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  • The Plant Microbiome: From Ecology to Reductionism and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-06-12
    Connor R Fitzpatrick,Isai Salas-González,Jonathan M Conway,Omri M Finkel,Sarah Gilbert,Dor Russ,Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira,Jeffery L Dangl

    Methodological advances over the past two decades have propelled plant microbiome research, allowing the field to comprehensively test ideas proposed over a century ago and generate many new hypotheses. Studying the distribution of microbial taxa and genes across plant habitats has revealed the importance of various ecological and evolutionary forces shaping plant microbiota. In particular, selection

    更新日期:2020-06-12
  • Archaeal DNA Replication.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Mark D Greci,Stephen D Bell

    It is now well recognized that the information processing machineries of archaea are far more closely related to those of eukaryotes than to those of their prokaryotic cousins, the bacteria. Extensive studies have been performed on the structure and function of the archaeal DNA replication origins, the proteins that define them, and the macromolecular assemblies that drive DNA unwinding and nascent

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • Structures and Strategies of Anti-CRISPR-Mediated Immune Suppression.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Tanner Wiegand,Shweta Karambelkar,Joseph Bondy-Denomy,Blake Wiedenheft

    More than 50 protein families have been identified that inhibit CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas-mediated adaptive immune systems. Here, we analyze the available anti-CRISPR (Acr) structures and describe common themes and unique mechanisms of stoichiometric and enzymatic suppressors of CRISPR-Cas. Stoichiometric inhibitors often function as molecular decoys of

    更新日期:2020-06-05
  • A Tale of Good Fortune in the Era of DNA.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Jeffrey Roberts

    Two strains of good fortune in my career were to stumble upon the Watson-Gilbert laboratory at Harvard when I entered graduate school in 1964, and to study gene regulation in bacteriophage λ when I was there. λ was almost entirely a genetic item a few years before, awaiting biochemical incarnation. Throughout my career I was a relentless consumer of the work of previous and current generations of λ

    更新日期:2020-05-26
  • Defense and Counterdefense During Plant-Pathogenic Oomycete Infection.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Yan Wang,Brett M Tyler,Yuanchao Wang

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes include numerous species that are ongoing threats to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Understanding the molecular dialogs between oomycetes and plants is instrumental for sustaining effective disease control. Plants respond to oomycete infection by multiple defense actions including strengthening of physical barriers, production of antimicrobial molecules, and programmed

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Paleomicrobiology: Diagnosis and Evolution of Ancient Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Kirsten I Bos,Denise Kühnert,Alexander Herbig,Luis Roger Esquivel-Gomez,Aida Andrades Valtueña,Rodrigo Barquera,Karen Giffin,Aditya Kumar Lankapalli,Elizabeth A Nelson,Susanna Sabin,Maria A Spyrou,Johannes Krause

    The last century has witnessed progress in the study of ancient infectious disease from purely medical descriptions of past ailments to dynamic interpretations of past population health that draw upon multiple perspectives. The recent adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing has led to an expanded understanding of pathogen presence, evolution, and ecology across the globe. This genomic revolution

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Assembly and Subcellular Localization of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Jing Wang,Maj Brodmann,Marek Basler

    Bacteria need to deliver large molecules out of the cytosol to the extracellular space or even across membranes of neighboring cells to influence their environment, prevent predation, defeat competitors, or communicate. A variety of protein-secretion systems have evolved to make this process highly regulated and efficient. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is one of the largest dynamic assemblies

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Metabolic Basis of Pathogenesis and Host Adaptation in Rice Blast.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Yi Zhen Deng,Naweed I Naqvi

    The blast disease, caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae, poses a great threat to rice production worldwide. Increasing use of fungicides and/or blast-resistant varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) has proved to be ineffective in long-term control of blast disease under field conditions. To develop effective and durable resistance to blast, it is important to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Signaling Cascades Governing Entry into and Exit from Host Cells by Toxoplasma gondii.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Hugo Bisio,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    The Apicomplexa phylum includes a large group of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites responsible for important diseases in humans and animals. Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite with considerable versatility, and it is capable of infecting virtually any warm-blooded animal, including humans. This outstanding success can be attributed at least in part to an efficient and continuous sensing

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Small Is Mighty-Chemical Communication Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Stephen Dela Ahator,LianHui Zhang

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of acute and chronic infections. Usually a commensal on the host body, P. aeruginosa is capable of transforming into a virulent pathogen upon sensing favorable changes in the host immune system or stress cues. P. aeruginosa infections are hard to eradicate, because this pathogen has developed strong resistance to most conventional

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    To Sing Fung,Ding Xiang Liu

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes respiratory diseases with mild to severe outcomes. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic, highly pathogenic HCoVs: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Replication of HCoV is regulated by a diversity of host factors and induces drastic alterations

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Two-Component Sensing and Regulation: How Do Histidine Kinases Talk with Response Regulators at the Molecular Level?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Alejandro Buschiazzo,Felipe Trajtenberg

    Perceiving environmental and internal information and reacting in adaptive ways are essential attributes of living organisms. Two-component systems are relevant protein machineries from prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that enable cells to sense and process signals. Implicating sensory histidine kinases and response regulator proteins, both components take advantage of protein phosphorylation and flexibility

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Acinetobacter baumannii: Envelope Determinants That Control Drug Resistance, Virulence, and Surface Variability.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Edward Geisinger,Wenwen Huo,Juan Hernandez-Bird,Ralph R Isberg

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, particularly for patients in intensive care units and with invasive indwelling devices. The most recent clinical isolates are resistant to several classes of clinically important antibiotics, greatly restricting the ability to effectively treat critically ill patients. The bacterial envelope is an important driver of A. baumannii

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Bent Bacteria: A Comparison of Cell Shape Mechanisms in Proteobacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Jennifer A Taylor,Sophie R Sichel,Nina R Salama

    Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical Proteobacteria is beginning to suggest possible mechanisms and provide tools to assess functional significance. We focus here on Caulobacter crescentus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, organisms from three classes

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Diversity, Genomics, and Distribution of Phytoplankton-Cyanobacterium Single-Cell Symbiotic Associations.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Rachel A Foster,Jonathan P Zehr

    Cyanobacteria are common in symbiotic relationships with diverse multicellular organisms (animals, plants, fungi) in terrestrial environments and with single-celled heterotrophic, mixotrophic, and autotrophic protists in aquatic environments. In the sunlit zones of aquatic environments, diverse cyanobacterial symbioses exist with autotrophic taxa in phytoplankton, including dinoflagellates, diatoms

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Chromatic Acclimation in Cyanobacteria: A Diverse and Widespread Process for Optimizing Photosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Joseph E Sanfilippo,Laurence Garczarek,Frédéric Partensky,David M Kehoe

    Chromatic acclimation (CA) encompasses a diverse set of molecular processes that involve the ability of cyanobacterial cells to sense ambient light colors and use this information to optimize photosynthetic light harvesting. The six known types of CA, which we propose naming CA1 through CA6, use a range of molecular mechanisms that likely evolved independently in distantly related lineages of the Cyanobacteria

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multiple Roles of c-di-GMP Signaling in Bacterial Pathogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Martina Valentini,Alain Filloux

    The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the lifestyle of bacteria and controls many key functions and mechanisms. In the case of bacterial pathogens, a wide variety of virulence lifestyle factors have been shown to be regulated by c-di-GMP. Evidence of the importance of this molecule for bacterial pathogenesis has become so great that new antimicrobial agents are tested

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Bacterial Persisters and Infection: Past, Present, and Progressing.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Bridget Gollan,Grzegorz Grabe,Charlotte Michaux,Sophie Helaine

    Persisters are nongrowing, transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacteria within a clonal population of otherwise susceptible cells. Their formation is triggered by environmental cues and involves the main bacterial stress response pathways that allow persisters to survive many harsh conditions, including antibiotic exposure. During infection, bacterial pathogens are exposed to a vast array of stresses in

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Biogeography of the Oral Microbiome: The Site-Specialist Hypothesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Jessica L Mark Welch,Floyd E Dewhirst,Gary G Borisy

    Microbial communities are complex and dynamic, composed of hundreds of taxa interacting across multiple spatial scales. Advances in sequencing and imaging technology have led to great strides in understanding both the composition and the spatial organization of these complex communities. In the human mouth, sequencing results indicate that distinct sites host microbial communities that not only are

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Responses of Microorganisms to Osmotic Stress.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Erhard Bremer,Reinhard Krämer

    The cytoplasm of bacterial cells is a highly crowded cellular compartment that possesses considerable osmotic potential. As a result, and owing to the semipermeable nature of the cytoplasmic membrane and the semielastic properties of the cell wall, osmotically driven water influx will generate turgor, a hydrostatic pressure considered critical for growth and viability. Both increases and decreases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Ultimate Guide to Bacterial Swarming: An Experimental Model to Study the Evolution of Cooperative Behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Jinyuan Yan,Hilary Monaco,Joao B Xavier

    Cooperation has fascinated biologists since Darwin. How did cooperative behaviors evolve despite the fitness cost to the cooperator? Bacteria have cooperative behaviors that make excellent models to take on this age-old problem from both proximate (molecular) and ultimate (evolutionary) angles. We delve into Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming, a phenomenon where billions of bacteria move cooperatively

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Algal Sex Determination and the Evolution of Anisogamy.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    James Umen,Susana Coelho

    Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotes whose taxonomic breadth covers a range of life histories, degrees of cellular and developmental complexity, and diverse patterns of sexual reproduction. These patterns include haploid- and diploid-phase sex determination, isogamous mating systems, and dimorphic sexes. Despite the ubiquity of sexual reproduction in algae, their mating-type-determination and sex-determination

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Tc Toxin Complexes: Assembly, Membrane Permeation, and Protein Translocation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Daniel Roderer,Stefan Raunser

    Tc toxin complexes are virulence factors of many bacteria, including insect and human pathogens. Tc toxins are composed of three subunits that act together to perforate the host membrane, similar to a syringe, and translocate toxic enzymes into the host cell. The reactions of the toxic enzymes lead to deterioration and ultimately death of the cell. We review recent high-resolution structural and functional

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Functional Regulators of Bacterial Flagella.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Sundharraman Subramanian,Daniel B Kearns

    Bacteria move by a variety of mechanisms, but the best understood types of motility are powered by flagella (72). Flagella are complex machines embedded in the cell envelope that rotate a long extracellular helical filament like a propeller to push cells through the environment. The flagellum is one of relatively few biological machines that experience continuous 360° rotation, and it is driven by

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multikinase Networks: Two-Component Signaling Networks Integrating Multiple Stimuli.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Vanessa I Francis,Steven L Porter

    Bacteria depend on two-component systems to detect and respond to threats. Simple pathways comprise a single sensor kinase (SK) that detects a signal and activates a response regulator protein to mediate an appropriate output. These simple pathways with only a single SK are not well suited to making complex decisions where multiple different stimuli need to be evaluated. A recently emerging theme is

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Structural Basis of Response Regulator Function.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Rong Gao,Sophie Bouillet,Ann M Stock

    Response regulators function as the output components of two-component systems, which couple the sensing of environmental stimuli to adaptive responses. Response regulators typically contain conserved receiver (REC) domains that function as phosphorylation-regulated switches to control the activities of effector domains that elicit output responses. This modular design is extremely versatile, enabling

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Phage Therapy in the Twenty-First Century: Facing the Decline of the Antibiotic Era; Is It Finally Time for the Age of the Phage?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-11
    Shayla Hesse,Sankar Adhya

    Burgeoning problems of antimicrobial resistance dictate that new solutions be developed to combat old foes. Use of lytic bacteriophages (phages) for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial infections is one approach that has gained significant traction in recent years. Fueled by reports of experimental phage therapy cases with very positive patient outcomes, several early-stage clinical trials of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Coordination of the Cell Cycle in Trypanosomes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Richard J Wheeler,Keith Gull,Jack D Sunter

    Trypanosomes have complex life cycles within which there are both proliferative and differentiation cell divisions. The coordination of the cell cycle to achieve these different divisions is critical for the parasite to infect both host and vector. From studying the regulation of the proliferative cell cycle of the Trypanosoma brucei procyclic life cycle stage, three subcycles emerge that control the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Protein Acetylation in Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Chelsey M VanDrisse,Jorge C Escalante-Semerena

    Acetylation is a posttranslational modification conserved in all domains of life that is carried out by N-acetyltransferases. While acetylation can occur on Nα-amino groups, this review will focus on Nε-acetylation of lysyl residues and how the posttranslational modification changes the cellular physiology of bacteria. Up until the late 1990s, acetylation was studied in eukaryotes in the context of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cellular Functions and Mechanisms of Action of Small Heat Shock Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Axel Mogk,Carmen Ruger-Herreros,Bernd Bukau

    Small heat shock proteins (sHsps) constitute a diverse chaperone family that shares the α-crystallin domain, which is flanked by variable, disordered N- and C-terminal extensions. sHsps act as the first line of cellular defense against protein unfolding stress. They form dynamic, large oligomers that represent inactive storage forms. Stress conditions cause a rapid increase in cellular sHsp levels

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Ecology and Evolution of Plant Microbiomes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-15
    Viviane Cordovez,Francisco Dini-Andreote,Víctor J Carrión,Jos M Raaijmakers

    Microorganisms colonizing plant surfaces and internal tissues provide a number of life-support functions for their host. Despite increasing recognition of the vast functional capabilities of the plant microbiome, our understanding of the ecology and evolution of the taxonomically hyperdiverse microbial communities is limited. Here, we review current knowledge of plant genotypic and phenotypic traits

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Posttranscription Initiation Control of Gene Expression Mediated by Bacterial RNA-Binding Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Paul Babitzke,Ying-Jung Lai,Andrew J Renda,Tony Romeo

    RNA-binding proteins play vital roles in regulating gene expression and cellular physiology in all organisms. Bacterial RNA-binding proteins can regulate transcription termination via attenuation or antitermination mechanisms, while others can repress or activate translation initiation by affecting ribosome binding. The RNA targets for these proteins include short repeated sequences, longer single-stranded

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Life Cycle of Cryptococcus neoformans.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-13
    Youbao Zhao,Jianfeng Lin,Yumeng Fan,Xiaorong Lin

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a ubiquitous environmental fungus and an opportunistic pathogen that causes fatal cryptococcal meningitis. Advances in genomics, genetics, and cellular and molecular biology of C. neoformans have dramatically improved our understanding of this important pathogen, rendering it a model organism to study eukaryotic biology and microbial pathogenesis. In light of recent progress

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Way It Was.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    M J Osborn

    Mary Osborn was a native Californian. She was an undergraduate at the University of California, Berkeley, where she worked in the laboratory of I.L. Chaikoff. She received her PhD at the University of Washington, where her work on the role of folic acid coenzymes in one-carbon metabolism revealed the mechanism of action of methotrexate. After postdoctoral training with Bernard Horecker in the Department

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Introduction: Remembering Olaf Schneewind.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2017-09-10
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation and function of Ag43 (flu).
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Marjan W van der Woude,Ian R Henderson

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is an abundant outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli belonging to the autotransporter family. Structure-function relationships of Ag43 proposed on the basis of experimental work and in silico analysis are discussed in context of insights derived from molecular modeling. New sequence analysis sheds light on the phylogeny of the allelic variants of the Ag43-encoding gene and identifies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hijacking of host cellular functions by the Apicomplexa.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Fabienne Plattner,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    Intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria subvert all the major cellular functions of their hosts. Targeted host processes include protein synthesis, membrane trafficking, modulation of gene expression, antigen presentation, and apoptosis. In recent years, it has become evident that protozoan pathogens, including members of the phylum Apicomplexa, also hijack their host cell's functions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Artur Scherf,Jose Juan Lopez-Rubio,Loïc Riviere

    The persistence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during blood stage proliferation in its host depends on the successive expression of variant molecules at the surface of infected erythrocytes. This variation is mediated by the differential control of a family of surface molecules termed PfEMP1 encoded by approximately 60 var genes. Each individual parasite expresses a single var

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell biology of HIV-1 infection of macrophages.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Carol A Carter,Lorna S Ehrlich

    HIV infection of macrophages is a critically important component of viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Although the virus follows the same life cycle in macrophages and T lymphocytes, several aspects of the virus-host relationship are unique to macrophage infection. Examples of these are the long-term persistence of productive infection, sustained by the absence of cell death, and the ability

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Host restriction of avian influenza viruses at the level of the ribonucleoproteins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Nadia Naffakh,Andru Tomoiu,Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti,Sylvie van der Werf

    Although transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals, particularly humans, has been repeatedly documented, adaptation and sustained transmission in the new host is a rare event that in the case of humans may result in pandemics. Host restriction involves multiple genetic determinants. Among the known determinants of host range, key determinants have been identified on the genes coding for the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary history and phylogeography of human viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Edward C Holmes

    Understanding the evolutionary history of human viruses, along with the factors that have shaped their spatial distributions, is one of the most active areas of study in the field of microbial evolution. I give an overview of our current knowledge of the genetic diversity of human viruses using comparative studies of viral populations, particularly those with RNA genomes, to highlight important generalities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of ADP-ribosylating toxins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Qing Deng,Joseph T Barbieri

    Bacterial pathogens utilize toxins to modify or kill host cells. The bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases are a family of protein toxins that covalently transfer the ADP-ribose portion of NAD to host proteins. Each bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin modifies a specific host protein(s) that yields a unique pathology. These toxins possess the capacity to enter a host cell or to use a bacterial Type

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution, population structure, and phylogeography of genetically monomorphic bacterial pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Mark Achtman

    Genetically monomorphic bacteria contain so little sequence diversity that sequencing a few gene fragments yields little or no information. As a result, our understanding of their evolutionary patterns presents greater technical challenges than exist for genetically diverse microbes. These challenges are now being met by analyses at the genomic level for diverse types of genetic variation, the most

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of intracellular pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Arturo Casadevall

    The evolution of intracellular pathogens is considered in the context of ambiguities in basic definitions and the diversity of host-microbe interactions. Intracellular pathogenesis is a subset of a larger world of host-microbe interactions that includes amoeboid predation and endosymbiotic existence. Intracellular pathogens often reveal genome reduction. Despite the uniqueness of each host-microbe

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Viral subversion of apoptotic enzymes: escape from death row.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Sonja M Best

    To prolong cell viability and facilitate replication, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit the host apoptotic response. Cellular proteases such as caspases and serine proteases are instrumental in promoting apoptosis. Thus, these enzymes are logical targets for virus-mediated modulation to suppress cell death. Four major classes of viral inhibitors antagonize caspase function: serpins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RNA polymerase elongation factors.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Jeffrey W Roberts,Smita Shankar,Joshua J Filter

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase is highly regulated and modulated. Both general and operon-specific elongation factors determine the local rate and extent of transcription to coordinate the appearance of transcript with its use as a messenger or functional ribonucleoprotein or regulatory element, as well as to provide operon-specific gene regulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A case study for microbial biodegradation: anaerobic bacterial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls-from sediment to defined medium.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Donna L Bedard

    The history of anaerobic microbial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination is traced over 20 years using a case study of PCB dechlorination in the Housatonic River (Massachusetts) as an example. The history progresses from the characterization of the PCBs in the sediment, to cultivation in sediment microcosms, to the identification of four distinct types of PCB dechlorination, to a successful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Base J: discovery, biosynthesis, and possible functions.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Piet Borst,Robert Sabatini

    In 1993, a new base, beta-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyluracil (base J), was identified in the nuclear DNA of Trypanosoma brucei. Base J is the first hypermodified base found in eukaryotic DNA. It is present in all kinetoplastid flagellates analyzed and some unicellular flagellates closely related to trypanosomatids, but it has not been found in other protozoa or in metazoa. J is invariably present in the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology of trans-translation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Kenneth C Keiler

    The trans-translation mechanism is a key component of multiple quality control pathways in bacteria that ensure proteins are synthesized with high fidelity in spite of challenges such as transcription errors, mRNA damage, and translational frameshifting. trans-Translation is performed by a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of tmRNA, a specialized RNA with properties of both a tRNA and an mRNA, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Peptide release on the ribosome: mechanism and implications for translational control.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    Elaine M Youngman,Megan E McDonald,Rachel Green

    Peptide release, the reaction that hydrolyzes a completed protein from the peptidyl-tRNA upon completion of translation, is catalyzed in the active site of the large subunit of the ribosome and requires a class I release factor protein. The ribosome and release factor protein cooperate to accomplish two tasks: recognition of the stop codon and catalysis of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis. Although many fundamental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rules of engagement: interspecies interactions that regulate microbial communities.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    Ainslie E F Little,Courtney J Robinson,S Brook Peterson,Kenneth F Raffa,Jo Handelsman

    Microbial communities comprise an interwoven matrix of biological diversity modified by physical and chemical variation over space and time. Although these communities are the major drivers of biosphere processes, relatively little is known about their structure and function, and predictive modeling is limited by a dearth of comprehensive ecological principles that describe microbial community processes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Population structure of Toxoplasma gondii: clonal expansion driven by infrequent recombination and selective sweeps.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    L David Sibley,James W Ajioka

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most successful parasites. It is capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals and causing opportunistic disease in humans. T. gondii has a striking clonal population structure consisting of three predominant lineages in North America and Europe. Clonality is associated with the recent emergence of a monomorphic version of Chr1a, which drove a selective genetic sweep

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-10
    Christopher J Law,Peter C Maloney,Da-Neng Wang

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) represents the largest group of secondary active membrane transporters, and its members transport a diverse range of substrates. Recent work shows that MFS antiporters, and perhaps all members of the MFS, share the same three-dimensional structure, consisting of two domains that surround a substrate translocation pore. The advent of crystal structures of three

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bistability, epigenetics, and bet-hedging in bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-06-10
    Jan-Willem Veening,Wiep Klaas Smits,Oscar P Kuipers

    Clonal populations of microbial cells often show a high degree of phenotypic variability under homogeneous conditions. Stochastic fluctuations in the cellular components that determine cellular states can cause two distinct subpopulations, a property called bistability. Phenotypic heterogeneity can be readily obtained by interlinking multiple gene regulatory pathways, effectively resulting in a genetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chlamydiae as symbionts in eukaryotes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-05-14
    Matthias Horn

    Members of the phylum Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that were discovered about a century ago. Although Chlamydiae are major pathogens of humans and animals, they were long recognized only as a phylogenetically well-separated, small group of closely related microorganisms. The diversity of chlamydiae, their host range, and their occurrence in the environment had been largely underestimated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • (p)ppGpp: still magical?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-05-06
    Katarzyna Potrykus,Michael Cashel

    The fundamental details of how nutritional stress leads to elevating (p)ppGpp are questionable. By common usage, the meaning of the stringent response has evolved from the specific response to (p)ppGpp provoked by amino acid starvation to all responses caused by elevating (p)ppGpp by any means. Different responses have similar as well as dissimilar positive and negative effects on gene expression and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Luis M Rubio,Paul W Ludden

    The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co), located at the active site of the molybdenum nitrogenase, is one of the most complex metal cofactors known to date. During the past several years, an intensive effort has been made to purify the proteins involved in FeMo-co synthesis and incorporation into nitrogenase. This effort is starting to provide insights into the structures of the FeMo-co biosynthetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Global spread and persistence of dengue.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Jennifer L Kyle,Eva Harris

    Dengue is a spectrum of disease caused by four serotypes of the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans today, and its incidence has increased dramatically in the past 50 years. Due in part to population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in tropical and subtropical countries, breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus have proliferated, and successful vector control

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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