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  • Introduction: Remembering Olaf Schneewind.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2017-09-10
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation and function of Ag43 (flu).
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Marjan W van der Woude,Ian R Henderson

    Antigen 43 (Ag43) is an abundant outer membrane protein in Escherichia coli belonging to the autotransporter family. Structure-function relationships of Ag43 proposed on the basis of experimental work and in silico analysis are discussed in context of insights derived from molecular modeling. New sequence analysis sheds light on the phylogeny of the allelic variants of the Ag43-encoding gene and identifies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Hijacking of host cellular functions by the Apicomplexa.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Fabienne Plattner,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    Intracellular pathogens such as viruses and bacteria subvert all the major cellular functions of their hosts. Targeted host processes include protein synthesis, membrane trafficking, modulation of gene expression, antigen presentation, and apoptosis. In recent years, it has become evident that protozoan pathogens, including members of the phylum Apicomplexa, also hijack their host cell's functions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Artur Scherf,Jose Juan Lopez-Rubio,Loïc Riviere

    The persistence of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during blood stage proliferation in its host depends on the successive expression of variant molecules at the surface of infected erythrocytes. This variation is mediated by the differential control of a family of surface molecules termed PfEMP1 encoded by approximately 60 var genes. Each individual parasite expresses a single var

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell biology of HIV-1 infection of macrophages.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Carol A Carter,Lorna S Ehrlich

    HIV infection of macrophages is a critically important component of viral pathogenesis and progression to AIDS. Although the virus follows the same life cycle in macrophages and T lymphocytes, several aspects of the virus-host relationship are unique to macrophage infection. Examples of these are the long-term persistence of productive infection, sustained by the absence of cell death, and the ability

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Host restriction of avian influenza viruses at the level of the ribonucleoproteins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Nadia Naffakh,Andru Tomoiu,Marie-Anne Rameix-Welti,Sylvie van der Werf

    Although transmission of avian influenza viruses to mammals, particularly humans, has been repeatedly documented, adaptation and sustained transmission in the new host is a rare event that in the case of humans may result in pandemics. Host restriction involves multiple genetic determinants. Among the known determinants of host range, key determinants have been identified on the genes coding for the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary history and phylogeography of human viruses.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Edward C Holmes

    Understanding the evolutionary history of human viruses, along with the factors that have shaped their spatial distributions, is one of the most active areas of study in the field of microbial evolution. I give an overview of our current knowledge of the genetic diversity of human viruses using comparative studies of viral populations, particularly those with RNA genomes, to highlight important generalities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular mechanisms of the cytotoxicity of ADP-ribosylating toxins.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Qing Deng,Joseph T Barbieri

    Bacterial pathogens utilize toxins to modify or kill host cells. The bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases are a family of protein toxins that covalently transfer the ADP-ribose portion of NAD to host proteins. Each bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin modifies a specific host protein(s) that yields a unique pathology. These toxins possess the capacity to enter a host cell or to use a bacterial Type

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution, population structure, and phylogeography of genetically monomorphic bacterial pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Mark Achtman

    Genetically monomorphic bacteria contain so little sequence diversity that sequencing a few gene fragments yields little or no information. As a result, our understanding of their evolutionary patterns presents greater technical challenges than exist for genetically diverse microbes. These challenges are now being met by analyses at the genomic level for diverse types of genetic variation, the most

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of intracellular pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-09-13
    Arturo Casadevall

    The evolution of intracellular pathogens is considered in the context of ambiguities in basic definitions and the diversity of host-microbe interactions. Intracellular pathogenesis is a subset of a larger world of host-microbe interactions that includes amoeboid predation and endosymbiotic existence. Intracellular pathogens often reveal genome reduction. Despite the uniqueness of each host-microbe

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Viral subversion of apoptotic enzymes: escape from death row.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Sonja M Best

    To prolong cell viability and facilitate replication, viruses have evolved multiple mechanisms to inhibit the host apoptotic response. Cellular proteases such as caspases and serine proteases are instrumental in promoting apoptosis. Thus, these enzymes are logical targets for virus-mediated modulation to suppress cell death. Four major classes of viral inhibitors antagonize caspase function: serpins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • RNA polymerase elongation factors.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Jeffrey W Roberts,Smita Shankar,Joshua J Filter

    The elongation phase of transcription by RNA polymerase is highly regulated and modulated. Both general and operon-specific elongation factors determine the local rate and extent of transcription to coordinate the appearance of transcript with its use as a messenger or functional ribonucleoprotein or regulatory element, as well as to provide operon-specific gene regulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A case study for microbial biodegradation: anaerobic bacterial reductive dechlorination of polychlorinated biphenyls-from sediment to defined medium.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Donna L Bedard

    The history of anaerobic microbial polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) dechlorination is traced over 20 years using a case study of PCB dechlorination in the Housatonic River (Massachusetts) as an example. The history progresses from the characterization of the PCBs in the sediment, to cultivation in sediment microcosms, to the identification of four distinct types of PCB dechlorination, to a successful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Base J: discovery, biosynthesis, and possible functions.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Piet Borst,Robert Sabatini

    In 1993, a new base, beta-d-glucopyranosyloxymethyluracil (base J), was identified in the nuclear DNA of Trypanosoma brucei. Base J is the first hypermodified base found in eukaryotic DNA. It is present in all kinetoplastid flagellates analyzed and some unicellular flagellates closely related to trypanosomatids, but it has not been found in other protozoa or in metazoa. J is invariably present in the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biology of trans-translation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Kenneth C Keiler

    The trans-translation mechanism is a key component of multiple quality control pathways in bacteria that ensure proteins are synthesized with high fidelity in spite of challenges such as transcription errors, mRNA damage, and translational frameshifting. trans-Translation is performed by a ribonucleoprotein complex composed of tmRNA, a specialized RNA with properties of both a tRNA and an mRNA, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Peptide release on the ribosome: mechanism and implications for translational control.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    Elaine M Youngman,Megan E McDonald,Rachel Green

    Peptide release, the reaction that hydrolyzes a completed protein from the peptidyl-tRNA upon completion of translation, is catalyzed in the active site of the large subunit of the ribosome and requires a class I release factor protein. The ribosome and release factor protein cooperate to accomplish two tasks: recognition of the stop codon and catalysis of peptidyl-tRNA hydrolysis. Although many fundamental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rules of engagement: interspecies interactions that regulate microbial communities.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    Ainslie E F Little,Courtney J Robinson,S Brook Peterson,Kenneth F Raffa,Jo Handelsman

    Microbial communities comprise an interwoven matrix of biological diversity modified by physical and chemical variation over space and time. Although these communities are the major drivers of biosphere processes, relatively little is known about their structure and function, and predictive modeling is limited by a dearth of comprehensive ecological principles that describe microbial community processes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Population structure of Toxoplasma gondii: clonal expansion driven by infrequent recombination and selective sweeps.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-12
    L David Sibley,James W Ajioka

    Toxoplasma gondii is among the most successful parasites. It is capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals and causing opportunistic disease in humans. T. gondii has a striking clonal population structure consisting of three predominant lineages in North America and Europe. Clonality is associated with the recent emergence of a monomorphic version of Chr1a, which drove a selective genetic sweep

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ins and outs of major facilitator superfamily antiporters.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-10
    Christopher J Law,Peter C Maloney,Da-Neng Wang

    The major facilitator superfamily (MFS) represents the largest group of secondary active membrane transporters, and its members transport a diverse range of substrates. Recent work shows that MFS antiporters, and perhaps all members of the MFS, share the same three-dimensional structure, consisting of two domains that surround a substrate translocation pore. The advent of crystal structures of three

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bistability, epigenetics, and bet-hedging in bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-06-10
    Jan-Willem Veening,Wiep Klaas Smits,Oscar P Kuipers

    Clonal populations of microbial cells often show a high degree of phenotypic variability under homogeneous conditions. Stochastic fluctuations in the cellular components that determine cellular states can cause two distinct subpopulations, a property called bistability. Phenotypic heterogeneity can be readily obtained by interlinking multiple gene regulatory pathways, effectively resulting in a genetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chlamydiae as symbionts in eukaryotes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-05-14
    Matthias Horn

    Members of the phylum Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria that were discovered about a century ago. Although Chlamydiae are major pathogens of humans and animals, they were long recognized only as a phylogenetically well-separated, small group of closely related microorganisms. The diversity of chlamydiae, their host range, and their occurrence in the environment had been largely underestimated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • (p)ppGpp: still magical?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-05-06
    Katarzyna Potrykus,Michael Cashel

    The fundamental details of how nutritional stress leads to elevating (p)ppGpp are questionable. By common usage, the meaning of the stringent response has evolved from the specific response to (p)ppGpp provoked by amino acid starvation to all responses caused by elevating (p)ppGpp by any means. Different responses have similar as well as dissimilar positive and negative effects on gene expression and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biosynthesis of the iron-molybdenum cofactor of nitrogenase.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Luis M Rubio,Paul W Ludden

    The iron-molybdenum cofactor (FeMo-co), located at the active site of the molybdenum nitrogenase, is one of the most complex metal cofactors known to date. During the past several years, an intensive effort has been made to purify the proteins involved in FeMo-co synthesis and incorporation into nitrogenase. This effort is starting to provide insights into the structures of the FeMo-co biosynthetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Global spread and persistence of dengue.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-04-24
    Jennifer L Kyle,Eva Harris

    Dengue is a spectrum of disease caused by four serotypes of the most prevalent arthropod-borne virus affecting humans today, and its incidence has increased dramatically in the past 50 years. Due in part to population growth and uncontrolled urbanization in tropical and subtropical countries, breeding sites for the mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus have proliferated, and successful vector control

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The fortunate professor.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2008-03-19
    Stanley Falkow

    My professional life can be summarized by a quote from the Talmud. Much have I learned from my teachers, More from my colleagues, But most from my students. It is the fortunate professor who learns from the student.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structure, assembly, and function of the spore surface layers.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-11-24
    Adriano O Henriques,Charles P Moran

    Endospores formed by Bacillus, Clostridia, and related genera are encased in a protein shell called the coat. In many species, including B. subtilis, the coat is the outermost spore structure, and in other species, such as the pathogenic organisms B. anthracis and B. cereus, the spore is encased in an additional layer called the exosporium. Both the coat and the exosporium have roles in protection

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Microbial metabolism of reduced phosphorus compounds.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-11-24
    Andrea K White,William W Metcalf

    The field of bacterial phosphorus (P) metabolism has undergone a significant transformation in the past decade owing to the elucidation of widespread and diverse pathways for the metabolism of reduced P compounds. The characterization of these pathways dramatically changes the current and narrow view of P metabolism and our understanding of the forms in which P is produced and available in the environment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ecology and biotechnology of the genus Shewanella.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-11-24
    Heidi H Hau,Jeffrey A Gralnick

    The shewanellae are aquatic microorganisms with worldwide distribution. Their hallmark features include unparalleled respiratory diversity and the capacity to thrive at low temperatures. As a genus the shewanellae are physiologically diverse, and this review provides an overview of the varied roles they serve in the environment and describes what is known about how they might survive in such extreme

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SigB-dependent general stress response in Bacillus subtilis and related gram-positive bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-11-24
    Michael Hecker,Jan Pané-Farré,Uwe Völker

    One of the strongest and most noticeable responses of Bacillus subtilis cells to a range of stress and starvation stimuli is the dramatic induction of about 150 SigB-dependent general stress genes. The activity of SigB itself is tightly regulated by a complex signal transduction cascade with at least three main signaling pathways that respond to environmental stress, energy depletion, or low temperature

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The mechanism of isoniazid killing: clarity through the scope of genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-11-24
    Catherine Vilchèze,William R Jacobs

    Isoniazid (INH) is one of the most efficient drugs for the treatment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections. Despite its rather simple chemical structure, the mechanism by which INH kills M. tuberculosis is complex. A full understanding of the mechanisms of action of INH required the development of genetic tools in M. tuberculosis. Herein, we discuss the different hypotheses that have been used to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toward a hyperstructure taxonomy.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-09-28
    Vic Norris,Tanneke den Blaauwen,Roy H Doi,Rasika M Harshey,Laurent Janniere,Alfonso Jiménez-Sánchez,Ding Jun Jin,Petra Anne Levin,Eugenia Mileykovskaya,Abraham Minsky,Gradimir Misevic,Camille Ripoll,Milton Saier,Kirsten Skarstad,Michel Thellier

    Bacterial cells contain many large, spatially extended assemblies of ions, molecules, and macromolecules, called hyperstructures, that are implicated in functions that range from DNA replication and cell division to chemotaxis and secretion. Interactions between these hyperstructures would create a level of organization intermediate between macromolecules and the cell itself. To explore this level

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Aggresomes and pericentriolar sites of virus assembly: cellular defense or viral design?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-09-28
    Thomas Wileman

    Virus replication and virus assembly often occur in virus inclusions or virus factories that form at pericentriolar sites close to the microtubule organizing center or in specialized nuclear domains called ND10/PML bodies. Similar inclusions called aggresomes form in response to protein aggregation. Protein aggregates are toxic to cells and are transported along microtubules to aggresomes for immobilization

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • As the worm turns: the earthworm gut as a transient habitat for soil microbial biomes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Harold L Drake,Marcus A Horn

    The gut of the earthworm constitutes a mobile anoxic microzone to which the microorganisms of aerated soils are subjected. During gut passage, the in situ factors of the earthworm gut, which include anoxia and high concentrations of organic substrates, appear to greatly stimulate a subset of ingested soil microorganisms, including denitrifying and fermentative bacteria. The selective stimulation of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chlorophyll biosynthesis in bacteria: the origins of structural and functional diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Aline Gomez Maqueo Chew,Donald A Bryant

    The use of photochemical reaction centers to convert light energy into chemical energy, chlorophototrophy, occurs in organisms belonging to only five eubacterial phyla: Cyanobacteria, Proteobacteria, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, and Firmicutes. All chlorophototrophs synthesize two types of pigments: (a) chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls, which function in both light harvesting and uniquely in photochemistry;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biogenesis of the gram-negative bacterial outer membrane.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Martine P Bos,Viviane Robert,Jan Tommassen

    The cell envelope of gram-negative bacteria consists of two membranes, the inner and the outer membrane, that are separated by the periplasm. The outer membrane consists of phospholipids, lipopolysaccharides, integral membrane proteins, and lipoproteins. These components are synthesized in the cytoplasm or at the inner leaflet of the inner membrane and have to be transported across the inner membrane

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Endolithic microbial ecosystems.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Jeffrey J Walker,Norman R Pace

    The endolithic environment, the pore space in rocks, is a ubiquitous microbial habitat and an interface between biology and geology. Photosynthesis-based endolithic communities inhabit the outer centimeters of rocks exposed to the surface, and offer model systems for microbial ecology, geobiology, and astrobiology. Endolithic ecosystems are among the simplest microbial ecosystems known and as such

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lantibiotics: peptides of diverse structure and function.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Joanne M Willey,Wilfred A van der Donk

    The current need for antibiotics with novel target molecules has coincided with advances in technical approaches for the structural and functional analysis of the lantibiotics, which are ribosomally synthesized peptides produced by gram-positive bacteria. These peptides have antibiotic or morphogenetic activity and are structurally defined by the presence of unusual amino acids introduced by posttranslational

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nitrogen regulation in bacteria and archaea.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    John A Leigh,Jeremy A Dodsworth

    A wide range of Bacteria and Archaea sense cellular 2-oxoglutarate (2OG) as an indicator of nitrogen limitation. 2OG sensor proteins are varied, but most of those studied belong to the PII superfamily. Within the PII superfamily, GlnB and GlnK represent a widespread family of homotrimeric proteins (GlnB-K) that bind and respond to 2OG and ATP. In some bacterial phyla, GlnB-K proteins are covalently

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Morphogenesis in Candida albicans.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Malcolm Whiteway,Catherine Bachewich

    Candida albicans is termed a dimorphic fungus because it proliferates in either a yeast form or a hyphal form. The switch between these forms is the result of a complex interplay of external and internal factors and is coordinated in part by polarity-regulating proteins that are conserved among eukaryotic cells. However, yeast and hyphal cells are not the only morphological states of C. albicans. The

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biofilm formation by plant-associated bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Thomas Danhorn,Clay Fuqua

    Plants support a diverse array of bacteria, including parasites, mutualists, and commensals on and around their roots, in the vasculature, and on aerial tissues. These microbes have a profound influence on plant health and productivity. Bacteria physically interact with surfaces to form complex multicellular and often multispecies assemblies, including biofilms and smaller aggregates. There is growing

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cytoskeletal elements in bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Peter L Graumann

    All cytoskeletal elements known from eukaryotic cells are also present in bacteria, where they perform vital tasks in many aspects of the physiology of the cell. Bacterial tubulin (FtsZ), actin (MreB), and intermediate filament (IF) proteins are key elements in cell division, chromosome and plasmid segregation, and maintenance of proper cell shape, as well as in maintenance of cell polarity and assembly

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Heterotrimeric G protein signaling in filamentous fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Liande Li,Sara J Wright,Svetlana Krystofova,Gyungsoon Park,Katherine A Borkovich

    Filamentous fungi are multicellular eukaryotic organisms known for nutrient recycling as well as for antibiotic and food production. This group of organisms also contains the most devastating plant pathogens and several important human pathogens. Since the first report of heterotrimeric G proteins in filamentous fungi in 1993, it has been demonstrated that G proteins are essential for growth, asexual

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nonhomologous end-joining in bacteria: a microbial perspective.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Robert S Pitcher,Nigel C Brissett,Aidan J Doherty

    In eukaryotic cells, repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by the nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is critical for genomic stability. A functionally homologous repair apparatus, composed of Ku and a multifunctional DNA ligase (LigD), has recently been identified in many prokaryotes. Eukaryotic organisms employ a large number of factors to repair breaks by NHEJ. In contrast, the bacterial

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The impact of genome analyses on our understanding of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Daniel J Arp,Patrick S G Chain,Martin G Klotz

    The availability of whole-genome sequences for ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) has led to dramatic increases in our understanding of these environmentally important microorganisms. Their genomes are smaller than many other members of the proteobacteria and may indicate genome reductions consistent with their limited lifestyle. The genomes have a surprising level of gene repetition including genes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Comparative genomics of protists: new insights into the evolution of eukaryotic signal transduction and gene regulation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Vivek Anantharaman,Lakshminarayan M Iyer,L Aravind

    Data from protist genomes suggest that eukaryotes show enormous variability in their gene complements, especially of genes coding regulatory proteins. Overall counts of eukaryotic signaling proteins show weak nonlinear scaling with proteome size, but individual superfamilies of signaling domains might show vast expansions in certain protists. Alteration of domain architectural complexity of signaling

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Protein secretion in gram-negative bacteria via the autotransporter pathway.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Nathalie Dautin,Harris D Bernstein

    Autotransporters are a large and diverse superfamily of proteins produced by pathogenic gram-negative bacteria that are composed of an N-terminal passenger domain, which typically harbors a virulence function, and a C-terminal beta domain. It has long been known that the beta domain anchors the protein to the outer membrane and facilitates transport of the passenger domain into the extracellular space

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Postgenomic adventures with Rhodobacter sphaeroides.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Chris Mackenzie,Jesus M Eraso,Madhusudan Choudhary,Jung Hyeob Roh,Xiaohua Zeng,Patrice Bruscella,Agnes Puskás,Samuel Kaplan

    This review describes some of the recent highlights taken from the studies of Rhodobacter sphaeroides 2.4.1. The review is not intended to be comprehensive, but to reflect the bias of the authors as to how the availability of a sequenced and annotated genome, a gene-chip, and proteomic profile as well as comparative genomic analyses can direct the progress of future research in this system.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Roles of cyclic diguanylate in the regulation of bacterial pathogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-05-08
    Rita Tamayo,Jason T Pratt,Andrew Camilli

    Cyclic diguanylate (c-di-GMP) is a bacterial second messenger of growing recognition involved in the regulation of a number of complex physiological processes. This review describes the biosynthesis and hydrolysis of c-di-GMP and several mechanisms of regulation of c-di-GMP metabolism. The contribution of c-di-GMP to regulating biofilm formation and motility, processes that affect pathogenesis of many

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Development of a combined biological and chemical process for production of industrial aromatics from renewable resources.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-04-26
    F Sima Sariaslani

    Production of industrial aromatic chemicals from renewable resources could provide a competitive alternative to traditional chemical synthesis routes. This review describes the engineering of microorganisms for the production of p-hydroxycinnamic acid (pHCA) and p-hydroxystyrene (pHS) from glucose. The initial process concept was demonstrated using a tyrosine-producing Escherichia coli strain that

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The RNA degradosome of Escherichia coli: an mRNA-degrading machine assembled on RNase E.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-04-24
    Agamemnon J Carpousis

    The RNA degradosome of Escherichia coli is a multiprotein complex involved in the degradation of mRNA. The principal components are RNase E, PNPase, RhlB, and enolase. RNase E is a large multidomain protein with an N-terminal catalytic region and a C-terminal noncatalytic region that is mostly natively unstructured protein. The noncatalytic region contains sites for binding RNA and for protein-protein

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 40 years with bacteriophage ø29.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-04-20
    Margarita Salas

    I have dedicated the past 46 years of my life to science and I expect to be active in research for many more years. I have been lucky in my professional life. During my postdoctoral years I discovered two proteins that I showed to be involved in the initiation of protein synthesis. Working with bacteriophage ø29 for the past 40 years, we have made many interesting findings. Among them is the discovery

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The last word: books as a statistical metaphor for microbial communities.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2007-04-19
    Patrick D Schloss,Jo Handelsman

    Microbial communities contain unparalleled complexity, making them difficult to describe and compare. Characterizing this complexity will contribute to understanding the ecological processes that drive microbe-host interactions, bioremediation, and biogeochemistry. Moreover, an estimate of species richness will provide an indication of the completeness of a community profile. Such estimates are difficult

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A microbial genetic journey.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-07-11
    Dale Kaiser

    Fortunately, I began research in 1950 when the basic concepts of microbial genetics could be explored experimentally. I began with bacteriophage lambda and tried to establish the colinearity of its linkage map with its DNA molecule. My students and I worked out the regulation of lambda repressor synthesis for the establishment and maintenance of lysogeny. We also investigated the proteins responsible

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Streamlining and simplification of microbial genome architecture.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-07-11
    Michael Lynch

    The genomes of unicellular species, particularly prokaryotes, are greatly reduced in size and simplified in terms of gene structure relative to those of multicellular eukaryotes. Arguments proposed to explain this disparity include selection for metabolic efficiency and elevated rates of deletion in microbes, but the evidence in support of these hypotheses is at best equivocal. An alternative explanation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multilocus sequence typing of bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-06-16
    Martin C J Maiden

    Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was proposed in 1998 as a portable, universal, and definitive method for characterizing bacteria, using the human pathogen Neisseria meningitidis as an example. In addition to providing a standardized approach to data collection, by examining the nucleotide sequences of multiple loci encoding housekeeping genes, or fragments of them, MLST data are made freely available

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Induction of competence regulons as a general response to stress in gram-positive bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-06-15
    Jean-Pierre Claverys,Marc Prudhomme,Bernard Martin

    Bacterial transformation, a programmed mechanism for genetic exchange originally discovered in Streptococcus pneumoniae, is widespread in bacteria. It is based on the uptake and integration of exogenous DNA into the recipient genome. This review examines whether induction of competence for genetic transformation is a general response to stress in gram-positive bacteria. It compares data obtained with

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Understanding microbial metabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-06-15
    Diana M Downs

    Metabolism encompasses the biochemical basis of life and as such spans all biological disciplines. Many decades of basic research, primarily in microbes, have resulted in extensive characterization of metabolic components and regulatory paradigms. With this basic knowledge in hand and the technologies currently available, it has become feasible to move toward an understanding of microbial metabolism

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Virus counterdefense: diverse strategies for evading the RNA-silencing immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 10.242) Pub Date : 2006-06-14
    Feng Li,Shou-Wei Ding

    Viruses are obligate, intracellular pathogens that must manipulate and exploit host molecular mechanisms to prosper in the hostile cellular environment. Here we review the strategies used by viruses to evade the immunity controlled by 21- to 26-nt small RNAs. Viral suppressors of RNA silencing (VSRs) are encoded by genetically diverse viruses infecting plants, invertebrates, and vertebrates. VSRs target

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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