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  • Implementation of human factors engineering approach to improve environmental cleaning and disinfection in a medical center
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    I-Chen Hung; Hao-Yuan Chang; Aristine Cheng; Mei-Wen Chen; An-Chi Chen; Ling Ting; Yeur-Hur Lai; Jann-Tay Wang; Yee-Chun Chen; Wang-Huei Sheng

    Inadequate hospital cleaning may contribute to cross-transmission of pathogens. It is important to implement effective cleaning for the safe hospital environment. We conducted a three-phase study using human factors engineering (HFE) approach to enhance environmental cleanliness. This study was conducted using a prospective interventional trial, and 28 (33.3%) of 84 wards in a medical center were sampled. The three-phases included pre-intervention analysis (Phase 1), implementing interventions by HFE principles (Phase 2), and programmatic analysis (Phase 3). The evaluations of terminal cleaning and disinfection were performed using the fluorescent marker, the adenosine triphosphate bioluminescence assay, and the aerobic colony count method simultaneously in all phases. Effective terminal cleaning and disinfection was qualified with the aggregate outcome of the same 10 high-touch surfaces per room. A score for each high-touch surface was recorded, with 0 denoting a fail and 10 denoting a pass by the benchmark of the evaluation method, and the total terminal cleaning and disinfection score (TCD score) was a score out of 100. In each phase, 840 high-touch surfaces were collected from 84 rooms after terminal cleaning and disinfection. After the interventions, the TCD score by the three evaluation methods all showed significant improved. The carriage incidence of multidrug-resistant organism (MDRO) decreased significantly from 4.1 per 1000 patient-days to 3.6 per 1000 patient-days (P = .03). The HFE approach can improve the thoroughness and the effectiveness of terminal cleaning and disinfection, and resulted in a reduction of patient carriage of MDRO at hospitals. Larger studies are necessary to establish whether such efforts of cleanliness can reduce the incidence of healthcare-associated infection.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Infection control and risk factors for acquisition of carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae. A 5 year (2011–2016) case-control study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Luigi Segagni Lusignani; Elisabeth Presterl; Beata Zatorska; Miriam Van den Nest; Magda Diab-Elschahawi

    Carbapenemase-producing enterobacteriaceae (CPE) are a major threat for severely ill patients. However, only limited data on the epidemiology and on evidence-based infection prevention and control measures are available. The aim of this study was to investigate the epidemiology of patients with CPE, characterizing the CPE isolates by their resistance mechanisms and genetic similarity, to explore risk factors for their acquisition, and to evaluate the effectiveness of the current CPE infection control measures. A retrospective case-control study was performed using data from 2011 to 2016 in a 1800-bed academic hospital in Central Europe, where risk-based screening at patients´ admission is performed. Carbapenem resistance mechanisms of all carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae from patients admitted during this period were investigated. Clinical data of the CPE-positive patients were analysed and compared to a matched control group (case-control ratio of 1:3). We performed univariate and multivariate statistical analysis to identify risk factors for CPE acquisition. Of 621,623 admitted patients in the study period, 75 patients with carriage of carbapenem resistant enterobacteriaceae were included (0.12/1000 admittances). Carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected in 77.3% (58/75) of patients with carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae. The enzyme blaOXA-48 was found in 34.5% (20/58), blaKPC in 29.3% (17/58), blaNDM enzymes in 20.7% (12/58) and blaVIM in 8.6% (5/58) of the isolates. The overall mortality among CPE patients was 25.9% (15/58) and attributable mortality of CPE was 53.3% (8/15). Multivariate analysis revealed four risk factors to be independent predictors of CPE carriage: the length of hospital admission > 20 days (AOR: 4.9, 95% CI: 1.4–15.5; P < 0.001), hospital admission within the previous year (AOR: 22.3, 95% CI: 3.9–88.4; P < 0.001), exposure to a healthcare facility in a country with high or unknown carbapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae prevalence 3 months before admission (AOR: 11.8, 95% CI: 2.2–63.2; P < 0.01) and the use of antibiotics longer than 10 days (AOR: 5.2, 95% CI: 1.4–35.9; P < 0.05). The current risk-based screening strategy at hospital admission could not identify 37 (63.8%) of the 58 CPE-positive patients. Epidemiological investigation and genotyping revealed that no outbreaks due to CPE occurred during this period. Overall, the CPE carriage rate in patients was very low, the attributable mortality, however, is alarming (53%). BlaOXA-48 and blaKPC were the main cause of carbapenem resistance in enterobacteriaceae. Although the strict application of standard infection control measures was effective for prevention of outbreaks in this setting, an enlarged risk based targeted screening strategy has to be implemented.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • An estimation of total antimicrobial usage in humans and animals in Vietnam
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Juan J. Carrique-Mas; Marc Choisy; Nguyen Van Cuong; Guy Thwaites; Stephen Baker

    The accurate assessment of antimicrobial use (AMU) requires relating quantities of active ingredients (AAIs) with population denominators. These data can be used to prioritize potential sources of selective pressure for antimicrobial resistance and to establish reduction targets. Here, we estimated AMU in Vietnam (human population 93.4 M in 2015), and compared it with European Union (EU) data (population 511.5 M in 2014). We extrapolated AMU data on each key animal species and humans from different published sources to calculate overall AMU (in tonnes) in Vietnam. We then compared these data with published statistics on AMU in the European Union (EU). A total of 3838 t of antimicrobials were used in Vietnam, of which 2751 (71.7%) corresponded to animal use, and the remainder (1086 t; 28.3%) to human AMU. This equates to 261.7 mg and 247.3 mg per kg of human and animal biomass, compared with 122.0 mg and 151.5 mg in the EU. The greatest quantities of antimicrobials (in decreasing order) were used in pigs (41.7% of total use), humans (28.3%), aquaculture (21.9%) and chickens (4.8%). Combined AMU in other species accounted for < 1.5%. These results are approximate and highlight the need to conduct targeted surveys to improve country-level estimates of AMU.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Widespread illegal sales of antibiotics in Chinese pharmacies – a nationwide cross-sectional study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Jie Chen; Yanmei Wang; Xuejie Chen; Therese Hesketh

    Access to antibiotics without a prescription from retail pharmacies has been described as a major contributor to anti-microbial resistance (AMR) globally. In the context of high rates of AMR, the Chinese government has recently introduced strict policies regarding hospital antibiotic use, but the existing ban on antibiotic sales without prescription in retail pharmacies has not been strongly enforced. In 2016, a goal of prescription-only antibiotics by 2020 was announced. The objective of the study was to determine progress towards the 2020 goal, through estimating the proportion of retail pharmacies selling antibiotics without prescription across the three regions of mainland China. Using the Simulated Patient method, we conducted a cross-sectional survey across purposively-sampled retail pharmacies in urban and rural areas of 13 provinces in eastern, central and western China. Medical students presented a scenario of a mild upper respiratory tract infection, following a strict three-step protocol. They recorded the pharmacy characteristics, and details of their experience, including at which step antibiotics were offered. Complete data were obtained from 1106 pharmacies. Antibiotics were obtained in 925 (83.6, 95% CI: 81.5, 85.8%) pharmacies without a prescription, 279 (25.2%) at Stage 1 (symptoms only described), 576 (52.1%) at stage 2 (asked for antibiotics), and 70 (6.3%) at Stage 3 (asked for penicillin or cephalosporins). There were significant differences between provinces, with antibiotic access (at any stage) ranging from 57.0% (57/100) in Zhejiang (81/82) to 98.8% in Guizhou. However, there were no significant differences in access to antibiotics by level of city, county, township or village (P = 0.25), whether the pharmacy was part of a chain or independent (P = 0.23), whether a licensed pharmacist was attending (P = 0.82) or whether there was a sign saying that prescriptions were required for antibiotics (P = 0.19). It is easy to obtain antibiotics without a prescription in retail pharmacies in China, despite the fact it is against the law. This must be addressed as part of the wider anti-microbial stewardship effort which could include intense enforcement of the existing law, supported by a public education campaign.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Point prevalence survey of antimicrobial use and healthcare-associated infections in Belgian acute care hospitals: results of the Global-PPS and ECDC-PPS 2017
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Eline Vandael; Katrien Latour; Herman Goossens; Koen Magerman; Nico Drapier; Boudewijn Catry; Ann Versporten

    The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September–December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5–27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported indications were pneumonia (23.2%), urinary tract infections (15.2%) and skin and soft tissue infections (11.9%). The reason for antimicrobial use was recorded for 81.9% of the prescriptions, a stop/review date for 40.8% and compliance with local antibiotic guidelines for 76.6%. In the ECDC-PPS, the crude prevalence of patients with at least one HAI was 7.3% (95%CI 6.8–7.7%). Most frequently reported HAIs were pneumonia (21.6%) and urinary tract infections (21.3%). HAI and antimicrobial use prevalence remained stable in comparison with the previous PPS (7.1% and 27.4% in 2011 and 2015, respectively). Belgian hospitals should be further stimulated to set local targets to improve antibiotic prescribing and reduce HAI.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Proportion of bacterial isolates, their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and factors associated with puerperal sepsis among post-partum/aborted women at a referral Hospital in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Alemale Admas; Baye Gelaw; BelayTessema; Amsalu Worku; Addisu Melese

    Puerperal sepsis is any bacterial infection of the genital tract that occurs after childbirth. It is among the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality especially in low-income countries including Ethiopia. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of bacterial isolates, their antimicrobial susceptibility profile and factors associated with puerperal sepsis among post-partum/aborted women at a Referral Hospital in Bahir Dar, Northwest Ethiopia. A cross sectional study was conducted from January to May 2017 among 166 post-partum/aborted women admitted to Felege Hiwot Referral Hospital for medical services and suspected for puerperal sepsis.. Socio-demographic data and associated factors were collected using structured questionnaire. Bacteria were isolated and identified from blood samples on Trypton soya broth, blood, Chocolate and MacConkey agars following standard bacteriological procedures. The VITEK 2 identification and susceptibility testing system was used to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of bacterial isolates. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Factors associated with puerperal sepsis were considered statistically significant at P-value < 0.05. The overall proportion of bacterial isolates among post-partum/aborted women was 33.7% (56/166); of which 55.4% was caused by Gram-negative and 44.6% was by Gram-positive bacteria. The most frequently isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli (32.1%) from Gram-negatives and Staphylococcus aureus (33.9%) from Gram-positives. The proportion of other isolates was (7.2%) for Coagulase Negative Staphylococci (CoNS), (12.5%) for Klebsiella pneumoniae, (10.7%) for Acinetobacter baumanni and (3.6%) for Raoultella ornithinolytica. All isolates of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were resistant to tetracycline (100%). The gram negatives show resistance to Cefazolin (72.7%), Tetracycline (93.9%) and Ampicillin (100%). The overall prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 84%. Women having multiparous parity were more likely to develop puerperal sepsis than primiparous parity (AOR 4.045; 95% CI: 1.479–11.061; P < 0.05). Other socio-demographic and clinical factors had no significant association with puerperal sepsis. About one third of post-partum/aborted women suspected for puerperal sepsis were infected with one or more bacterial isolates. Significant proportion of bacterial isolates showed mono and multi-drug resistance for the commonly prescribed antibiotics. Women with multiparous parity were more likely to develop puerperal sepsis than primiparous parity.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Epidemiological characteristics of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae collected from 17 hospitals in Nanjing district of China
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Hui Zhou; Kui Zhang; Wei Chen; Junhao Chen; Jie Zheng; Chang Liu; Li Cheng; Wanqing Zhou; Han Shen; Xiaoli Cao

    In total, 97 carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) were collected from 17 hospitals located in Nanjing, Southeast China, and analyzed for epidemiological characteristics. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined; followed by determination of the prevalence of resistance determinants, including extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBLs), plasmid-mediated AmpC enzyme (pAmpCs), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes (PMQRs), fosfomycin resistance gene and exogenously acquired 16S rRNA methyltransferase (16S-RMTase) using PCR and DNA sequencing. The sequence types (STs) of CRE were determined by multi-locus sequence typing (MLST). The plasmid profiles were detected by PCR-based replicon typing (PBRT). All the CRE strains displayed high MIC50 and MIC90 for nearly all clinical available antibiotics, except for aztreonam/avibactam, minocycline, ceftazidime/avibactam, tigecycline, and colistin. KPC-2 (79.4%) and NDM (19.6%) were the main carbapenemases, CTX-M (76.3%) and SHV (60.8%) were the predominant ESBLs. In addition, oqxAB (70.1%) and qnr (63.9%) were the major PMQRs; rmtB (47.4%) was the main 16S-RMTase; fosA (76.3%) and fosA3 (37.1%) were the fosfomycin resistance gene. PBRT analysis showed presence of IncR (66.0%) and IncFII (64.9%) replicon types in the majority of the isolates, followed by IncFIB (46.4%) and IncX3 (16.5%). The IncFII and IncR replicon-types were found mainly in K. pneumoniae (68.8%), whereas the IncX3 replicons dominated in E. coli isolates (100.0%). The three dominating MLST-types ST11, ST15 and ST268 comprised 68.0% of the 77 K. pneumoniae. Seven distinct STs were identified among 8 E. coli. The treatment for infections caused by CRE isolates is challenged by the presence of multiple resistance determinants and plasmid replicons. Our results highlighted the expansion of blaKPC-2 carrying K. pneumoniae ST11, the new emergency of single blaNDM-5 carrying K. oxytoca ST36, as well as blaIMP-4 and blaNDM-1 co-carrying E. cloacae ST418, which alert us on the urgency for antimicrobial resistant surveillance, to prevent dissemination of these highly transmissible and dangerous lineages.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Dong-Mei Zhu; Qiu-Hong Li; Yan Shen; Qin Zhang

    Antimicrobial resistance to quinolone is rising worldwide, especially in Escherichia coli causing various infections. Although many studies have been conducted to identify the risk factors for quinolone-resistant Escherichia coli (QREC) infection, the results are inconsistent and have not been systematically reported. The aim of the present study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the potential risk factors for QREC infection. A systematic search was performed to collect published data in the EMBASE, PubMed, and the Cochrane Library up to April 2019. Risk factors were analyzed using the pooled odds ratio (ORs) with 95% confidence interval (CIs). Twenty-seven trials involving 67,019 participants were included in the present study. The following risk factors associated with QREC infection were identified: (1) male (OR = 1.41), (2) hepatic cirrhosis (OR = 2.05), (3) diabetes mellitus (OR = 1.62), (4) cardiovascular disease (OR = 1.76), (5) neurogenic bladder (OR = 8.66), (6) renal dysfunction (OR = 2.47), (7) transplantation (OR = 2.37), (8) urinary tract infection (OR = 2.79) and urinary tract abnormality (OR = 1.85), (9) dementia (OR = 5.83), (10) heart failure (OR = 5.63), (11) neurologic disease (OR = 2.80), (12) immunosuppressive drugs (OR = 2.02), (13) urinary catheter (OR = 4.39), (14) nursing home resident (OR = 4.63), (15) prior surgery (OR = 2.54), (16) quinolones (OR = 7.67), (17) other antibiotics (OR = 2.74), (18) hospitalization (OR = 2.06) and (19) nosocomial infection acquisition (OR = 2.35). QREC infection was associated with nineteen risk factors including prior quinolones use, hospitalization, and several comorbidities. Reducing exposure to these risk factors and modification of antibiotic use are important to prevent quinolone resistance.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Active surveillance for highly resistant microorganisms in patients with prolonged hospitalization
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Guido J. H. Bastiaens; Tom Baarslag; Corinne Pelgrum; Ellen M. Mascini

    We evaluated a new hospital policy comprising active surveillance for highly resistant microorganisms (HRMO) in patients with prolonged hospitalization, including detection of nosocomial transmission after identification of HRMO carriers. Our findings raise the question of whether active surveillance should be extended from traditional risk groups to patients with prolonged hospitalization.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Enhanced infection control interventions reduced catheter-related bloodstream infections in the neonatal department of Hung Vuong Hospital, Vietnam, 2011–2012: a pre- and post-intervention study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Hang Thi Phan; Thuan Huu Vo; Hang Thi Thuy Tran; Hanh Thi Ngoc Huynh; Hong Thi Thu Nguyen; Truong Van Nguyen

    Catheter-related bloodstream infections (CR-BSI) cause high neonatal mortality and are related to inadequate aseptic technique during the care and maintenance of a catheter. The incidence of CR-BSI among neonates in Hung Vuong Hospital was higher than that of other neonatal care centres in Vietnam. An 18-month pre- and post-intervention study was conducted over three 6-month periods to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention for CR-BSI and to identify risk factors associated with CR-BSI. During the intervention period, we trained all nurses in the Department of Neonatology on BSI preventive practices, provided auditing and feedback about aseptic technique during catheter care and maintenance, and reorganised preparation of total parenteral nutrition. All neonates with intravenous catheter insertion ≥48 h in the pre- and post-intervention period were enrolled. A standardised questionnaire was used to collect data. Blood samples were collected for cultures. We used Poisson regression to calculate rate ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for CR-BSI incidence rates and logistic regression to identify risk factors associated with CR-BSI. Of 2225 neonates enrolled, 1027 were enrolled in the pre-intervention period, of which 53 CR-BSI cases occurred in 8399 catheter-days, and 1198 were enrolled in the post-intervention period, of which 32 CR-BSI cases occurred in 8324 catheter-days. Incidence rates of CR-BSI significantly decreased after the intervention (RR = 0.61, 95% CI 0.39–0.94). Days of hospitalisation, episodes of non-catheter–related hospital-acquired infections, and the proportion of deaths significantly decreased after the intervention (p < 0.01). The CR-BSI was associated with days of intravenous catheter (odds ratio [OR] = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03–1.08), use of endotracheal intubation (OR = 2.27, 95% CI 1.27–4.06), and intravenous injection (OR = 8.50, 95% CI 1.14–63.4). The interventions significantly decreased the incidence rate of CR-BSI. Regular refresher training and auditing and feedback about aseptic technique during care and maintenance of catheters are critical to reducing CR-BSI.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Antibiotic use in chicken farms in northwestern China
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jingyi Xu; Rassamee Sangthong; Edward McNeil; Rong Tang; Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong

    Misuse of antibiotics in food animals contributes to an increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria transmitting to humans. China is the largest producer and user of antibiotics in the world, of which animals share more than half of the total consumption. This study aimed to explore Chinese farmer’s practice of antibiotic use and the factors associated with their use. In this cross-sectional survey, we interviewed farmers from 88 chicken farms in northwestern China. We defined two kinds of misuse: 1) using antibiotics in the Chinese prohibited list, and 2) using antibiotics within the recommended withdrawal period. Factor analysis was used to select farmers’ knowledge variables and multinomial logistic regression was used to determine factors associated with antibiotic misuse. All the participating farmers used antibiotics on their farms. Amoxicillin was the most common antibiotic used (76.5%), followed by norfloxacin, ofloxacin, ceftriaxone and oxytetracycline. 75% of farmers used antibiotics in the prohibited list while 14.8% continued to use antibiotics during the withdrawal period. Hierarchical cluster analysis revealed three patterns of antibiotic use: 1) excessive use of non-prohibited and prohibited antibiotics or an excessive user, 2) low use of a few types of non-prohibited and moderate use of prohibited antibiotics or a low user, 3) multiple use of a variety (≥ 7 types) of non-prohibited and prohibited antibiotics or a moderate user. Farmers from medium size, family-based farms, those with a low education level and low income were more likely to misuse antibiotics. Prior formal agricultural training was associated with reducing multiple types of antibiotic use. There was a huge gap between policy and reinforcement causing antibiotic misuse in the study community. Antibiotics are commonly used on chicken farms; misuse of antibiotics is high; improvement in farm sanitation, education on antibiotic use for farmers and veterinarians/pharmacists and enforcement of the regulations may reduce antibiotic use on chicken farms in China.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • The complex phenomenon of dysrational antibiotics prescribing decisions in German primary healthcare: a qualitative interview study using dual process theory
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Regina Poss-Doering; Martina Kamradt; Anna Stuermlinger; Katharina Glassen; Petra Kaufmann-Kolle; Edith Andres; Michel Wensing

    Antibiotic prescription rates in primary care in Germany are moderate, but still considered too high. The ARena study (Sustainable reduction of antibiotic-induced antimicrobial resistance) was initiated to foster awareness and understanding of the growing challenge and promotes rational antibiotics use for acute, non-complicated and self-limiting infections. The present study was performed as part of the process evaluation of the ARena study. Interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of physicians participating in the ARena study to identify factors relevant to primary care physicians’ decision-making when prescribing antibiotics for acute non-complicated infections. Generated data were audio-recorded. Pseudonymized verbatim transcripts were coded using a pre-defined framework. The Dual Process Theory was applied to provide understanding of individual health professional factors that induce dysrational prescribing decisions. Based on medical as well as non-medical considerations, physicians developed habits in decision making on antibiotics prescribing. They acknowledged inadequate antibiotics prescribing for acute, non-complicated infections in situations involving uncertainty regarding diagnosis, prognosis, continuity of care, patient expectations and when not knowing the patient. Educative efforts empowered physicians to override habitual prescribing. A theory-driven model provides transparency as to how dysrational prescribing decisions occur and suggests remedy by providing new experiences and new recognizable patterns through educative efforts. Educational interventions may only change prescribing behaviours if they result in active rational rather than routine-based decision-making on antibiotics prescribing. ISRCTN, ISRCTN58150046.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Infection prevention practices in the Netherlands: results from a National Survey
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Anita Huis; Jeroen Schouten; Dominique Lescure; Sarah Krein; David Ratz; Sanjay Saint; Marlies Hulscher; M. Todd Greene

    To examine the extent to which acute care hospitals in the Netherlands have adopted recommended practices to prevent catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CAUTI), central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), and Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI). Between 18 July 2017 and 31 October 2017, we surveyed the infection prevention teams of all acute care hospitals in the Netherlands. The survey instrument was based on the ‘Translating Healthcare-Associated Infection Prevention Research into Practice’ (TRIP) questionnaire and adapted to the Dutch context. Descriptive statistics were used to examine the reported regular use of CAUTI, CLABSI, VAP, and CDI prevention practices as well as the hospital characteristics. Out of 72 eligible hospitals, 47 (65.3%) responded. Surveillance systems for monitoring CAUTI, CLABSI, VAP, and CDI were present in 17.8, 95.4, 26.2, and 77.3% of hospitals, respectively. Antimicrobial stewardship programs have been established in 91.5% of participating hospitals. For CAUTI, the majority of hospitals regularly used aseptic technique during catheter insertion (95%) and portable bladder ultrasound scanners (86.1%). Intermittent catheterization and catheter stop-orders were regularly used by 65.8 and 62.2% of hospitals. For CLABSI, all hospitals regularly used maximum sterile barrier precautions and chlorhexidine gluconate for insertion site antisepsis. Avoidance of the femoral site for central line insertions was regularly used by 65.9% of hospitals. Urinary catheters and central-lines impregnated with antibiotics or antiseptics were rarely used (≤ 5%). Selective decontamination strategies for preventing VAP were used in 84% of hospitals. With the exception of disposable thermometers (31.8%), all prevention practices to prevent CDI were regularly used by more than 80% of hospitals. Most Dutch hospitals report regular use of recommended practices for preventing CLABSI and CDI. Several specific practices to prevent CAUTI and VAP were less frequently used, however, providing an opportunity for improvement.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Epidemiology of Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Egyptian intensive care units using National Healthcare–associated Infections Surveillance Data, 2011–2017
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Sara Kotb; Meghan Lyman; Ghada Ismail; Mohammad Abd El Fattah; Samia A. Girgis; Ahmed Etman; Soad Hafez; Jehan El-Kholy; Maysaa El Sayed Zaki; Hebat-allah G. Rashed; Ghada M. Khalil; Omar Sayyouh; Maha Talaat

    To describe the epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) healthcare-associated infections (HAI) in Egyptian hospitals reporting to the national HAI surveillance system. Design: Descriptive analysis of CRE HAIs and retrospective observational cohort study using national HAI surveillance data. Setting: Egyptian hospitals participating in the HAI surveillance system. The patient population included patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in participating hospitals. Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases were Klebsiella, Escherichia coli, and Enterobacter isolates from blood, urine, wound or respiratory specimen collected on or after day 3 of ICU admission. CRE HAI cases were those resistant to at least one carbapenem. For CRE HAI cases reported during 2011–2017, a hospital-level and patient-level analysis were conducted using only the first CRE isolate by pathogen and specimen type for each patient. For facility, microbiology, and clinical characteristics, frequencies and means were calculated among CRE HAI cases and compared with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases through univariate and multivariate logistic regression using STATA 13. There were 1598 Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases, of which 871 (54.1%) were carbapenem resistant. The multivariate regression analysis demonstrated that carbapenem resistance was associated with specimen type, pathogen, location prior to admission, and length of ICU stay. Between 2011 and 2017, there was an increase in the proportion of Enterobacteriaceae HAI cases due to CRE (p-value = 0.003) and the incidence of CRE HAIs (p-value = 0.09). This analysis demonstrated a high and increasing burden of CRE in Egyptian hospitals, highlighting the importance of enhancing infection prevention and control (IPC) programs and antimicrobial stewardship activities and guiding the implementation of targeted IPC measures to contain CRE in Egyptian ICU’s .

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Implementation and impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs: a systematic scoping review
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    D. Donà; E. Barbieri; M. Daverio; R. Lundin; C. Giaquinto; T. Zaoutis; M. Sharland

    Antibiotics are the most common medicines prescribed to children in hospitals and the community, with a high proportion of potentially inappropriate use. Antibiotic misuse increases the risk of toxicity, raises healthcare costs, and selection of resistance. The primary aim of this systematic review is to summarize the current state of evidence of the implementation and outcomes of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) globally. MEDLINE, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched to identify studies reporting on ASP in children aged 0–18 years and conducted in outpatient or in-hospital settings. Three investigators independently reviewed identified articles for inclusion and extracted relevant data. Of the 41,916 studies screened, 113 were eligible for inclusion in this study. Most of the studies originated in the USA (52.2%), while a minority were conducted in Europe (24.7%) or Asia (17.7%). Seventy-four (65.5%) studies used a before-and-after design, and sixteen (14.1%) were randomized trials. The majority (81.4%) described in-hospital ASPs with half of interventions in mixed pediatric wards and ten (8.8%) in emergency departments. Only sixteen (14.1%) studies focused on the costs of ASPs. Almost all the studies (79.6%) showed a significant reduction in inappropriate prescriptions. Compliance after ASP implementation increased. Sixteen of the included studies quantified cost savings related to the intervention with most of the decreases due to lower rates of drug administration. Seven studies showed an increased susceptibility of the bacteria analysed with a decrease in extended spectrum beta-lactamase producers E. coli and K. pneumoniae; a reduction in the rate of P. aeruginosa carbapenem resistance subsequent to an observed reduction in the rate of antimicrobial days of therapy; and, in two studies set in outpatient setting, an increase in erythromycin-sensitive S. pyogenes following a reduction in the use of macrolides. Pediatric ASPs have a significant impact on the reduction of targeted and empiric antibiotic use, healthcare costs, and antimicrobial resistance in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Pediatric ASPs are now widely implemented in the USA, but considerable further adaptation is required to facilitate their uptake in Europe, Asia, Latin America and Africa.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Clinical characteristics of patients with pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae in Taiwan and prevalence of antimicrobial-resistant and hypervirulent strains: a retrospective study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Chih-Han Juan; Shih-Yu Fang; Chia-Hsin Chou; Tsung-Ying Tsai; Yi-Tsung Lin

    We aimed to compare the clinical characteristics of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP), and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae and analyze the antimicrobial resistance and proportion of hypervirluent strains of the microbial isolates. We conducted a retrospective study on patients with pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae at the Taipei Veterans General Hospital in Taiwan between January 2014 and December 2016. To analyze the clinical characteristics of these patients, data was extracted from their medical records. K. pneumoniae strains were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing, capsular genotyping and detection of the rmpA and rmpA2 genes to identify hypervirulent strains. We identified 276 patients with pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae, of which 68 (24.6%), 74 (26.8%), and 134 (48.6%) presented with CAP, HCAP, and HAP, respectively. The 28-day mortality was highest in the HAP group (39.6%), followed by the HCAP (29.7%) and CAP (27.9%) groups. The HAP group also featured the highest proportion of multi-drug resistant strains (49.3%), followed by the HCAP (36.5%) and CAP groups (10.3%), while the CAP group had the highest proportion of hypervirulent strains (79.4%), followed by the HCAP (55.4%) and HAP groups (41.0%). Pneumonia caused by K. pneumoniae was associated with a high mortality. Importantly, multi-drug resistant strains were also detected in patients with CAP. Hypervirulent strains were prevalent in all 3 groups of pneumonia patients, even in those with HAP.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • High clonal diversity of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from clinical samples in a non-outbreak situation. A cohort study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Mariona Xercavins; Elena Jiménez; Emma Padilla; Montserrat Riera; Núria Freixas; Lucia Boix-Palop; Josefa Pérez; Esther Calbo

    Klebsiella pneumoniae has been responsible for a large number of clonal hospital outbreaks. However, some epidemiological changes have been observed since the emergence of CTX-M enzymes in K. pneumoniae. To analyse the transmission dynamics of Extended Spectrum β-Lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (ESBL-Kp) in an acute care hospital. In 2015 a prospective cohort study was conducted. All new consecutive adult patients with ESBL-Kp isolates in all clinical samples were included. Patients with a previous known infection/colonization by ESBL-Kp and patients in high risk areas (e.g., intensive care units) were excluded. Cross-transmission was defined as the carriage of a clonally-related ESBL-Kp between newly diagnosed patients who shared the same ward for ≥48 h with another case, within a maximum time window of 4 weeks. ESBL-production was confirmed using the double-disk diffusion method and PCR. Clonal relationships were investigated by rep-PCR and multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Sixty ESBL-Kp isolates from 60 patients were included and analysed. Infections and colonizations were classified as hospital-acquired (52%), healthcare-related (40%) or community-acquired (8%). High genetic diversity was detected. When epidemiological clinical data were combined with the rep-PCR, the patterns identified did not show any cases of cross-transmission. ESBL-Kp were detected in 12.5% of environmental samples. No clonal relationship could be established between environmental reservoirs and patients. The genetic mechanism detected in all strains was associated with bla CTX-M genes, and 97% were CTX-M-15. The dynamics of ESBL-K. pneumoniae isolated in our setting could not be explained by clonal transmission from an index patient. A polyclonal spread of ESBL-Kp was identified.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • European intensive care physicians’ experience of infections due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Alain Lepape; Astrid Jean; Jan De Waele; Arnaud Friggeri; Anne Savey; Philippe Vanhems; Marie Paule Gustin; Dominique L. Monnet; José Garnacho-Montero; Anke Kohlenberg

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) compromises the treatment of patients with serious infections in intensive care units (ICUs), and intensive care physicians are increasingly facing patients with bacterial infections with limited or no adequate therapeutic options. A survey was conducted to assess the intensive care physicians’ perception of the AMR situation in the European Union/European Economic Area (EU/EEA). Between May and July 2017, physicians working in European ICUs were invited to complete an online questionnaire hosted by the European Society of Intensive Care Medicine. The survey included 20 questions on hospital and ICU characteristics, frequency of infections with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria and relevance of AMR in the respondent’s ICU, management of antimicrobial treatment as well as the use of last-line antibiotics in the six months preceding the survey. For the analysis of regional differences, EU/EEA countries were grouped into the four sub-regions of Eastern, Northern, Southern and Western Europe. Overall, 1062 responses from four European sub-regions were analysed. Infections with MDR bacteria in their ICU were rated as a major problem by 257 (24.2%), moderate problem by 360 (33.9%) and minor problem by 391 (36.8%) respondents. Third-generation cephalosporin-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were the most frequently encountered MDR bacteria followed by, in order of decreasing frequency, meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant enterococci. Perception of the relevance of the AMR problem and the frequency of specific MDR bacteria varied by European sub-region. Bacteria resistant to all or almost all available antibiotics were encountered by 132 (12.4%) respondents. Many physicians reported not having access to specific last-line antibiotics. The percentage of European ICU physicians perceiving AMR as a substantial problem in their ICU is high with variation by sub-region in line with epidemiological studies. The reports of bacteria resistant to almost all available antibiotics and the limited availability of last-line antibiotics in ICUs in the EU/EEA are of concern.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Faucet aerators as a reservoir for Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii: a healthcare-associated infection outbreak in a neurosurgical intensive care unit
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Yu Lv; Qian Xiang; Ying Z. Jin; Ying Fang; Yu J. Wu; Bin Zeng; Hua Yu; Hong M. Cai; Qiong D. Wei; Chen Wang; Jing Chen; Hui Wang

    On January 7, 2019, we observed an outbreak of healthcare-associated infection (HAI) caused by Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) in the neurosurgical intensive care unit (NSICU). A follow-up epidemiological investigation was conducted, and an emergency response was initiated. We aimed to study the clonal transmission of CRAB and its possible source. A matched case-control (1:2) study was performed to identify the possible predisposing factors. A multifaceted intervention was implemented to control the outbreak. We collected environmental samples from patients’ rooms and living area of the staff. CRAB isolates were tested for genetic relatedness by Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Environmental sampling showed that a faucet aerator was contaminated with A. baumannii. Molecular typing revealed the only outbreak strain, which was isolated from tracheal aspirate cultures of the first case of community-acquired infection and 3 cases of HAI. In environmental samples, the outbreak strain was found only in the faucet aerator of the dining room. This CRAB outbreak was discovered in time, and further progress of this outbreak was prevented through a pre-set emergency response procedure. The faucet aerator acted as a reservoir for bacteria in the outbreak, and contamination of the faucet aerator might have occurred from splashes originating from handwashing by the healthcare workers (HCWs). In high-risk areas, such as NSICU, the faucet aerators should not be used during an outbreak or they should be regularly cleaned and disinfected. The start-up criteria for the emergency response played a key role in controlling the CRAB outbreak, and its settings should be discussed more widely.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Train-the-Trainers in hand hygiene: a standardized approach to guide education in infection prevention and control
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ermira Tartari; Carolina Fankhauser; Sarah Masson-Roy; Hilda Márquez-Villarreal; Inmaculada Fernández Moreno; Ma Luisa Rodriguez Navas; Odet Sarabia; Fernando Bellisimo-Rodrigues; Marcela Hernández-de Mezerville; Yew Fong Lee; Mohammad Hassan Aelami; Shaheen Mehtar; Américo Agostinho; Liberato Camilleri; Benedetta Allegranzi; Daniela Pires; Didier Pittet

    Harmonization in hand hygiene training for infection prevention and control (IPC) professionals is lacking. We describe a standardized approach to training, using a “Train-the-Trainers” (TTT) concept for IPC professionals and assess its impact on hand hygiene knowledge in six countries. We developed a three-day simulation-based TTT course based on the World Health Organization (WHO) Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy. To evaluate its impact, we have performed a pre-and post-course knowledge questionnaire. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the results before and after training. Between June 2016 and January 2018 we conducted seven TTT courses in six countries: Iran, Malaysia, Mexico, South Africa, Spain and Thailand. A total of 305 IPC professionals completed the programme. Participants included nurses (n = 196; 64.2%), physicians (n = 53; 17.3%) and other health professionals (n = 56; 18.3%). In total, participants from more than 20 countries were trained. A significant (p < 0.05) improvement in knowledge between the pre- and post-TTT training phases was observed in all countries. Puebla (Mexico) had the highest improvement (22.3%; p < 0.001), followed by Malaysia (21.2%; p < 0.001), Jalisco (Mexico; 20.2%; p < 0.001), Thailand (18.8%; p < 0.001), South Africa (18.3%; p < 0.001), Iran (17.5%; p < 0.001) and Spain (9.7%; p = 0.047). Spain had the highest overall test scores, while Thailand had the lowest pre- and post-scores. Positive aspects reported included: unique learning environment, sharing experiences, hands-on practices on a secure environment and networking among IPC professionals. Sustainability was assessed through follow-up evaluations conducted in three original TTT course sites in Mexico (Jalisco and Puebla) and in Spain: improvement was sustained in the last follow-up phase when assessed 5 months, 1 year and 2 years after the first TTT course, respectively. The TTT in hand hygiene model proved to be effective in enhancing participant’s knowledge, sharing experiences and networking. IPC professionals can use this reference training method worldwide to further disseminate knowledge to other health care workers.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Bacterial pathogens and resistance causing community acquired paediatric bloodstream infections in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Nina Droz; Yingfen Hsia; Sally Ellis; Angela Dramowski; Mike Sharland; Romain Basmaci

    Despite a high mortality rate in childhood, there is limited evidence on the causes and outcomes of paediatric bloodstream infections from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to characterize the bacterial causes of paediatric bloodstream infections in LMICs and their resistance profile. We searched Pubmed and Embase databases between January 1st 1990 and October 30th 2019, combining MeSH and free-text terms for “sepsis” and “low-middle-income countries” in children. Two reviewers screened articles and performed data extraction to identify studies investigating children (1 month-18 years), with at least one blood culture. The main outcomes of interests were the rate of positive blood cultures, the distribution of bacterial pathogens, the resistance patterns and the case-fatality rate. The proportions obtained from each study were pooled using the Freeman-Tukey double arcsine transformation, and a random-effect meta-analysis model was used. We identified 2403 eligible studies, 17 were included in the final review including 52,915 children (11 in Africa and 6 in Asia). The overall percentage of positive blood culture was 19.1% [95% CI: 12.0–27.5%]; 15.5% [8.4–24.4%] in Africa and 28.0% [13.2–45.8%] in Asia. A total of 4836 bacterial isolates were included in the studies; 2974 were Gram-negative (63.9% [52.2–74.9]) and 1858 were Gram-positive (35.8% [24.9–47.5]). In Asia, Salmonella typhi (26.2%) was the most commonly isolated pathogen, followed by Staphylococcus aureus (7.7%) whereas in Africa, S. aureus (17.8%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (16.8%) were predominant followed by Escherichia coli (10.7%). S. aureus was more likely resistant to methicillin in Africa (29.5% vs. 7.9%), whereas E. coli was more frequently resistant to third-generation cephalosporins (31.2% vs. 21.2%), amikacin (29.6% vs. 0%) and ciprofloxacin (36.7% vs. 0%) in Asia. The overall estimate for case-fatality rate among 8 studies was 12.7% [6.6–20.2%]. Underlying conditions, such as malnutrition or HIV infection were assessed as a factor associated with bacteraemia in 4 studies each. We observed a marked variation in pathogen distribution and their resistance profiles between Asia and Africa. Very limited data is available on underlying risk factors for bacteraemia, patterns of treatment of multidrug-resistant infections and predictors of adverse outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Molecular surveillance of carbapenemase-producing Pseudomonas aeruginosa at three medical centres in Cologne, Germany
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Elena Schäfer; Monika Malecki; Carlos J. Tellez-Castillo; Niels Pfennigwerth; Lennart Marlinghaus; Paul G. Higgins; Frauke Mattner; Andreas F. Wendel

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen causing hospital-acquired infections. Carbapenem resistance in P. aeruginosa is either mediated via a combination of efflux pumps, AmpC overexpression, and porin loss, or through an acquired carbapenemase. Carbapenemase-producing P. aeruginosa (CPPA) strains are known to cause outbreaks and harbour a reservoir of mobile antibiotic resistance genes, however, few molecular surveillance data is available. The aim of this study was to analyse the prevalence and epidemiology of CPPA in three German medical centres from 2015 to 2017. Identification and susceptibility testing were performed with VITEK 2 system. P. aeruginosa non-susceptible to piperacillin, ceftazidime, cefepime, imipenem, meropenem and ciprofloxacin (4MRGN according to the German classification guideline) isolated from 2015 to 2017 were analysed. A two-step algorithm to detect carbapenemases was performed: phenotypic tests (EDTA- and cloxacillin-combined disk tests) followed by PCR, Sanger sequencing, and eventually whole genome sequencing. CPPA isolates were further genotyped by RAPD and PFGE. In-hospital transmission was investigated using conventional epidemiology. Sixty two P. aeruginosa isolates were available for further analysis, of which 21 were CPPA as follows: blaVIM-1 (n = 2), blaVIM-2 (n = 17), blaNDM-1/blaGES-5 (n = 1) and the newly described blaIMP-82 (n = 1). CPPA were mostly hospital-acquired (71.4%) and isolated on intensive care units (66.7%). All (except one) were from the tertiary care centre. PFGE typing revealed one large cluster of VIM-2-producing CPPA containing 13 isolates. However, using conventional epidemiology, we were only able to confirm three patient-to-patient transmissions, and one room-to-patient transmission, on several intensive care units. These data give insight into the epidemiology of CPPA in three centres in Germany over a period of 3 years. Carbapenemases are a relevant resistance mechanism in 4MRGN-P. aeruginosa, illustrated by genetically related VIM-2-producing strains that seem to be endemic in this region. Our data suggest that infection control measures should especially focus on controlling transmission on the ICU and support the need for a local molecular surveillance system.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Cost-effectiveness analysis comparing ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ-AVI) as empirical treatment comparing to ceftolozane/tazobactam and to meropenem for complicated intra-abdominal infection (cIAI)
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Thitima Kongnakorn; Christian Eckmann; Matteo Bassetti; Eszter Tichy; Roberto Di Virgilio; Nathalie Baillon-Plot; Claudie Charbonneau

    The rising incidence of resistance to currently available antibiotics among pathogens, particularly Gram-negative pathogens, in complicated intra-abdominal infections (cIAIs) has become a challenge for clinicians. Ceftazidime/avibactam (CAZ-AVI) is a fixed-dose antibiotic approved in Europe and the United States for treating (in combination with metronidazole) cIAI in adult hospitalised patients who have limited or no alternative treatment options. The approval was based on the results of RECLAIM, a Phase III, parallel-group, comparative study (RECLAIM 1 [NCT01499290] and RECLAIM 2 [NCT01500239]). The objective of our study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of CAZ-AVI plus metronidazole compared with 1) ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole and 2) meropenem, as an empiric treatment for the management of cIAI in Italy. A sequential, patient-level simulation model, with a 5-year time horizon and 3% annual discount rate (applied to both costs and health benefits), was developed using Microsoft Excel® to demonstrate the clinical course of the disease. The impact of resistant pathogens was included as an additional factor. In the base-case analysis, the CAZ-AVI sequence (CAZ-AVI plus metronidazole followed by a colistin + tigecycline + high-dose meropenem combination after treatment failure), when compared to sequences for ceftolozane/tazobactam (ceftolozane/tazobactam plus metronidazole followed by colistin + tigecycline + high-dose meropenem after treatment failure) and meropenem (meropenem followed by colistin + tigecycline + high-dose meropenem after treatment failure), had better clinical outcomes with higher cure rates (93.04% vs. 91.52%; 92.98% vs. 90.24%, respectively), shorter hospital stays (∆ = − 0.38 and ∆ = − 1.24 days per patient, respectively), and higher quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained per patient (4.021 vs. 3.982; 4.019 vs. 3.960, respectively). The incremental cost effectiveness ratio in the CAZ-AVI sequence was €4099 and €15,574 per QALY gained versus each comparator sequence, respectively, well below the willingness-to-pay threshold of €30,000 per QALY accepted in Italy. The model results demonstrated that CAZ-AVI plus metronidazole could be a cost-effective alternative when compared with other antibiotic treatment options, as it is expected to provide better clinical benefits in hospitalised patients with cIAI in Italy.

    更新日期:2019-12-21
  • First report of Klebsiella quasipneumoniae harboring blaKPC-2 in Saudi Arabia
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Sharif Hala; Chakkiath Paul Antony; Mohammed Alshehri; Abdulhakeem O. Althaqafi; Asim Alsaedi; Areej Mufti; Mai Kaaki; Baraa T. Alhaj-Hussein; Hosam M. Zowawi; Abdulfattah Al-Amri; Arnab Pain

    Nosocomial infections caused by multi-drug resistant Enterobacteriaceae are a global public health threat that ought to be promptly identified, reported, and addressed accurately. Many carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae-associated genes have been identified in Saudi Arabia but not the endemic Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPCs), which are encoded by blaKPC-type genes. KPCs are known for their exceptional spreading potential. We collected n = 286 multi-drug resistant (MDR) Klebsiella spp. isolates as part of screening for resistant patterns from a tertiary hospital in Saudi Arabia between 2014 and 2018. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using both VITEK II and the broth microdilution of all collected isolates. Detection of resistance-conferring genes was carried out using Illumina whole-genome shotgun sequencing and PacBio SMRT sequencing protocols. A Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) Klebsiella quasipneumoniae subsp. similipneumoniae strain was identified as a novel ST-3510 carrying a blaKPC-2 carbapenemase encoding gene. The isolate, designated as NGKPC-421, was obtained from shotgun Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) surveillance of 286 MDR Klebsiella spp. clinical isolates. The NGKPC-421 isolate was collected from a septic patient in late 2017 and was initially misidentified as K. pneumoniae. The sequencing and assembly of the NGKPC-421 genome resulted in the identification of a putative ~ 39.4 kb IncX6 plasmid harboring a blaKPC-2 gene, flanked by transposable elements (ISKpn6-blaKPC-2–ISKpn27). This is the first identification of a KPC-2-producing CRE in the Gulf region. The impact on this finding is of major concern to the public health in Saudi Arabia, considering that it is the religious epicenter with a continuous mass influx of pilgrims from across the world. Our study strongly highlights the importance of implementing rapid sequencing-based technologies in clinical microbiology for precise taxonomic classification and monitoring of antimicrobial resistance patterns.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Antimicrobial Resistance in the Asia Pacific region: a meeting report
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Esabelle Lo Yan Yam; Li Yang Hsu; Eric Peng-Huat Yap; Tsin Wen Yeo; Vernon Lee; Joergen Schlundt; May O. Lwin; Direk Limmathurotsakul; Mark Jit; Peter Dedon; Paul Turner; Annelies Wilder-Smith

    The Asia Pacific region, home to two-thirds of the world’s population and ten of the least developed countries, is considered a regional hot-spot for the emergence and spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Despite this, there is a dearth of high-quality regional data on the extent of AMR. Recognising the urgency to close this gap, Singapore organised a meeting to discuss the problems in the region and frame a call for action. Representatives from across the region and beyond attended the meeting on the “Antimicrobial Resistance in the Asia Pacific & its impact on Singapore” held in November 2018. This meeting report is a summary of the discussions on the challenges and progress in surveillance, drivers and levers of AMR emergence, and the promising innovations and technologies that could be used to combat the increasing threat of AMR in the region. Enhanced surveillance and research to provide improved evidence-based strategies and policies are needed. The major themes that emerged for an action plan are working towards a tailored solution for the region by harnessing the One Health approach, enhancing inter-country collaborations, and collaboratively leverage upon new emerging technologies. A regionally coordinated effort that is target-driven, sustainable and builds on a framework facilitating communication and governance will strengthen the fight against AMR in the Asia Pacific region.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Active involvement of patients and relatives improves subjective adherence to hygienic measures, especially selfreported hand hygiene: Results of the AHOI pilot study.
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Tillmann Görig; Kathleen Dittmann; Axel Kramer; Claus-Dieter Heidecke; Stephan Diedrich; Nils-Olaf Hübner

    The prevention of nosocomial infections requires participation from the patients themselves. In the past, however, patients have been apprehensive to point out hygiene-relevant behaviour to the personnel. In the project AHOI, the possibilities of active patient involvement in infection prevention are identified, tested and realized. The goal is a prevention strategy based upon three dimensions: “adherence”, “empowerment” and “acceptance”. “AHOI” stands for the “Activation of patients, persons in need of care and care givers for a Hygiene-conscious participatiOn in Infection control”. Results from the AHOI pilot study on the implementation of a multimodal intervention bundle are reported. In 2017, a two-stage patient survey was conducted on two surgical wards for 14 weeks. In addition to the intervention bundle, acceptance, adherence and empowerment regarding individual hygiene behaviour and perception were evaluated. The bundle included an AHOI-welcome-box with an informational and entertaining brochure and supportive incentives. Furthermore, multiple visual materials like video presentations for patients’ bedside TV, posters and visual reminders in the patients’ bedrooms and sanitary facilities were installed. 179 respondents were surveyed at admission, 139 at discharge and 133 at both time points. Almost all respondents wanted to contribute to infection control. The AHOI project was well accepted by patients. Two-thirds wanted to be more involved. More than a third expected a negative response from staff after pointing out hygiene deficiencies. Four respondents observed a deficiency in hygiene with healthcare personnel and reported a very positive reaction once this was communicated to the personnel. More than four-fifths of the respondents felt well integrated and adequately informed post intervention. The feeling of active involvement correlated significantly with subjective participation and adherence to hygienic measures, especially self-reported hand disinfection. The results demonstrated that the required inclusion of patients in infection control is possible with AHOI. Active involvement of patients and relatives is associated with improvements in adherence to infection prevention measures.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Knowledge and use of antibiotics in six ethnic groups: the HELIUS study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Emelie C. Schuts; Eline van Dulm; Anders Boyd; Marieke B. Snijder; Suzanne E. Geerlings; Maria Prins; Jan M. Prins

    The increase of antimicrobial resistance, mainly due to increased antibiotic use, is worrying. Preliminary evidence suggests that antibiotic use differs across ethnic groups in the Netherlands, with higher use in people of non-Dutch origin. We aimed to determine whether appropriate knowledge and use of antibiotics differ by ethnicity and whether knowledge on antibiotics is associated with antibiotic use. We performed a cross-sectional study analyzing baseline data (2011–2015) from a population-based cohort (HELIUS study), which were linked to data from a health insurance register. We included 21,617 HELIUS participants of South-Asian Surinamese, African-Surinamese, Turkish, Moroccan, Ghanaian, and Dutch origin. Fifteen thousand seven participants had available prescription data from the Achmea Health Data-base (AHD) in the year prior to their HELIUS study visit. Participants were asked five questions on antibiotic treatment during influenza-like illness, pneumonia, fever, sore throat and bronchitis, from which higher versus lower antibiotic knowledge level was determined. Number of antibiotic prescriptions in the year prior to the HELIUS study visit was used to determine antibiotic use. The percentage of individuals with a higher level of antibiotic knowledge was lower among all ethnic minority groups (range 57 to 70%) compared to Dutch (80%). After correcting for baseline characteristics, including medical conditions, first-generation African Surinamese and Turkish migrants received a significantly lower number of antibiotic prescriptions compared to individuals of Dutch origin. Only second-generation Ghanaian participants received more prescriptions compared to Dutch participants (aIRR 2.09, 95%CI 1.06 to 4.12). Higher level of antibiotic knowledge was not significantly associated with the number of prescriptions (IRR 0.92, 95%CI 0.85 to 1.00). Levels of antibiotic knowledge varied between ethnic groups, but a lower level of antibiotic knowledge did not correspond with a higher number of antibiotic prescriptions.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • A multimodal intervention program to control a long-term Acinetobacter baumannii endemic in a tertiary care hospital
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    R. Valencia-Martín; V. Gonzalez-Galan; R. Alvarez-Marín; A. M. Cazalla-Foncueva; T. Aldabó; M. V. Gil-Navarro; I. Alonso-Araujo; C. Martin; R. Gordon; E. J. García-Nuñez; R. Perez; G. Peñalva; J. Aznar; M. Conde; J. M. Cisneros

    Acinetobacter baumannii causes frequently nosocomial infections worldwide. Its ability to survive on dry surfaces facilitates its spread and the persistence of endemic situations, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The objective of this paper is to describe a multicomponent intervention program designed to control a hyperendemic persistence of multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MDR-Ab) and to characterize its impact. Design: Quasi-experimental intervention study based on open cohorts. Setting: Public tertiary referral centre. Period: January 2009–August 2017. Intervention: multifaceted program based on environmental decontamination, hand hygiene, antimicrobial stewardship, contact precautions, active surveillance, weekly reports and regular meetings. Analysis: joinpoint regression and interrupted time-series analysis. The intervention was successfully implemented. Through the study period, the compliance with contact precautions changed from 0 to 100% and with hand hygiene, from 41.8 to 82.3%. Between 2012 and 2016, the antibiotic consumption decreased from 165.35 in to 150.44 daily-defined doses/1000 patients-days in the ICU. The incidence density of MDR-Ab in the ICU was 10.9 cases/1000 patients-days at the beginning of the intervention. After this moment, the evolution of the incidence density of MDR-Ab was: between months 0 and 6°, it remained stable; between months 7° and 10°: there was an intense decrease, with an average monthly percentage change (AMPC) = − 30.05%; from 11° month until the end, the decrease was lighter but continuous (AMPC:-2.77%), achieving an incidence density of 0 cases/1000 patients-days on the 18° month, without any new case for 12 months. From the 30° month until the end of the study period, several little outbreaks of MDR-Ab were detected, all of them rapidly controlled. The strains of MDR-Ab isolated during these outbreaks were not clonally related with the previously endemic one, which supports its eradication from the environmental reservoirs. The multicomponent intervention performed by a multidisciplinary team was effective to eradicate the endemic MDR-Ab.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Evidence of colistin resistance genes (mcr-1 and mcr-2) in wild birds and its public health implication in Egypt
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Zeinab S. Ahmed; Esraa A. Elshafiee; Hanan S. Khalefa; Mona Kadry; Dalia A. Hamza

    Antimicrobial resistance has become one of the most severe global threats to human and veterinary Medicine. colistin is an effective therapeutic agent against multi-drug-resistant pathogens. However, the discovery of transferable plasmids that confer resistance to colistin (mcr-1) has led to challenges in medical science. This study describes the role of wild birds in the harbouring and environmental spread of colistin-resistant bacteria, which could pose a potential hazard to human and animal health. In total, 140 faecal samples from wild birds (migratory and resident birds) were tested. Twenty surface water samples were collected from the area in which wild bird trapping was conducted, and 50 human stool samples were collected from individuals residing near the surface water sources and farm buildings. Isolation and identification of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa from the different samples were performed using conventional culture techniques and biochemical identification. PCR amplification of the mcr genes was performed in all positive isolates. Sequencing of mcr-1 genes from three randomly selected E. coli carrying mcr-1 isolates; wild birds, water and humans was performed. The bacteriological examination of the samples showing isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Klebsiella oxytoca and P. aeruginosa. The results of multiplex PCR of the mcr genes revealed that E. coli was the most prevalent gram-negative bacterium harbouring the mcr genes, whereas a low prevalence was observed for K. pneumoniae. The prevalence of mcr-1 in resident birds, migratory birds, water sources and humans were 10.4, 20,16.6 and 9.6% while the prevalence of mcr-2 were 1.4, 3.6, 11.1 and 9.6%, respectively. Sequencing of the mcr-1 gene from the three E. coli carrying mcr-1 isolates indicated a possible correlation between the wild bird and surface water isolates. The detection of mcr-1-positive bacteria in wild birds in Egypt indicates the possible environmental dissemination of this gene through bird activity. The impact of the interaction between domestic and wild animals on public health cannot be overlooked.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Clinical outcomes of hospitalised patients with catheter-associated urinary tract infection in countries with a high rate of multidrug-resistance: the COMBACTE-MAGNET RESCUING study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Aina Gomila; Jordi Carratalà; Noa Eliakim-Raz; Evelyn Shaw; Cristian Tebé; Martin Wolkewitz; Irith Wiegand; Sally Grier; Christiane Vank; Nienke Cuperus; Leonard Van den Heuvel; Cuong Vuong; Alasdair MacGowan; Leonard Leibovici; Ibironke Addy; Miquel Pujol

    Although catheter-associated urinary tract infection (CA-UTI) is a major healthcare-related problem worldwide, there is a scarcity of current data from countries with high antimicrobial resistance rates. We aimed to determine the clinical outcomes of patients with CA-UTI compared to those of patients with other sources of complicated urinary tract infection (cUTI), and to assess the impact of antimicrobial resistance. We also aimed to identify the factors influencing 30-day mortality among patients with CA-UTI. This was a multicentre, multinational retrospective cohort study including hospitalised adults with cUTI between January 2013 and December 2014 in twenty hospitals from eight countries from southern Europe, Turkey and Israel. The primary endpoint was 30-day mortality. The secondary endpoints were length of hospital stay, symptom improvement after 7 days’ treatment, symptom recurrence at 30 days and readmission 60 days after hospital discharge. Of the 807 cUTI episodes, 341 (42.2%) were CA-UTIs. The time from catheter insertion to cUTI diagnosis was less than 2 weeks in 44.6% of cases. Overall, 74.5% of cases had hospital or healthcare-acquired CA-UTI. Compared to patients with other cUTI aetiologies, those with CA-UTI had the following characteristics: they were more frequently males, older, admitted for a reason other than cUTI and admitted from a long-term care facility; had higher Charlson’s comorbidity index; and more frequently had polymicrobial infections and multidrug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (MDR-GNB). Patients with CA-UTI also had significantly higher 30-day mortality rates (15.2% vs 6%) and longer hospital stay (median 14 [interquartile range -IQR- 7-27] days vs 8 [IQR 5–14] days) than patients with cUTI of other sources. After adjusting for confounders, CA-UTI was not independently associated with an increased risk of mortality (odds ratio, 1.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.77–2.54), and neither was the presence of MDR-GNB. CA-UTI was the most frequent source of cUTI, affecting mainly frail patients. The mortality of patients with CA-UTI was high, though this was not directly related to the infection.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Predictors for vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium transforming from colonization to infection: a case control study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Pao-Yu Chen; Yu-Chung Chuang; Jann-Tay Wang; Wang-Huei Sheng; Yee-Chun Chen; Shan-Chwen Chang

    Little is known about risk factors for subsequent infections among vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREfm) colonizers, especially characterized by concordant pulsotypes (CP) of paired colonization and infection-related isolates. This case-control study was conducted at a teaching hospital between 2011 and 2014. Targeted patients received active surveillance culture for VREfm by anal swabs at admission. Cases were those who developed VREfm infection within 180 days after colonization of VREfm. Controls were those colonized with VREfm without subsequent VREfm infection. CP were defined by similarities ≥86.7% using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis between paired colonization and infection-related isolates. Ninety-seven cases and 194 controls were enrolled. By conditional multivariable logistic regression analysis, the risk factors for subsequent infection among VREfm colonizers were intensive care unit (ICU) admission (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 9.32; 95% CI, 3.61–24.02), receipt of central venous catheters (CVC) (aOR, 3.38; 95% CI, 1.30–8.82), and utilization of third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (aOR, 4.06; 95% CI, 1.79–9.20, and aOR, 5.32; 95% CI, 1.85– 10.29, respectively) (all P ≤ 0.01). Fifty-six (57.7%) of case patients belonged to the CP group, which were associated with ICU admission (aOR, 3.74; 95% CI, 1.38–10.13), and infection developing within 30 days after colonization (aOR, 3.34; 95% CI, 1.25–8.91). Among VREfm colonizers, being admitted to ICU and receiving CVC or broad spectrum cephalosporins, were the risk factors for subsequent infections. These findings highlight the importance of conducting more strict infection control measures on specific groups of VREfm colonizers.

    更新日期:2019-12-02
  • The effect of varying multidrug-resistence (MDR) definitions on rates of MDR gram-negative rods
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Aline Wolfensberger; Stefan P. Kuster; Martina Marchesi; Reinhard Zbinden; Michael Hombach

    A multitude of definitions determining multidrug resistance (MDR) of Gram-negative organisms exist worldwide. The definitions differ depending on their purpose and on the issueing country or organization. The MDR definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were primarily chosen to harmonize epidemiological surveillance. The German Commission of Hospital Hygiene and Infection Prevention (KRINKO) issued a national guideline which is mainly used to guide infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. The Swiss University Hospital Zurich (UHZ) – in absentia of national guidelines – developed its own definition for IPC purposes. In this study we aimed to determine the effects of different definitions of multidrug-resistance on rates of Gram-negative multidrug-resistant organisms (GN-MDRO). MDR definitions of the ECDC, the German KRINKO and the Swiss University Hospital Zurich were applied on a dataset comprising isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Acinetobacter baumannii complex. Rates of GN-MDRO were compared and the percentage of patients with a GN-MDRO was calculated. In total 11′407 isolates from a 35 month period were included. For Enterobacterales and P. aeruginosa, highest MDR-rates resulted from applying the ‘ECDC-MDR’ definition. ‘ECDC-MDR’ rates were up to four times higher compared to ‘KRINKO-3/4MRGN’ rates, and up to six times higher compared to UHZ rates. Lowest rates were observed when applying the ‘KRINKO-4MRGN’ definitions. Comparing the ‘KRINKO-3/4MRGN’ with the UHZ definitions did not show uniform trends, but yielded higher rates for E. coli and lower rates for P. aeruginosa. On the patient level, the percentages of GN-MDRO carriers were 2.1, 5.5, 6.6, and 18.2% when applying the ‘KRINKO-4MRGN’, ‘UHZ-MDR’, ‘KRINKO-3/4MRGN’, and the ‘ECDC-MDR’ definition, respectively. Different MDR-definitions lead to considerable variation in rates of GN-MDRO. Differences arise from the number of antibiotic categories required to be resistant, the categories and drugs considered relevant, and the antibiotic panel tested. MDR definitions should be chosen carefully depending on their purpose and local resistance rates, as definitions guiding isolation precautions have direct effects on costs and patient care.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • An exploration of the gut and environmental resistome in a community in northern Vietnam in relation to antibiotic use
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Vu Thi Ngoc Bich; Le Viet Thanh; Pham Duy Thai; Tran Thi Van Phuong; Melissa Oomen; Christel Driessen; Erik Beuken; Tran Huy Hoang; H. Rogier van Doorn; John Penders; Heiman F. L. Wertheim

    Antibiotic resistance is a major global public health threat. Antibiotic use can directly impact the antibiotic resistant genes (ARGs) profile of the human intestinal microbiome and consequently the environment through shedding. We determined the resistome of human feces, animal stools, human food and environmental (rain, well, and irrigative water) samples (n = 304) in 40 households within a community cohort and related the data to antibiotic consumption. Metagenomic DNA was isolated and qPCR was used to determine presence of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes, genes encoding extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL), carbapenemases and quinolone resistance genes. Nearly 40 % (39.5%, 120/304) of samples contained ESBL genes (most frequent were CTX-M-9 (23.7% [72/304]), CTX-M-1 (18.8% [57/304]). Quinolone resistance genes (qnrS) were detected in all human and 91% (41/45) of animal stool samples. Mcr-1 and mcr-3 were predominantly detected in human feces at 88% (82/93) and 55% (51/93) and animal feces at 93% (42/45) and 51% (23/45), respectively. Mcr-2, mrc-4 and mcr-5 were not detected in human feces, and only sporadically (< 6%) in other samples. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were most common in water (15% [14/91]) and cooked food (13% [10/75]) samples, while their prevalence in human and animal stools was lower at 4% in both human (4/93) and animal (2/45) samples. We did not find an association between recent antibiotic consumption and ARGs in human stools. Principal component analysis showed that the resistome differs between ecosystems with a strong separation of ARGs profiles of human and animal stools on the one hand versus cooked food and water samples on the other. Our study indicated that ARGs were abundant in human and animal stools in a rural Vietnamese community, including ARGs targeting last resort antibiotics. The resistomes of animal and human stools were similar as opposed to the resistomes from water and food sources. No association between antibiotic use and ARG profiles was found in a setting of high background rates of AMR.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Hand hygiene – social network analysis of peer-identified and management-selected change agents
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Yew Fong Lee; Mary-Louise McLaws; Loke Meng Ong; Suraya Amir Husin; Hock Hin Chua; See Yin Wong; Didier Pittet; Walter Zingg

    Hand hygiene compliance can be improved by strategies fostering collaborative efforts among healthcare workers (HCWs) through change agents. However, there is limited information about how change agents shape the social networks of work teams, and how this relates to organisational culture. The objectives of this study were to describe the influence of peer-identified change agents (PICAs) and management-selected change agents (MSCAs) on hand hygiene, perception of their leadership style by peers, and the role of the organisational culture in the process of hand hygiene promotion. This study, stratified in pre-, during, and post-intervention periods, was conducted between February 2017 and March 2018 in two wards at a tertiary care hospital in Malaysia. Hand hygiene promotion was facilitated either by PICAs (study arm 1) or MSCAs (study arm 2), and the two wards were randomly allocated to one of the two interventions. Outcomes were: 1) perceived leadership styles of PICAs and MSCAs by staff, vocalised during question and answer sessions; 2) the social network connectedness and communication patterns between HCWs and change agents by applying social network analysis; and 3) hand hygiene leadership attributes obtained from HCWs in the post-intervention period by questionnaires. Hand hygiene compliance in study arm 1 and study arm 2 improved by from 48% (95% CI: 44–53%) to 66% (63–69%), and from 50% (44–55%) to 65% (60–69%), respectively. There was no significant difference between the two arms. Healthcare workers perceived that PICAs lead by example, while MSCAs applied an authoritarian top-down leadership style. The organisational culture of both wards was hierarchical, with little social interaction, but strong team cohesion. Position and networks of both PICAs and MSCAs were similar and generally weaker compared to the leaders who were nominated by HCWs in the post-intervention period. Healthcare workers on both wards perceived authoritative leadership to be the most desirable attribute for hand hygiene improvement. Despite experiencing successful hand hygiene improvement from PICAs, HCWs expressed a preference for the existing top-down leadership structure. This highlights the limits of applying leadership models that are not supported by the local organisational culture.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Antimicrobial susceptibility and molecular characteristics of Mycoplasma pneumoniae isolates across different regions of China
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-08-23
    Fei Zhao; Jing Li; Jinrong Liu; Xuemei Guan; Jie Gong; Liyong Liu; Lihua He; Fanliang Meng; Jianzhong Zhang

    In China mainland, most Mycoplasma pneumoniae related studies are carried out in Beijing and Shanghai, while rare studies are performed in the other regions. In this study, we analyzed the molecular biology characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of M. pneumoniae from 5 regions between January 2017 and December 2018. Genotyping was performed to 154 M. pneumoniae isolates from 5 cities using PCR and multiple-locus variable-number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) method. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed to all the isolates against 4 antibiotics. Sequencing was performed to the amplification products of the 23S rRNA drug resistant gene. Genotype I was detected in 118 M. pneumoniae isolates (76.6%), and genotype II was identified in 36 isolates (23.4%). The majority (92.2%) of the MLVA genotypes were 4–5–7-2 and 3–5–6-2, which represented the genotype I and II, respectively. The total macrolide (ML) resistance rate was 79.7%. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the erythromycin was in a range of 128- > 256 μg/ml, while that for the azithromycin was 2-32 μg/ml. There were mutations in the 23S rRNA in each ML resistance isolate. Jilin city showed the highest prevalence of genotype I (100%) and ML resistance rate (100%), while Jinan showed the lowest prevalence of genotype I (45.5%) and ML resistance rate (54.5%). A large variance was identified in the M. pneumoniae genotype and ML resistance among the 5 cities. The proportion of M. pneumoniae with a genotype II genotype (3–5–6-2) showed an increased trend.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Risk factors and outcomes in non-transplant patients with extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli bacteremia: a retrospective study from 2013 to 2016
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Tingting Xiao; Kai Yang; Yanzi Zhou; Shuntian Zhang; Jinru Ji; Chaoqun Ying; Ping Shen; Yonghong Xiao

    Escherichia coli is one of the most common strains of extended-spectrum β-lactam (ESBL)-producing bacteria, and the prevention and treatment of ESBL-producing E. coli infections is an ongoing challenge. The clinical characteristics and outcomes of ESBL-producing E. coli bacteremia in non-transplant patients remain to be elucidated. This retrospective study included 491 non-transplant patients with E. coli bloodstream infections (BSIs) from January 2013 to December 2016 and was conducted to investigate the risk factors, clinical features, and outcomes of these infections. Of the 491 E. coli BSI patients, 57.6% suffered from infections with ESBL-producing strains. A multivariate analysis showed that urinary tract infection, prior use of cephalosporin, and treatment with β-lactam-β-lactamase inhibitor (BLBLI) combination antibiotics were independent risk factors for the development of ESBL-producing E. coli BSIs. The overall mortality rate in E. coli BSI patients was 14.46%, and there was no significant difference in the 28 day mortality rate between ESBL-producing E. coli and non-ESBL-producing E. coli BSI patients (14.8% vs. 14.0%, respectively; P = 0.953). Similarly, there was no difference between the community-acquired infection group and the nosocomial infection group. Hepatobiliary disease, carbapenem exposure, high APACHE II score, and hypoproteinemia were independent risk factors for death in E. coli BSI patients. Multivariate analysis showed that hypoproteinemia and severe disease were independent risk factors for death from ESBL-producing E. coli BSIs. Furthermore, there was no significant difference in the 28 day mortality between patients with ESBL-producing E. coli BSIs treated with carbapenem monotherapy versus those treated with BLBLI combination antibiotics (12.8% vs. 17.9%, respectively; P = 0.384). Prior use of cephalosporin or BLBLI combination antibiotics increased the risk ratio for ESBL-producing E. coli infection. Hypoproteinemia and severe disease are independent risk factors for death in patients with E. coli BSIs. There was no significant difference in the 28 day prognosis of patients with ESBL-producing E. coli and those with non-ESBL-producing E. coli BSIs. These data do not support the conclusion that carbapenems might be more effective than BLBLI antibiotics for treatment of patients with BSIs caused by ESBL-producing E. coli.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Incidence of healthcare-associated infections in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China: results from a real-time surveillance system
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Yuzheng Zhang; Mingmei Du; Janice Mary Johnston; Ellie Bostwick Andres; Jijiang Suo; Hongwu Yao; Rui Huo; Yunxi Liu; Qiang Fu

    To quantify the five year incidence trend of all healthcare-associated infections (HAI) using a real-time HAI electronic surveillance system in a tertiary hospital in Beijing, China. The real-time surveillance system scans the hospital’s electronic databases related to HAI (e.g. microbiological reports and antibiotics administration) to identify HAI cases. We conducted retrospective secondary analyses of the data exported from the surveillance system for inpatients with all types of HAIs from January 1st 2013 to December 31st 2017. Incidence of HAI is defined as the number of HAIs per 1000 patient-days. We modeled the incidence data using negative binomial regression. In total, 23361 HAI cases were identified from 633990 patients, spanning 6242375 patient-days during the 5-year period. Overall, the adjusted five-year HAI incidence rate had a marginal reduction from 2013 (4.10 per 1000 patient days) to 2017 (3.62 per 1000 patient days). The incidence of respiratory tract infection decreased significantly. However, the incidence rate of bloodstream infections and surgical site infection increased significantly. Respiratory tract infection (43.80%) accounted for the most substantial proportion of HAIs, followed by bloodstream infections (15.74%), and urinary tract infection (12.69%). A summer peak in HAIs was detected among adult and elderly patients. This study shows how continuous electronic incidence surveillance based on existing hospital electronic databases can provide a practical means of measuring hospital-wide HAI incidence. The estimated incidence trends demonstrate the necessity for improved infection control measures related to bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, non-intensive care patients, and non-device-associated HAIs, especially during summer months.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dutch guideline for preventing nosocomial transmission of highly-resistant micro-organisms (HRMO) in long-term care facilities (LTCFs)
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-08-27
    Andrea Eikelenboom-Boskamp; Jobje Haaijman; Maria Bos; Katja Saris; Else Poot; Andreas Voss

    In 2012, the Dutch Working Party for Infection Control (WIP) issued the first Guideline for prevention of transmission of highly-resistant micro-organisms (HRMO) in Hospitals. The next step was to focus on long-term care facilities (LTCFs) both for nursing homes as for small-scale living facilities with nursing home care. These facilities providing care for residents with functional disabilities, chronical illnesses and cognitive disorders, such as dementia. The objective was to adapt the Guideline for prevention of transmission of HRMO in hospitals to LTCFs with a strong accent on living conditions and social interactions. Residents of LTCFs may be carriers of HRMO over a long period of time and most of the residents of the LTCF stay for extended periods of time. To respect individual living circumstances and to prevent unnecessary limitations in the social life of the residents due to the use of isolation measures, the WIP has chosen to describe infection control precautions per individual micro-organism instead of a ‘one size fits all’ method. The term “isolation” was therefore replaced by the term “additional” precautions. This guideline describes the screening policies for residents in LTCFs, definition and detection of HRMO carriage, standard and additional infection control precautions for HRMO positive residents, documentation and communication of HRMO carriage and discontinuation of additional infection control precautions. It also describes contact tracing of HRMO, environmental control/investigation, surveillance of HRMO and what is important when there is an outbreak.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The rise in vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium in Germany: data from the German Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance (ARS)
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Robby Markwart; Niklas Willrich; Sebastian Haller; Ines Noll; Uwe Koppe; Guido Werner; Tim Eckmanns; Annicka Reuss

    Due to limited therapeutic options, vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREF) is of great clinical significance. Recently, rising proportions of vancomycin resistance in enterococcal infections have been reported worldwide. This study aims to describe current epidemiological trends of VREF in German hospitals and to identify factors that are associated with an increased likelihood of vancomycin resistance in clinical E. faecium isolates. 2012 to 2017 data from routine vancomycin susceptibility testing of 35,906 clinical E. faecium isolates from 148 hospitals were analysed using data from the German Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance System. Descriptive statistical analyses and uni- and multivariable regression analyses were performed to investigate the impact of variables, such as year of sampling, age and region, on vancomycin resistance in clinical E. faecium isolates. From 2014 onwards the proportions of clinical E. faecium isolates exhibiting resistance to vancomycin increased from 11.2% (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.4–13.3%) to 26.1% (95% CI 23.1–29.4%) in 2017. The rise of VREF proportions is primarily observed in the southern regions of Germany, whereas northern regions do not show a major increase. In the Southwest and Southeast, VREF proportions increased from 10.8% (95% CI 6.9–16.5%) and 3.8% (95% CI 3.0–11.5%) in 2014 to 36.7% (95% CI 32.9–40.8%) and 36.8% (95% CI 29.2–44.7%) in 2017, respectively. VREF proportions were considerably higher in isolates from patients aged 40–59 years compared to younger patients. Further regression analyses show that in relation to secondary care hospitals, E. faecium samples collected in specialist care hospitals and prevention and rehabilitation care centres are more likely to be vancomycin-resistant (odds ratios: 2.4 [95% CI 1.2–4.6] and 2.4 [95% CI 1.9–3.0], respectively). No differences in VREF proportions were found between female and male patients as well as between different clinical specimens. The proportion of VREF is increasing in German hospitals, particularly in southern regions in Germany. Increased efforts in infection control and antibiotic stewardship activities accounting for local resistance patterns are necessary to combat the spread of VREF in Germany.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Attitudes about sickness presenteeism in medical training: is there a hidden curriculum?
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Lauris C. Kaldjian; Laura A. Shinkunas; Heather Schacht Reisinger; Marc A. Polacco; Eli N. Perencevich

    Sickness presenteeism among healthcare professionals can compromise patient safety. To better understand what motivates this phenomenon, especially among trainees, the authors investigated attitudes of medical students, resident physicians, and faculty physicians about working when sick with what might be an infectious condition. In 2012–2013, the authors employed a mixed methods, two-stage, cross-sectional survey at the University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics of medical students (third-year students in the first survey and fourth-year students in the second survey), resident physicians in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Family Medicine (first-year residents in the first survey and second-year residents in the second survey), and faculty physicians in Internal Medicine, Pediatrics, and Family Medicine. The first survey included one open-ended question querying attitudes about sickness presenteeism, answers to which underwent content analysis that identified 17 codes used to develop 23 additional closed-ended questions for a second survey. 127 participants completed the second survey (44% response rate). Sixty percent of these participants felt obligated to work when sick; and 33% felt obligated to work with influenza-like symptoms (fever, myalgias, cough), with residents and students being more likely to do so than faculty (67% vs. 35% vs. 14%, p = 0.001). Most participants (83%) were motivated to work when sick to avoid creating more work for colleagues, and residents and students were more likely than faculty physicians to want to avoid negative repercussions (84% vs 71% vs. 25%, p < 0.001) or appear lazy or weak (89% vs 75% vs. 40%, p < 0.001). Most participants also recognized the need to avoid spreading infections to patients (81%) or colleagues (75%). When deciding whether to work when sick, students, residents, and faculty report a mixture of motivations that focus on the interests of patients, colleagues, and themselves. Awareness of these mixed motivations, particularly among trainees, can help inform interventions aimed at limiting instances of sickness presenteeism to support a culture of patient safety and counter any tendencies toward a hidden curriculum of efficiency and achievement.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Abstracts from the 5th International Conference on Prevention & Infection Control (ICPIC 2019)
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-09

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    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Hospital outbreak caused by linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium in Upper Austria
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Heidrun Kerschner; Adriana Cabal; Rainer Hartl; Sigrid Machherndl-Spandl; Franz Allerberger; Werner Ruppitsch; Petra Apfalter

    Enterococcus faecium is part of the human gastrointestinal flora but may act as opportunistic pathogen. Environmental persistence, high colonization capability and diverse intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms make it especially successful in nosocomial high-risk settings. In March 2014, an outbreak of Linezolid resistant Enterococcus faecium (LREfm) was observed at the hematooncology department of a tertiary care center in Upper Austria. We report on the outbreak investigation together with the whole genome sequencing (WGS)-based typing results including also non-outbreak LREfm and susceptible isolates. The 54 investigated isolates could be divided in six clusters based on cgMLST. Cluster one comprised LREfm isolates of genotype ST117 and CT24, which was identified as the causative clone of the outbreak. In addition, the detection of four other clusters comprising isolates originating from hematooncology patients but also at other hospitals, pointed to LREfm transmission between local healthcare facilities. LREfm patients (n = 36) were typically at risk for acquisition of nosocomial pathogens because of immunosuppression, frequent hospitalization and antibiotic therapies. Seven of these 36 patients developed LREfm infection but were successfully treated. After termination of the initial outbreak, sporadic cases occurred despite a bundle of applied outbreak control interventions. WGS proved to be an effective tool to differentiate several LREfm clusters in an outbreak. Active screening for LREfm is important in a high-risk setting such as hematooncology, where multiple introductions are possible and occur despite intensified infection control measures.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Antibiotic prescribing in general medical and surgical specialties: a prospective cohort study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    E. Charani; E. de Barra; T. M. Rawson; D. Gill; M. Gilchrist; N. R. Naylor; A. H. Holmes

    Qualitative work has described the differences in prescribing practice across medical and surgical specialties. This study aimed to understand if specialty impacts quantitative measures of prescribing practice. We prospectively analysed the antibiotic prescribing across general medical and surgical teams for acutely admitted patients. Over a 12-month period (June 2016 – May 2017) 659 patients (362 medical, 297 surgical) were followed for the duration of their hospital stay. Antibiotic prescribing across these cohorts was assessed using Chi-squared or Wilcoxon rank-sum, depending on normality of data. The t-test was used to compare age and length of stay. A logistic regression model was used to predict escalation of antibiotic therapy. Surgical patients were younger (p < 0.001) with lower Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (p < 0.001). Antibiotics were prescribed for 45% (162/362) medical and 55% (164/297) surgical patients. Microbiological results were available for 26% (42/164) medical and 29% (48/162) surgical patients, of which 55% (23/42) and 48% (23/48) were positive respectively. There was no difference in the spectrum of antibiotics prescribed between surgery and medicine (p = 0.507). In surgery antibiotics were 1) prescribed more frequently (p = 0.001); 2) for longer (p = 0.016); 3) more likely to be escalated (p = 0.004); 4) less likely to be compliant with local policy (p < 0.001) than medicine. Across both specialties, microbiology investigation results are not adequately used to diagnose infections and optimise their management. There is significant variation in antibiotic decision-making (including escalation patterns) between general surgical and medical teams. Antibiotic stewardship interventions targeting surgical specialties need to go beyond surgical prophylaxis. It is critical to focus on of review the patients initiated on therapeutic antibiotics in surgical specialties to ensure that escalation and continuation of therapy is justified.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A recurrent and transesophageal echocardiography–associated outbreak of extended-spectrum β-lactamase–producing Enterobacter cloacae complex in cardiac surgery patients
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Tom Van Maerken; Els De Brabandere; Audrey Noël; Liselotte Coorevits; Pascal De Waegemaeker; Raina Ablorh; Stefaan Bouchez; Ingrid Herck; Harlinde Peperstraete; Pierre Bogaerts; Bruno Verhasselt; Youri Glupczynski; Jerina Boelens; Isabel Leroux-Roels

    We report a recurrent outbreak of postoperative infections with extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)–producing E. cloacae complex in cardiac surgery patients, describe the outbreak investigation and highlight the infection control measures. Cases were defined as cardiac surgery patients in Ghent University Hospital who were not known preoperatively to carry ESBL-producing E. cloacae complex and who postoperatively had a positive culture for this multiresistant organism between May 2017 and January 2018. An epidemiological investigation, including a case-control study, and environmental investigation were conducted to identify the source of the outbreak. Clonal relatedness of ESBL-producing E. cloacae complex isolates collected from case patients was assessed using whole-genome sequencing–based studies. Three separate outbreak episodes occurred over the course of 9 months. A total of 8, 4 and 6 patients met the case definition, respectively. All but one patients developed a clinical infection with ESBL-producing E. cloacae complex, most typically postoperative pneumonia. Overall mortality was 22% (4/18). Environmental cultures were negative, but epidemiological investigation pointed to transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) as the outbreak source. Of note, four TEE probes showed a similar pattern of damage, which very likely impeded adequate disinfection. The first and second outbreak episode were caused by the same clone, whereas a different strain was responsible for the third episode. Health professionals caring for cardiac surgery patients and infection control specialists should be aware of TEE as possible infection source. Caution must be exercised to prevent and detect damage of TEE probes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Amplified fragment length polymorphism and whole genome sequencing: a comparison of methods in the investigation of a nosocomial outbreak with vancomycin resistant enterococci
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-09-23
    Victoria A. Janes; Daan W. Notermans; Ingrid J.B. Spijkerman; Caroline E. Visser; Marja E. Jakobs; Robin van Houdt; Rob J.L. Willems; Menno D. de Jong; Constance Schultsz; Sébastien Matamoros

    Recognition of nosocomial outbreaks with antimicrobial resistant (AMR) pathogens and appropriate infection prevention measures are essential to limit the consequences of AMR pathogens to patients in hospitals. Because unrelated, but genetically similar AMR pathogens may circulate simultaneously, rapid high-resolution molecular typing methods are needed for outbreak management. We compared amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and whole genome sequencing (WGS) during a nosocomial outbreak of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VRE) that spanned 5 months. Hierarchical clustering of AFLP profiles was performed using unweighted pair-grouping and similarity coefficients were calculated with Pearson correlation. For WGS-analysis, core single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were used to calculate the pairwise distance between isolates, construct a maximum likelihood phylogeny and establish a cut-off for relatedness of epidemiologically linked VRE isolates. SNP-variations in the vanB gene cluster were compared to increase the comparative resolution. Technical replicates of 2 isolates were sequenced to determine the number of core-SNPs derived from random sequencing errors. Of the 721 patients screened for VRE carriage, AFLP assigned isolates of 22 patients to the outbreak cluster. According to WGS, all 22 isolates belonged to ST117 but only 21 grouped in a tight phylogenetic cluster and carried vanB resistance gene clusters. Sequencing of technical replicates showed that 4–5 core-SNPs were derived by random sequencing errors. The cut-off for relatedness of epidemiologically linked VRE isolates was established at ≤7 core-SNPs. The discrepant isolate was separated from the index isolate by 61 core-SNPs and the vanB gene cluster was absent. In AFLP analysis this discrepant isolate was indistinguishable from the other outbreak isolates, forming a cluster with 92% similarity (cut-off for identical isolates ≥90%). The inclusion of the discrepant isolate in the outbreak resulted in the screening of 250 patients and quarantining of an entire ward. AFLP was a rapid and affordable screening tool for characterising hospital VRE outbreaks. For in-depth understanding of the outbreak WGS was needed. Compared to AFLP, WGS provided higher resolution typing of VRE isolates with implications for outbreak management.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Detection of Brucellae in peripheral blood mononuclear cells for monitoring therapeutic efficacy of brucellosis infection
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Heng Yang; Guoxia Zhang; Peifang Luo; Zuoping He; Feihuan Hu; Linhai Li; Jean-Pierre Allain; Chengyao Li; Wenjing Wang

    Brucellosis is one of the most severe widespread zoonoses caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Brucella species. The diagnosis and clinical assessment of human brucellosis are very important for the management of patients, while there is a lack of effective methods to detect Brucellae. Classical culture of Brucella species is time consuming and often fails. A simple and sensitive assay is needed for diagnosis of Brucella infection and monitoring of treatment in man. Blood samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were collected from 154 patients hospitalized for brucellosis. Brucella antibodies were detected by Rose Bengal Plate Test (RBPT), Standard Tube Agglutination Test (SAT) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Intracellular Brucellae were detected by blood culture and immunofluorescence staining (IFS). Among 154 brucellosis patients, 59.7% (92/154) were antibody reactive by RBPT, 81.8% (126/154) by SAT and 95.5% (147/154) by ELISA, respectively. Only 3.2% (5/154) of patient blood samples resulted in positive Brucella culture, while 68.8% (106/154) carried IFS detectable Brucella antigens in PBMCs. Gender (P = 0.01) but not age (P > 0.05) was a significant risk factor. The frequency of intracellular Brucella antigens was similar between patients receiving different treatment regimens (P > 0.05). However, a significant decrease of intracellular Brucellae was observed only in patients with acute brucellosis after the third course of treatment (P < 0.05), suggesting that current regimens to treat chronic brucellosis were not effective. IFS appears a sensitive assay for detection of Brucella antigens in PBMCs and could be used for diagnosis and therapeutic monitoring of brucellosis in clinical practice.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Detection of Pan drug resistance OXA-48 producing Providencia in an ICU patient for the first time in Nepal
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Ranjit Sah; Shusila Khadka; Gentle Sunder Shrestha; Subhash Acharya; Diptesh Aryal; Pramesh Shrestha; Hari Prasad Kattel; Niranjan Prasad Shah; Bharat Mani Pokhrel; Yogendra Prasad Singh; Basista Rijal; Hakan Erdem

    Resistance to antimicrobial agents of pathogenic bacteria has become a major problem in routine medical practices. Carbapenem resistance has long been increasing. The production of carbapenem- hydrolysing β-lactamases (carbapenamases), which include NDM, KPC, OXA-48, IMP-1 and VIM is the most common mechanism. A 56 years old male presented with fever and mental changes with progressively decreasing sensorium for the last 3 days. He was admitted to Intensive care unit (ICU) with a diagnosis of meningoencephalitis. On day seven, he developed ventilator associated pneumonia due Klebsiella pnemoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii. He was on meropenem, but the isolates were susceptible to colistin, tigecyclin and amikacin solely. Hence, amikacin was started with addition of intravenous and nebulized colistin. Subsequently, vital signs improved with resolution of fever. However, on day 18, he developed fever once again with a drop in blood pressure. Inotropic support was maintained, and echinocandins and tigecycline were added to the regimen. Repeat blood and urine culture grew Providencia species, which were resistant to most of the drugs on phenotypic Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and are intrinsically resistant to colistin and tigecycline. Phenotypic detection of ESBL (combined disk method), MBL, KPCs, AmpC and co-producer were tested according to updated CLSI guideline and all were negative. But the Modified Hodges test was found to be positive. Consequenty, OXA-48 drug resistance pattern was brought into action by blank disc method according to A Tsakris et al., which revealed indentation of growth toward both EDTA and EDTA/PBA disk indicating production of OXA-48 carbapenamase. To confirm the resistance pattern we processed the isolated colonies for Xpert Carba-R (Cepheid) assay, which detected blaOXA-48 gene and confirmed the OXA-48 drug resistance pattern. Hence, the infecting organism was not susceptible to any of the antibiotics. The patient was kept under isolation and on 31th day of admission, he died of septic shock. Carbapenamase production along with intrinsic colistin resistance in infecting bacterial pathogens can cause fatal outcomes in the resource limited countries like Nepal where new antibiotic combinations ceftazidime+ Avibactam, or aztreonam +avibactam are not available. Drug resistance patterns including OXA 48 producer should be characterized in all cases by standard phenotypic methods or by Xpert Carba-R assay and larger studies are required to know the exact burden of OXA 48 producer in Nepal.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Molecular and phenotypic characterization of clinical isolates belonging to a KPC-2-producing strain of ST15 Klebsiella pneumoniae from a Vietnamese pediatric hospital
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Björn Berglund; Ngoc Thi Bich Hoang; Maria Tärnberg; Ngai Kien Le; Maud Nilsson; Dung Thi Khanh Khu; Olov Svartström; Jenny Welander; Lennart E. Nilsson; Linus Olson; Tran Minh Dien; Hai Thanh Le; Mattias Larsson; Håkan Hanberger

    Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae are becoming increasingly common in hospital settings worldwide and are a source of increased morbidity, mortality and health care costs. The global epidemiology of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae is characterized by different strains distributed geographically, with the strain ST258 being predominant in Europe and USA, and ST11 being most common in East Asia. ST15 is a less frequently occurring strain but has nevertheless been reported worldwide as a source of hospital outbreaks of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. In this study, whole-genome sequencing and antimicrobial susceptibility testing was used to characterize 57 clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae belonging to a strain of ST15, which were collected at a Vietnamese pediatric hospital from February throughout September 2015. Aside from the carbapenem resistance gene blaKPC-2, which was carried by all isolates, prevalence of resistance genes to other antibiotics including aminoglycosides, macrolides, quinolones, fosfomycin and trimethoprim, was also high. All isolates were multidrug-resistant. Susceptibility was highest to ceftazidime/avibactam (96%), gentamicin (91%) and tigecycline (82%). Notably, the colistin resistance rate was very high (42%). Single-nucleotide polymorphism analysis indicated that most isolates belonged to a single clone. The diverse variety of antibiotic resistance genes and the high antibiotic resistance rates to last-resort antibiotics such as carbapenems and colistin, is indicative of a highly adaptable strain. This emphasizes the importance of implementation of infection controls measures, continued monitoring of antibiotic resistance and prudent use of antibiotics to prevent further selection of resistant strains and the emergence of pan-resistant clones.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sources and reservoirs of Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A inside a NICU
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Marine Butin; Yann Dumont; Alice Monteix; Aurane Raphard; Christine Roques; Patricia Martins Simoes; Jean-Charles Picaud; Frédéric Laurent

    The methicillin-resistant clone Staphylococcus capitis NRCS-A, involved in sepsis in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) worldwide, is able to persist and spread in NICUs, suggesting the presence of reservoirs inside each setting. The purpose of the present study was to identify these reservoirs and to investigate the cycle of transmission of NRCS-A in one NICU. In a single institution study, NRCS-A was sought in 106 consecutive vaginal samples of pregnant women to identify a potential source of NRCS-A importation into the NICU. Additionally NICU caregivers and environmental including incubators were tested to identify putative secondary reservoirs. Finally, the efficacy of disinfection procedure in the elimination of NRCS-A from incubators was evaluated. No S. capitis was isolated from vaginal samples of pregnant women. Three of the 21 tested caregivers (14%) carried S. capitis on their hands, but none remain positive after a five-day wash-out period outside NICU. Moreover, the clone NRCS-A persisted during six consecutive weeks in the NICU environment, but none of the sampled sites was constantly contaminated. Finally in our before/after disinfection study, all of 16 incubators were colonized before disinfection and 10 (62%) incubators remained colonized with NRCS-A after the disinfection procedure. The partial ineffectiveness of incubators’ disinfection procedures is responsible for persistence of NRCS-A inside a NICU, and the passive hand contamination of caregivers could be involved in the inter-patient transmission of S. capitis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Selection and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance in Agri-food production
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Guyue Cheng; Jianan Ning; Saeed Ahmed; Junhong Huang; Rizwan Ullah; Boyu An; Haihong Hao; Menghong Dai; Lingli Huang; Xu Wang; Zonghui Yuan

    Public unrest about the use of antimicrobial agents in farming practice is the leading cause of increasing and the emergences of Multi-drug Resistant Bacteria that have placed pressure on the agri-food industry to act. The usage of antimicrobials in food and agriculture have direct or indirect effects on the development of Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) by bacteria associated with animals and plants which may enter the food chain through consumption of meat, fish, vegetables or some other food sources. In addition to antimicrobials, recent reports have shown that AMR is associated with tolerance to heavy metals existing naturally or used in agri-food production. Besides, biocides including disinfectants, antiseptics and preservatives which are widely used in farms and slaughter houses may also contribute in the development of AMR. Though the direct transmission of AMR from food-animals and related environment to human is still vague and debatable, the risk should not be neglected. Therefore, combined global efforts are necessary for the proper use of antimicrobials, heavy metals and biocides in agri-food production to control the development of AMR. These collective measures will preserve the effectiveness of existing antimicrobials for future generations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Linezolid use in German acute care hospitals: results from two consecutive national point prevalence surveys
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Tobias Siegfried Kramer; Frank Schwab; Michael Behnke; Sonja Hansen; Petra Gastmeier; Seven Johannes Sam Aghdassi

    Linezolid belongs to a reserve group of antibiotics. In recent years, reports on linezolid resistance in gram-positive cocci have become more frequent. Overuse of linezolid is a relevant factor for resistance development. The objective of this study was to describe current prescription practices of linezolid in German hospitals and identify targets for antimicrobial stewardship interventions. We analyzed all linezolid prescriptions from the datasets of the consecutive national point prevalence surveys performed in German hospitals in 2011 and 2016. In both surveys, data on healthcare-associated infections and antimicrobial use were collected following the methodology of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Overall, the percentage of linezolid among all documented antimicrobials increased significantly from 2011 to 2016 (p < 0.01). In 2011, 0.3% (119 of 41,539) patients received linezolid, in 2016 this proportion was significantly higher (0.4%; 255 of 64,412 patients; p < 0.01). In 2016, intensive care units (ICUs) were the wards most frequently prescribing linezolid. The largest proportion of patients receiving linezolid were non-ICU patients. Roughly 38% of linezolid prescriptions were for treatment of skin/soft tissue and respiratory tract infections. In 2016, linezolid was administered parenterally in 70% (n = 179) of cases. Multivariable analysis showed that the ward specialty ICU posed an independent risk factor, while Northern and Southwestern regions in Germany were independent protective factors for a high rate of linezolid prescriptions. In conclusion, we detected potentials for improving linezolid prescription practices in German hospitals. Given the emergence of linezolid resistance, optimization of linezolid use must be a target of future antimicrobial stewardship activities.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Infection control management and surveillance of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in hematopoietic stem cell recipients
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Claas Baier; Maleen Beck; Viktoria Panagiota; Catherina Lueck; Daniel Kharazipour; Sophie Charlotte Hintze; Robin Bollin; Ella Ebadi; Stefan Ziesing; Matthias Eder; Franz-Christoph Bange; Gernot Beutel

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a curative treatment option for selected diseases of the hematopoietic system. In the context of HSCT, bloodstream infections caused by Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) significantly contribute to morbidity and mortality. Antibiotic treatment of bloodstream infections with carbapenem-resistant (CR) GNB presents a particular challenge. As a part of our infection control management, the admission of a patient who was known to be colonized with a CR Acinetobacter baumannii triggered an active weekly screening of all patients to determine the prevalence and potential transmission of CR GNB and CR Acinetobacter baumannii in particular. Over a 3 month period a total of 71 patients were regularly screened for colonization with CR GNB. Including the index patient, a total of three patients showed CR GNB colonization representing a prevalence of 4.2%. Nosocomial transmission of CR Acinetobacter baumannii or other CR GNB was not observed. However, the index patient developed a subsequent bloodstream infection with the CR Acinetobacter baumannii, therefore empiric antibiotic therapy based on the known resistance profile was initiated. A weekly prevalence screening for CR GNB might be an effective monitoring tool for potential transmission, may enhance existing infection control management concepts and may support the decision making for empiric antibiotic therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Patterns of self-medication with antibiotics in Maputo City: a qualitative study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Neusa F. Torres; Vernon P. Solomon; Lyn E. Middleton

    Mozambique classifies but does not yet enforce antibiotics as prescription-only-medicine (POM) allowing the public access to a variety of antibiotics that otherwise are provided on prescription. This contributes to the growing practice of self-medication with antibiotics (SMA) which systematically exposes individuals to the risk of developing antibiotic resistance, antibiotic side effects and increases the health service costs and morbidity. This study aimed at describing the patterns of SMA among Maputo city pharmacy customers. A qualitative study conducted between October 2018 and March 2019 was developed with thirty-two pharmacy customers and seventeen pharmacists. Using convenience sampling, customers were recruited after buying antibiotics without prescription from nine private pharmacies. Of the thirty-two participants, twenty participated in in-depth interviews and twelve in two focus groups discussions (FGD) with six participants each. Purposive sampling and a snowball technique were used to recruit pharmacists. The transcripts were coded and analyzed using latent content analysis. Nvivo 11 was used to store and retrieve the data. The COREQ (Tong, 2007) checklist for interviews and FGD was performed. Customers admitted practices of SMA, pharmacists admitted dispensing a variety of antibiotics without prescription. Non-prescribed antibiotics (NPA) were obtained through five different patterns including; using the generic name, describing the physical appearance and using empty package, describing symptoms or health problem to pharmacists, using old prescriptions and sharing antibiotics with family, friends, and neighbors. Different patterns of SMA are contributing to the indiscriminate use of antibiotics among customers. The NPA utilization is perceived as an expression of self-care where participants experience self-perceived symptoms and indulge in self-treatment as a method of caring for themselves. Moreover, antibiotics are mostly used to treat diseases that do not necessarily need antibiotics. Strong and effective public health education and promotion initiatives should be implemented to discourage inappropriate utilization of antibiotics and SMA practices.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nurse roles in antimicrobial stewardship: lessons from public sectors models of acute care service delivery in the United Kingdom
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Enrique Castro-Sánchez; Mark Gilchrist; Raheelah Ahmad; Molly Courtenay; Jo Bosanquet; Alison H. Holmes

    Health care services must engage all relevant healthcare workers, including nurses, in optimal antimicrobial use to address the global threat of drug-resistant infections. Reflecting upon the variety of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) nursing models already implemented in the UK could facilitate policymaking and decisions in other settings about context-sensitive, pragmatic nurse roles. We describe purposefully selected cases drawn from the UK network of public sector nurses in AMS exploring their characteristics, influence, relations with clinical and financial structures, and role content. AMS nursing has been deployed in the UK within ‘vertical’, ‘horizontal’ or ‘hybrid’ models. The ‘vertical’ model refers to a novel, often unique consultant-type role ideally suited to transform organisational practice by legitimising nurse participation in antimicrobial decisions. Such organisational improvements may not be straightforward, though, due to scalability issues. The ‘horizontal’ model can foster coordinated efforts to increase optimal AMS behaviours in all nurses around a narrative of patient safety and quality. Such model may be unable to address tensions between the required institutional response to sepsis and the inappropriate use of antibiotics. Finally, the ‘hybrid’ model would increase AMS responsibilities for all nurses whilst allocating some expanded AMS skills to existing teams of specialists such as sepsis or vascular access nurses. This model can generate economies of scale, yet it may be threatened by a lack of clarity about a nurse-relevant vision. A variety of models articulating the participation of nurses in antimicrobial stewardship efforts have already been implemented in public sector organisations in the UK. The strengths and weaknesses of each model need considering before implementation in other settings and healthcare systems, including precise metrics of success and careful consideration of context-sensitive, resource dependent and pragmatic solutions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Prescribing practices using WHO prescribing indicators and factors associated with antibiotic prescribing in six community pharmacies in Asmara, Eritrea: a cross-sectional study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Nebyu Daniel Amaha; Dawit G. Weldemariam; Nuru Abdu; Eyasu H. Tesfamariam

    Antibiotics require more prudent prescribing, dispensing and administration than other medicines because these medicines are at a greater risk of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Studying the current medicine use practices and factors affecting the prescribing of an antibiotic would help decision makers to draft policies that would enable a more rational use of medicines. A prospective, descriptive, and cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the current prescribing practices including antibiotics use in six community pharmacies in Asmara. A total of 600 encounters were reviewed using the WHO core prescribing indicators between May 5 and May 12, 2019 using stratified random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression were employed using IBM SPSS® (version 22). The average number of medicines per prescription was 1.76 and 83.14% of the medicines were prescribed using generic names while 98.39% of the medicines were from the National Essential Medicines List (NEML). The percentage of prescriptions containing antibiotics was 53%. The number of encounters containing injections was 7.8%. Patient age, gender and number of medicines prescribed were significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing at bivariate and multivariable models. Subjects under the age of 15 were approximately three times more likely to be prescribed antibiotic compared to subjects whose age is 65 and above (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 2.93, 95%CI: 1.71–5). Similarly, males were more likely to be prescribed antibiotic than females (AOR: 1.57, 95%CI: 1.10–2.24). Subjects to whom three to four medicines prescribed were two times more likely to be prescribed an antibiotic compared to those who were to be prescribed one to two medicines per encounter (AOR: 2.17, 95%CI: 1.35–3.5). A one-unit increase in the number of medicines increased the odds of antibiotic prescribing increased by 2.02 units (COR: 2.02; 95%CI: 1.62–2.52). This study found that the percentage of antibiotics being prescribed at the community pharmacies in Asmara was 53% which deviated significantly from the WHO recommended values (20–26.8%). Furthermore, the percentage of encounters with an injection was 7.8% lower than the WHO value of 13.4–24.0%. Patients’ age, gender and number of medicines were significantly associated with antibiotic prescribing.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Debate on the compositions of influenza B in northern hemisphere seasonal influenza vaccines
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Guozhong He; Pengfei Yang; Qingli Yan; Chenglong Xiong

    Annual influenza vaccination is the most effective way to prevent influenza. Influenza vaccines have traditionally included the hemagglutinins (HA) and neuraminidases (NA) from the two A viruses (H1N1 and H3N2) and either B Yamagata or B Victoria. Mismatches between circulating isolates of influenza B and the vaccines are very common. Taking 2017/2018 winter in northern hemisphere as an example, this study was designed to find out the reasons for mismatch between the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) and most of the epidemic isolates at that time, and to discuss if there are some optimized programs for seasonal influenza vaccines. HA and NA sequences of the seasonal isolates circulating from December 1, 2017 to February 28, 2018, and in the previously other 7 winters in northern hemisphere from Global Initiative on Sharing All Influenza Data (GISAID) and the influenza database of National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI). Phylogenetic trees and genetic distances were constructed or calculated by using MAFFT and MEGA 6.0 software. Influenza B composition in the TIV recommendation mismatched most of circulating viruses in 2017/2018 winter; the vaccine strain was from the B/Victoria lineage, while most of epidemic isolates were from the B/Yamagata lineage. The epidemic lineage of influenza B reached its peak a little late in the previous winter might be responsible for this mismatch. During 2010–2018, the mean genetic distances between epidemic isolates of influenza A (H1N1 and H3N2) and the vaccines were no higher than 0.02375 ± 0.00341 in both HA and NA. However, concerning influenza B virus, when forecasting done well, the mean genetic distances between epidemic isolates and the vaccines were no higher than 0.02368 ± 0.00272; otherwise, the distances could reach 0.13695 ± 0.00238. When applying quadrivalent influenza vaccines (QIVs) for vaccination, the recommendations of compositions for influenza B could be altered and assessed once in 3 or 4 years; when economic burden was considered intensively and TIVs were utilized, the recommended compositions for influenza B could be announced in April or May, rather than in February or March as now.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Acceptability and tolerability of alcohol-based hand hygiene products for elderly residents in long-term care: a crossover study
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Margaret O’Donoghue; Jacqueline M. C. Ho; Didier Pittet; Lorna K. P. Suen

    Hand hygiene is a critical component of infection control. Much of the focus on improving hand hygiene in healthcare settings has been directed towards healthcare worker compliance but its importance for patients, including those in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), is increasingly being recognised. Alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) can lead to improved compliance. We aimed to determine acceptability and tolerability of two ABHRs for hand hygiene of elderly LTCF residents using a modified version of the WHO protocol. Thirty six elderly LTCF residents participated in this crossover study. A modified and translated (Chinese) version of the WHO protocol for evaluation of two or more ABHRs was used to determine product acceptability and tolerability for one gel (bottle with reclosable cap) and one foam (pump). During the 3-day testing period, participants were provided with their own portable bottle of ABHR. A research nurse objectively assessed the skin integrity of the hands at baseline and throughout the study. Skin moisture content was determined using a Scalar Moisture Checker Probe (Science Technology Resources, Ca, USA). Participants rated ABHR tolerability and acceptability using the WHO checklist at the end of each test period. Both products passed the WHO criteria for acceptability and tolerability. The foam (86%) scored higher than the gel (51%) for ease of use possibly because some participants found the cap of the gel bottle difficult to open due to finger stiffness. No evidence of damage to skin integrity was observed. Overall, skin moisture content had improved by the end of the study. Residents preferred either of the test products to the liquid formulation currently in use by the LTCF. Overall, the elderly were willing to use ABHR for hand hygiene. Both products were well tolerated and preferred over the usual product provided by the LTCF. However, forgetfulness and difficulty rubbing the product over the hands due to finger stiffness posed a challenge for some residents. This could be overcome by using healthcare worker-assisted hand hygiene at specified times each day and prompts to serve as reminders to perform hand hygiene.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Clinical, microbiological, and molecular epidemiological characteristics of Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pyogenic liver abscess in southeastern China
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Siqin Zhang; Xiucai Zhang; Qing Wu; Xiangkuo Zheng; Guofeng Dong; Renchi Fang; Yizhi Zhang; Jianming Cao; Tieli Zhou

    Klebsiella pneumoniae-induced pyogenic liver abscess (KP-PLA) has emerged as a life-threatening disease worldwide. However, to date, a limited number of scholars have attempted to systematically elucidate the characteristics of KP-PLA. The aim of the present study was to analyze clinical, microbiological, and molecular epidemiological characteristics of KP-PLA patients in Southeastern China. The KP-PLA cases from a tertiary teaching hospital in China from January 2016 to December 2017 were systemically studied and elucidated comprehensively. The virulence factors, resistant spectrum, and clones of K. pneumoniae isolates were identified with string test, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), antimicrobial susceptibility test, and multilocus sequence typing. Moreover, the characteristics in KP-PLA patients with and without other hepatobiliary diseases (OHD) were also been compared. A total of 163 KP-PLA cases were enrolled, in which the majority of those cases were senior males, and often associated with multiple underlying diseases, including diabetes (49.7%). The remaining cases belonged to healthy individuals (50.3%). The clinical symptoms were common but nonspecific, characterized by increased inflammatory parameters and abnormal liver function parameters. The abscess was often right-sided solitary presentation (58.3%). Cephalosporin or carbapenem plus metronidazole combined with percutaneous puncture or catheter drainage were favorable therapeutics. Although low resistance rates of commonly used antimicrobial drugs (< 10%) were observed, twelve strains were identified as multidrug resistant (MDR) strains, and were mainly isolated from the OHD patients. The hypermucoviscosity, as well as K1 and K2 serotypes accounted for 30.7, 40.5, and 19.0%, respectively. Except for iroN (24.5%) and magA (45.4%), the high prevalence of virulence genes (e.g. aerobactin, rmpA, mrkD, fimH, uge, ureA, entB, ybtA, kfuBC, and wcaG) was identified (68.7–100.0%). Additionally, ST23 was found as a predominant sequence type (ST; 38.7%), and three novel STs (ST3507, ST3508 and ST3509) were noted as well. The present study reported the abundant hvKp strains in KP-PLA, as well as convergence of hypervirulent and MDR K. pneumoniae isolates from the KP-PLA patients, particularly those cases with OHD. Given the various clinical manifestations and destructive pathogenicity, determination of the comprehensive characteristics of such isolates is highly essential to effectively carry out for optimal management and treatment of KP-PLA.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Genomic characterization of Citrobacter freundii strains coproducing OXA-48 and VIM-1 carbapenemase enzymes isolated in leukemic patient in Spain
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Rym Lalaoui; Ana Djukovic; Sofiane Bakour; Linda Hadjadj; Jaime Sanz; Miguel Salavert; Jose Luis López-Hontangas; Miguel A. Sanz; Carles Ubeda; Jean-Marc Rolain

    The emergence of carbapenemase-producing (CP) Citrobacter freundii poses a significant threat to public health, especially in high-risk populations. In this study, whole genome sequencing was used to characterize the carbapenem resistance mechanism of three C. freundii clinical isolates recovered from fecal samples of patients with acute leukemia (AL) from Spain. Twelve fecal samples, collected between 2013 and 2015 from 9 patients with AL, were screened for the presence of CP strains by selecting them on MacConkey agar supplemented with ertapenem (0.5 mg/L). Bacteria were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and were phenotypically characterized. Whole genome sequencing of C. freundii isolates was performed using the MinION and MiSeq Illumina sequencers. Bioinformatic analysis was performed in order to identify the molecular support of carbapenem resistance and to study the genetic environment of carbapenem resistance encoding genes. Three carbapenem-resistant C. freundii strains (imipenem MIC≥32 mg/L) corresponding to three different AL patients were isolated. Positive modified Carba NP test results suggested carbapenemase production. The genomes of each C. freundii tested were assembled into a single chromosomal contig and plasmids contig. In all the strains, the carbapenem resistance was due to the coproduction of OXA-48 and VIM-1 enzymes encoded by genes located on chromosome and on an IncHI2 plasmid, respectively. According to the MLST and the SNPs analysis, all strains belonged to the same clone ST169. We report in our study, the intestinal carrying of C. freundii clone ST169 coproducing OXA-48 and VIM-1 identified in leukemic patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) screening and isolation in the general medicine ward: a cost-effectiveness analysis
    Antimicrob. Resist. Infect. Control (IF 3.224) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Stephen Mac; Tiffany Fitzpatrick; Jennie Johnstone; Beate Sander

    Vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) are a serious antimicrobial resistant threat in the healthcare setting. We assessed the cost-effectiveness of VRE screening and isolation for patients at high-risk for colonisation on a general medicine ward compared to no VRE screening and isolation from the healthcare payer perspective. We developed a microsimulation model using local data and VRE literature, to simulate a 20-bed general medicine ward at a tertiary-care hospital with up to 1000 admissions, approximating 1 year. Primary outcomes were accrued over the patient’s lifetime, discounted at 1.5%, and included expected health outcomes (VRE colonisations, VRE infections, VRE-related bacteremia, and deaths subsequent to VRE infection), quality-adjusted life years (QALYs), healthcare costs, and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER). Probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) and scenario analyses were conducted to assess parameter uncertainty. In our base-case analysis, VRE screening and isolation prevented six healthcare-associated VRE colonisations per 1000 admissions (6/1000), 0.6/1000 VRE-related infections, 0.2/1000 VRE-related bacteremia, and 0.1/1000 deaths subsequent to VRE infection. VRE screening and isolation accrued 0.0142 incremental QALYs at an incremental cost of $112, affording an ICER of $7850 per QALY. VRE screening and isolation practice was more likely to be cost-effective (> 50%) at a cost-effectiveness threshold of $50,000/QALY. Stochasticity (randomness) had a significant impact on the cost-effectiveness. VRE screening and isolation can be cost-effective in majority of model simulations at commonly used cost-effectiveness thresholds, and is likely economically attractive in general medicine settings. Our findings strengthen the understanding of VRE prevention strategies and are of importance to hospital program planners and infection prevention and control.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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