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  • Between a Rock and a Soft Place: The Role of Viruses in Lithification of Modern Microbial Mats
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Richard Allen White; Pieter T. Visscher; Brendan P. Burns

    Stromatolites are geobiological systems formed by complex microbial communities, and fossilized stromatolites provide a record of some of the oldest life on Earth. Microbial mats are precursors of extant stromatolites; however, the mechanisms of transition from mat to stromatolite are controversial and are still not well understood. To fully recognize the profound impact that these ecosystems have

  • Two Dietary Metabolites Fuel Salmonella Colonization
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Sara Jepsen; Shuai Jiang

    Nguyen et al. used transposon sequencing analysis and competitive colonization assays to describe how aspartate/malate can trigger initial Salmonella Typhimurium gut-lumen colonization in mice, providing insight into the significance of certain key metabolites beyond the realm of Salmonella life. Metabolite-driven diagnostic and anti-infective strategies for preventing salmonellosis could rapidly emerge

  • Challenges of Studying the Human Virome – Relevant Emerging Technologies
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Mohammadali Khan Mirzaei; Jinling Xue; Rita Costa; Jinlong Ru; Sarah Schulz; Zofia E. Taranu; Li Deng

    In this review we provide an overview of current challenges and advances in bacteriophage research within the growing field of viromics. In particular, we discuss, from a human virome study perspective, the current and emerging technologies available, their limitations in terms of de novo discoveries, and possible solutions to overcome present experimental and computational biases associated with low

  • Does Intraspecific Variation in rDNA Copy Number Affect Analysis of Microbial Communities?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Anton Lavrinienko; Toni Jernfors; Janne J. Koskimäki; Anna Maria Pirttilä; Phillip C. Watts

    Amplicon sequencing of partial regions of the ribosomal RNA loci (rDNA) is widely used to profile microbial communities. However, the rDNA is dynamic and can exhibit substantial interspecific and intraspecific variation in copy number in prokaryotes and, especially, in microbial eukaryotes. As change in rDNA copy number is a common response to environmental change, rDNA copy number is not necessarily

  • Chlamydiae in the Environment
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Astrid Collingro; Stephan Köstlbacher; Matthias Horn

    Chlamydiae have been known for more than a century as major pathogens of humans. Yet they are also found ubiquitously in the environment where they thrive within protists and in an unmatched wide range of animals. This review summarizes recent advances in understanding chlamydial diversity and distribution in nature. Studying these environmental chlamydiae provides a novel perspective on basic chlamydial

  • Wall Teichoic Acid in Staphylococcus aureus Host Interaction.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Rob van Dalen,Andreas Peschel,Nina M van Sorge

    Staphylococcus aureus is a major opportunistic human pathogen that frequently causes disease in community and hospital settings. Nasal colonization is an important risk factor for developing invasive disease. Cell wall-associated glycopolymers called wall teichoic acids (WTAs) contribute to efficient nasal colonization by S. aureus. In addition, WTAs are key targets of the host immune system due to

  • Cross-Regulations between Bacterial Toxin-Antitoxin Systems: Evidence of an Interconnected Regulatory Network?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Camille Riffaud,Marie-Laure Pinel-Marie,Brice Felden

    Toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems are ubiquitous among bacteria and include stable toxins whose toxicity can be counteracted by RNA or protein antitoxins. They are involved in multiple functions that range from stability maintenance for mobile genetic elements to stress adaptation. Bacterial chromosomes frequently have multiple homologues of TA system loci, and it is unclear why there are so many of them

  • Double-Membrane Vesicles as Platforms for Viral Replication.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Georg Wolff,Charlotte E Melia,Eric J Snijder,Montserrat Bárcena

    Viruses, as obligate intracellular parasites, exploit cellular pathways and resources in a variety of fascinating ways. A striking example of this is the remodelling of intracellular membranes into specialized structures that support the replication of positive-sense ssRNA (+RNA) viruses infecting eukaryotes. These distinct forms of virus-induced structures include double-membrane vesicles (DMVs),

  • The Role of Integrative and Conjugative Elements in Antibiotic Resistance Evolution.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    João Botelho,Hinrich Schulenburg

    Mobile genetic elements (MGEs), such as plasmids and integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs), are main drivers for the spread of antibiotic resistance (AR). Coevolution between bacteria and plasmids shapes the transfer and stability of plasmids across bacteria. Although ICEs outnumber conjugative plasmids, the dynamics of ICE–bacterium coevolution, ICE transfer rates, and fitness costs are as yet

  • Countering Counter-Defense to Antiviral RNAi.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Valerie Betting,Ronald P Van Rij

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful host defense mechanism against viruses. As a counter-defense, many viruses encode suppressors of RNAi, which – in plants – has provoked counter-counter-defense strategies. Recently, a mechanism was proposed in Drosophila (Zhang et al.) wherein a long noncoding RNA senses a virus-encoded RNAi suppressor to activate an innate immune response.

  • Carriage of Colibactin-producing Bacteria and Colorectal Cancer Risk.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Vadim Dubinsky,Iris Dotan,Uri Gophna

    Colibactin is a genotoxic molecule, produced primarily by Escherichia coli. Colibactin causes DNA damage that may lead to colorectal cancer. Here we review recent advances in the study of colibactin and propose a focus on patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who have higher levels of colibactin-producing bacteria in their intestines.

  • 更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Anti-CRISPR Proteins in Archaea.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Xu Peng,David Mayo-Muñoz,Yuvaraj Bhoobalan-Chitty,Laura Martínez-Álvarez

    Anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins are natural inhibitors of CRISPR-Cas immune systems. To date, Acrs inhibiting types I, II, III, V, and VI CRISPR-Cas systems have been characterized. While most known Acrs are derived from bacterial phages and prophages, very few have been characterized in the domain Archaea, despite the nearly ubiquitous presence of CRISPR-Cas in archaeal cells. Here we summarize the discovery

  • New Paradigms of Pilus Assembly Mechanisms in Gram-Positive Actinobacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Nicholas A Ramirez,Asis Das,Hung Ton-That

    Adhesive pili in Gram-positive bacteria represent a variety of extracellular multiprotein polymers that mediate bacterial colonization of specific host tissues and associated pathogenesis. Pili are assembled in two distinct but coupled steps, an orderly crosslinking of pilin monomers and subsequent anchoring of the polymer to peptidoglycan, catalyzed by two transpeptidase enzymes – the pilus-specific

  • Chronic Immune Activation in TB/HIV Co-infection: (Trends in Microbiology 28, XXX-XXX; 2020).
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Riti Sharan,Allison N Bucşan,Shashank Ganatra,Mirko Paiardini,Mahesh Mohan,Smriti Mehra,Shabaana A Khader,Deepak Kaushal

  • Complement Evasion by Lyme Disease Spirochetes.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jon T Skare,Brandon L Garcia

    The complement system is an ancient arm of the innate immune system that plays important roles in pathogen recognition and elimination. Upon activation by microbes, complement opsonizes bacterial surfaces, recruits professional phagocytes, and causes bacteriolysis. Borreliella species are spirochetal bacteria that are transmitted to vertebrate hosts via infected Ixodes ticks and are the etiologic agents

  • Towards a General Understanding of Bacterial Interactions.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-28
    Zhijie Zhang,Mark van Kleunen,Lutz Becks,Madhav P Thakur

    Understanding the general rules of microbial interactions is central for advancing microbial ecology. Recent studies show that interaction range, interaction strength, and community context determine bacterial interactions and the coexistence and evolution of bacteria. We highlight how these factors could contribute to a general understanding of bacterial interactions.

  • Fungal Pathogens: Shape-Shifting Invaders.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Kyunghun Min,Aaron M Neiman,James B Konopka

    Fungal infections are on the rise due to new medical procedures that have increased the number of immune compromised patients, antibacterial antibiotics that disrupt the microbiome, and increased use of indwelling medical devices that provide sites for biofilm formation. Key to understanding the mechanisms of pathogenesis is to determine how fungal morphology impacts virulence strategies. For example

  • 更新日期:2020-05-25
  • Microbiome in Colorectal Cancer: How to Get from Meta-omics to Mechanism?: (Trends in Microbiology 28, 401-423; 2020).
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Dominik Ternes,Jessica Karta,Mina Tsenkova,Paul Wilmes,Serge Haan,Elisabeth Letellier

  • Bacterial Cell Mechanics Beyond Peptidoglycan.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Marion Mathelié-Guinlet,Abir T Asmar,Jean-François Collet,Yves F Dufrêne

    The bacterial cell envelope plays essential roles in controlling cell shape, division, pathogenicity, and resistance against external stresses. In Escherichia coli, peptidoglycan (PG) has long been thought to be the primary component that conveys mechanical strength to the envelope. But a recent publication demonstrates the key contribution of the lipoprotein Lpp in defining the stiffness of the cell

  • Bacterial Flagella Loss under Starvation.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Siqi Zhu,Beile Gao

    The bacterial flagellum is beneficial in most cases but it can become a burden when the energy source is low because it is very costly to assemble and energize for motility. Recent electron cryo-tomography and real-time fluorescence microscopy studies suggest that bacteria can remove their flagella under starvation in a programmed way.

  • Role of Neutralizing Antibodies in CMV Infection: Implications for New Therapeutic Approaches.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Virginia Sandonís,Estéfani García-Ríos,Michael J McConnell,Pilar Pérez-Romero

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection elicits a potent immune response that includes the stimulation of antibodies with neutralizing activity. Recent studies have focused on elucidating the role of neutralizing antibodies in protecting against CMV infection and disease and characterizing viral antigens against which neutralizing antibodies are directed. Here, we provide a synthesis of recent data regarding

  • Carbapenem Resistance-Encoding and Virulence-Encoding Conjugative Plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-21
    Xuemei Yang,Ning Dong,Edward Wai-Chi Chan,Rong Zhang,Sheng Chen

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has an exceptional ability to acquire exogenous resistance-encoding and hypervirulence-encoding genetic elements. In this review we trace the key evolutionary routes of plasmids involved in the dissemination of such elements; we observed diverse, but convergent, evolutionary paths that eventually led to the emergence of conjugative plasmids which simultaneously encode carbapenem

  • Spiking Pandemic Potential: Structural and Immunological Aspects of SARS-CoV-2.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Ying-Ting Wang,Sara Landeras-Bueno,Li-En Hsieh,Yutaka Terada,Kenneth Kim,Klaus Ley,Sujan Shresta,Erica Ollmann Saphire,Jose Angel Regla-Nava

    SARS-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an infectious respiratory disease causing thousands of deaths and overwhelming public health systems. The international spread of SARS-CoV-2 is associated with the ease of global travel, and societal dynamics, immunologic naiveté of the host population, and muted innate immune responses. Based on these factors and the expanding

  • The Conformational States of the HIV-1 Envelope Glycoproteins.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-14
    Qian Wang,Andrés Finzi,Joseph Sodroski

    During HIV-1 entry into target cells, binding of the virus to host receptors, CD4 and CCR5/CXCR4, triggers serial conformational changes in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) trimer that result in the fusion of the viral and cell membranes. Recent discoveries have refined our knowledge of Env conformational states, allowing characterization of the targets of small-molecule HIV-1 entry inhibitors and neutralizing

  • The Role of Rhizosphere Bacteriophages in Plant Health.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Akbar Adjie Pratama,Jurre Terpstra,Andre Luiz Martinez de Oliveria,Joana Falcão Salles

    Microbiomes and their hosts influence each other; for instance, the microbiome improves host fitness, whereas the host supports microbiome nutrition. Most studies on this topic have focused on the role of bacteria and fungi, although research on viruses that infect bacteria, known as 'bacteriophages' (phages), has gained importance due to the potential role bacteriophages play in the resilience and

  • Conserved DNA Methyltransferases: A Window into Fundamental Mechanisms of Epigenetic Regulation in Bacteria.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Pedro H Oliveira,Gang Fang

    An increasing number of studies have reported that bacterial DNA methylation has important functions beyond the roles in restriction-modification systems, including the ability of affecting clinically relevant phenotypes such as virulence, host colonization, sporulation, biofilm formation, among others. Although insightful, such studies have a largely ad hoc nature and would benefit from a systematic

  • Immunometabolism during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Nicole C Howard,Shabaana A Khader

    Over a quarter of the world's population is infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB). Approximately 3.4% of new and 18% of recurrent cases of TB are multidrug-resistant (MDR) or rifampicin-resistant. Recent evidence has shown that certain drug-resistant strains of Mtb modulate host metabolic reprogramming, and therefore immune responses, during infection

  • Probing the Mobilome: Discoveries in the Dynamic Microbiome.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Victoria R Carr,Andrey Shkoporov,Colin Hill,Peter Mullany,David L Moyes

    There has been an explosion of metagenomic data representing human, animal, and environmental microbiomes. This provides an unprecedented opportunity for comparative and longitudinal studies of many functional aspects of the microbiome that go beyond taxonomic classification, such as profiling genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance, interactions with the host, potentially clinically relevant

  • Epigenetics: A New Frontier in Probiotic Research.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Wesley Morovic,Charles R Budinoff

    Research into the benefits of probiotics has progressed beyond interventional studies to identifying the underlying molecular mechanisms. Health-promoting effector molecules produced by probiotics are well documented and have been linked to specific genes and even individual nucleotides. However, the factors controlling the expression of these molecules are poorly understood and we argue that epigenetic

  • Herpes Simplex Virus-1 in the Brain: The Dark Side of a Sneaky Infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Maria Elena Marcocci,Giorgia Napoletani,Virginia Protto,Olga Kolesova,Roberto Piacentini,Domenica Donatella Li Puma,Patrick Lomonte,Claudio Grassi,Anna Teresa Palamara,Giovanna De Chiara

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes latency preferentially in sensory neurons of peripheral ganglia. A variety of stresses can induce recurrent reactivations of the virus, which spreads and then actively replicates to the site of primary infection (usually the lips or eyes). Viral particles produced following reactivation can also reach the brain, causing a rare but severe form of diffuse acute

  • Genetic Regulation of Metal Ion Homeostasis in Staphylococcus aureus.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Erin E Price,Jeffrey M Boyd

    The acquisition of metal ions and the proper maturation of holo-metalloproteins are essential processes for all organisms. However, metal ion homeostasis is a double-edged sword. A cytosolic accumulation of metal ions can lead to mismetallation of proteins and cell death. Therefore, maintenance of proper concentrations of intracellular metals is essential for cell fitness and pathogenesis. Staphylococcus

  • Label or Concept - What Is a Pathobiont?
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Lara Jochum,Bärbel Stecher

    An increasing number of microorganisms are classified as 'pathobionts' (i.e., organisms that can cause harm under certain circumstances) but there exist no universally used criteria for this definition. In particular, the term is often used for categorizing disease-associated taxa without proof of 'causality'. This creates confusion and distracts from explicitly searching for beneficial functions of

  • Roles of Thermokarst Lakes in a Warming World.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Michiel H In 't Zandt,Susanne Liebner,Cornelia U Welte

    Permafrost covers a quarter of the northern hemisphere land surface and contains twice the amount of carbon that is currently present in the atmosphere. Future climate change is expected to reduce its near-surface cover by over 90% by the end of the 21st century, leading to thermokarst lake formation. Thermokarst lakes are point sources of carbon dioxide and methane which release long-term carbon stocks

  • Parasexual and Sexual Reproduction in Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi: Room for Both.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-29
    Gökalp Yildirir,Mathu Malar C,Vasilis Kokkoris,Nicolas Corradi

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) harbor thousands of nuclei in a large syncytium at all times. Although mating processes have not been observed in AMF, their cells and genomes show many signatures of sexual reproduction. Here, we describe how some of these signatures could also arise from parasexual processes in these widespread plant symbionts. As such, parasexual and sexual evolution could both

  • Fatty Acids as Antibiofilm and Antivirulence Agents.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Prasun Kumar,Jin-Hyung Lee,Haluk Beyenal,Jintae Lee

    Fatty acids (FAs) have emerged as a potential alternative to conventional antibiotics. Since many microbes respond differently to a variety of natural and synthetic FAs, substantial efforts have been made to understand the unique features of FAs that function as antimicrobials at high doses and biofilm inhibitors at low doses. Here, we provide an overview of the emerging antibiofilm properties of FAs

  • Eat in or Take out? Metabolism of Intracellular Salmonella enterica.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Alexander Kehl,Janina Noster,Michael Hensel

    Salmonella enterica is an important gastrointestinal and facultative intracellular pathogen. After invasion of host cells, it resides in a specialized, replication-permissive compartment, the Salmonella-containing vacuole (SCV). During maturation of the SCV, Salmonella remodels the host endosomal system to form a variety of membranous extensions from the SCV, one type designated Salmonella-induced

  • A Revised Understanding of Clostridioides difficile Spore Germination
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Amelia J. Lawler; Peter A. Lambert; Tony Worthington

    The dormant resistant spores of Clostridioides difficile are transformed into metabolically active cells through the process of germination. Spore germination in C. difficile is regulated by the detection of bile salt germinants and amino acid cogerminants by pseudoproteases CspC and CspA, respectively. The germinant signal is transduced to the serine protease CspB, which processes the cortex lytic

  • Structure and Energy-Conversion Mechanism of the Bacterial Na+-Driven Flagellar Motor
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Norihiro Takekawa; Katsumi Imada; Michio Homma

    Many bacteria swim by means of flagella that are rotated by a nanoscale motor embedded in the cell membrane. Torque is generated by the interaction between ion-conducting membrane proteins that comprise the stator and ring-shaped structures that form the rotor. Although the structure and function of the motor have been extensively studied, many mysteries remain, including the force-generation mechanism

  • Metabolic Heterogeneity and Cross-Feeding in Bacterial Multicellular Systems
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Christopher R. Evans; Christopher P. Kempes; Alexa Price-Whelan; Lars E.P. Dietrich

    Cells in assemblages differentiate and perform distinct roles. Though many pathways of differentiation are understood at the molecular level in multicellular eukaryotes, the elucidation of similar processes in bacterial assemblages is recent and ongoing. Here, we discuss examples of bacterial differentiation, focusing on cases in which distinct metabolisms coexist and those that exhibit cross-feeding

  • Synthetic Biology for Manipulating Quorum Sensing in Microbial Consortia.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Kristina Stephens,William E Bentley

    Bacteria exist as communities in diverse multispecies environments. Quorum sensing, a process for cell-cell communication, allows individual bacteria to glean information about their surroundings and coordinate activities with their neighbors. Recent studies indicate the importance of quorum sensing in microbiomes, but many questions remain regarding how quorum sensing may influence the composition

  • Microbial Symbiosis: A Network towards Biomethanation
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Shouvik Saha; Bikram Basak; Jae-Hoon Hwang; El-Sayed Salama; Pradip K. Chatterjee; Byong-Hun Jeon

    Biomethanation through anaerobic digestion (AD) is the most reliable energy harvesting process to achieve waste-to-energy. Microbial communities, including hydrolytic and fermentative bacteria, syntrophic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea, and their interspecies symbioses allow complex metabolisms for the volumetric reduction of organic waste in AD. However, heterogeneity in organic waste induces

  • Chronic Immune Activation in TB/HIV Co-infection.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-22
    Riti Sharan,Allison N Bucşan,Shashank Ganatra,Mirko Paiardini,Mahesh Mohan,Smriti Mehra,Shabaana A Khader,Deepak Kaushal

    HIV co-infection is the most critical risk factor for the reactivation of latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI). While CD4+ T cell depletion has been considered the major cause of HIV-induced reactivation of LTBI, recent work in macaques co-infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb)/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) suggests that cytopathic effects of SIV resulting in chronic immune activation

  • Biofilm Matrixome: Extracellular Components in Structured Microbial Communities
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    L. Karygianni; Z. Ren; H. Koo; T. Thurnheer

    Biofilms consist of microbial communities embedded in a 3D extracellular matrix. The matrix is composed of a complex array of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that contribute to the unique attributes of biofilm lifestyle and virulence. This ensemble of chemically and functionally diverse biomolecules is termed the ‘matrixome’. The composition and mechanisms of EPS matrix formation, and its

  • Bat Influenza Viruses: Making a Double Agent of MHC Class II.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    Arinjay Banerjee,Karen L Mossman,Matthew S Miller

    MHC class II (MHCII) has recently been identified as a cellular receptor for bat influenza viruses. Here, we discuss the possible implications of viral exploitation of this critical host defense molecule and highlight the need for more intense study of bat-influenza virus interactions.

  • Using Serology to Anticipate Measles Post-honeymoon Period Outbreaks.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-20
    C J E Metcalf,A Wesolowski,A K Winter,J Lessler,S Cauchemez,W J Moss,A R McLean,B T Grenfell

    Measles vaccination is a public health 'best buy', with the highest cost of illness averted of any vaccine-preventable disease (Ozawa et al., Bull. WHO 2017;95:629). In recent decades, substantial reductions have been made in the number of measles cases, with an estimated 20 million deaths averted from 2000 to 2017 (Dabbagh et al., MMWR 2018;67:1323). Yet, an important feature of epidemic dynamics

  • 更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Microbiome Sets the Stage for Cholera.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Nicholas S Sokol,Irene L G Newton

    Interactions between the eukaryotic host, microbiome members, and invading pathogens help to shape disease outcomes. Using the Drosophila model, Fast et al. identified that Vibrio cholerae acts to inhibit epithelial renewal through complex interactions between the type VI secretion system of V. cholerae and the microbial community of the fly.

  • Avoidance of Self during CRISPR Immunization.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Jake L Weissman,Arlin Stoltzfus,Edze R Westra,Philip L F Johnson

    The battle between microbes and their viruses is ancient and ongoing. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) immunity, the first and, to date, only form of adaptive immunity found in prokaryotes, represents a flexible mechanism to recall past infections while also adapting to a changing pathogenic environment. Critical to the role of CRISPR as an adaptive immune mechanism

  • Evolution of Lantibiotic Salivaricins: New Weapons to Fight Infectious Diseases.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Abdelahhad Barbour,Philip Wescombe,Leif Smith

    Lantibiotic salivaricins are polycyclic peptides containing lanthionine and/or β-methyllanthionine residues produced by certain strains of Streptococcus salivarius, which almost exclusively reside in the human oral cavity. The importance of these molecules stems from their antimicrobial activity towards relevant oral pathogens which has so far been applied through the development of salivaricin-producing

  • Pangolins Harbor SARS-CoV-2-Related Coronaviruses.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Guan-Zhu Han

    The pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 has posed a severe threat to global public health. Yet, the origin of SARS-CoV-2 remains mysterious. Several recent studies (e.g., Lam et al., Xiao et al.) identified SARS-CoV-2-related viruses in pangolins, providing novel insights into the evolution and diversity of SARS-CoV-2-related viruses.

  • Microbial Effector Proteins - A Journey through the Proteolytic Landscape.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Gautier Langin,Paul Gouguet,Suayib Üstün

    In the evolutionary arms race between pathogens and plants, pathogens evolved effector molecules that they secrete into the host to subvert plant cellular responses in a process termed the effector-targeted pathway (ETP). During recent years the repertoire of ETPs has increased and mounting evidence indicates that the proteasome and autophagy pathways are central hubs of microbial effectors. Both degradation

  • Positive Interactions in the Coral Macro and Microbiome
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Tracy D. Ainsworth; Julianna J. Renzi; Brian R. Silliman

    Researchers now recognize the importance of the coral microbiome, but they often overlook other species that live on corals and influence coral–microbe interactions. These ‘interstitial associates’ should be incorporated into the metaorganism concept for insights into how facilitations between associates, corals, and their microbiomes can be leveraged in ecology and restoration.

  • Pseudomonas putida.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Daniel C Volke,Patricia Calero,Pablo I Nikel

  • A Gaseous Milieu: Extending the Boundaries of the Rhizosphere.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Anne de la Porte,Ruth Schmidt,Étienne Yergeau,Philippe Constant

    Plant root activities shape microbial community functioning in the soil, making the rhizosphere the epicenter of soil biogeochemical processes. With this opinion article, we argue to rethink the rhizosphere boundaries: as gases can diffuse several centimeters away from the roots into the soil, the portion of soil influenced by root activities is larger than the strictly root-adhering soil. Indeed,

  • Defective Interfering Particles of Negative-Strand RNA Viruses.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Christopher M Ziegler,Jason W Botten

    Viral defective interfering particles (DIPs) were intensely studied several decades ago but research waned leaving open many critical questions. New technologies and other advances led to a resurgence in DIP studies for negative-strand RNA viruses. While DIPs have long been recognized, their exact contribution to the outcome of acute or persistent viral infections has remained elusive. Recent studies

  • The Helicobacter pylori Cag Type IV Secretion System.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Timothy L Cover,D Borden Lacy,Melanie D Ohi

    Colonization of the human stomach with Helicobacter pylori strains containing the cag pathogenicity island is a risk factor for development of gastric cancer. The cag pathogenicity island contains genes encoding a secreted effector protein (CagA) and components of a type IV secretion system (Cag T4SS). The molecular architecture of the H. pylori Cag T4SS is substantially more complex than that of prototype

  • Aspergillus fumigatus.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-24
    Natália S Wassano,Gustavo H Goldman,André Damasio

  • Sutterella Species, IgA-degrading Bacteria in Ulcerative Colitis.
    Trends Microbiol. (IF 13.546) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Nadeem O Kaakoush

    Recent reports link Sutterella with gastrointestinal diseases, the most intriguing being therapeutic failure in ulcerative colitis (UC). Sutterella does not appear to induce substantial inflammation; rather, it has a capacity to degrade IgA. This activity, however, is not conserved, presenting a key target to deciphering the influence of Sutterella on the host.

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