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  • Implications of the Evolutionary Trajectory of Centromeres in the Fungal Kingdom.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Krishnendu Guin,Lakshmi Sreekumar,Kaustuv Sanyal

    Chromosome segregation during the cell cycle is an evolutionarily conserved, fundamental biological process. Dynamic interaction between spindle microtubules and the kinetochore complex that assembles on centromere DNA is required for faithful chromosome segregation. The first artificial minichromosome was constructed by cloning the centromere DNA of the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Since

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Ingenuity of Bacterial Genomes.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Paul C Kirchberger,Marian L Schmidt,Howard Ochman

    The genomes of bacteria contain fewer genes and substantially less noncoding DNA than those of eukaryotes, and as a result, they have much less raw material to invent new traits. Yet, bacteria are vastly more taxonomically diverse, numerically abundant, and globally successful in colonizing new habitats compared to eukaryotes. Although bacterial genomes are generally considered to be optimized for

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • How Food Affects Colonization Resistance Against Enteropathogenic Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Markus Kreuzer,Wolf-Dietrich Hardt

    Food has a major impact on all aspects of health. Recent data suggest that food composition can also affect susceptibility to infections by enteropathogenic bacteria. Here, we discuss how food may alter the microbiota as well as mucosal defenses and how this can affect infection. Salmonella Typhimurium diarrhea serves as a paradigm, and complementary evidence comes from other pathogens. We discuss

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Surface Sensing and Adaptation in Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Benoît-Joseph Laventie,Urs Jenal

    Bacteria thrive both in liquids and attached to surfaces. The concentration of bacteria on surfaces is generally much higher than in the surrounding environment, offering bacteria ample opportunity for mutualistic, symbiotic, and pathogenic interactions. To efficiently populate surfaces, they have evolved mechanisms to sense mechanical or chemical cues upon contact with solid substrata. This is of

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Conflict, Competition, and Cooperation Regulate Social Interactions in Filamentous Fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    A Pedro Gonçalves,Jens Heller,Adriana M Rico-Ramírez,Asen Daskalov,Gabriel Rosenfield,N Louise Glass

    Social cooperation impacts the development and survival of species. In higher taxa, kin recognition occurs via visual, chemical, or tactile cues that dictate cooperative versus competitive interactions. In microbes, the outcome of cooperative versus competitive interactions is conferred by identity at allorecognition loci, so-called kind recognition. In syncytial filamentous fungi, the acquisition

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Epigenetic Regulation of Virulence and Immunoevasion by Phase-Variable Restriction-Modification Systems in Bacterial Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Kate L Seib,Yogitha N Srikhanta,John M Atack,Michael P Jennings

    Human-adapted bacterial pathogens use a mechanism called phase variation to randomly switch the expression of individual genes to generate a phenotypically diverse population to adapt to challenges within and between human hosts. There are increasing reports of restriction-modification systems that exhibit phase-variable expression. The outcome of phase variation of these systems is global changes

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Membrane Dynamics in Phototrophic Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Conrad W Mullineaux,Lu-Ning Liu

    Photosynthetic membranes are typically densely packed with proteins, and this is crucial for their function in efficient trapping of light energy. Despite being crowded with protein, the membranes are fluid systems in which proteins and smaller molecules can diffuse. Fluidity is also crucial for photosynthetic function, as it is essential for biogenesis, electron transport, and protein redistribution

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • From Input to Output: The Lap/c-di-GMP Biofilm Regulatory Circuit.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Alan J Collins,T Jarrod Smith,Holger Sondermann,George A O'Toole

    Biofilms are the dominant bacterial lifestyle. The regulation of the formation and dispersal of bacterial biofilms has been the subject of study in many organisms. Over the last two decades, the mechanisms of Pseudomonas fluorescens biofilm formation and regulation have emerged as among the best understood of any bacterial biofilm system. Biofilm formation by P. fluorescens occurs through the localization

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • A Bacterial Tower of Babel: Quorum-Sensing Signaling Diversity and Its Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Nitzan Aframian,Avigdor Eldar

    Quorum sensing is a process in which bacteria secrete and sense a diffusible molecule, thereby enabling bacterial groups to coordinate their behavior in a density-dependent manner. Quorum sensing has evolved multiple times independently, utilizing different molecular pathways and signaling molecules. A common theme among many quorum-sensing families is their wide range of signaling diversity—different

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Toxoplasma Mechanisms for Delivery of Proteins and Uptake of Nutrients Across the Host-Pathogen Interface.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Yifan Wang,Lamba Omar Sangaré,Tatiana C Paredes-Santos,Jeroen P J Saeij

    Many intracellular pathogens, including the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii, live inside a vacuole that resides in the host cytosol. Vacuolar residence provides these pathogens with a defined niche for replication and protection from detection by host cytosolic pattern recognition receptors. However, the limiting membrane of the vacuole, which constitutes the host-pathogen interface, is also a

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Clostridioides difficile Spore Formation and Germination: New Insights and Opportunities for Intervention.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Aimee Shen

    Spore formation and germination are essential for the bacterial pathogen Clostridioides difficile to transmit infection. Despite the importance of these developmental processes to the infection cycle of C. difficile, the molecular mechanisms underlying how this obligate anaerobe forms infectious spores and how these spores germinate to initiate infection were largely unknown until recently. Work in

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Assembly of Bacterial Capsular Polysaccharides and Exopolysaccharides.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Chris Whitfield,Samantha S Wear,Caitlin Sande

    Polysaccharides are dominant features of most bacterial surfaces and are displayed in different formats. Many bacteria produce abundant long-chain capsular polysaccharides, which can maintain a strong association and form a capsule structure enveloping the cell and/or take the form of exopolysaccharides that are mostly secreted into the immediate environment. These polymers afford the producing bacteria

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Polymorphic Toxins and Their Immunity Proteins: Diversity, Evolution, and Mechanisms of Delivery.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Zachary C Ruhe,David A Low,Christopher S Hayes

    All bacteria must compete for growth niches and other limited environmental resources. These existential battles are waged at several levels, but one common strategy entails the transfer of growth-inhibitory protein toxins between competing cells. These antibacterial effectors are invariably encoded with immunity proteins that protect cells from intoxication by neighboring siblings. Several effector

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Defining and Disrupting Species Boundaries in Saccharomyces.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Jasmine Ono,Duncan Greig,Primrose J Boynton

    The genus Saccharomyces is an evolutionary paradox. On the one hand, it is composed of at least eight clearly phylogenetically delineated species; these species are reproductively isolated from each other, and hybrids usually cannot complete their sexual life cycles. On the other hand, Saccharomyces species have a long evolutionary history of hybridization, which has phenotypic consequences for adaptation

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Prospects and Pitfalls: Next-Generation Tools to Control Mosquito-Transmitted Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    E P Caragata,S Dong,Y Dong,M L Simões,C V Tikhe,G Dimopoulos

    Mosquito-transmitted diseases, including malaria and dengue, are a major threat to human health around the globe, affecting millions each year. A diverse array of next-generation tools has been designed to eliminate mosquito populations or to replace them with mosquitoes that are less capable of transmitting key pathogens. Many of these new approaches have been built on recent advances in CRISPR/Cas9-based

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Molecular Mechanisms of Drug Resistance in Plasmodium falciparum Malaria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Kathryn J Wicht,Sachel Mok,David A Fidock

    Understanding and controlling the spread of antimalarial resistance, particularly to artemisinin and its partner drugs, is a top priority. Plasmodium falciparum parasites resistant to chloroquine, amodiaquine, or piperaquine harbor mutations in the P. falciparum chloroquine resistance transporter (PfCRT), a transporter resident on the digestive vacuole membrane that in its variant forms can transport

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Bacterial Volatile Compounds: Functions in Communication, Cooperation, and Competition.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Tina Netzker,Evan M F Shepherdson,Matthew P Zambri,Marie A Elliot

    Bacteria produce a multitude of volatile compounds. While the biological functions of these deceptively simple molecules are unknown in many cases, for compounds that have been characterized, it is clear that they serve impressively diverse purposes. Here, we highlight recent studies that are uncovering the volatile repertoire of bacteria, and the functional relevance and impact of these molecules

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Bacterial Ro60 Protein and Its Noncoding Y RNA Regulators.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Soyeong Sim,Kevin Hughes,Xinguo Chen,Sandra L Wolin

    Ro60 ribonucleoproteins (RNPs), composed of the ring-shaped Ro 60-kDa (Ro60) protein and noncoding RNAs called Y RNAs, are present in all three domains of life. Ro60 was first described as an autoantigen in patients with rheumatic disease, and Ro60 orthologs have been identified in 3% to 5% of bacterial genomes, spanning the majority of phyla. Their functions have been characterized primarily in Deinococcus

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Microbes as Biosensors.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Maria Eugenia Inda,Timothy K Lu

    The ability to detect disease early and deliver precision therapy would be transformative for the treatment of human illnesses. To achieve these goals, biosensors that can pinpoint when and where diseases emerge are needed. Rapid advances in synthetic biology are enabling us to exploit the information-processing abilities of living cells to diagnose disease and then treat it in a controlled fashion

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Structure and Function of the Mycobacterial Type VII Secretion Systems.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Catalin M Bunduc,W Bitter,E N G Houben

    Bacteria have evolved intricate secretion machineries for the successful delivery of large molecules across their cell envelopes. Such specialized secretion systems allow a variety of bacteria to thrive in specific host environments. In mycobacteria, type VII secretion systems (T7SSs) are dedicated protein transport machineries that fulfill diverse and crucial roles, ranging from metabolite uptake

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Toward a Fully Resolved Fungal Tree of Life.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Timothy Y James,Jason E Stajich,Chris Todd Hittinger,Antonis Rokas

    In this review, we discuss the current status and future challenges for fully elucidating the fungal tree of life. In the last 15 years, advances in genomic technologies have revolutionized fungal systematics, ushering the field into the phylogenomic era. This has made the unthinkable possible, namely access to the entire genetic record of all known extant taxa. We first review the current status of

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Chemical Mediators at the Bacterial-Fungal Interface.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Kirstin Scherlach,Christian Hertweck

    Interactions among microbes are key drivers of evolutionary progress and constantly shape ecological niches. Microorganisms rely on chemical communication to interact with each other and surrounding organisms. They synthesize natural products as signaling molecules, antibiotics, or modulators of cellular processes that may be applied in agriculture and medicine. Whereas major insight has been gained

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Iron-Only and Vanadium Nitrogenases: Fail-Safe Enzymes or Something More?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Caroline S Harwood

    The enzyme molybdenum nitrogenase converts atmospheric nitrogen gas to ammonia and is of critical importance for the cycling of nitrogen in the biosphere and for the sustainability of life. Alternative vanadium and iron-only nitrogenases that are homologous to molybdenum nitrogenases are also found in archaea and bacteria, but they have a different transition metal, either vanadium or iron, at their

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Yersinia Type III Secretion System as a Tool for Studying Cytosolic Innate Immune Surveillance.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Katherine Andrea Schubert,Yue Xu,Feng Shao,Victoria Auerbuch

    Microbial pathogens have evolved complex mechanisms to interface with host cells in order to evade host defenses and replicate. However, mammalian innate immune receptors detect the presence of molecules unique to the microbial world or sense the activity of virulence factors, activating antimicrobial and inflammatory pathways. We focus on how studies of the major virulence factor of one group of microbial

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Bacterial Quorum Sensing During Infection.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Sheyda Azimi,Alexander D Klementiev,Marvin Whiteley,Stephen P Diggle

    Bacteria are highly interactive and possess an extraordinary repertoire of intercellular communication and social behaviors, including quorum sensing (QS). QS has been studied in detail at the molecular level, so mechanistic details are well understood in many species and are often involved in virulence. The use of different animal host models has demonstrated QS-dependent control of virulence determinants

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Assembly and Dynamics of the Bacterial Flagellum.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Judith P Armitage,Richard M Berry

    The bacterial flagellar motor is the most complex structure in the bacterial cell, driving the ion-driven rotation of the helical flagellum. The ordered expression of the regulon and the assembly of the series of interacting protein rings, spanning the inner and outer membranes to form the ∼45–50-nm protein complex, have made investigation of the structure and mechanism a major challenge since its

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Cyclic di-AMP Signaling in Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Jörg Stülke,Larissa Krüger

    The second messenger molecule cyclic di-AMP (c-di-AMP) is formed by many bacteria and archaea. In many species that produce c-di-AMP, this second messenger is essential for viability on rich medium. Recent research has demonstrated that c-di-AMP binds to a large number of proteins and riboswitches, which are often involved in potassium and osmotic homeostasis. c-di-AMP becomes dispensable if the bacteria

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Influence of Bacteria on Animal Metamorphosis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Giselle S Cavalcanti,Amanda T Alker,Nathalie Delherbe,Kyle E Malter,Nicholas J Shikuma

    The swimming larvae of many marine animals identify a location on the seafloor to settle and undergo metamorphosis based on the presence of specific surface-bound bacteria. While bacteria-stimulated metamorphosis underpins processes such as the fouling of ship hulls, animal development in aquaculture, and the recruitment of new animals to coral reef ecosystems, little is known about the mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • What Is Metagenomics Teaching Us, and What Is Missed?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Felicia N New,Ilana L Brito

    Shotgun metagenomic sequencing has revolutionized our ability to detect and characterize the diversity and function of complex microbial communities. In this review, we highlight the benefits of using metagenomics as well as the breadth of conclusions that can be made using currently available analytical tools, such as greater resolution of species and strains across phyla and functional content, while

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Fungal Volatile Organic Compounds: More Than Just a Funky Smell?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Arati A Inamdar,Shannon Morath,Joan W Bennett

    Many volatile organic compounds (VOCs) associated with industry cause adverse health effects, but less is known about the physiological effects of biologically produced volatiles. This review focuses on the VOCs emitted by fungi, which often have characteristic moldy or “mushroomy” odors. One of the most common fungal VOCs, 1-octen-3-ol, is a semiochemical for many arthropod species and also serves

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • The Plant Microbiome: From Ecology to Reductionism and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Connor R Fitzpatrick,Isai Salas-González,Jonathan M Conway,Omri M Finkel,Sarah Gilbert,Dor Russ,Paulo José Pereira Lima Teixeira,Jeffery L Dangl

    Methodological advances over the past two decades have propelled plant microbiome research, allowing the field to comprehensively test ideas proposed over a century ago and generate many new hypotheses. Studying the distribution of microbial taxa and genes across plant habitats has revealed the importance of various ecological and evolutionary forces shaping plant microbiota. In particular, selection

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Archaeal DNA Replication.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Mark D Greci,Stephen D Bell

    It is now well recognized that the information processing machineries of archaea are far more closely related to those of eukaryotes than to those of their prokaryotic cousins, the bacteria. Extensive studies have been performed on the structure and function of the archaeal DNA replication origins, the proteins that define them, and the macromolecular assemblies that drive DNA unwinding and nascent

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Ape Origins of Human Malaria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Paul M Sharp,Lindsey J Plenderleith,Beatrice H Hahn

    African apes harbor at least twelve Plasmodium species, some of which have been a source of human infection. It is now well established that Plasmodium falciparum emerged following the transmission of a gorilla parasite, perhaps within the last 10,000 years, while Plasmodium vivax emerged earlier from a parasite lineage that infected humans and apes in Africa before the Duffy-negative mutation eliminated

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Structures and Strategies of Anti-CRISPR-Mediated Immune Suppression.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Tanner Wiegand,Shweta Karambelkar,Joseph Bondy-Denomy,Blake Wiedenheft

    More than 50 protein families have been identified that inhibit CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas-mediated adaptive immune systems. Here, we analyze the available anti-CRISPR (Acr) structures and describe common themes and unique mechanisms of stoichiometric and enzymatic suppressors of CRISPR-Cas. Stoichiometric inhibitors often function as molecular decoys of

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • A Tale of Good Fortune in the Era of DNA.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Jeffrey Roberts

    Two strains of good fortune in my career were to stumble upon the Watson–Gilbert laboratory at Harvard when I entered graduate school in 1964, and to study gene regulation in bacteriophage λ when I was there. λ was almost entirely a genetic item a few years before, awaiting biochemical incarnation. Throughout my career I was a relentless consumer of the work of previous and current generations of λ

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Genomic Approaches to Drug Resistance in Malaria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Frances Rocamora,Elizabeth A Winzeler

    Although the last two decades have seen a substantial decline in malaria incidence and mortality due to the use of insecticide-treated bed nets and artemisinin combination therapy, the threat of drug resistance is a constant obstacle to sustainable malaria control. Given that patients can die quickly from this disease, public health officials and doctors need to understand whether drug resistance exists

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Shaping an Endospore: Architectural Transformations During Bacillus subtilis Sporulation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Kanika Khanna,Javier Lopez-Garrido,Kit Pogliano

    Endospore formation in Bacillus subtilis provides an ideal model system for studying development in bacteria. Sporulation studies have contributed a wealth of information about the mechanisms of cell-specific gene expression, chromosome dynamics, protein localization, and membrane remodeling, while helping to dispel the early view that bacteria lack internal organization and interesting cell biological

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Amyloid Signaling in Filamentous Fungi and Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Sven J Saupe

    Amyloids are implicated in many protein misfolding diseases. Amyloid folds, however, also display a range of functional roles particularly in the microbial world. The templating ability of these folds endows them with specific properties allowing their self-propagation and protein-to-protein transmission in vivo. This property, the prion principle, is exploited by specific signaling pathways that use

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Structural Basis of Hydrogenotrophic Methanogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Seigo Shima,Gangfeng Huang,Tristan Wagner,Ulrich Ermler

    Most methanogenic archaea use the rudimentary hydrogenotrophic pathway—from CO2 and H2 to methane—as the terminal step of microbial biomass degradation in anoxic habitats. The barely exergonic process that just conserves sufficient energy for a modest lifestyle involves chemically challenging reactions catalyzed by complex enzyme machineries with unique metal-containing cofactors. The basic strategy

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Susan Gottesman

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Defense and Counterdefense During Plant-Pathogenic Oomycete Infection.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Yan Wang,Brett M Tyler,Yuanchao Wang

    Plant-pathogenic oomycetes include numerous species that are ongoing threats to agriculture and natural ecosystems. Understanding the molecular dialogs between oomycetes and plants is instrumental for sustaining effective disease control. Plants respond to oomycete infection by multiple defense actions including strengthening of physical barriers, production of antimicrobial molecules, and programmed

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Paleomicrobiology: Diagnosis and Evolution of Ancient Pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Kirsten I Bos,Denise Kühnert,Alexander Herbig,Luis Roger Esquivel-Gomez,Aida Andrades Valtueña,Rodrigo Barquera,Karen Giffin,Aditya Kumar Lankapalli,Elizabeth A Nelson,Susanna Sabin,Maria A Spyrou,Johannes Krause

    The last century has witnessed progress in the study of ancient infectious disease from purely medical descriptions of past ailments to dynamic interpretations of past population health that draw upon multiple perspectives. The recent adoption of high-throughput DNA sequencing has led to an expanded understanding of pathogen presence, evolution, and ecology across the globe. This genomic revolution

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Assembly and Subcellular Localization of Bacterial Type VI Secretion Systems.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-21
    Jing Wang,Maj Brodmann,Marek Basler

    Bacteria need to deliver large molecules out of the cytosol to the extracellular space or even across membranes of neighboring cells to influence their environment, prevent predation, defeat competitors, or communicate. A variety of protein-secretion systems have evolved to make this process highly regulated and efficient. The type VI secretion system (T6SS) is one of the largest dynamic assemblies

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Metabolic Basis of Pathogenesis and Host Adaptation in Rice Blast.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Yi Zhen Deng,Naweed I Naqvi

    The blast disease, caused by the ascomycete Magnaporthe oryzae, poses a great threat to rice production worldwide. Increasing use of fungicides and/or blast-resistant varieties of rice (Oryza sativa) has proved to be ineffective in long-term control of blast disease under field conditions. To develop effective and durable resistance to blast, it is important to understand the cellular mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Signaling Cascades Governing Entry into and Exit from Host Cells by Toxoplasma gondii.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Hugo Bisio,Dominique Soldati-Favre

    The Apicomplexa phylum includes a large group of obligate intracellular protozoan parasites responsible for important diseases in humans and animals. Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread parasite with considerable versatility, and it is capable of infecting virtually any warm-blooded animal, including humans. This outstanding success can be attributed at least in part to an efficient and continuous sensing

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Small Is Mighty-Chemical Communication Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Stephen Dela Ahator,LianHui Zhang

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that causes a variety of acute and chronic infections. Usually a commensal on the host body, P. aeruginosa is capable of transforming into a virulent pathogen upon sensing favorable changes in the host immune system or stress cues. P. aeruginosa infections are hard to eradicate, because this pathogen has developed strong resistance to most conventional

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Human Coronavirus: Host-Pathogen Interaction.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    To Sing Fung,Ding Xiang Liu

    Human coronavirus (HCoV) infection causes respiratory diseases with mild to severe outcomes. In the last 15 years, we have witnessed the emergence of two zoonotic, highly pathogenic HCoVs: severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Replication of HCoV is regulated by a diversity of host factors and induces drastic alterations

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Two-Component Sensing and Regulation: How Do Histidine Kinases Talk with Response Regulators at the Molecular Level?
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Alejandro Buschiazzo,Felipe Trajtenberg

    Perceiving environmental and internal information and reacting in adaptive ways are essential attributes of living organisms. Two-component systems are relevant protein machineries from prokaryotes and lower eukaryotes that enable cells to sense and process signals. Implicating sensory histidine kinases and response regulator proteins, both components take advantage of protein phosphorylation and flexibility

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Acinetobacter baumannii: Envelope Determinants That Control Drug Resistance, Virulence, and Surface Variability.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Edward Geisinger,Wenwen Huo,Juan Hernandez-Bird,Ralph R Isberg

    Acinetobacter baumannii has emerged as an important nosocomial pathogen, particularly for patients in intensive care units and with invasive indwelling devices. The most recent clinical isolates are resistant to several classes of clinically important antibiotics, greatly restricting the ability to effectively treat critically ill patients. The bacterial envelope is an important driver of A. baumannii

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Bent Bacteria: A Comparison of Cell Shape Mechanisms in Proteobacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-14
    Jennifer A Taylor,Sophie R Sichel,Nina R Salama

    Helical cell shape appears throughout the bacterial phylogenetic tree. Recent exciting work characterizing cell shape mutants in a number of curved and helical Proteobacteria is beginning to suggest possible mechanisms and provide tools to assess functional significance. We focus here on Caulobacter crescentus, Vibrio cholerae, Helicobacter pylori, and Campylobacter jejuni, organisms from three classes

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Diversity, Genomics, and Distribution of Phytoplankton-Cyanobacterium Single-Cell Symbiotic Associations.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Rachel A Foster,Jonathan P Zehr

    Cyanobacteria are common in symbiotic relationships with diverse multicellular organisms (animals, plants, fungi) in terrestrial environments and with single-celled heterotrophic, mixotrophic, and autotrophic protists in aquatic environments. In the sunlit zones of aquatic environments, diverse cyanobacterial symbioses exist with autotrophic taxa in phytoplankton, including dinoflagellates, diatoms

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Chromatic Acclimation in Cyanobacteria: A Diverse and Widespread Process for Optimizing Photosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Joseph E Sanfilippo,Laurence Garczarek,Frédéric Partensky,David M Kehoe

    Chromatic acclimation (CA) encompasses a diverse set of molecular processes that involve the ability of cyanobacterial cells to sense ambient light colors and use this information to optimize photosynthetic light harvesting. The six known types of CA, which we propose naming CA1 through CA6, use a range of molecular mechanisms that likely evolved independently in distantly related lineages of the Cyanobacteria

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multiple Roles of c-di-GMP Signaling in Bacterial Pathogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Martina Valentini,Alain Filloux

    The intracellular signaling molecule cyclic di-GMP (c-di-GMP) regulates the lifestyle of bacteria and controls many key functions and mechanisms. In the case of bacterial pathogens, a wide variety of virulence lifestyle factors have been shown to be regulated by c-di-GMP. Evidence of the importance of this molecule for bacterial pathogenesis has become so great that new antimicrobial agents are tested

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Bacterial Persisters and Infection: Past, Present, and Progressing.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-09-08
    Bridget Gollan,Grzegorz Grabe,Charlotte Michaux,Sophie Helaine

    Persisters are nongrowing, transiently antibiotic-tolerant bacteria within a clonal population of otherwise susceptible cells. Their formation is triggered by environmental cues and involves the main bacterial stress response pathways that allow persisters to survive many harsh conditions, including antibiotic exposure. During infection, bacterial pathogens are exposed to a vast array of stresses in

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Biogeography of the Oral Microbiome: The Site-Specialist Hypothesis.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Jessica L Mark Welch,Floyd E Dewhirst,Gary G Borisy

    Microbial communities are complex and dynamic, composed of hundreds of taxa interacting across multiple spatial scales. Advances in sequencing and imaging technology have led to great strides in understanding both the composition and the spatial organization of these complex communities. In the human mouth, sequencing results indicate that distinct sites host microbial communities that not only are

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Responses of Microorganisms to Osmotic Stress.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Erhard Bremer,Reinhard Krämer

    The cytoplasm of bacterial cells is a highly crowded cellular compartment that possesses considerable osmotic potential. As a result, and owing to the semipermeable nature of the cytoplasmic membrane and the semielastic properties of the cell wall, osmotically driven water influx will generate turgor, a hydrostatic pressure considered critical for growth and viability. Both increases and decreases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Ultimate Guide to Bacterial Swarming: An Experimental Model to Study the Evolution of Cooperative Behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-06-10
    Jinyuan Yan,Hilary Monaco,Joao B Xavier

    Cooperation has fascinated biologists since Darwin. How did cooperative behaviors evolve despite the fitness cost to the cooperator? Bacteria have cooperative behaviors that make excellent models to take on this age-old problem from both proximate (molecular) and ultimate (evolutionary) angles. We delve into Pseudomonas aeruginosa swarming, a phenomenon where billions of bacteria move cooperatively

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Algal Sex Determination and the Evolution of Anisogamy.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    James Umen,Susana Coelho

    Algae are photosynthetic eukaryotes whose taxonomic breadth covers a range of life histories, degrees of cellular and developmental complexity, and diverse patterns of sexual reproduction. These patterns include haploid- and diploid-phase sex determination, isogamous mating systems, and dimorphic sexes. Despite the ubiquity of sexual reproduction in algae, their mating-type-determination and sex-determination

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Tc Toxin Complexes: Assembly, Membrane Permeation, and Protein Translocation.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Daniel Roderer,Stefan Raunser

    Tc toxin complexes are virulence factors of many bacteria, including insect and human pathogens. Tc toxins are composed of three subunits that act together to perforate the host membrane, similar to a syringe, and translocate toxic enzymes into the host cell. The reactions of the toxic enzymes lead to deterioration and ultimately death of the cell. We review recent high-resolution structural and functional

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Functional Regulators of Bacterial Flagella.
    Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (IF 11.0) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Sundharraman Subramanian,Daniel B Kearns

    Bacteria move by a variety of mechanisms, but the best understood types of motility are powered by flagella (72). Flagella are complex machines embedded in the cell envelope that rotate a long extracellular helical filament like a propeller to push cells through the environment. The flagellum is one of relatively few biological machines that experience continuous 360° rotation, and it is driven by

    更新日期:2020-04-21
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