism and virulence. Their activities include attachment and invasion of endothelial and epithelial cells, morphogenesis, and formation of biofilms on host tissue and indwelling medical catheters. At the molecular level, Als5p-mediated cell-cell aggregation is dependent on the formation of amyloid-like nanodomains between Als5p-expressing cells. A single-site mutation to valine 326 abolishes cellular aggregation and amyloid formation. Our results show that the binding characteristics of Als1p follow a mechanistic model similar to Als5p, despite its differential expression and biological roles.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Photoferrotrophs Produce a PioAB Electron Conduit for Extracellular Electron Uptake.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Dinesh Gupta,Molly C Sutherland,Karthikeyan Rengasamy,J Mark Meacham,Robert G Kranz,Arpita Bose

    Photoferrotrophy is a form of anoxygenic photosynthesis whereby bacteria utilize soluble or insoluble forms of ferrous iron as an electron donor to fix carbon dioxide using light energy. They can also use poised electrodes as their electron donor via phototrophic extracellular electron uptake (phototrophic EEU). The electron uptake mechanisms underlying these processes are not well understood. Using Rhodopseudomonas palustris TIE-1 as a model, we show that a single periplasmic decaheme cytochrome c, PioA, and an outer membrane porin, PioB, form a complex allowing extracellular electron uptake across the outer membrane from both soluble iron and poised electrodes. We observe that PioA undergoes postsecretory proteolysis of its N terminus to produce a shorter heme-attached PioA (holo-PioAC, where PioAC represents the C terminus of PioA), which can exist both freely in the periplasm and in a complex with PioB. The extended N-terminal peptide controls heme attachment, and its processing is required to produce wild-type levels of holo-PioAC and holo-PioACB complex. It is also conserved in PioA homologs from other phototrophs. The presence of PioAB in these organisms correlate with their ability to perform photoferrotrophy and phototrophic EEU.IMPORTANCE Some anoxygenic phototrophs use soluble iron, insoluble iron minerals (such as rust), or their proxies (poised electrodes) as electron donors for photosynthesis. However, the underlying electron uptake mechanisms are not well established. Here, we show that these phototrophs use a protein complex made of an outer membrane porin and a periplasmic decaheme cytochrome (electron transfer protein) to harvest electrons from both soluble iron and poised electrodes. This complex has two unique characteristics: (i) it lacks an extracellular cytochrome c, and (ii) the periplasmic decaheme cytochrome c undergoes proteolytic cleavage to produce a functional electron transfer protein. These characteristics are conserved in phototrophs harboring homologous proteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Drug-Resistant Epimutants Exhibit Organ-Specific Stability and Induction during Murine Infections Caused by the Human Fungal Pathogen Mucor circinelloides.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Zanetta Chang,Joseph Heitman

    The environmentally ubiquitous fungus Mucor circinelloides is a primary cause of the emerging disease mucormycosis. Mucor infection is notable for causing high morbidity and mortality, especially in immunosuppressed patients, while being inherently resistant to the majority of clinically available antifungal drugs. A new, RNA interference (RNAi)-dependent, and reversible epigenetic mechanism of antifungal resistance-epimutation-was recently discovered in M. circinelloides However, the effects of epimutation in a host-pathogen setting were unknown. We employed a systemic, intravenous murine model of Mucor infection to elucidate the potential impact of epimutation in vivo Infection with an epimutant strain resistant to the antifungal agents FK506 and rapamycin revealed that the epimutant-induced drug resistance was stable in vivo in a variety of different organs and tissues. Reversion of the epimutant-induced drug resistance was observed to be more rapid in isolates from the brain than in isolates recovered from the liver, spleen, kidney, or lungs. Importantly, infection with a wild-type strain of Mucor led to increased rates of epimutation after strains were recovered from organs and exposed to FK506 stress in vitro. Once again, this effect was more pronounced in strains recovered from the brain than from other organs. In summary, we report the rapid induction and reversion of RNAi-dependent drug resistance after in vivo passage through a murine model, with pronounced impact in strains recovered from brain. Defining the role played by epimutation in drug resistance and infection advances our understanding of Mucor and other fungal pathogens and may have implications for antifungal therapy.IMPORTANCE The emerging fungal pathogen Mucor circinelloides causes a severe infection, mucormycosis, which leads to considerable morbidity and mortality. Treatment of Mucor infection is challenging because Mucor is inherently resistant to nearly all clinical antifungal agents. An RNAi-dependent and reversible mechanism of antifungal resistance, epimutation, was recently reported for Mucor Epimutation has not been studied in vivo, and it was unclear whether it would contribute to antifungal resistance observed clinically. We demonstrate that epimutation can both be induced and reverted after in vivo passage through a mouse; rates of both induction and reversion are higher after brain infection than after infection of other organs (liver, spleen, kidneys, or lungs). Elucidating the roles played by epimutation in drug resistance and infection will improve our understanding of Mucor and other fungal pathogens and may have implications for antifungal treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Preclinical Efficacy of a Lipooligosaccharide Peptide Mimic Candidate Gonococcal Vaccine.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Sunita Gulati,Michael W Pennington,Andrzej Czerwinski,Darrick Carter,Bo Zheng,Nancy A Nowak,Rosane B DeOliveira,Jutamas Shaughnessy,George W Reed,Sanjay Ram,Peter A Rice

    The global spread of multidrug-resistant strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae constitutes a public health emergency. With limited antibiotic treatment options, there is an urgent need for development of a safe and effective vaccine against gonorrhea. Previously, we constructed a prototype vaccine candidate comprising a peptide mimic (mimitope) of a glycan epitope on gonococcal lipooligosaccharide (LOS), recognized by monoclonal antibody 2C7. The 2C7 epitope is (i) broadly expressed as a gonococcal antigenic target in human infection, (ii) a critical requirement for gonococcal colonization in the experimental setting, and (iii) a virulence determinant that is maintained and expressed by gonococci. Here, we have synthesized to >95% purity through a relatively facile and economical process a tetrapeptide derivative of the mimitope that was cyclized through a nonreducible thioether bond, thereby rendering the compound homogeneous and stable. This vaccine candidate, called TMCP2, when administered at 0, 3, and 6 weeks to BALB/c mice at either 50, 100 or 200 μg/dose in combination with glucopyranosyl lipid A-stable oil-in-water nanoemulsion (GLA-SE; a Toll-like receptor 4 and TH1-promoting adjuvant), elicited bactericidal IgG and reduced colonization levels of gonococci in experimentally infected mice while accelerating clearance by each of two different gonococcal strains. Similarly, a 3-dose biweekly schedule (50 μg TMCP2/dose) was also effective in mice. We have developed a gonococcal vaccine candidate that can be scaled up and produced economically to a high degree of purity. The candidate elicits bactericidal antibodies and is efficacious in a preclinical experimental infection model.IMPORTANCE Neisseria gonorrhoeae has become resistant to most antibiotics. The incidence of gonorrhea is also sharply increasing. A safe and effective antigonococcal vaccine is urgently needed. Lipooligosaccharide (LOS), the most abundant outer membrane molecule, is indispensable for gonococcal pathogenesis. A glycan epitope on LOS that is recognized by monoclonal antibody (MAb) 2C7 (called the 2C7 epitope) is expressed almost universally by gonococci in vivo Previously, we identified a peptide mimic (mimitope) of the 2C7 epitope, which when configured as an octamer and used as an immunogen, attenuated colonization of mice by gonococci. Here, a homogenous, stable tetrameric derivative of the mimitope, when combined with a TH1-promoting adjuvant and used as an immunogen, also effectively attenuates gonococcal colonization of mice. This candidate peptide vaccine can be produced economically, an important consideration for gonorrhea, which affects socioeconomically underprivileged populations disproportionately, and represents an important advance in the development of a gonorrhea vaccine.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Analysis of CA Content and CPSF6 Dependence of Early HIV-1 Replication Complexes in SupT1-R5 Cells.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Vojtech Zila,Thorsten G Müller,Vibor Laketa,Barbara Müller,Hans-Georg Kräusslich

    HIV-1 infects host cells by fusion at the plasma membrane, leading to cytoplasmic entry of the viral capsid encasing the genome and replication machinery. The capsid eventually needs to disassemble, but time and location of uncoating are not fully characterized and may vary depending on the host cell. To study the fate of the capsid by fluorescence and superresolution (STED) microscopy, we established an experimental system that allows discrimination of subviral structures in the cytosol from intact virions at the plasma membrane or in endosomes without genetic modification of the virus. Quantitative microscopy of infected SupT1-R5 cells revealed that the CA signal on cytosolic HIV-1 complexes corresponded to ∼50% of that found in virions at the cell surface, in agreement with dissociation of nonassembled CA molecules from entering capsids after membrane fusion. The relative amount of CA in postfusion complexes remained stable until they reached the nuclear pore complex, while subviral structures in the nucleus of infected cells lacked detectable CA. An HIV-1 variant defective in binding of the host protein cleavage and polyadenylation specificity factor 6 (CPSF6) exhibited accumulation of CA-positive subviral complexes close to the nuclear envelope without loss of infectivity; STED microscopy revealed direct association of these complexes with nuclear pores. These results support previous observations indicating capsid uncoating at the nuclear pore in infected T-cell lines. They suggest that largely intact HIV-1 capsids dock at the nuclear pore in infected SupT1-R5 cells, with CPSF6 being a facilitator of nucleoplasmic entry in this cell type, as has been observed for infected macrophages.IMPORTANCE The HIV-1 capsid performs essential functions during early viral replication and is an interesting target for novel antivirals. Thus, understanding molecular and structural details of capsid function will be important for elucidating early HIV-1 (and retroviral in general) replication in relevant target cells and may also aid antiviral development. Here, we show that HIV-1 capsids stay largely intact during transport to the nucleus of infected T cells but appear to uncoat upon entry into the nucleoplasm. These results support the hypothesis that capsids protect the HIV-1 genome from cytoplasmic defense mechanisms and target the genome toward the nucleus. A protective role of the capsid could be a paradigm that also applies to other viruses. Our findings raise the question of how reverse transcription of the HIV-1 genome is accomplished in the context of the capsid structure and whether the process is completed before the capsid is uncoated at the nuclear pore.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cause and Effectors: Whole-Genome Comparisons Reveal Shared but Rapidly Evolving Effector Sets among Host-Specific Plant-Castrating Fungi.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    William C Beckerson,Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega,Fanny E Hartmann,Marine Duhamel,Tatiana Giraud,Michael H Perlin

    Plant pathogens utilize a portfolio of secreted effectors to successfully infect and manipulate their hosts. It is, however, still unclear whether changes in secretomes leading to host specialization involve mostly effector gene gains/losses or changes in their sequences. To test these hypotheses, we compared the secretomes of three host-specific castrating anther smut fungi (Microbotryum), two being sister species. To address within-species evolution, which might involve coevolution and local adaptation, we compared the secretomes of strains from differentiated populations. We experimentally validated a subset of signal peptides. Secretomes ranged from 321 to 445 predicted secreted proteins (SPs), including a few species-specific proteins (42 to 75), and limited copy number variation, i.e., little gene family expansion or reduction. Between 52% and 68% of the SPs did not match any Pfam domain, a percentage that reached 80% for the small secreted proteins, indicating rapid evolution. In comparison to background genes, we indeed found SPs to be more differentiated among species and strains, more often under positive selection, and highly expressed in planta; repeat-induced point mutations (RIPs) had no role in effector diversification, as SPs were not closer to transposable elements than background genes and were not more RIP affected. Our study thus identified both conserved core proteins, likely required for the pathogenic life cycle of all Microbotryum species, and proteins that were species specific or evolving under positive selection; these proteins may be involved in host specialization and/or coevolution. Most changes among closely related host-specific pathogens, however, involved rapid changes in sequences rather than gene gains/losses.IMPORTANCE Plant pathogens use molecular weapons to successfully infect their hosts, secreting a large portfolio of various proteins and enzymes. Different plant species are often parasitized by host-specific pathogens; however, it is still unclear whether the molecular basis of such host specialization involves species-specific weapons or different variants of the same weapons. We therefore compared the genes encoding secreted proteins in three plant-castrating pathogens parasitizing different host plants, producing their spores in plant anthers by replacing pollen. We validated our predictions for secretion signals for some genes and checked that our predicted secreted proteins were often highly expressed during plant infection. While we found few species-specific secreted proteins, numerous genes encoding secreted proteins showed signs of rapid evolution and of natural selection. Our study thus found that most changes among closely related host-specific pathogens involved rapid adaptive changes in shared molecular weapons rather than innovations for new weapons.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Novel Neuraminidase-Dependent Hemagglutinin Cleavage Mechanism Enables the Systemic Spread of an H7N6 Avian Influenza Virus.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Hyeok-Il Kwon,Young-Il Kim,Su-Jin Park,Eun-Ha Kim,Semi Kim,Young-Jae Si,Min-Suk Song,Philippe Noriel Q Pascua,Elena A Govorkova,Robert G Webster,Richard J Webby,Young Ki Choi

    In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for hemagglutinin (HA) activation in a naturally occurring H7N6 avian influenza A virus strain, A/mallard duck/Korea/6L/2007 (A/Mdk/6L/07). This novel mechanism allows for systemic infection of chickens, ducks, and mice, and A/Mdk/6L/07 can replicate in vitro without exogenous trypsin and exhibits broad tissue tropism in animals despite the presence of a monobasic HA cleavage motif (PEIPKGR/G). The trypsin-independent growth phenotype requires the N6 neuraminidase and the specific recognition of glycine at the P2 position of the HA cleavage motif by a thrombin-like protease. Correspondingly, viral growth is significantly attenuated by the addition of a thrombin-like protease inhibitor (argatroban). These data provide evidence for a previously unrecognized virus replication mechanism and support the hypothesis that thrombin-mediated HA cleavage is an important virulence marker and potential therapeutic target for H7 influenza viruses.IMPORTANCE The identification of virulence markers in influenza viruses underpins risk assessment programs and the development of novel therapeutics. The cleavage of the influenza virus HA is a required step in the viral life cycle, and phenotypic differences in viruses can be caused by changes in this process. Here, we describe a novel mechanism for HA cleavage in an H7N6 influenza virus isolated from a mallard duck. The mechanism requires the N6 protein and full activity of thrombin-like proteases and allows the virus to cause systemic infection in chickens, ducks, and mice. The thrombin-mediated cleavage of HA is thus a novel virulence determinant of avian influenza viruses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Intestinal IgA Regulates Expression of a Fructan Polysaccharide Utilization Locus in Colonizing Gut Commensal Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Payal Joglekar,Hua Ding,Pablo Canales-Herrerias,Pankaj Jay Pasricha,Justin L Sonnenburg,Daniel A Peterson

    Gut-derived immunoglobulin A (IgA) is the most abundant antibody secreted in the gut that shapes gut microbiota composition and functionality. However, most of the microbial antigens targeted by gut IgA remain unknown, and the functional effects of IgA targeting these antigens are currently understudied. This study provides a framework for identifying and characterizing gut microbiota antigens targeted by gut IgA. We developed a small intestinal ex vivo culture assay to harvest lamina propria IgA from gnotobiotic mice, with the aim of identifying antigenic targets in a model human gut commensal, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron VPI-5482. Colonization by B. thetaiotaomicron induced a microbe-specific IgA response that was reactive against diverse antigens, including capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, and proteins. IgA against microbial protein antigens targeted membrane and secreted proteins with diverse functionalities, including an IgA specific against proteins of the polysaccharide utilization locus (PUL) that are necessary for utilization of fructan, which is an important dietary polysaccharide. Further analyses demonstrated that the presence of dietary fructan increased the production of fructan PUL-specific IgA, which then downregulated the expression of fructan PUL in B. thetaiotaomicron, both in vivo and in vitro Since the expression of fructan PUL has been associated with the ability of B. thetaiotaomicron to colonize the gut in the presence of dietary fructans, our work suggests a novel role for gut IgA in regulating microbial colonization by modulating their metabolism.IMPORTANCE Given the significant impact that gut microbes have on our health, it is essential to identify key host and environmental factors that shape this diverse community. While many studies have highlighted the impact of diet on gut microbiota, little is known about how the host regulates this critical diet-microbiota interaction. In our present study, we discovered that gut IgA targeted a protein complex involved in the utilization of an important dietary polysaccharide: fructan. While the presence of dietary fructans was previously thought to allow unrestricted growth of fructan-utilizing bacteria, our work shows that gut IgA, by targeting proteins responsible for fructan utilization, provides the host with tools that can restrict the microbial utilization of such polysaccharides, thereby controlling their growth.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Paternal Grandmother Age Affects the Strength of Wolbachia-Induced Cytoplasmic Incompatibility in Drosophila melanogaster.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Emily M Layton,Jungmin On,Jessamyn I Perlmutter,Seth R Bordenstein,J Dylan Shropshire

    Wolbachia are obligate intracellular bacteria that are globally distributed in half of all arthropod species. As the most abundant maternally inherited microbe in animals, Wolbachia manipulate host reproduction via reproductive parasitism strategies, including cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI manifests as embryonic death when Wolbachia-modified sperm fertilize uninfected eggs but not maternally infected eggs. Thus, CI can provide a relative fitness advantage to Wolbachia-infected females and drive the infection through a population. In the genetic model Drosophila melanogaster, the Wolbachia strain wMel induces variable CI, making mechanistic studies in D. melanogaster cumbersome. Here, we demonstrate that sons of older paternal D. melanogaster grandmothers induce stronger CI than sons of younger paternal grandmothers, and we term this relationship the "paternal grandmother age effect" (PGAE). Moreover, the embryos and adult sons of older D. melanogaster grandmothers have higher Wolbachia densities, correlating with their ability to induce stronger CI. In addition, we report that Wolbachia density positively correlates with female age and decreases after mating, suggesting that females transmit Wolbachia loads that are proportional to their own titers. These findings reveal a transgenerational impact of age on wMel-induced CI, elucidate Wolbachia density dynamics in D. melanogaster, and provide a methodological advance to studies aimed at understanding wMel-induced CI in the D. melanogaster model.IMPORTANCE Unidirectional cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI) results in a postfertilization incompatibility between Wolbachia-infected males and uninfected females. CI contributes to reproductive isolation between closely related species and is used in worldwide vector control programs to drastically lower arboviral vector population sizes or to replace populations that transmit arboviruses with those resistant to transmission. Despite decades of research on the factors that influence CI, penetrance is often variable under controlled laboratory conditions in various arthropods, suggesting that additional variables influence CI strength. Here, we demonstrate that paternal D. melanogaster grandmother age influences the strength of CI induced by their sons. Older D. melanogaster females have higher Wolbachia densities and produce offspring with higher Wolbachia densities that associate with stronger CI. This work reveals a multigenerational impact of age on CI and expands our understanding of host-Wolbachia interactions and the biology of CI induced by the Wolbachia strain infecting the most widely used arthropod model, D. melanogaster.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DNA- and RNA-SIP Reveal Nitrospira spp. as Key Drivers of Nitrification in Groundwater-Fed Biofilters.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Arda Gülay,S Jane Fowler,Karolina Tatari,Bo Thamdrup,Hans-Jørgen Albrechtsen,Waleed Abu Al-Soud,Søren J Sørensen,Barth F Smets

    Nitrification, the oxidative process converting ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, is driven by microbes and plays a central role in the global nitrogen cycle. Our earlier investigations based on 16S rRNA and amoA amplicon analysis, amoA quantitative PCR and metagenomics of groundwater-fed biofilters indicated a consistently high abundance of comammox Nitrospira Here, we hypothesized that these nonclassical nitrifiers drive ammonia-N oxidation. Hence, we used DNA and RNA stable isotope probing (SIP) coupled with 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing to identify the active members in the biofilter community when subjected to a continuous supply of NH4 + or NO2 - in the presence of 13C-HCO3 - (labeled) or 12C-HCO3 - (unlabeled). Allylthiourea (ATU) and sodium chlorate were added to inhibit autotrophic ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. Our results confirmed that lineage II Nitrospira dominated ammonia oxidation in the biofilter community. A total of 78 (8 by RNA-SIP and 70 by DNA-SIP) and 96 (25 by RNA-SIP and 71 by DNA-SIP) Nitrospira phylotypes (at 99% 16S rRNA sequence similarity) were identified as complete ammonia- and nitrite-oxidizing, respectively. We also detected significant HCO3 - uptake by Acidobacteria subgroup10, Pedomicrobium, Rhizobacter, and Acidovorax under conditions that favored ammonia oxidation. Canonical Nitrospira alone drove nitrite oxidation in the biofilter community, and activity of archaeal ammonia-oxidizing taxa was not detected in the SIP fractions. This study provides the first in situ evidence of ammonia oxidation by comammox Nitrospira in an ecologically relevant complex microbiome.IMPORTANCE With this study we provide the first in situ evidence of ecologically relevant ammonia oxidation by comammox Nitrospira in a complex microbiome and document an unexpectedly high H13CO3 - uptake and growth of proteobacterial and acidobacterial taxa under ammonia selectivity. This finding raises the question of whether comammox Nitrospira is an equally important ammonia oxidizer in other environments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Suppression of Drug Resistance Reveals a Genetic Mechanism of Metabolic Plasticity in Malaria Parasites.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2018-11-15
    Ann M Guggisberg,Philip M Frasse,Andrew J Jezewski,Natasha M Kafai,Aakash Y Gandhi,Samuel J Erlinger,Audrey R Odom John

    In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, synthesis of isoprenoids from glycolytic intermediates is essential for survival. The antimalarial fosmidomycin (FSM) inhibits isoprenoid synthesis. In P. falciparum, we identified a loss-of-function mutation in HAD2 (P. falciparum 3D7_1226300 [PF3D7_1226300]) as necessary for FSM resistance. Enzymatic characterization revealed that HAD2, a member of the haloacid dehalogenase-like hydrolase (HAD) superfamily, is a phosphatase. Harnessing a growth defect in resistant parasites, we selected for suppression of HAD2-mediated FSM resistance and uncovered hypomorphic suppressor mutations in the locus encoding the glycolytic enzyme phosphofructokinase 9 (PFK9). Metabolic profiling demonstrated that FSM resistance is achieved via increased steady-state levels of methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway and glycolytic intermediates and confirmed reduced PFK9 function in the suppressed strains. We identified HAD2 as a novel regulator of malaria parasite metabolism and drug sensitivity and uncovered PFK9 as a novel site of genetic metabolic plasticity in the parasite. Our report informs the biological functions of an evolutionarily conserved family of metabolic regulators and reveals a previously undescribed strategy by which malaria parasites adapt to cellular metabolic dysregulation.IMPORTANCE Unique and essential aspects of parasite metabolism are excellent targets for development of new antimalarials. An improved understanding of parasite metabolism and drug resistance mechanisms is urgently needed. The antibiotic fosmidomycin targets the synthesis of essential isoprenoid compounds from glucose and is a candidate for antimalarial development. Our report identifies a novel mechanism of drug resistance and further describes a family of metabolic regulators in the parasite. Using a novel forward genetic approach, we also uncovered mutations that suppress drug resistance in the glycolytic enzyme PFK9. Thus, we identify an unexpected genetic mechanism of adaptation to metabolic insult that influences parasite fitness and tolerance of antimalarials.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genome-Wide Transposon Screen of a Pseudomonas syringae mexB Mutant Reveals the Substrates of Efflux Transporters.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Tyler C Helmann,Caitlin L Ongsarte,Jennifer Lam,Adam M Deutschbauer,Steven E Lindow

    Bacteria express numerous efflux transporters that confer resistance to diverse toxicants present in their environment. Due to a high level of functional redundancy of these transporters, it is difficult to identify those that are of most importance in conferring resistance to specific compounds. The resistance-nodulation-division (RND) protein family is one such example of redundant transporters that are widespread among Gram-negative bacteria. Within this family, the MexAB-OprM protein complex is highly expressed and conserved among Pseudomonas species. We exposed barcoded transposon mutant libraries in isogenic wild-type and ΔmexB backgrounds in P. syringae B728a to diverse toxic compounds in vitro to identify mutants with increased susceptibility to these compounds. Mutants with mutations in genes encoding both known and novel redundant transporters but with partially overlapping substrate specificities were observed in a ΔmexB background. Psyr_0228, an uncharacterized member of the major facilitator superfamily of transporters, preferentially contributes to tolerance of acridine orange and acriflavine. Another transporter located in the inner membrane, Psyr_0541, contributes to tolerance of acriflavine and berberine. The presence of multiple redundant, genomically encoded efflux transporters appears to enable bacterial strains to tolerate a diversity of environmental toxins. This genome-wide screen performed in a hypersusceptible mutant strain revealed numerous transporters that would otherwise be dispensable under these conditions. Bacterial strains such as P. syringae that likely encounter diverse toxins in their environment, such as in association with many different plant species, probably benefit from possessing multiple redundant transporters that enable versatility with respect to toleration of novel toxicants.IMPORTANCE Bacteria use protein pumps to remove toxic compounds from the cell interior, enabling survival in diverse environments. These protein pumps can be highly redundant, making their targeted examination difficult. In this study, we exposed mutant populations of Pseudomonas syringae to diverse toxicants to identify pumps that contributed to survival in those conditions. In parallel, we examined pump redundancy by testing mutants of a population lacking the primary efflux transporter responsible for toxin tolerance. We identified partial substrate overlap for redundant transporters, as well as several pumps that appeared more substrate specific. For bacteria that are found in diverse environments, having multiple, partially redundant efflux pumps likely allows flexibility in habitat colonization.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Correction for Kennan et al., "Genomic Evidence for a Globally Distributed, Bimodal Population in the Ovine Footrot Pathogen Dichelobacter nodosus".
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Ruth M Kennan,Marianne Gilhuus,Sara Frosth,Torsten Seemann,Om P Dhungyel,Richard J Whittington,John D Boyce,David R Powell,Anna Aspán,Hannah J Jørgensen,Dieter M Bulach,Julian I Rood

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Crystal Structure of African Swine Fever Virus dUTPase Reveals a Potential Drug Target.
    mBio (IF 6.747) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Changyao Li,Yan Chai,Hao Song,Changjiang Weng,Jianxun Qi,Yeping Sun,George F Gao

    E165R, a highly specific dUTP nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) encoded by the African swine fever virus (ASFV) genome, is required for productive replication of ASFV in swine macrophages. Here, we solved the high-resolution crystal structures of E165R in its apo state and in complex with its product dUMP. Structural analysis explicitly defined the architecture of the active site of the enzyme as well as the interaction between the active site and the dUMP ligand. By comparing the ASFV E165R structure with dUTPase structures from other species, we found that the active site of E165R is highly similar to those of dUTPases from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Plasmodium falciparum, against which small-molecule chemicals have been developed, which could be the potential drug or lead compound candidates for ASFV. Our results provide important basis for anti-ASFV drug design by targeting E165R.IMPORTANCE African swine fever virus (ASFV), an Asfivirus affecting pigs and wild boars with up to 100% case fatality rate, is currently rampaging throughout China and some other countries in Asia. There is an urgent need to develop therapeutic and preventive reagents against the virus. Our crystallographic and biochemical studies reveal that ASFV E165R is a member of trimeric dUTP nucleotidohydrolase (dUTPase) family that catalyzes the hydrolysis of dUTP into dUMP. Our apo-E165R and E165R-dUMP structures reveal the constitutive residues and the configuration of the active center of this enzyme in rich detail and give evidence that the active center of E165R is very similar to that of dUTPases from Plasmodium falciparum and Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which have already been used as targets for designing drugs. Therefore, our high-resolution structures of E165R provide useful structural information for chemotherapeutic drug design.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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