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  • Improving Risk–Benefit in Faecal Transplantation through Microbiome Screening
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Lito E. Papanicolas; David L. Gordon; Steve L. Wesselingh; Geraint B. Rogers

    Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of a growing number of conditions, and its clinical use continues to rise. However, recent cases of antibiotic-resistant pathogen transmission through FMT, resulting in at least one case of fatal sepsis, highlight the need to reevaluate current donor screening practices. Commensal gut microbes profoundly influence infection risk but are not routinely assessed in donor stool. Extending the assessment of donor material beyond pathogen populations to include the composition and structure of the wider faecal microbiota has the potential to reduce infectious complications in FMT recipients.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The Microbiologist’s Guide to Membrane Potential Dynamics
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Jonatan M. Benarroch; Munehiro Asally

    All cellular membranes have the functionality of generating and maintaining the gradients of electrical and electrochemical potentials. Such potentials were generally thought to be an essential but homeostatic contributor to complex bacterial behaviors. Recent studies have revised this view, and we now know that bacterial membrane potential is dynamic and plays signaling roles in cell–cell interaction, adaptation to antibiotics, and sensation of cellular conditions and environments. These discoveries argue that bacterial membrane potential dynamics deserve more attention. Here, we review the recent studies revealing the signaling roles of bacterial membrane potential dynamics. We also introduce basic biophysical theories of the membrane potential to the microbiology community and discuss the needs to revise these theories for applications in bacterial electrophysiology.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • The Cap-Snatching Mechanism of Bunyaviruses
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Silke Olschewski; Stephen Cusack; Maria Rosenthal

    In common with all segmented negative-sense RNA viruses, bunyavirus transcripts contain heterologous sequences at their 5′ termini originating from capped host cell RNAs. These heterologous sequences are acquired by a so-called cap-snatching mechanism. Whereas for nuclear replicating influenza virus the source of capped primers as well as the cap-binding and endonuclease activities of the viral polymerase needed for cap snatching have been functionally and structurally well characterized, our knowledge on the expected counterparts of cytoplasmic replicating bunyaviruses is still limited and controversial. This review focuses on the cap-snatching mechanism of bunyaviruses in the light of recent structural and functional data.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The Peril and Promise of Integrons: Beyond Antibiotic Resistance
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Timothy M. Ghaly; Jemma L. Geoghegan; Sasha G. Tetu; Michael R. Gillings

    Integrons are bacterial genetic elements that can capture, rearrange, and express mobile gene cassettes. They are best known for their role in disseminating antibiotic-resistance genes among pathogens. Their ability to rapidly spread resistance phenotypes makes it important to consider what other integron-mediated traits might impact human health in the future, such as increased virulence, pathogenicity, or resistance to novel antimicrobial strategies. Exploring the functional diversity of cassettes and understanding their de novo creation will allow better pre-emptive management of bacterial growth, while also facilitating development of technologies that could harness integron activity. If we can control integrons and cassette formation, we could use integrons as a platform for enzyme discovery and to construct novel biochemical pathways, with applications in bioremediation or biosynthesis of industrial and therapeutic molecules. Integron activity thus holds both peril and promise for humans.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The Evolutionary Genomics of Host Specificity in Staphylococcus aureus
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Marta Matuszewska; Gemma G.R. Murray; Ewan M. Harrison; Mark A. Holmes; Lucy A. Weinert

    Staphylococcus aureus is an important human bacterial pathogen that has a cosmopolitan host range, including livestock, companion and wild animal species. Genomic and epidemiological studies show that S. aureus has jumped between host species many times over its evolutionary history. These jumps have involved the dynamic gain and loss of host-specific adaptive genes, usually located on mobile genetic elements. The same functional elements are often consistently gained in jumps into a particular species. Further sampling of diverse animal species is likely to uncover an even broader host range and greater genetic diversity of S. aureus than is already known, and understanding S. aureus host specificity in these hosts will mitigate the risks of emergent human and livestock strains.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Vaccines to Overcome Antibiotic Resistance: The Challenge of Burkholderia cenocepacia
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Viola C. Scoffone; Giulia Barbieri; Silvia Buroni; Maria Scarselli; Mariagrazia Pizza; Rino Rappuoli; Giovanna Riccardi

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) patients are at particular risk of infection by microorganisms that are resistant to several antibiotics. About 3% of CF patients are colonized by Burkholderia cenocepacia, and this represents a major threat because of its intrinsic high level of drug resistance and the lack of a safe and effective treatment protocol. The development of anti-Burkholderia vaccines is a valuable and complementary approach, but only a few studies have been reported to date. In this review we discuss recent advances in the vaccine field and how new technologies, including structural reverse vaccinology, could drive the design of an effective vaccine against B. cenocepacia for use in preventive and therapeutic applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Bacterial Aggregation Leads to Collective Elimination
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Kyeri Kim; Lingchong You

    Faster growing bacteria tend to be killed faster by antibiotics. In a complex environment exposed to antibiotics, however, the fate of a bacterial population depends on diverse factors. In a new study, Schlomann et al. describes how sublethal antibiotics can trigger the purging of bacteria by the zebrafish.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Networks Consolidate the Core Concepts of Evolution by Natural Selection
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    François Papale; Jordane Saget; Éric Bapteste

    Microbiology has unraveled rich evidence of ongoing reticulate evolutionary processes and complex interactions both within and between cells. These phenomena feature real biological networks, which can logically be analyzed using network-based tools. It is thus not surprising that network sciences, a field independent from evolutionary biology and microbiology, have recently pervasively infused their methods into both fields. Importantly, network tools bring forward observations enhancing the understanding of three core evolutionary concepts: variation, fitness, and heredity. Consequently, our work shows how network sciences can enhance evolutionary theory by explaining the evolution by natural selection of a broad diversity of units of selection, while updating the popular figure of Darwin’s tree of life with a comprehensive sketch of the networks of evolution.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Reliable Serological Diagnostic Tests for Arboviruses: Feasible or Utopia?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Karen Kerkhof; Francesca Falconi-Agapito; Marjan Van Esbroeck; Michael Talledo; Kevin K. Ariën

    Infections with arthropod-borne viruses are increasing globally as a result of climate and demographic changes, global dispersion of insect vectors, and increased air travel. The similar symptomatology of arboviral diseases and the cocirculation of different arboviruses in Africa, Asia, and South America complicate diagnosis. Despite the high sensitivity and specificity of molecular diagnostic tests, their utility is limited to the short viremic phase of arbovirus infections, and therefore the diagnosis of infection is frequently missed in clinical practice. Conversely, the duration of antibody responses provides a wider window of opportunity, making diagnosis more dependent on IgM/IgG detection. This review discusses the issues underlying the low specificity of antibody-detection assays, and addresses the challenges and strategies for discovering more specific biomarkers to enable a more accurate diagnosis.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Phylosystemics: Merging Phylogenomics, Systems Biology, and Ecology to Study Evolution
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    A.K. Watson, M. Habib, E. Bapteste

    We define phylosystemics, a multidisciplinary strategy uniting short timescale interaction studies from systems biologists and ecologists with the longer timescale studies familiar to evolutionary biologists, taking advantage of methods from network sciences. Phylosystemics superimposes evolutionary information on entities/edges forming interaction networks produced by systems biology and ecology. At the molecular level, phylosystemics could provide evidence to infer and to time the evolution of molecular processes within a single branch of a phylogeny, in particular between the first and last common ancestors of a group arising during a major evolutionary transition. At the ecosystemic level, phylosystemics could culminate with the development of multilayer temporal networks encompassing biotic and abiotic interactions, whose analyses could unravel ecological interactions with evolutionary consequences.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • A New Host Factor Essential for Chikungunya Virus
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Barbara S. Schnierle

    FHL1 has been identified as a host protein that is essential for chikungunya virus (CHIKV) replication. FHL1 interacts with the chikungunya non-structural protein 3, which is thought to recruit cellular proteins to the viral replication complex. Inhibition of this interaction is a promising target for drug development.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Vibrio cholerae Released by Protozoa are Hyperinfectious
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Fabian Mitterer, Joao Palma Pombo, Stefan Schild

    Espinoza-Vergara et al. unveiled a novel transmission mode of Vibrio cholerae based on environmental protozoan predation, which the bacterial pathogen evades via its release in ‘expelled food vacuoles.’ Vacuole-enclosed bacteria are not only fairly protected against environmental stressors, but also show enhanced intestinal colonization fitness upon oral ingestion.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Magnetoreception in Microorganisms
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Caroline L. Monteil, Christopher T. Lefevre

    Magnetoreception is the sense whereby organisms geolocate and navigate in response to the Earth’s magnetic field lines. For decades, magnetotactic bacteria have been the only known magnetoreceptive microorganisms. The magnetotactic behaviour of these aquatic prokaryotes is due to the biomineralization of magnetic crystals. While an old report alleged the existence of microbial algae with similar behaviour, recent discoveries have demonstrated the existence of unicellular eukaryotes able to sense the geomagnetic field, and have revealed different mechanisms and strategies involved in such a sensing. Some ciliates can be magnetically guided after predation of magnetotactic bacteria, while some flagellates acquired this sense through symbiosis with magnetic bacteria. A report has even suggested that some magnetotactic protists could biomineralize magnetic crystals.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Multitasking Actors of Staphylococcus aureus Metabolism and Virulence
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-18
    Xin Tan, Mathieu Coureuil, Alain Charbit, Anne Jamet

    Recent studies have uncovered the striking commonality of multitasking molecular actors linking metabolism and virulence regulation. Beyond the well known importance of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism regulators in coordinating metabolic pathways and pathogenesis, we highlight recent major advances linking lipid and nucleic acid pathways to virulence regulation in Staphylococcus aureus.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • An Ecosystems Perspective on Virus Evolution and Emergence
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Rebecca K. French, Edward C. Holmes

    Understanding the emergence of pathogenic viruses has dominated studies of virus evolution. However, new metagenomic studies imply that relatively few of an immense number of viruses may lead to overt disease. This suggests a change in emphasis, from viruses as habitual pathogens to integral components of ecosystems. Here we show how viruses alter interactions between host individuals, populations, and ecosystems, impacting ecosystem health, resilience, and function, and how host ecology in turn impacts viral abundance and diversity. Moving to an ecosystems perspective will put virus evolution and disease emergence in its true context, and enhance our understanding of ecological processes.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • Effects of PRRSV Infection on the Porcine Thymus
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Gang Wang, Ying Yu, Xuehui Cai, En-Min Zhou, Jeffrey J. Zimmerman

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) dramatically affects the thymus and its ability to carry out its normal functions. In particular, infection incapacitates PRRSV-susceptible CD14pos antigen-presenting cells (APCs) in the thymus and throughout the body. PRRSV-induced autophagy in thymic epithelial cells modulates the development of T cells, and PRRSV-induced apoptosis in CD4posCD8pos thymocytes modulates cellular immunity against PRRSV and other pathogens. Pigs are less able to resist and/or eliminate secondary infectious agents due the effect of PRRSV on the thymus, and this susceptibility phenomenon is long recognized as a primary characteristic of PRRSV infection.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • Catching HPV in the Homologous Recombination Cookie Jar
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Nicholas A. Wallace

    To replicate, the human papillomaviruses (HPVs) that cause anogenital and oropharyngeal malignancies must simultaneously activate DNA repair pathways and avoid the cell cycle arrest that normally accompanies DNA repair. For years it seemed that HPV oncogenes activated the homologous recombination pathway to facilitate the HPV lifecycle. However, recent developments show that, although homologous recombination gene expression and markers of pathway activation are increased, homologous recombination itself is attenuated. This review provides an overview of the diverse ways that HPV oncogenes manipulate homologous recombination and ideas on how the resulting dysregulation and inhibition offer opportunities for improved therapies and biomarkers.

    更新日期:2019-11-17
  • Multifaceted Roles of TIM-Family Proteins in Virus–Host Interactions
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    John P. Evans, Shan-Lu Liu

    To enhance infection, enveloped viruses exploit adhesion molecules expressed on the surface of host cells. Specifically, phosphatidylserine (PS) receptors – including members of the human T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (TIM)-family – have gained attention for their ability to mediate the entry of many enveloped viruses. However, recent evidence that TIM-1 can restrict viral release reveals a new role for these PS receptors. Additionally, viral factors such as the HIV-1 accessory protein Nef can antagonize this antiviral activity of TIM-1 while host restriction factors such as SERINC5 can enhance it. In this review, we examine the various roles of PS receptors, specifically TIM-family proteins, and the intricate relationship between host and viral factors. Elucidating the multifunctional roles of PS receptors in virus–host interaction is important for understanding viral pathogenesis and developing novel antiviral therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-11-13
  • Nonpathogenic Bacteria as Targets in Antimicrobial High-Throughput Screening
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Paula Yagüe, Nathaly Gonzalez-Quiñonez, Angel Manteca

    Antimicrobial screening usually analyses the effects of natural or synthetic molecules against pathogens. McAuley et al. changed this paradigm, testing the effect of synthetic compounds against the sporulation of the nonpathogenic bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae. They discovered a novel DNA-targeting antibiotic effective against pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-06
  • Genetic Heterogeneity and Taxonomic Diversity among Gardnerella Species
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Joana Castro, Kimberly K. Jefferson, Nuno Cerca

    Gardnerella vaginalis has been considered a pivotal player in the progression of bacterial vaginosis (BV), a condition associated with serious health complications. However, G. vaginalis is also commonly found in asymptomatic or BV-negative women. This has generated interest in the question of whether genetic differences among isolates might distinguish pathogenic from commensal isolates. G. vaginalis was the only recognized species in its genus for four decades, but recently an emended description of G. vaginalis and descriptions of three new species – Gardnerella leopoldii, Gardnerella piotii, and Gardnerella swidsinskii – have been proposed. This review provides background on the heterogeneity and diversity within the genus Gardnerella, highlighting the main features that distinguish species and clades, and how these features may impact BV development.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Microbial Control of Intestinal Homeostasis via Enteroendocrine Cell Innate Immune Signaling
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Paula I. Watnick, Bat-Erdene Jugder

    A community of commensal microbes, known as the intestinal microbiota, resides within the gastrointestinal tract of animals and plays a role in maintenance of host metabolic homeostasis and resistance to pathogen invasion. Enteroendocrine cells, which are relatively rare in the intestinal epithelium, have evolved to sense and respond to these commensal microbes. Specifically, they express G-protein-coupled receptors and functional innate immune signaling pathways that recognize products of microbial metabolism and microbe-associated molecular patterns, respectively. Here we review recent evidence from Drosophila melanogaster that microbial cues recruit antimicrobial, mechanical, and metabolic branches of the enteroendocrine innate immune system and argue that this response may play a role not only in maintaining host metabolic homeostasis but also in intestinal resistance to invasion by bacterial, viral, and parasitic pathogens.

    更新日期:2019-11-04
  • Structures Unveil the Invasion Mechanism of Chikungunya Virus.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : null
    Qiu Sun,Xiao Du,Wei Cheng

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Kaposi Sarcoma-Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV).
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-11-25
    Philip Lange,Blossom Damania

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Salmonella enterica.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : null
    Leigh A Knodler,Johanna R Elfenbein

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Salmonella enterica.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-06-05
    Leigh A Knodler,Johanna R Elfenbein

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Steering Phages to Combat Bacterial Pathogens.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : null
    James Gurney,Sam P Brown,Oliver Kaltz,Michael E Hochberg

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Scedosporium apiospermum.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2019-08-06
    Jean-Philippe Bouchara,Nicolas Papon

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cryptococcus neoformans.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : null
    François L Mayer,James W Kronstad

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erratum to: 'The potential impact of coinfection on antimicrobial chemotherapy and drug resistance'.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2015-11-01
    Ruthie B Birger,Roger D Kouyos,Ted Cohen,Emily C Griffiths,Silvie Huijben,Michael J Mina,Victoriya Volkova,Bryan Grenfell,C Jessica E Metcalf

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Drug sensitivity and environmental adaptation of mycobacterial cell wall components.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 1996-07-01
    C E Barry,K Mdluli

    The intrinsic resistance of many mycobacterial species to chemotherapy is largely attributable to their impermeable cell wall. The composition of the cell wall of a particular species appears to be influenced by the environmental niche that the species occupies. The complex regulatory and biosynthetic pathways involved in cell wall biosynthesis and construction offer useful chemotherapeutic targets against mycobacteria.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interpreting cell wall 'virulence factors' of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2001-05-05
    C E Barry

    The complex structure of the cell wall of Mycobacterium tuberculosis clearly contributes to the outcome of the dialogue between this pathogen and its host. The effects of mutations in cell wall components are likely to be quite complex, as individual components of the wall could have indirect effects that extend well beyond the physical integrity of the wall itself. Affected processes include the surface exposure or secretion of the many lipid, glycolipid and proteinaceous molecules that can interact directly with components of the host cell.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • Bugs N the 'hood.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-05-01
    David A Rasko,Claire M Fraser

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gene duplication and biased functional retention of paralogs in bacterial genomes.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-05-01
    Dirk Gevers,Klaas Vandepoele,Cedric Simillon,Yves Van de Peer

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • Anthrax toxin: can a little be a good thing?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-05-01
    Ana M Sánchez,Kenneth A Bradley

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Champions of versatility.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-04-03
    Karen E Nelson,Claire M Fraser

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phylogenomics and bioinformatics of SARS-CoV.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-04-03
    Pietro Liò,Nick Goldman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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  • The power in comparison.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-03-26
    William C Nierman,Claire M Fraser

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Horizontal gene transfer and microbial adaptation to xenobiotics: new types of mobile genetic elements and lessons from ecological studies.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-03-26
    Dirk Springael,Eva M Top

    The characterization of bacteria that degrade organic xenobiotics has revealed that they can adapt to these compounds by expressing 'novel' catabolic pathways. At least some of them appear to have evolved by patchwork assembly of horizontally transmitted genes and subsequent mutations and gene rearrangements. Recent studies have revealed the existence of new types of xenobiotic catabolic mobile genetic elements, such as catabolic genomic islands, which integrate into the chromosome after transfer. The significance of horizontal gene transfer and patchwork assembly for bacterial adaptation to pollutants under real environmental conditions remains uncertain, but recent publications suggest that these processes do occur in a polluted environment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The upper temperature of life--where do we draw the line?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-03-26
    D A Cowen

    A new archaeal isolate has been reported that is capable of growing at up to 121 degrees C. The hyperthermophile, dubbed strain 121, grows chemoautotrophically using formate as an electron donor and FeIII as an electron acceptor and is closely related to members of the archaeal genera Pyrodictium and Pyrobaculum. Although the reported maximum growth temperature of strain 121 is 8 degrees C higher than the previous record holder (Pyrolobus fumarii; Tmax = 113 degrees C), the two organisms have virtually the same optimal growth temperatures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Variant Creutzfeldt-jakob disease: between lymphoid organs and brain.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-03-26
    Markus Glatzel,Olivier Giger,Harald Seeger,Adriano Aguzzi

    Prion diseases are often caused by peripheral uptake of the infectious agent. To reach their ultimate target, the central nervous system (CNS), prions enter their host, replicate in lymphoid organs and spread via peripheral nerves. Once the agent has reached the CNS disease progression is rapid, resulting in neurodegeneration and death. many of these mechanisms have been uncovered using genetically modified mice. A recently published study demonstrated the presence of pathological prion protein in sympathetic ganglia of patients suffering from variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, suggesting that these mechanisms might apply to humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toll-like receptors and innate antifungal responses.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Alexander Roeder,Carsten J Kirschning,Rudolf A Rupec,Martin Schaller,Hans Christian Korting

    The mammalian Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are homologues of Drosophila Toll and constitute a novel protein family involved in the mediation of innate immunity and the activation of adaptive immunity. Analysis of infection with human pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus implicated TLR2 and TLR4 in elicitation of immune responses. Cryptococcus neoformans is recognized by a process that uses TLR4. C. albicans induces immunostimulation through causative agents, such as mannan or its structural derivatives (e.g. phospholipomannan), which are recognized by the immune system as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and are located in the cell wall of fungi. Secreted aspartic proteinases represent a key virulence factor that contributes to the ability of C. albicans to cause mucosal and disseminated infections, and might be a further potential stimulator of TLRs. Simultaneous activation of other pattern recognition receptors collaborating with TLRs illustrates the cooperation of various chains within ligand-specific receptor complexes for the recognition of fungal pathogens and their cell wall components.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of minimal-gene-sets in host-dependent bacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Lisa Klasson,Siv G E Andersson

    Several attempts have been made to identify the minimal set of genes that is required for life using computational approaches or studies of deletion mutants. These experiments resemble those already performed by nature; a few hundred million years ago an ancestor of Escherichia coli was domesticated by aphids, which resulted in the elimination of 70-75% of the original bacterial genome. Amazingly, the small genomes of these imprisoned bacteria are more stable than those of their free-living relatives. Minimal-gene-sets that have evolved naturally are largely species-specific, with the exception of a small set of core genes that are required for information processing. Comparative genomics of host-dependent bacteria have shown that minimal-gene-sets can persist in nature for tens of millions of years provided that the environment is rich in nutrients, that the host population size is large and that there is a strong host-level selection for bacterial gene functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Helicobacter pylori-induced epithelial cell signalling in gastric carcinogenesis.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Michael Naumann,Jean E Crabtree

    Helicobacter pylori represents a highly successful human microbial pathogen that infects the stomach of more than half of the world's population. H. pylori induces gastric inflammation, and the diseases that can follow such infection include chronic gastritis, peptic ulcers and, more rarely, gastric cancer. The reasons why a minority of patients with H. pylori develops gastric cancer could be related to differences in host susceptibility, environmental factors and the genetic diversity of the organism. This review examines the features of H. pylori-induced epithelial cell signalling in gastric diseases. Clinical studies and animal models, and also evidence for H. pylori strain-related differences in gastric epithelial cell proliferation in vivo are discussed. In addition, the mechanisms by which H. pylori triggers hyperproliferative processes and takes direct command of epithelial cell signalling, including activation of tyrosine kinase receptors, cell-cell interactions and cell motility are reviewed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Message from a human gut symbiont: sensitivity is a prerequisite for sharing.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Jian Xu,Herbert C Chiang,Magnus K Bjursell,Jeffrey I Gordon

    Microbial genome sequencing projects are beginning to provide insights about the molecular foundations of human-bacterial symbioses. The intestine contains our largest collection of symbionts, where members of Bacteroides comprise approximately 25% of the microbiota in adults. The recently defined proteome of a prominent human intestinal symbiont, Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, contains an elaborate environmental-sensing apparatus. This apparatus includes an unprecedented number of extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma-factors, and a large collection of novel hybrid two-component systems composed of membrane-spanning periplasmic proteins with histidine kinase, phosphoacceptor, response regulator receiver and DNA-binding domains. These sensors are linked to the organism's large repertoire of genes involved in acquiring and processing dietary polysaccharides ('the glycobiome'). This arrangement illustrates how a successful symbiont has evolved strategies for detecting and responding to conditions in its niche so that it can sustain beneficial relationships with its microbial and human partners.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microbial endocrinology and infectious disease in the 21st century.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Mark Lyte

    More than 70 years ago, a new age in endocrinology was just beginning with the first purification of a hormone, adrenaline. As early as 1930, almost immediately following its first use, cases of adrenaline-associated sepsis were reported. From this time, there have been reports associating the elaboration of neuroendocrine hormones, such as adrenaline, with infectious disease. The most widely accepted theory to explain the ability of hormones to influence the course of infection involves the suppression of the immune system. The theory that the infectious microorganism itself might be equally responsive to the host's neuroendocrine environment has not been considered. It is the intent of this article to introduce a new perspective to the current understanding of the factors that mediate the ability of bacteria to cause disease, and to demonstrate that neuroendocrinology and microbiology intersect to form the interdisciplinary field of microbial endocrinology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On the conceptual difficulties in rooting the tree of life.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    E Bapteste,C Brochier

    Rooting the 'tree of life' represents a major challenge for evolutionists. Without such a root, many of the first steps in biological evolution cannot be reconstructed. However, the nature of the last common ancestor of all living beings remains elusive, proof of the difficulty in shedding light on such an ancient event. Here, we highlight the practical difficulties and conceptual reasons that hinder the placement of a universal root. We discuss how, when addressing the question of the root of the tree of life, scientists unconsciously risk using the reasoning pattern of ancient skeptics, unfortunately known only to lead to further uncertainty. Hence, we argue that the root of the tree of life will not be established unless radically new approaches are considered. We propose a hypothetical means to overcome several of the conceptual difficulties pointed out, and suggest that a so-called 'transition analysis' of the structural evolution of the cytoplasmic membrane might be helpful, especially if evolutionary steps involving the rooting issue are polarized accounting more for physicochemical knowledge rather than hypothetical and controversial selective advantages.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • All things great and small.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Claire M Fraser

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transporter's evolution and carbohydrate metabolic clusters.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Titia H Plantinga,Chris van der Does,Arnold J M Driessen

    The yiaQRS genes of Escherichia coli K-12 are involved in carbohydrate metabolism. Clustering of homologous genes was found throughout several unrelated bacteria. Strikingly, all four bacterial transport protein classes were found, conserving transport function but not mechanism. It appears that during evolution the ability to transport, phosphorylate and metabolize substrates of unknown identity have been conserved. However, the transporter classes have been swapped. This probably demonstrates the subtlety of transport-protein evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transformation and DNA repair: linkage by DNA recombination.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2004-01-01
    Tone Tønjum,Leiv S Håvarstein,Michael Koomey,Erling Seeberg

    The stability of microbial genomes is constantly challenged by horizontal gene transfer, recombination and DNA damage. Mechanisms for rapid genome variation, adaptation and maintenance are a necessity to ensure microbial fitness and survival in changing environments. Indeed, genome sequences reveal that most, if not all, bacterial species have numerous gene functions for DNA repair and recombination. These important topics were addressed at the Second Genome Maintenance Meeting (GMM2).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Innate immunity: involvement of new neuropeptides.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    M H Metz-Boutigue,A E Kieffer,Y Goumon,D Aunis

    Secretory granules of chromaffin cells from the adrenal medulla store catecholamines and a variety of peptides that are secreted in the extracellular medium during exocytosis. Among these fragments, several natural peptides displaying antimicrobial activities at the micromolar range have been isolated and characterized. We have shown that these peptides, derived from the natural processing of chromogranins (CGs), proenkephalin-A (PEA) and free ubiquitin (Ub), are released into the circulation and display antibacterial and antifungal activities. In this review we focus on three naturally secreted antimicrobial peptides corresponding to CGA1-76 (vasostatin-I), the bisphosphorylated form of PEA209-237 (enkelytin) and Ub. In addition, the antimicrobial properties of the synthetic active domains of vasostatin-I (CGA47-66 or chromofungin) and Ub (Ub65-76 or ubifungin) are reported.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Subclinical prion infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    Andrew F Hill,John Collinge

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative disorders that include scrapie in sheep, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans. The principal component of the infectious agent responsible for these diseases appears to be an abnormal isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP), designated PrP(Sc). Prion diseases are transmissible to the same or different mammalian species by inoculation with, or dietary exposure to, infected tissues. Although scrapie in sheep has been recognized for over 200 years, it is the recent epidemic of BSE that has centred much public and scientific attention on these neurodegenerative diseases. The occurrence of variant CJD in humans and the experimental confirmation that it is caused by the same prion strain as BSE has highlighted the need for intensive study into the pathogenesis of these diseases and new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches. The existence and implications of subclinical forms of prion disease are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hard labour: bacterial infection of the skeleton.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    Brian Henderson,Sean P Nair

    The skeleton is the largest mammalian organ system, containing a myriad of blood vessels, tissue surfaces and bone cells for bacterial colonization. Although rock-like, the skeleton is a dynamic structure that is undergoing constant remodelling. This is the result of the opposing actions of two key cells: the osteoblast, which produces bone, and the osteoclast, a multinucleate cell that 'eats' bone. It is not generally realized that the most prevalent chronic bacterial diseases of Homo sapiens afflict the skeleton. Several pathogens, and members of the normal microbiota, have evolved specific cellular and molecular mechanisms for invading bone, including its cellular constituents. The host cellular pathways that are activated and lead to destruction or loss of the bone matrix will be described.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Translating tissue culture results into animal models: the case of Salmonella typhimurium.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    Bryan P Hurley,Beth A McCormick

    Investigators use both in vitro and in vivo models to better understand infectious disease processes. Both models are extremely useful in research, but there exists a significant gap in complexity between the highly controlled reductionist in vitro systems and the largely undefined, but relevant variability encompassing in vivo animal models. In an effort to understand how Salmonella initiates disease at the intestinal epithelium, in vitro models have served a useful purpose in allowing investigators to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for Salmonella invasion of host cells and stimulation of host inflammatory responses. Identification of these molecular mechanisms has generated hypotheses that are now being tested using in vivo models. Translating the in vitro findings into the context of an animal model and subsequently to human disease remains a difficult challenge for any disease process.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sweet new world: glycoproteins in bacterial pathogens.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    M Alexander Schmidt,Lee W Riley,Inga Benz

    In eukaryotes, the combinatorial potential of carbohydrates is used for the modulation of protein function. However, despite the wealth of cell wall and surface-associated carbohydrates and glycoconjugates, the accepted dogma has been that prokaryotes are not able to glycosylate proteins. This has now changed and protein glycosylation in prokaryotes is an accepted fact. Intriguingly, in Gram-negative bacteria most glycoproteins are associated with virulence factors of medically significant pathogens. Also, important steps in pathogenesis have been linked to the glycan substitution of surface proteins, indicating that the glycosylation of bacterial proteins might serve specific functions in infection and pathogenesis and interfere with inflammatory immune responses. Therefore, the carbohydrate modifications and glycosylation pathways of bacterial proteins will become new targets for therapeutic and prophylactic measures. Here we discuss recent findings on the structure, genetics and function of glycoproteins of medically important bacteria and potential applications of bacterial glycosylation systems for the generation of novel glycoconjugates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell wall branches, penicillin resistance and the secrets of the MurM protein.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    András Fiser,Sergio R Filipe,Alexander Tomasz

    Production of low-affinity forms of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), although essential, is not sufficient to protect pneumococci against the inhibitory action of penicillin. Resistance also requires the newly identified protein MurM which, together with MurN, is involved with the synthesis of short peptide branches in the pneumococcal cell wall. Cells in which murM was inactivated produced cell walls without branches and also completely lost penicillin resistance. To understand these surprising observations a 3D-model of MurM was constructed, which helped to put into structural context several of the biochemical and genetic observations made about this protein.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Error thresholds and the constraints to RNA virus evolution.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 11.974) Pub Date : 2003-12-09
    Edward C Holmes

    RNA viruses are often thought of as possessing almost limitless adaptability as a result of their extreme mutation rates. However, high mutation rates also put a cap on the size of the viral genome by establishing an error threshold, beyond which lethal numbers of deleterious mutations accumulate. Herein, I argue that a lack of genomic space means that RNA viruses will be subject to important evolutionary constraints because specific sequences are required to encode multiple and often conflicting functions. Empirical evidence for these constraints, and how they limit viral adaptability, is now beginning to accumulate. Documenting the constraints to RNA virus evolution has important implications for predicting the emergence of new viruses and for improving therapeutic procedures.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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