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  • Ins and Outs of Reovirus: Vesicular Trafficking in Viral Entry and Egress
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Alexa N. Roth; Pavithra Aravamudhan; Isabel Fernández de Castro; Raquel Tenorio; Cristina Risco; Terence S. Dermody

    Cell entry and egress are essential steps in the viral life cycle that govern pathogenesis and spread. Mammalian orthoreoviruses (reoviruses) are nonenveloped viruses implicated in human disease that serve as tractable models for studies of pathogen–host interactions. In this review we discuss the function of intracellular vesicular transport systems in reovirus entry, trafficking, and egress and comment

  • These Are the Genes You’re Looking For: Finding Host Resistance Genes
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-29
    Jeffrey S. Bourgeois; Clare M. Smith; Dennis C. Ko

    Humanity’s ongoing struggle with new, re-emerging and endemic infectious diseases serves as a frequent reminder of the need to understand host–pathogen interactions. Recent advances in genomics have dramatically advanced our understanding of how genetics contributes to host resistance or susceptibility to bacterial infection. Here we discuss current trends in defining host–bacterial interactions at

  • Bacillus cereus: Epidemiology, Virulence Factors, and Host–Pathogen Interactions
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Daniel Enosi Tuipulotu; Anukriti Mathur; Chinh Ngo; Si Ming Man

    The toxin-producing bacterium Bacillus cereus is an important and neglected human pathogen and a common cause of food poisoning. Several toxins have been implicated in disease, including the pore-forming toxins hemolysin BL (HBL) and nonhemolytic enterotoxin (NHE). Recent work revealed that HBL binds to the mammalian surface receptors LITAF and CDIP1 and that both HBL and NHE induce potassium efflux

  • Genome-based Taxonomy for Bacteria: A Recent Advance
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Zhiyong Zong

    Prokaryotic taxonomic assignments are shifting to genome-based algorithms. A recent study (Parks et al., 2020) has advanced genome-based taxonomy by constructing reference databases, computing average nucleotide identity and assigning tentative placeholder species names. However, prokaryotic taxonomy should be carefully curated and updated in a timely fashion; this requires coordinated efforts of prokaryotic

  • Broadening Participation in Scientific Conferences during the Era of Social Distancing
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Michael R. Fulcher; Marian L. Bolton; Michael D. Millican; Matthew J. Michalska-Smith; José Pablo Dundore-Arias; Jo Handelsman; Jonathan L. Klassen; Kathryn C. Milligan-Myhre; Ashley Shade; Benjamin E. Wolfe; Linda L. Kinkel

    Virtual conferences can offer significant benefits but require considerable planning and creativity to be successful. Here we describe the successes and failures of a hybrid in-person/virtual conference model. The COVID-19 epidemic presents the scientific community with an opportunity to pioneer novel models that effectively engage virtual participants to advance conference goals.

  • Molecular Evolution of Transition Metal Bioavailability at the Host-Pathogen Interface.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Giuliano T Antelo,Alejandro J Vila,David P Giedroc,Daiana A Capdevila

    The molecular evolution of the adaptive response at the host–pathogen interface has been frequently referred to as an 'arms race' between the host and bacterial pathogens. The innate immune system employs multiple strategies to starve microbes of metals. Pathogens, in turn, develop successful strategies to maintain access to bioavailable metal ions under conditions of extreme restriction of transition

  • Bacterial Defense against the Type VI Secretion System.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Sophie Robitaille,Evan Trus,Benjamin D Ross

    Bacteria have evolved systems dedicated to interbacterial competition. Here we highlight defenses utilized by Gram-negative cells against type VI secretion system (T6SS)-wielding competitors, including physical barriers, genetically encoded antidotes, and stress responses. Further investigation of specific and general defenses will reveal the interbacterial selective pressures impacting bacterial survival

  • Structural and Biosynthetic Diversity of Nonulosonic Acids (NulOs) That Decorate Surface Structures in Bacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Nathan D McDonald,E Fidelma Boyd

    Nonulosonic acids (NulOs) are a diverse family of 9-carbon α-keto acid sugars that are involved in a wide range of functions across all branches of life. The family of NulOs includes the sialic acids as well as the prokaryote-specific NulOs. Select bacteria biosynthesize the sialic acid N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), and the ability to produce this sugar and its subsequent incorporation into cell-surface

  • Coral Disease Causes, Consequences, and Risk within Coral Restoration.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    T Moriarty,W Leggat,M J Huggett,T D Ainsworth

    As a result of increased reef degradation, restoration efforts are now being widely applied on coral reefs. However, outplanted coral survival in restoration zones varies substantially, and coral mortality can be a significant limitation to the success of restoration efforts. With reef restoration now occurring within, and adjacent to, nationally preserved and managed marine parks, the potential risks

  • Virus-Host Cell Interplay during Hepatitis E Virus Infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Michael H Wißing,Yannick Brüggemann,Eike Steinmann,Daniel Todt

    The molecular interplay between cellular host factors and viral proteins is a continuous process throughout the viral life cycle determining virus host range and pathogenesis. The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a long-neglected RNA virus and the major causative agent of acute viral hepatitis in humans worldwide. However, the mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease remain poorly understood for

  • How Pathogens Feel and Overcome Magnesium Limitation When in Host Tissues.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Anne-Béatrice Blanc-Potard,Eduardo A Groisman

    Host organisms utilize nutritional immunity to limit the availability of nutrients essential to an invading pathogen. Nutrients may include amino acids, nucleotide bases, and transition metals, the essentiality of which varies among pathogens. The mammalian macrophage protein Slc11a1 (previously Nramp1) mediates resistance to several intracellular pathogens. Slc11a1 is proposed to restrict growth of

  • Oceanic Hitchhikers - Assessing Pathogen Risks from Marine Microplastic.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Jake Bowley,Craig Baker-Austin,Adam Porter,Rachel Hartnell,Ceri Lewis

    As plastic debris in the environment continues to increase, an emerging concern is the potential for microplastic to act as vectors for pathogen transport. With aquaculture the fastest growing food sector, and microplastic contamination of shellfish increasingly demonstrated, understanding any risk of pathogen transport associated with microplastic is important for this industry. However, there remains

  • Development of Microbiome Biobanks - Challenges and Opportunities.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    M J Ryan,M Schloter,G Berg,T Kostic,L L Kinkel,K Eversole,J A Macklin,B Schelkle,M Kazou,I Sarand,B K Singh,D Fischer,E Maguin,I Ferrocino,N Lima,R S McClure,T C Charles,R S C de Souza,G S Kiran,H L Krug,J Taffner,H Roume,J Selvin,D Smith,D Rybakova,A Sessitsch

    The microbiome research field is rapidly evolving, but the required biobanking infrastructure is currently fragmented and not prepared for the biobanking of microbiomes. The rapid advancement of technologies requires an urgent assessment of how biobanks can underpin research by preserving microbiome samples and their functional potential.

  • Two Dietary Metabolites Fuel Salmonella Colonization.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Sara Jepsen,Shuai Jiang

    Nguyen et al. used transposon sequencing analysis and competitive colonization assays to describe how aspartate/malate can trigger initial Salmonella Typhimurium gut-lumen colonization in mice, providing insight into the significance of certain key metabolites beyond the realm of Salmonella life. Metabolite-driven diagnostic and anti-infective strategies for preventing salmonellosis could rapidly emerge

  • Functions of Bacterial tRNA Modifications: From Ubiquity to Diversity.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-25
    Valérie de Crécy-Lagard,Marshall Jaroch

    Modified nucleotides in tRNA are critical components of the translation apparatus, but their importance in the process of translational regulation had until recently been greatly overlooked. Two breakthroughs have recently allowed a fuller understanding of the importance of tRNA modifications in bacterial physiology. One is the identification of the full set of tRNA modification genes in model organisms

  • Wall Teichoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus Host Interaction: (Trends in Microbiology. In press.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-24
    Rob van Dalen,Andreas Peschel,Nina M van Sorge

  • Molecular Mechanisms of Intercellular Dissemination of Bacterial Pathogens.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Georgina C Dowd,Roman Mortuza,Keith Ireton

    Several intracellular bacterial pathogens, including Listeria monocytogenes, Shigella flexerni, and Rickettsia spp. use an actin-based motility process to spread in mammalian cell monolayers. Cell-to-cell spread is mediated by protrusive structures that contain bacteria encased in the host cell plasma membrane. These protrusions, which form in infected host cells, are internalized by neighboring cells

  • Missing Microbes in Bees: How Systematic Depletion of Key Symbionts Erodes Immunity.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Brendan A Daisley,John A Chmiel,Andrew P Pitek,Graham J Thompson,Gregor Reid

    Pesticide exposure, infectious disease, and nutritional stress contribute to honey bee mortality and a high rate of colony loss. This realization has fueled a decades-long investigation into the single and combined effects of each stressor and their overall bearing on insect physiology. However, one element largely missing from this research effort has been the evaluation of underlying microbial communities

  • Countering Counter-Defense to Antiviral RNAi.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Valerie Betting,Ronald P Van Rij

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful host defense mechanism against viruses. As a counter-defense, many viruses encode suppressors of RNAi, which – in plants – has provoked counter-counter-defense strategies. Recently, a mechanism was proposed in Drosophila (Zhang et al.) wherein a long noncoding RNA senses a virus-encoded RNAi suppressor to activate an innate immune response.

  • Spiking Pandemic Potential: Structural and Immunological Aspects of SARS-CoV-2.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Ying-Ting Wang,Sara Landeras-Bueno,Li-En Hsieh,Yutaka Terada,Kenneth Kim,Klaus Ley,Sujan Shresta,Erica Ollmann Saphire,Jose Angel Regla-Nava

    SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease causing thousands of deaths and overwhelming public health systems. The international spread of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the ease of global travel, and societal dynamics, immunologic naiveté of the host population, and muted innate immune responses. Based on these factors and the expanding

  • The Conformational States of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Qian Wang,Andrés Finzi,Joseph Sodroski

    During HIV-1 entry into target cells, binding of the virus to host receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, triggers serial conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer that result in the fusion of the viral and cell membranes. Recent discoveries have refined our knowledge of Env conformational states, allowing characterization of the targets of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors and neutralizing

  • Human Organs-on-Chips for Virology.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Huaqi Tang,Yasmine Abouleila,Longlong Si,Ana Maria Ortega-Prieto,Christine L Mummery,Donald E Ingber,Alireza Mashaghi

    While conventional in vitro culture systems and animal models have been used to study the pathogenesis of viral infections and to facilitate development of vaccines and therapeutics for viral diseases, models that can accurately recapitulate human responses to infection are still lacking. Human organ-on-a-chip (Organ Chip) microfluidic culture devices that recapitulate tissue–tissue interfaces, fluid

  • Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Dirk Schüler,Caroline L Monteil,Christopher T Lefevre

  • Between a Rock and a Soft Place: The Role of Viruses in Lithification of Modern Microbial Mats.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Richard Allen White,Pieter T Visscher,Brendan P Burns

    Stromatolites are geobiological systems formed by complex microbial communities, and fossilized stromatolites provide a record of some of the oldest life on Earth. Microbial mats are precursors of extant stromatolites; however, the mechanisms of transition from mat to stromatolite are controversial and are still not well understood. To fully recognize the profound impact that these ecosystems have

  • Challenges of Studying the Human Virome - Relevant Emerging Technologies.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei,Jinling Xue,Rita Costa,Jinlong Ru,Sarah Schulz,Zofia E Taranu,Li Deng

    In this review we provide an overview of current challenges and advances in bacteriophage research within the growing field of viromics. In particular, we discuss, from a human virome study perspective, the current and emerging technologies available, their limitations in terms of de novo discoveries, and possible solutions to overcome present experimental and computational biases associated with low

  • Xanthomonas campestris Pathovars.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Ji-Liang Tang,Dong-Jie Tang,Zoe E Dubrow,Adam Bogdanove,Shi-Qi An

  • Does Intraspecific Variation in rDNA Copy Number Affect Analysis of Microbial Communities?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Anton Lavrinienko,Toni Jernfors,Janne J Koskimäki,Anna Maria Pirttilä,Phillip C Watts

    Amplicon sequencing of partial regions of the ribosomal RNA loci (rDNA) is widely used to profile microbial communities. However, the rDNA is dynamic and can exhibit substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in copy number in prokaryotes and, especially, in microbial eukaryotes. As change in rDNA copy number is a common response to environmental change, rDNA copy number is not necessarily

  • Chlamydiae in the Environment.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Astrid Collingro,Stephan Köstlbacher,Matthias Horn

    Chlamydiae have been known for more than a century as major pathogens of humans. Yet they are also found ubiquitously in the environment where they thrive within protists and in an unmatched wide range of animals. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding chlamydial diversity and distribution in nature. Studying these environmental chlamydiae provides a novel perspective on basic chlamydial

  • Wall Teichoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus Host Interaction.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Rob van Dalen,Andreas Peschel,Nina M van Sorge

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major opportunistic human pathogen that frequently causes disease in community and hospital settings. Nasal colonization is an important risk factor for developing invasive disease. Cell wall-associated glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs) contribute to efficient nasal colonization by S. aureus. In addition, WTAs are key targets of the host immune system due to

  • Cross-Regulations between Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: Evidence of an Interconnected Regulatory Network?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Camille Riffaud,Marie-Laure Pinel-Marie,Brice Felden

    Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous among bacteria and include stable toxins whose toxicity can be counteracted by RNA or protein antitoxins. They are involved in multiple functions that range from stability maintenance for mobile genetic elements to stress adaptation. Bacterial chromosomes frequently have multiple homologues of TA system loci, and it is unclear why there are so many of them

  • Double-Membrane Vesicles as Platforms for Viral Replication.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Georg Wolff,Charlotte E Melia,Eric J Snijder,Montserrat Bárcena

    Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, exploit cellular pathways and resources in a variety of fascinating ways. A striking example of this is the remodelling of intracellular membranes into specialized structures that support the replication of positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) viruses infecting eukaryotes. These distinct forms of virus-induced structures include double-membrane vesicles (DMVs),

  • The Role of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Antibiotic Resistance Evolution.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    João Botelho,Hinrich Schulenburg

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as plasmids and integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), are main drivers for the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). Coevolution between bacteria and plasmids shapes the transfer and stability of plasmids across bacteria. Although ICEs outnumber conjugative plasmids, the dynamics of ICE–bacterium coevolution, ICE transfer rates, and fitness costs are as yet

  • Carriage of Colibactin-producing Bacteria and Colorectal Cancer Risk.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Vadim Dubinsky,Iris Dotan,Uri Gophna

    Colibactin is a genotoxic molecule, produced primarily by Escherichia coli. Colibactin causes DNA damage that may lead to colorectal cancer. Here we review recent advances in the study of colibactin and propose a focus on patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who have higher levels of colibactin-producing bacteria in their intestines.

  • 更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Anti-CRISPR Proteins in Archaea.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Xu Peng,David Mayo-Muñoz,Yuvaraj Bhoobalan-Chitty,Laura Martínez-Álvarez

    Anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins are natural inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. To date, Acrs inhibiting types I, II, III, V, and VI CRISPR-Cas systems have been characterized. While most known Acrs are derived from bacterial phages and prophages, very few have been characterized in the domain Archaea, despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of CRISPR-Cas in archaeal cells. Here we summarize the discovery

  • New Paradigms of Pilus Assembly Mechanisms in Gram-Positive Actinobacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Nicholas A Ramirez,Asis Das,Hung Ton-That

    Adhesive pili in Gram-positive bacteria represent a variety of extracellular multiprotein polymers that mediate bacterial colonization of specific host tissues and associated pathogenesis. Pili are assembled in two distinct but coupled steps, an orderly crosslinking of pilin monomers and subsequent anchoring of the polymer to peptidoglycan, catalyzed by two transpeptidase enzymes – the pilus-specific

  • Chronic Immune Activation in TB/HIV Co-infection: (Trends in Microbiology 28, 619-632; 2020).
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Riti Sharan,Allison N Bucşan,Shashank Ganatra,Mirko Paiardini,Mahesh Mohan,Smriti Mehra,Shabaana A Khader,Deepak Kaushal

  • Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease Spirochetes.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jon T Skare,Brandon L Garcia

    The complement system is an ancient arm of the innate immune system that plays important roles in pathogen recognition and elimination. Upon activation by microbes, complement opsonizes bacterial surfaces, recruits professional phagocytes, and causes bacteriolysis. Borreliella species are spirochetal bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via infected Ixodes ticks and are the etiologic agents

  • Towards a General Understanding of Bacterial Interactions.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Zhijie Zhang,Mark van Kleunen,Lutz Becks,Madhav P Thakur

    Understanding the general rules of microbial interactions is central for advancing microbial ecology. Recent studies show that interaction range, interaction strength, and community context determine bacterial interactions and the coexistence and evolution of bacteria. We highlight how these factors could contribute to a general understanding of bacterial interactions.

  • Fungal Pathogens: Shape-Shifting Invaders.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Kyunghun Min,Aaron M Neiman,James B Konopka

    Fungal infections are on the rise due to new medical procedures that have increased the number of immune compromised patients, antibacterial antibiotics that disrupt the microbiome, and increased use of indwelling medical devices that provide sites for biofilm formation. Key to understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis is to determine how fungal morphology impacts virulence strategies. For example

  • 更新日期:2020-05-25
  • Microbiome in Colorectal Cancer: How to Get from Meta-omics to Mechanism?: (Trends in Microbiology 28, 401-423; 2020).
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Dominik Ternes,Jessica Karta,Mina Tsenkova,Paul Wilmes,Serge Haan,Elisabeth Letellier

  • Bacterial Cell Mechanics Beyond Peptidoglycan.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Marion Mathelié-Guinlet,Abir T Asmar,Jean-François Collet,Yves F Dufrêne

    The bacterial cell envelope plays essential roles in controlling cell shape, division, pathogenicity, and resistance against external stresses. In Escherichia coli, peptidoglycan (PG) has long been thought to be the primary component that conveys mechanical strength to the envelope. But a recent publication demonstrates the key contribution of the lipoprotein Lpp in defining the stiffness of the cell

  • Bacterial Flagella Loss under Starvation.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Siqi Zhu,Beile Gao

    The bacterial flagellum is beneficial in most cases but it can become a burden when the energy source is low because it is very costly to assemble and energize for motility. Recent electron cryo-tomography and real-time fluorescence microscopy studies suggest that bacteria can remove their flagella under starvation in a programmed way.

  • Role of Neutralizing Antibodies in CMV Infection: Implications for New Therapeutic Approaches.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Virginia Sandonís,Estéfani García-Ríos,Michael J McConnell,Pilar Pérez-Romero

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection elicits a potent immune response that includes the stimulation of antibodies with neutralizing activity. Recent studies have focused on elucidating the role of neutralizing antibodies in protecting against CMV infection and disease and characterizing viral antigens against which neutralizing antibodies are directed. Here, we provide a synthesis of recent data regarding

  • Carbapenem Resistance-Encoding and Virulence-Encoding Conjugative Plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Xuemei Yang,Ning Dong,Edward Wai-Chi Chan,Rong Zhang,Sheng Chen

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has an exceptional ability to acquire exogenous resistance-encoding and hypervirulence-encoding genetic elements. In this review we trace the key evolutionary routes of plasmids involved in the dissemination of such elements; we observed diverse, but convergent, evolutionary paths that eventually led to the emergence of conjugative plasmids which simultaneously encode carbapenem

  • The Role of Rhizosphere Bacteriophages in Plant Health.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Akbar Adjie Pratama,Jurre Terpstra,Andre Luiz Martinez de Oliveria,Joana Falcão Salles

    Microbiomes and their hosts influence each other; for instance, the microbiome improves host fitness, whereas the host supports microbiome nutrition. Most studies on this topic have focused on the role of bacteria and fungi, although research on viruses that infect bacteria, known as ‘bacteriophages’ (phages), has gained importance due to the potential role bacteriophages play in the resilience and

  • Conserved DNA Methyltransferases: A Window into Fundamental Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation in Bacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Pedro H Oliveira,Gang Fang

    An increasing number of studies have reported that bacterial DNA methylation has important functions beyond the roles in restriction-modification systems, including the ability of affecting clinically relevant phenotypes such as virulence, host colonization, sporulation, biofilm formation, among others. Although insightful, such studies have a largely ad hoc nature and would benefit from a systematic

  • Immunometabolism during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Nicole C Howard,Shabaana A Khader

    Over a quarter of the world’s population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Approximately 3.4% of new and 18% of recurrent cases of TB are multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampicin-resistant. Recent evidence has shown that certain drug-resistant strains of Mtb modulate host metabolic reprogramming, and therefore immune responses, during infection

  • Probing the Mobilome: Discoveries in the Dynamic Microbiome.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Victoria R Carr,Andrey Shkoporov,Colin Hill,Peter Mullany,David L Moyes

    There has been an explosion of metagenomic data representing human, animal, and environmental microbiomes. This provides an unprecedented opportunity for comparative and longitudinal studies of many functional aspects of the microbiome that go beyond taxonomic classification, such as profiling genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance, interactions with the host, potentially clinically relevant

  • Epigenetics: A New Frontier in Probiotic Research.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Wesley Morovic,Charles R Budinoff

    Research into the benefits of probiotics has progressed beyond interventional studies to identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. Health-promoting effector molecules produced by probiotics are well documented and have been linked to specific genes and even individual nucleotides. However, the factors controlling the expression of these molecules are poorly understood and we argue that epigenetic

  • Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in the Brain: The Dark Side of a Sneaky Infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Maria Elena Marcocci,Giorgia Napoletani,Virginia Protto,Olga Kolesova,Roberto Piacentini,Domenica Donatella Li Puma,Patrick Lomonte,Claudio Grassi,Anna Teresa Palamara,Giovanna De Chiara

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency preferentially in sensory neurons of peripheral ganglia. A variety of stresses can induce recurrent reactivations of the virus, which spreads and then actively replicates to the site of primary infection (usually the lips or eyes). Viral particles produced following reactivation can also reach the brain, causing a rare but severe form of diffuse acute

  • Genetic Regulation of Metal Ion Homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Erin E Price,Jeffrey M Boyd

    The acquisition of metal ions and the proper maturation of holo-metalloproteins are essential processes for all organisms. However, metal ion homeostasis is a double-edged sword. A cytosolic accumulation of metal ions can lead to mismetallation of proteins and cell death. Therefore, maintenance of proper concentrations of intracellular metals is essential for cell fitness and pathogenesis. Staphylococcus

  • Label or Concept - What Is a Pathobiont?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Lara Jochum,Bärbel Stecher

    An increasing number of microorganisms are classified as 'pathobionts' (i.e., organisms that can cause harm under certain circumstances) but there exist no universally used criteria for this definition. In particular, the term is often used for categorizing disease-associated taxa without proof of 'causality'. This creates confusion and distracts from explicitly searching for beneficial functions of

  • Roles of Thermokarst Lakes in a Warming World.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Michiel H In 't Zandt,Susanne Liebner,Cornelia U Welte

    Permafrost covers a quarter of the northern hemisphere land surface and contains twice the amount of carbon that is currently present in the atmosphere. Future climate change is expected to reduce its near-surface cover by over 90% by the end of the 21st century, leading to thermokarst lake formation. Thermokarst lakes are point sources of carbon dioxide and methane which release long-term carbon stocks

  • Parasexual and Sexual Reproduction in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Room for Both.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Gökalp Yildirir,Mathu Malar C,Vasilis Kokkoris,Nicolas Corradi

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) harbor thousands of nuclei in a large syncytium at all times. Although mating processes have not been observed in AMF, their cells and genomes show many signatures of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how some of these signatures could also arise from parasexual processes in these widespread plant symbionts. As such, parasexual and sexual evolution could both

  • Fatty Acids as Antibiofilm and Antivirulence Agents.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Prasun Kumar,Jin-Hyung Lee,Haluk Beyenal,Jintae Lee

    Fatty acids (FAs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics. Since many microbes respond differently to a variety of natural and synthetic FAs, substantial efforts have been made to understand the unique features of FAs that function as antimicrobials at high doses and biofilm inhibitors at low doses. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging antibiofilm properties of FAs

  • Eat in or Take out? Metabolism of Intracellular Salmonella enterica.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Alexander Kehl,Janina Noster,Michael Hensel

    Salmonella enterica is an important gastrointestinal and facultative intracellular pathogen. After invasion of host cells, it resides in a specialized, replication-permissive compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). During maturation of the SCV, Salmonella remodels the host endosomal system to form a variety of membranous extensions from the SCV, one type designated Salmonella-induced

  • Synthetic Biology for Manipulating Quorum Sensing in Microbial Consortia.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Kristina Stephens,William E Bentley

    Bacteria exist as communities in diverse multispecies environments. Quorum sensing, a process for cell–cell communication, allows individual bacteria to glean information about their surroundings and coordinate activities with their neighbors. Recent studies indicate the importance of quorum sensing in microbiomes, but many questions remain regarding how quorum sensing may influence the composition

  • Microbial Symbiosis: A Network towards Biomethanation
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Shouvik Saha; Bikram Basak; Jae-Hoon Hwang; El-Sayed Salama; Pradip K. Chatterjee; Byong-Hun Jeon

    Biomethanation through anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most reliable energy harvesting process to achieve waste-to-energy. Microbial communities, including hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria, syntrophic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea, and their interspecies symbioses allow complex metabolisms for the volumetric reduction of organic waste in AD. However, heterogeneity in organic waste induces

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