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  • Nucleotide Excision Repair Protein Rad23 Regulates Cell Virulence Independent of Rad4 in Candida albicans
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Jia Feng; Shuangyan Yao; Yansong Dong; Jing Hu; Malcolm Whiteway; Jinrong Feng; Aaron P. Mitchell

    In the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans, the DNA damage response contributes to pathogenicity by regulating cell morphology transitions and maintaining survival in response to DNA damage induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in host cells. However, the function of nucleotide excision repair (NER) in C. albicans has not been extensively investigated. To better understand the DNA damage response and its role in virulence, we studied the function of the Rad23 nucleotide excision repair protein in detail. The RAD23 deletion strain and overexpression strain both exhibit UV sensitivity, confirming the critical role of RAD23 in the nucleotide excision repair pathway. Genetic interaction assays revealed that the role of RAD23 in the UV response relies on RAD4 but is independent of RAD53 , MMS22 , and RAD18 . RAD4 and RAD23 have similar roles in regulating cell morphogenesis and biofilm formation; however, only RAD23 , but not RAD4 , plays a negative role in virulence regulation in a mouse model. We found that the RAD23 deletion strain showed decreased survival in a Candida -macrophage interaction assay. Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) data further revealed that RAD23 , but not RAD4 , regulates the transcription of a virulence factor, SUN41 , suggesting a unique role of RAD23 in virulence regulation. Taking these observations together, our work reveals that the RAD23 -related nucleotide excision pathway plays a critical role in the UV response but may not play a direct role in virulence. The virulence-related role of RAD23 may rely on the regulation of several virulence factors, which may give us further understanding about the linkage between DNA damage repair and virulence regulation in C. albicans. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans remains a significant threat to the lives of immunocompromised people. An understanding of the virulence and infection ability of C. albicans cells in the mammalian host may help with clinical treatment and drug discovery. The DNA damage response pathway is closely related to morphology regulation and virulence, as well as the ability to survive in host cells. In this study, we checked the role of the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, the key repair system that functions to remove a large variety of DNA lesions such as those caused by UV light, but whose function has not been well studied in C. albicans. We found that Rad23, but not Rad4, plays a role in virulence that appears independent of the function of the NER pathway. Our research revealed that the NER pathway represented by Rad4/Rad23 may not play a direct role in virulence but that Rad23 may play a unique role in regulating the transcription of virulence genes that may contribute to the virulence of C. albicans.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • MAG2, a Toxoplasma gondii Bradyzoite Stage-Specific Cyst Matrix Protein
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Vincent Tu; Joshua Mayoral; Rama R. Yakubu; Tadakimi Tomita; Tatsuki Sugi; Bing Han; Tere Williams; Yanfen Ma; Louis M. Weiss; William J. Sullivan

    Toxoplasma gondii causes a chronic infection that affects a significant portion of the world’s population, and this latent infection is the source of reactivation of toxoplasmosis. An attribute of the slowly growing bradyzoite stage of the parasite is the formation of a cyst within infected cells, allowing the parasite to escape the host’s immune response. In this study, a new bradyzoite cyst matrix antigen (MAG) was identified through a hybridoma library screen. This cyst matrix antigen, matrix antigen 2 (MAG2), contains 14 tandem repeats consisting of acidic, basic, and proline residues. Immunoblotting revealed that MAG2 migrates at a level higher than its predicted molecular weight, and computational analysis showed that the structure of MAG2 is highly disordered. Cell fractionation studies indicated that MAG2 was associated with both insoluble and soluble cyst matrix material, suggesting that it interacts with the intracyst network (ICN). Examination of the kinetics of MAG2 within the cyst matrix using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) demonstrated that MAG2 does not readily diffuse within the cyst matrix. Kinetic studies of MAG1 demonstrated that this protein has different diffusion kinetics in tachyzoite and bradyzoite vacuoles and that its mobility is not altered in the absence of MAG2. In addition, deletion of MAG2 does not influence growth, cystogenesis, or cyst morphology. IMPORTANCE This report expands on the list of characterized Toxoplasma gondii cyst matrix proteins. Using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP), we have shown that matrix proteins within the cyst matrix are not mainly in a mobile state, providing further evidence of how proteins behave within the cyst matrix. Understanding the proteins expressed during the bradyzoite stage of the parasite reveals how the parasite functions during chronic infection.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Trypanosoma brucei Pex13.2 Is an Accessory Peroxin That Functions in the Import of Peroxisome Targeting Sequence Type 2 Proteins and Localizes to Subdomains of the Glycosome
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Logan P. Crowe; Christina L. Wilkinson; Kathleen R. Nicholson; Meredith T. Morris; Ira J. Blader

    Kinetoplastid parasites, including Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania , harbor unique organelles known as glycosomes, which are evolutionarily related to peroxisomes. Glycosome/peroxisome biogenesis is mediated by proteins called peroxins that facilitate organelle formation, proliferation, and degradation and import of proteins housed therein. Import of matrix proteins occurs via one of two pathways that are dictated by their peroxisome targeting sequence (PTS). In PTS1 import, a C-terminal tripeptide sequence, most commonly SKL, is recognized by the soluble receptor Pex5. In PTS2 import, a less conserved N-terminal sequence is recognized by Pex7. The soluble receptors deliver their cargo to the import channel consisting minimally of Pex13 and Pex14. While much of the import process is conserved, kinetoplastids are the only organisms to have two Pex13s, Pex13.1 and Pex13.2. It is unclear why trypanosomes require two Pex13s when one is sufficient for most eukaryotes. To interrogate the role of Pex13.2, we have employed biochemical approaches to partially resolve the composition of the Pex13/Pex14 import complexes in T. brucei and characterized glycosome morphology and protein import in Pex13.2-deficient parasites. Here, we show that Pex13.2 is an integral glycosome membrane protein that interacts with Pex13.1 and Pex14. The N terminus of Pex13.2 faces the cytoplasmic side of the membrane, where it can facilitate interactions required for protein import. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed three glycosome membrane complexes containing combinations of Pex13.1, Pex13.2, and Pex14. The silencing of Pex13.2 resulted in parasites with fewer, larger glycosomes and disrupted glycosome protein import, suggesting the protein is involved in glycosome biogenesis as well as protein import. Furthermore, superresolution microscopy demonstrated that Pex13.2 localizes to discrete foci in the glycosome periphery, indicating that the glycosome periphery is not homogenous. IMPORTANCE Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis and a wasting disease called Nagana in livestock. Current treatments are expensive, toxic, and difficult to administer. Because of this, the search for new drug targets is essential. T. brucei has glycosomes that are essential to parasite survival; however, our ability to target them in drug development is hindered by our lack of understanding about how these organelles are formed and maintained. This work forwards our understanding of how the parasite-specific protein Pex13.2 functions in glycosome protein import and lays the foundation for future studies focused on blocking Pex13.2 function, which would be lethal to bloodstream-form parasites that reside in the mammalian bloodstream.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Coimmunoprecipitation with MYR1 Identifies Three Additional Proteins within the Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole Required for Translocation of Dense Granule Effectors into Host Cells
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Alicja M. Cygan; Terence C. Theisen; Alma G. Mendoza; Nicole D. Marino; Michael W. Panas; John C. Boothroyd; Aaron P. Mitchell

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous, intracellular protozoan that extensively modifies infected host cells through secreted effector proteins. Many such effectors must be translocated across the parasitophorous vacuole (PV), in which the parasites replicate, ultimately ending up in the host cytosol or nucleus. This translocation has previously been shown to be dependent on five parasite proteins: MYR1, MYR2, MYR3, ROP17, and ASP5. We report here the identification of several MYR1-interacting and novel PV-localized proteins via affinity purification of MYR1, including TGGT1\_211460 (dubbed MYR4), TGGT1\_204340 (dubbed GRA54), and TGGT1_270320 (PPM3C). Further, we show that three of the MYR1-interacting proteins, GRA44, GRA45, and MYR4, are essential for the translocation of the Toxoplasma effector protein GRA16 and for the upregulation of human c-Myc and cyclin E1 in infected cells. GRA44 and GRA45 contain ASP5 processing motifs, but like MYR1, processing at these sites appears to be nonessential for their role in protein translocation. These results expand our understanding of the mechanism of effector translocation in Toxoplasma and indicate that the process is highly complex and dependent on at least eight discrete proteins. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma is an extremely successful intracellular parasite and important human pathogen. Upon infection of a new cell, Toxoplasma establishes a replicative vacuole and translocates parasite effectors across this vacuole to function from the host cytosol and nucleus. These effectors play a key role in parasite virulence. The work reported here newly identifies three parasite proteins that are necessary for protein translocation into the host cell. These results significantly increase our knowledge of the molecular players involved in protein translocation in Toxoplasma -infected cells and provide additional potential drug targets.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • The Secreted Acid Phosphatase Domain-Containing GRA44 from Toxoplasma gondii Is Required for c-Myc Induction in Infected Cells
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    William J. Blakely; Michael J. Holmes; Gustavo Arrizabalaga; Aaron P. Mitchell

    During host cell invasion, the eukaryotic pathogen Toxoplasma gondii forms a parasitophorous vacuole to safely reside within the cell, while it is partitioned from host cell defense mechanisms. From within this safe niche, parasites sabotage multiple host cell systems, including gene expression, apoptosis, and intracellular immune recognition, by secreting a large arsenal of effector proteins. Many parasite proteins studied for active host cell manipulative interactions have been kinases. The translocation of effectors from the parasitophorous vacuole into the host cell is mediated by a putative translocon complex, which includes the proteins MYR1, MYR2, and MYR3. Whether other proteins are involved in the structure or regulation of this putative translocon is not known. We have discovered that the secreted protein GRA44, which contains a putative acid phosphatase domain, interacts with members of this complex and is required for host cell effects downstream of effector secretion. We have determined that GRA44 is processed in a region with homology to sequences targeted by protozoan proteases of the secretory pathway and that both major cleavage fragments are secreted into the parasitophorous vacuole. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that GRA44 interacts with a large number of secreted proteins, including MYR1. Importantly, conditional knockdown of GRA44 resulted in a lack of host cell c-Myc upregulation, which mimics the phenotype seen when members of the translocon complex are genetically disrupted. Thus, the putative acid phosphatase GRA44 is crucial for host cell alterations during Toxoplasma infection and is associated with the translocon complex which Toxoplasma relies upon for success as an intracellular pathogen. IMPORTANCE Approximately one-third of humans are infected with the parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Toxoplasma infections can lead to severe disease in those with a compromised or suppressed immune system. Additionally, infections during pregnancy present a significant health risk to the developing fetus. Drugs that target this parasite are limited, have significant side effects, and do not target all disease stages. Thus, a thorough understanding of how the parasite propagates within a host is critical in the discovery of novel therapeutic targets. Toxoplasma replication requires that it enter the cells of the infected organism. In order to survive the environment inside a cell, Toxoplasma secretes a large repertoire of proteins, which hijack a number of important cellular functions. How these Toxoplasma proteins move from the parasite into the host cell is not well understood. Our work shows that the putative phosphatase GRA44 is part of a protein complex responsible for this process.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • Perinatal Antibiotic Exposure Affects the Transmission between Maternal and Neonatal Microbiota and Is Associated with Early-Onset Sepsis
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Ping Zhou; Yanxia Zhou; Bin Liu; Zhenchao Jin; Xueling Zhuang; Wenkui Dai; Zhenyu Yang; Xin Feng; Qian Zhou; Yanhong Liu; Ximing Xu; Lian Zhang; Patricia A. Bradford

    Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis reduces the risk of infection to a mother and neonate, but antibiotic-mediated maternal and neonatal microbiota dysbiosis increases other health risks to newborn infants. We studied the impact of perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis on the microbiota in mothers and newborns with full-term or preterm delivery. Ninety-eight pregnant women and their neonates were divided into the following four groups: full term without antibiotic exposure (FT), full term with antibiotic exposure (FTA), preterm without antibiotic exposure (PT), and preterm with antibiotic exposure (PTA). Bacterial composition was analyzed by sequencing the 16S rRNA gene from maternal vaginal swabs (V) and neonatal meconium (F). The results showed that in maternal vaginal and neonatal meconium microbiota, FT and PT groups had a higher load of Lactobacillus spp. than did the FTA and PTA groups. In addition, whether in the mother or newborn, the dissimilarity in microbiota between FT and PT was the lowest compared to that between other groups. Compared to the FT and PT groups, the dissimilarity in microbial structures between the vagina and meconium decreased in the FTA and PTA groups. The health outcome of infants reveals an association between early-onset sepsis and antibiotic-mediated microbiota dysbiosis. In conclusion, perinatal antibiotic exposure is related to the establishment of gut microbiota and health risks in newborns. Promoting the rational usage of antibiotics with pregnant women will improve neonatal health. IMPORTANCE Perinatal antibiotic prophylaxis is an effective method for preventing group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection in newborns. Antibiotic exposure unbalances women’s vaginal microbiota, which is associated with the establishment of the newborn gut microbiota. However, the influence of perinatal antibiotic exposure on neonatal gut microbiota colonization and health outcomes remains unclear. In this study, we found that perinatal antibiotic exposure induced microbiota dysbiosis in a woman’s vagina and the neonatal gut, and we highlight a significant decrease in the abundance of Lactobacillus spp. The influence of antibiotic use on the microbiota was greater than that from gestational age. Additionally, full-term newborns without antibiotic exposure had no evidence of early-onset sepsis, whereas in full-term or preterm newborns with antibiotic exposure before birth, at least one infant was diagnosed with early-onset sepsis. These results suggest an association between perinatal antibiotic exposure and microbial dysbiosis in maternal vaginal and neonatal gut environments, which may be related to the occurrence of early-onset sepsis.

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • A Universal, Genomewide GuideFinder for CRISPR/Cas9 Targeting in Microbial Genomes
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Michelle Spoto; Changhui Guan; Elizabeth Fleming; Julia Oh; Aaron P. Mitchell

    The CRISPR/Cas system has significant potential to facilitate gene editing in a variety of bacterial species. CRISPR interference (CRISPRi) and CRISPR activation (CRISPRa) represent modifications of the CRISPR/Cas9 system utilizing a catalytically inactive Cas9 protein for transcription repression and activation, respectively. While CRISPRi and CRISPRa have tremendous potential to systematically investigate gene function in bacteria, few programs are specifically tailored to identify guides in draft bacterial genomes genomewide. Furthermore, few programs offer open-source code with flexible design parameters for bacterial targeting. To address these limitations, we created GuideFinder, a customizable, user-friendly program that can design guides for any annotated bacterial genome. GuideFinder designs guides from NGG protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) sites for any number of genes by the use of an annotated genome and FASTA file input by the user. Guides are filtered according to user-defined design parameters and removed if they contain any off-target matches. Iteration with lowered parameter thresholds allows the program to design guides for genes that did not produce guides with the more stringent parameters, one of several features unique to GuideFinder. GuideFinder can also identify paired guides for targeting multiplicity, whose validity we tested experimentally. GuideFinder has been tested on a variety of diverse bacterial genomes, finding guides for 95% of genes on average. Moreover, guides designed by the program are functionally useful—focusing on CRISPRi as a potential application—as demonstrated by essential gene knockdown in two staphylococcal species. Through the large-scale generation of guides, this open-access software will improve accessibility to CRISPR/Cas studies of a variety of bacterial species. IMPORTANCE With the explosion in our understanding of human and environmental microbial diversity, corresponding efforts to understand gene function in these organisms are strongly needed. CRISPR/Cas9 technology has revolutionized interrogation of gene function in a wide variety of model organisms. Efficient CRISPR guide design is required for systematic gene targeting. However, existing tools are not adapted for the broad needs of microbial targeting, which include extraordinary species and subspecies genetic diversity, the overwhelming majority of which is characterized by draft genomes. In addition, flexibility in guide design parameters is important to consider the wide range of factors that can affect guide efficacy, many of which can be species and strain specific. We designed GuideFinder, a customizable, user-friendly program that addresses the limitations of existing software and that can design guides for any annotated bacterial genome with numerous features that facilitate guide design in a wide variety of microorganisms.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Degradation of the Incretin Hormone Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 (GLP-1) by Enterococcus faecalis Metalloprotease GelE
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Stephanie L. LeValley; Catherine Tomaro-Duchesneau; Robert A. Britton; Maria L. Marco

    Metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes and obesity, have become increasingly prevalent global health concerns. Studies over the past decade have established connections between the gastrointestinal microbiota and host metabolism, but the mechanisms behind these connections are only beginning to be understood. We were interested in identifying microbes that have the ability to modulate the levels of the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). Using a human-derived cell line that is capable of secreting GLP-1 in response to stimulatory ligands (NCI-H716), we identified supernatants from several bacterial isolates that were capable of decreasing GLP-1 levels, including several strains of Enterococcus faecalis. We further identified the secreted protease GelE, an established virulence factor from E. faecalis, as being responsible for GLP-1 inhibition via direct cleavage of GLP-1 by GelE. Finally, we demonstrated that E. faecalis supernatants can disrupt a colonic epithelial monolayer and cleave GLP-1 in a gelE -dependent manner. This work suggests that a secreted factor from an intestinal microbe can traverse the epithelial barrier and impact levels of an important intestinal hormone. IMPORTANCE Humans have a complex and interconnected relationship with their gastrointestinal microbiomes, yet our interest in the microbiome tends to focus on overt pathogenic or probiotic activities, leaving the roles that commensal species may have on host physiology and metabolic processes largely unexplored. Commensal organisms in the microbiome produce and secrete many factors that have an opportunity to interact with the gastrointestinal tract and host biology. Here, we show that a secreted protease from E. faecalis, GelE, is able to degrade the gastrointestinal hormone GLP-1, which is responsible for regulating glucose homeostasis and appetite in the body. The disruption of natural GLP-1 signaling by GelE may have significant consequences for maintaining healthy blood glucose levels and in the development of metabolic disease. Furthermore, this work deepens our understanding of specific host-microbiome interactions.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Toxoplasma Cathepsin Protease B and Aspartyl Protease 1 Are Dispensable for Endolysosomal Protein Digestion
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Christian McDonald; David Smith; Manlio Di Cristina; Geetha Kannan; Zhicheng Dou; Vern B. Carruthers; Ira J. Blader

    The lysosome-like vacuolar compartment (VAC) is a major site of proteolysis in the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Previous studies have shown that genetic ablation of a VAC-residing cysteine protease, cathepsin protease L (CPL), resulted in the accumulation of undigested protein in the VAC and loss of parasite viability during the chronic stage of infection. However, since the maturation of another VAC localizing protease, cathepsin protease B (CPB), is dependent on CPL, it remained unknown whether these defects result directly from ablation of CPL or indirectly from a lack of CPB maturation. Likewise, although a previously described cathepsin D-like aspartyl protease 1 (ASP1) could also play a role in proteolysis, its definitive residence and function in the Toxoplasma endolysosomal system were not well defined. Here, we demonstrate that CPB is not necessary for protein turnover in the VAC and that CPB-deficient parasites have normal growth and viability in both the acute and chronic stages of infection. We also show that ASP1 depends on CPL for correct maturation, and it resides in the T. gondii VAC, where, similar to CPB, it plays a dispensable role in protein digestion. Taken together with previous work, our findings suggest that CPL is the dominant protease in a hierarchy of proteolytic enzymes within the VAC. This unusual lack of redundancy for CPL in T. gondii makes it a single exploitable target for disrupting chronic toxoplasmosis. IMPORTANCE Roughly one-third of the human population is chronically infected with the intracellular single-celled parasite Toxoplasma gondii, but little is known about how this organism persists inside people. Previous research suggested that a parasite proteolytic enzyme, termed cathepsin protease L, is important for Toxoplasma persistence; however, it remained possible that other associated proteolytic enzymes could also be involved in the long-term survival of the parasite during infection. Here, we show that two proteolytic enzymes associated with cathepsin protease L play dispensable roles and are dependent on cathepsin L to reach maturity, which differs from the corresponding enzymes in humans. These findings establish a divergent hierarchy of proteases and help focus attention principally on cathepsin protease L as a potential target for interrupting Toxoplasma chronic infection.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Acute Sleep-Wake Cycle Shift Results in Community Alteration of Human Gut Microbiome
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Zhi Liu; Zhi-Yuan Wei; Junyu Chen; Kun Chen; Xuhua Mao; Qisha Liu; Yu Sun; Zixiao Zhang; Yue Zhang; Zhou Dan; Junming Tang; Lianhong Qin; Jian-Huan Chen; Xingyin Liu; Krishna Rao

    Disturbances of sleep and the underlying circadian rhythm are related to many human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and cognitive impairments. Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome has also been reported to be associated with the pathologies of these diseases. Therefore, we proposed that disturbed sleep may regulate gut microbiota homeostasis. In this study, we mimicked the sleep-wake cycle shift, one typical type of circadian rhythm disturbances in young people, in recruited subjects. We used 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing to define microbial taxa from their fecal samples. Although the relative abundances of the microbes were not significantly altered, the functional-profile analysis of gut microbiota revealed functions enriched during the sleep-wake cycle shift. In addition, the microbial networks were quite distinct among baseline, shift, and recovery stages. These results suggest that an acute sleep-wake cycle shift may exert a limited influence on the gut microbiome, mainly including the functional profiles of the microbes and the microbial relationships within the microbial community. IMPORTANCE Circadian rhythm misalignment due to social jet lag, shift work, early morning starts, and delayed bedtimes is becoming common in our modern society. Disturbances of sleep and the underlying circadian rhythms are related to multiple human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cardiovascular disorders, and cognitive impairments. Given the crucial role of microbiota in the same pathologies as are caused by sleep disturbance, how the gut microbiota is affected by sleep is of increasing interest. The results of this study indicate that the acute circadian rhythm disturbance caused by sleep-wake shifts affect the human gut microbiota, especially the functional profiles of gut microbes and interactions among them. Further experiments with a longer-time-scale intervention and larger sample size are needed to assess the effects of chronic circadian rhythm disruption on the gut microbiome and to guide possible microbial therapies for clinical intervention in the related diseases.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Morphology and Transcriptome Analysis of Nosema bombycis Sporoplasm and Insights into the Initial Infection of Microsporidia
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Qiang He; Jian Luo; Jin-Zhi Xu; Chun-xia Wang; Xian-zhi Meng; Guo-Qing Pan; Tian Li; Ze-Yang Zhou; Aaron P. Mitchell

    Microsporidia are obligate intracellular parasites that infect a wide variety of host organisms, including humans. The sporoplasm is the initial stage of microsporidian infection and proliferation, but its morphological and molecular characteristics are poorly understood. In this study, the sporoplasm of Nosema bombycis was successfully isolated and characterized after the induction of spore germination in vitro . The sporoplasm was spherical, 3.64 ± 0.41 μm in diameter, had the typical two nuclei, and was nonrefractive. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses revealed that the sporoplasm was surrounded by a single membrane, and the cytoplasm was usually filled with relatively homogeneous granules, possibly ribosomes, and contained a vesicular structure comprising a concentric ring and coiled tubules. Propidium iodide staining revealed that the sporoplasm membrane showed stronger membrane permeability than did the cell plasma membrane. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the sporoplasm can gain entry to the host cell by phagocytosis. Transcriptome analysis of mature spores and sporoplasms showed that 541 significantly differentially expressed genes were screened (adjusted P value [ P adj] < 0.05), of which 302 genes were upregulated and 239 genes were downregulated in the sporoplasm. The majority of the genes involved in trehalose synthesis metabolism, glycolysis, and the pentose phosphate pathway were downregulated, whereas 10 transporter genes were upregulated, suggesting that the sporoplasm may inhibit its own carbon metabolic activity and obtain the substances required for proliferation through transporter proteins. This study represents the first comprehensive and in-depth investigation of the sporoplasm at the morphological and molecular levels and provides novel insights into the biology of microsporidia and their infection mechanism. IMPORTANCE Once awoken from dormancy, the cellular matter of microsporidia is delivered directly into the host cell cytoplasm through the polar tube. This means that the microsporidia are difficult to study biologically in their active state without a contaminating signal from the host cell. Sporoplasm is a cell type of microsporidia in vitro , but relatively little attention has been paid to the sporoplasm in the past 150 years due to a lack of an effective separation method. Nosema bombycis, the first reported microsporidium, is a type of obligate intracellular parasite that infects silkworms and can be induced to germinate in alkaline solution in vitro . We successfully separated the N. bombycis sporoplasm in vitro , and the morphological and structural characteristics were investigated. These results provide important insight into the biology and pathogenesis of microsporidia and potentially provide a possible strategy for genetic manipulation of microsporidia targeting the sporoplasm.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Analysis of Yeast Killer Toxin K1 Precursor Processing via Site-Directed Mutagenesis: Implications for Toxicity and Immunity
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Stefanie Gier; Manfred J. Schmitt; Frank Breinig; Aaron P. Mitchell

    K1 represents a heterodimeric A/B toxin secreted by virus-infected Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains. In a two-staged receptor-mediated process, the ionophoric activity of K1 leads to an uncontrolled influx of protons, culminating in the breakdown of the cellular transmembrane potential of sensitive cells. K1 killer yeast necessitate not only an immunity mechanism saving the toxin-producing cell from its own toxin but, additionally, a molecular system inactivating the toxic α subunit within the secretory pathway. In this study, different derivatives of the K1 precursor were constructed to analyze the biological function of particular structural components and their influence on toxin activity as well as the formation of protective immunity. Our data implicate an inactivation of the α subunit during toxin maturation and provide the basis for an updated model of K1 maturation within the host cell’s secretory pathway. IMPORTANCE The killer phenotype in the baker’s yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae relies on two double-stranded RNA viruses that are persistently present in the cytoplasm. As they carry the same receptor populations as sensitive cells, killer yeast cells need—in contrast to various bacterial toxin producers—a specialized immunity mechanism. The ionophoric killer toxin K1 leads to the formation of cation-specific pores in the plasma membrane of sensitive yeast cells. Based on the data generated in this study, we were able to update the current model of toxin processing, validating the temporary inactivation of the toxic α subunit during maturation in the secretory pathway of the killer yeast.

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Is the Oral Microbiome Important in HIV-Associated Inflammation?
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Jennifer A. Fulcher

    Alterations in the gut microbiome during HIV infection have been implicated in chronic inflammation, but the role of the oral microbiome in this process is less clear. The article by M. K. Annavajhala, S. D. Khan, S. B. Sullivan, J. Shah, et al. (mSphere 5:e00798-19, 2020, ) investigated the relationship between oral and gut microbiome diversity and immune activation in patients with HIV on antiretroviral therapy. In this study, oral microbiome diversity was inversely associated with inflammatory markers such as soluble CD14 (sCD14), but surprisingly similar associations were not seen with gut microbiome diversity. Oral microbiome diversity was also associated with periodontitis in these patients. This study highlights the importance of continuing multisite examinations in studying the gastrointestinal tract microbiome and also stimulates important directions for future research defining the role of the oral-gut axis in HIV-associated inflammation. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • mSphere of Influence: a Community To Study Communities
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Dominique Limoli

    Dominique Limoli studies polymicrobial interactions during cystic fibrosis respiratory disease. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how two papers (D. A. Hogan, S. D. Willger, E. L. Dolben, T. H. Hampton, et al., PLoS One 11:e0149998, 2016, , and P. Jorth, B. J. Staudinger, X. Wu, K. B. Hisert, et al., Cell Host & Microbe 18:307–319, 2015, ) have influenced her thinking and research direction, which aims to understand interspecies bacterial communication during airway infections. These studies highlighted for her a need for new perspectives on the pathology of chronic infections in order to improve interventions. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Erratum for Inomura et al., “Quantifying Oxygen Management and Temperature and Light Dependencies of Nitrogen Fixation by Crocosphaera watsonii”
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Keisuke Inomura; Curtis Deutsch; Samuel T. Wilson; Takako Masuda; Evelyn Lawrenz; Lenka Bučinská; Roman Sobotka; Julia M. Gauglitz; Mak A. Saito; Ondřej Prášil; Michael J. Follows

    Volume 4, no. 6, e00531-19, 2019, [https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00531-19][1]. This article was published on 11 December 2019 with the sixth author’s name presented incorrectly. The byline has been updated in the current version, posted on 30 January 2020. [1]: /lookup/doi/10.1128/mSphere.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Antibody-Secreting Cells To Diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Children in Pakistan
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Najeeha Talat Iqbal; Kumail Ahmed; Farah N. Qamar; Fariha Shaheen; Aisha Mehnaz; Fehmina Arif; Amna Afzal Saeed; Aneeq Muhammad Yousuf; Syeda Fatima Raza; Shazia Sultana; Shahida Mumtaz Qureshi; Shakil Ahmad Siddiqi; Eric Houpt; Tania Thomas; Jacqueline M. Achkar

    Reliance on microbiologic methods to diagnose Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection is a suboptimal approach for children due in part to the paucibacillary nature of the disease. A blood-based biomarker assay, such as the mycobacterial-antibody-secreting cell (MASC) assay, could be a major advance for the field of study of pediatric tuberculosis (TB). Children <15 years of age with clinical concern for TB and age-matched children with no concern for TB were enrolled from outpatient clinics in Karachi, Pakistan. MASC, ferritin, and C-reactive protein (CRP) assays were performed, and results were compared among cases and controls, as well as among children with a case definition of “confirmed TB,” “probable TB,” or “possible TB.” MASC responses were significantly higher among children with TB than among controls (0.41 optical density [OD] versus 0.28 OD, respectively, P < 0.001), and the differences were largely driven by the data from children with confirmed TB ( P = 0.002). Ferritin and CRP values were significantly higher among those with confirmed TB than among those with the other disease states and controls ( P = 0.004 and P = 0.019, respectively). The use of the MASC assay as a blood-based biomarker for TB disease shows some promise among children with microbiologically confirmed disease; however, the performance characteristics for the majority of young children with unconfirmed TB were suboptimal in this cohort. IMPORTANCE Tuberculosis (TB) in children represents a missed opportunity for diagnosis and preventive therapy. The magnitude or burden of disease in children is not fully understood due to our limitations with respect to exploring sensitive diagnostic algorithms. In a setting of TB endemicity in Pakistan, we carried out a proof-of-concept study to evaluate for the first time the performance of B cell analyses by the use of well-defined diagnostic criteria and NIH consensus guidelines as “culture-confirmed,” “probable,” and “possible” TB groups. In contrast to detection of serum antibody, we focused on mycobacterial-antibody-secreting cell (MASC) detection as a marker of active disease in children with a strong suspicion of TB. Further work exploring a larger panel of inflammatory biomarkers and enrichment of B cells with the objective of increasing the sensitivity of the current MASC assay would lead to the development of a field-friendly assay for timely diagnosis of childhood TB.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Recruitment of Host Nuclear Pore Components to the Vicinity of Theileria Schizonts
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Sandra Huber; Anina Bär; Selina Epp; Jacqueline Schmuckli-Maurer; Naja Eberhard; Bruno M. Humbel; Andrew Hemphill; Kerry Woods; Photini Sinnis

    Parasitic protozoans of the genus Theileria are intracellular pathogens that induce the cellular transformation of leukocytes, causing uncontrolled proliferation of the infected host cell. The transforming stage of the parasite has a strictly intracellular lifestyle and ensures its distribution to both daughter cells during host cell cytokinesis by aligning itself across the metaphase plate and by binding tightly to central spindle and astral microtubules. Given the importance of the parasite surface in maintaining interactions with host microtubules, we analyzed the ultrastructure of the host-parasite interface using transmission electron microscopy combined with high-resolution fluorescence microscopy and live-cell imaging. We show that porous membranes, termed annulate lamellae (AL), closely associate with the Theileria surface in infected T cells, B cells, and macrophages and are not detectable in noninfected bovine cell lines such as BL20 or BoMACs. AL are membranous structures found in the cytoplasm of fast-proliferating cells such as cancer cells, oocytes, and embryonic cells. Although AL were first observed more than 60 years ago, the function of these organelles is still not known. Indirect immunofluorescence analysis with a pan-nuclear pore complex antibody, combined with overexpression of a panel of nuclear pore proteins, revealed that the parasite recruits nuclear pore complex components close to its surface. Importantly, we show that, in addition to structural components of the nuclear pore complex, nuclear trafficking machinery, including importin beta 1, RanGAP1, and the small GTPase Ran, also accumulated close to the parasite surface. IMPORTANCE Theileria schizonts are the only known eukaryotic organisms capable of transforming another eukaryotic cell; as such, probing of the interactions that occur at the host-parasite interface is likely to lead to novel insights into the cell biology underlying leukocyte proliferation and transformation. Little is known about how the parasite communicates with its host or by what route secreted parasite proteins are translocated into the host, and we propose that nuclear trafficking machinery at the parasite surface might play a role in this. The function of AL remains completely unknown, and our work provides a basis for further investigation into the contribution that these porous, cytomembranous structures might make to the survival of fast-growing transformed cells.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • EFG1 Mutations, Phenotypic Switching, and Colonization by Clinical a/α Strains of Candida albicans
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Yang-Nim Park; Kayla Conway; Claude Pujol; Karla J. Daniels; David R. Soll; Aaron P. Mitchell

    The transcription factor EFG1 functions as a suppressor of white-to-opaque and white-to-gray switching in a /α strains of Candida albicans. In a collection of 27 clinical isolates, 4 of the 17 EFG1/EFG1 strains, 1 of the 2 EFG1/efg1 strains, and all 8 of the efg1 / efg1 strains underwent white-to-opaque switching. The four EFG1/EFG1 strains, the one EFG1/efg1 strain, and one of the eight efg1 / efg1 strains that underwent switching to opaque did not switch to gray and could not be complemented with a copy of EFG1 . Competition experiments in a mouse model for gastrointestinal (GI) colonization confirmed that efg1 / efg1 cells rapidly outcompete EFG1 / EFG1 cells, and in plating experiments, formed colonies containing both gray and opaque cells. Direct microscopic analysis of live cells in the feces, however, revealed that the great majority of cells were opaque, suggesting opaque, not gray, may be the dominant phenotype at the site of colonization. IMPORTANCE Close to half of a collection of 27 clinical a /α isolates of Candida albicans underwent white-to-opaque switching. Complementation experiments revealed that while approximately half of the a /α switchers were due to EFG1 mutations, the remaining half were due to mutations in other genes. In addition, the results of competition experiments in a mouse GI tract colonization model support previous observations that efg1 / efg1 cells rapidly outcompete EFG1/EFG1 strains, but direct microscopic analysis reveals that the major colonizing cells were opaque, not gray.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Oral and Gut Microbial Diversity and Immune Regulation in Patients with HIV on Antiretroviral Therapy
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Medini K. Annavajhala; Sabrina D. Khan; Sean B. Sullivan; Jayesh Shah; Lauren Pass; Karolina Kister; Heather Kunen; Victor Chiang; Gwennaëlle C. Monnot; Christopher L. Ricupero; Rebecca A. Mazur; Peter Gordon; Annemieke de Jong; Sunil Wadhwa; Michael T. Yin; Ryan T. Demmer; Anne-Catrin Uhlemann; Benhur Lee

    Despite evidence of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the role of oral microbiota in chronic immune activation has not been fully explored. We aimed to determine the relationship between oral and gut microbiome diversity and chronic systemic inflammation in ART-treated PLWH with prevalent severe periodontitis, an inflammatory condition commonly associated with HIV infection. We assessed bacterial and fungal communities at oral and gastrointestinal sites in a cohort ( n = 52) of primarily postmenopausal women on ART using 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequencing and measured cellular and soluble markers of inflammation and immune dysfunction. Linear mixed-effect regression and differential abundance analyses were used to associate clinical characteristics and immunological markers with bacterial and fungal diversity and community composition. Bacterial α-diversity in plaque, saliva, and gut was associated with different immunological markers, while mycobial diversity was not associated with soluble or cellular biomarkers of immune stimulation or T cell dysfunction. Furthermore, lipopolysaccharide-positive (LPS+) bacteria previously linked to inflammatory outcomes were enriched at oral sites in patients with severe periodontitis. Fungal α-diversity was reduced in plaque from teeth with higher clinical attachment loss, a marker of periodontitis, and in saliva and plaque from patients with a history of AIDS. Our results show that both bacterial and fungal oral microbiome communities likely play a role in chronic systemic immune activation in PLWH. Thus, interventions targeting both inflammation and the microbiome, particularly in the oral cavity, may be necessary to reduce chronic immune dysregulation in patients with HIV. IMPORTANCE A feedback loop between dysbiotic gut microbiota, increased translocation of microbial products such as lipopolysaccharide, and inflammation has been hypothesized to cause immune system dysfunction in early HIV infection. However, despite evidence of a chronic inflammatory phenotype in patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART), the role of oral microbiota in systemic immune activation and the relationship between oral and gut bacterial and fungal diversity have not been explored. Our study suggests a crucial role for oral bacterial and fungal communities in long-term systemic immune activation in patients on ART, expanding the current paradigm focused on gut bacteria. Our results indicate that interventions targeting both inflammation and microbial diversity are needed to mitigate oral inflammation-related comorbidities, particularly in HIV-positive patients. More broadly, these findings can bolster general models of microbiome-mediated chronic systemic immune activation and aid the development of precise microbiota-targeted interventions to reverse chronic inflammation.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Influenza A Virus Field Surveillance at a Swine-Human Interface
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Benjamin L. Rambo-Martin; Matthew W. Keller; Malania M. Wilson; Jacqueline M. Nolting; Tavis K. Anderson; Amy L. Vincent; Ujwal R. Bagal; Yunho Jang; Elizabeth B. Neuhaus; C. Todd Davis; Andrew S. Bowman; David E. Wentworth; John R. Barnes; Anice C. Lowen

    While working overnight at a swine exhibition, we identified an influenza A virus (IAV) outbreak in swine, Nanopore sequenced 13 IAV genomes from samples we collected, and predicted in real time that these viruses posed a novel risk to humans due to genetic mismatches between the viruses and current prepandemic candidate vaccine viruses (CVVs). We developed and used a portable IAV sequencing and analysis platform called Mia (Mobile Influenza Analysis) to complete and characterize full-length consensus genomes approximately 18 h after unpacking the mobile lab. Exhibition swine are a known source for zoonotic transmission of IAV to humans and pose a potential pandemic risk. Genomic analyses of IAV in swine are critical to understanding this risk, the types of viruses circulating in swine, and whether current vaccines developed for use in humans would be predicted to provide immune protection. Nanopore sequencing technology has enabled genome sequencing in the field at the source of viral outbreaks or at the bedside or pen-side of infected humans and animals. The acquired data, however, have not yet demonstrated real-time, actionable public health responses. The Mia system rapidly identified three genetically distinct swine IAV lineages from three subtypes, A(H1N1), A(H3N2), and A(H1N2). Analysis of the hemagglutinin (HA) sequences of the A(H1N2) viruses identified >30 amino acid differences between the HA1 of these viruses and the most closely related CVV. As an exercise in pandemic preparedness, all sequences were emailed to CDC collaborators who initiated the development of a synthetically derived CVV. IMPORTANCE Swine are influenza virus reservoirs that have caused outbreaks and pandemics. Genomic characterization of these viruses enables pandemic risk assessment and vaccine comparisons, though this typically occurs after a novel swine virus jumps into humans. The greatest risk occurs where large groups of swine and humans comingle. At a large swine exhibition, we used Nanopore sequencing and on-site analytics to interpret 13 swine influenza virus genomes and identified an influenza virus cluster that was genetically highly varied to currently available vaccines. As part of the National Strategy for Pandemic Preparedness exercises, the sequences were emailed to colleagues at the CDC who initiated the development of a synthetically derived vaccine designed to match the viruses at the exhibition. Subsequently, this virus caused 14 infections in humans and was the dominant U.S. variant virus in 2018.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Herpes Simplex Virus Glycoprotein C Regulates Low-pH Entry
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Tri Komala Sari; Katrina A. Gianopulos; Darin J. Weed; Seth M. Schneider; Suzanne M. Pritchard; Anthony V. Nicola; Felicia Goodrum

    Herpes simplex viruses (HSVs) cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans worldwide. Herpesviruses mediate entry by a multicomponent virus-encoded machinery. Herpesviruses enter cells by endosomal low-pH and pH-neutral mechanisms in a cell-specific manner. HSV mediates cell entry via the envelope glycoproteins gB and gD and the heterodimer gH/gL regardless of pH or endocytosis requirements. Specifics concerning HSV envelope proteins that function selectively in a given entry pathway have been elusive. Here, we demonstrate that gC regulates cell entry and infection by a low-pH pathway. Conformational changes in the core herpesviral fusogen gB are critical for membrane fusion. The presence of gC conferred a higher pH threshold for acid-induced antigenic changes in gB. Thus, gC may selectively facilitate low-pH entry by regulating conformational changes in the fusion protein gB. We propose that gC modulates the HSV fusion machinery during entry into pathophysiologically relevant cells, such as human epidermal keratinocytes. IMPORTANCE Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that cause lifelong latent infections and that are characterized by multiple entry pathways. We propose that herpes simplex virus (HSV) gC plays a selective role in modulating HSV entry, such as entry into epithelial cells, by a low-pH pathway. gC facilitates a conformational change of the main fusogen gB, a class III fusion protein. We propose a model whereby gC functions with gB, gD, and gH/gL to allow low-pH entry. In the absence of gC, HSV entry occurs at a lower pH, coincident with trafficking to a lower pH compartment where gB changes occur at more acidic pHs. This report identifies a new function for gC and provides novel insight into the complex mechanism of HSV entry and fusion.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Robustness of Serologic Investigations for Chikungunya and Mayaro Viruses following Coemergence
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Carlo Fischer; Fernando Bozza; Xiomara Jeanleny Merino Merino; Celia Pedroso; Edmilson F. de Oliveira Filho; Andrés Moreira-Soto; Alvaro Schwalb; Xavier de Lamballerie; Eduardo Martins Netto; Patrícia T. Bozza; Manoel Sarno; Carlos Brites; Eduardo Gotuzzo; Michael Talledo; Jan Felix Drexler; John Schoggins

    Since 2013, the arthropod-borne Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has cocirculated with the autochthonous Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America. Both belong to the same alphavirus serocomplex, termed the Semliki Forest serocomplex. The extent of antibody cross-reactivity due to the antigenic relatedness of CHIKV and MAYV in commonly used serologic tests remains unclear. By testing 64 CHIKV- and 37 MAYV-specific sera from cohort studies conducted in Peru and Brazil, we demonstrate about 50% false-positive test results using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) based on structural antigens. In contrast, combining ELISAs for CHIKV and MAYV significantly increased positive predictive values (PPV) among all cohorts from 35.3% to 88.2% for IgM and from 61.3% to 96.8% for IgG ( P < 0.0001). Testing of longitudinally collected CHIKV-specific patient sera indicated that ELISA specificity is highest for IgM testing at 5 to 9 days post-onset of symptoms (dpo) and for IgG testing at 10 to 14 dpo. IgG cross-reactivity in ELISA was asymmetric, occurring in 57.9% of MAYV-specific sera compared to 29.5% of CHIKV-specific sera. Parallel plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT) for CHIKV and MAYV increased the PPV from 80.0% to 100% ( P = 0.0053). However, labor-intense procedures and delayed seroconversion limit PRNT for patient diagnostics. In sum, individual testing for CHIKV or MAYV only is prone to misclassifications that dramatically impact patient diagnostics and sero-epidemiologic investigation. Parallel ELISAs for both CHIKV and MAYV provide an easy and efficient solution to differentiate CHIKV from MAYV infections. This approach may provide a template globally for settings in which alphavirus coemergence imposes similar problems. IMPORTANCE Geographically overlapping transmission of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Mayaro virus (MAYV) in Latin America challenges serologic diagnostics and epidemiologic surveillance, as antibodies against the antigenically related viruses can be cross-reactive, potentially causing false-positive test results. We examined whether widely used ELISAs and plaque reduction neutralization testing allow specific antibody detection in the scenario of CHIKV and MAYV coemergence. For this purpose, we used 37 patient-derived MAYV-specific sera from Peru and 64 patient-derived CHIKV-specific sera from Brazil, including longitudinally collected samples. Extensive testing of those samples revealed strong antibody cross-reactivity in ELISAs, particularly for IgM, which is commonly used for patient diagnostics. Cross-neutralization was also observed, albeit at lower frequencies. Parallel testing for both viruses and comparison of ELISA reactivities and neutralizing antibody titers significantly increased diagnostic specificity. Our data provide a convenient and practicable solution to ensure robust differentiation of CHIKV- and MAYV-specific antibodies.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • A Nonfunctional Opsonic Antibody Response Frequently Occurs after Pneumococcal Pneumonia and Is Associated with Invasive Disease
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Fabian Uddén; Jonas Ahl; Nils Littorin; Kristoffer Strålin; Simon Athlin; Kristian Riesbeck; Drusilla L. Burns

    Naturally acquired opsonic antipneumococcal antibodies are commonly found in nonvaccinated adults and confer protection against infection and colonization. Despite this, only limited data exist regarding the adaptive immune response after pneumococcal exposure. To investigate the dynamics of naturally acquired antipneumococcal immunity in relation to an episode of infection, opsonic antibody activity was studied with paired acute-phase and convalescent-phase sera obtained from 54 patients with pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) using an opsonophagocytic assay (OPA). Results were compared with clinical characteristics and anticapsular immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations. Interestingly, a nonfunctional opsonic antibody response (characterized by a decreased convalescent-phase serum OPA titer compared to that of the acute-phase serum or undetectable titers in both sera) was observed in 19 (35%) patients. A nonfunctional convalescent-phase response was significantly more common among patients with invasive pneumococcal disease (i.e., bacteremia) than in patients without invasive disease (53%; P = 0.019). Remaining individuals exhibited either an increased convalescent-phase OPA titer ( n = 24 [44%]) or a detectable, but unchanged, titer at both time points ( n = 11 [20%]). No correlation was found between anticapsular Ig concentrations and OPA titers. Our findings indicate that an episode of pneumococcal infection may act as an immunizing event, leading to an improved antipneumococcal adaptive immune status. However, in some cases, when patients with CAP also suffer from bacteremia, a nonfunctional opsonic antibody response may occur. Furthermore, the results suggest that factors other than anticapsular Ig concentrations are important for opsonic antibody activity in serum. IMPORTANCE Numerous reports on the dynamics of antipneumococcal immunity in relation to immunization with pneumococcal vaccines and on the prevalence of naturally acquired immunity in various populations have been published. In contrast, studies on the dynamics of the humoral immune response triggered by pneumococcal infection are scarce. This study provides valuable information that will contribute to fill this knowledge gap. Our main results indicate that a functional immune response frequently fails to occur after CAP, predominantly among patients with simultaneous bacteremia.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Three-Dimensional Visualization of APEX2-Tagged Erg11 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Using Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Winnie Kerstens; Anneke Kremer; Michelle Holtappels; Peter Borghgraef; Saskia Lippens; Patrick Van Dijck; Aaron P. Mitchell

    The determination of the exact location of a protein in the cell is essential to the understanding of biological processes. Here, we report for the first time the visualization of a protein of interest in Saccharomyces cerevisiae using focused ion beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). As a proof of concept, the integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane protein Erg11 has been C-terminally tagged with APEX2, which is an engineered peroxidase that catalyzes an electron-dense deposition of 3,3′-diaminobenzidine (DAB), as such marking the location of the fused protein of interest in electron microscopic images. As DAB is unable to cross the yeast cell wall to react with APEX2, cell walls have been partly removed by the formation of spheroplasts. This has resulted in a clear electron-dense ER signal for the Erg11 protein using FIB-SEM. With this study, we have validated the use of the APEX2 tag for visualization of yeast proteins in electron microscopy. Furthermore, we have introduced a methodology that enables precise and three-dimensional (3D) localization studies in yeast, with nanometer resolution and without the need for antibody staining. Because of these properties, the described technique can offer valuable information on the molecular functions of studied proteins. IMPORTANCE With this study, we have validated the use of the APEX2 tag to define the localization of proteins in the model yeast S. cerevisiae. As such, FIB-SEM can identify the exact 3D location of a protein of interest in the cell with nanometer-scale resolution. Such detailed imaging could provide essential information on the elucidation of various biological processes. APEX2, which adds electron density to a fused protein of interest upon addition of the substrate DAB, originally was used in mammalian studies. With this study, we expand its use to protein localization studies in one of the most important models in molecular biology.

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Influence of Substrate Concentration on the Culturability of Heterotrophic Soil Microbes Isolated by High-Throughput Dilution-to-Extinction Cultivation
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Ryan P. Bartelme; Joy M. Custer; Christopher L. Dupont; Josh L. Espinoza; Manolito Torralba; Banafshe Khalili; Paul Carini; Susannah Green Tringe

    The vast majority of microbes inhabiting oligotrophic shallow subsurface soil environments have not been isolated or studied under controlled laboratory conditions. In part, the challenges associated with isolating shallow subsurface microbes may persist because microbes in deeper soils are adapted to low nutrient availability or quality. Here, we use high-throughput dilution-to-extinction culturing to isolate shallow subsurface microbes from a conifer forest in Arizona, USA. We hypothesized that the concentration of heterotrophic substrates in microbiological growth medium would affect which microbial taxa were culturable from these soils. To test this, we diluted cells extracted from soil into one of two custom-designed defined growth media that differed by 100-fold in the concentration of amino acids and organic carbon. Across the two media, we isolated a total of 133 pure cultures, all of which were classified as Actinobacteria or Alphaproteobacteria . The substrate availability dictated which actinobacterial phylotypes were culturable but had no significant effect on the culturability of Alphaproteobacteria . We isolated cultures that were representative of the most abundant phylotype in the soil microbial community ( Bradyrhizobium spp.) and representatives of five of the top 10 most abundant Actinobacteria phylotypes, including Nocardioides spp., Mycobacterium spp., and several other phylogenetically divergent lineages. Flow cytometry of nucleic acid-stained cells showed that cultures isolated on low-substrate medium had significantly lower nucleic acid fluorescence than those isolated on high-substrate medium. These results show that dilution-to-extinction is an effective method to isolate abundant soil microbes and that the concentration of substrates in culture medium influences the culturability of specific microbial lineages. IMPORTANCE Isolating environmental microbes and studying their physiology under controlled conditions are essential aspects of understanding their ecology. Subsurface ecosystems are typically nutrient-poor environments that harbor diverse microbial communities—the majority of which are thus far uncultured. In this study, we use modified high-throughput cultivation methods to isolate subsurface soil microbes. We show that a component of whether a microbe is culturable from subsurface soils is the concentration of growth substrates in the culture medium. Our results offer new insight into technical approaches and growth medium design that can be used to access the uncultured diversity of soil microbes.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Biogeographic Patterns in Members of Globally Distributed and Dominant Taxa Found in Port Microbial Communities
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Ryan B. Ghannam; Laura G. Schaerer; Timothy M. Butler; Stephen M. Techtmann; Katherine McMahon

    We conducted a global characterization of the microbial communities of shipping ports to serve as a novel system to investigate microbial biogeography. The community structures of port microbes from marine and freshwater habitats house relatively similar phyla, despite spanning large spatial scales. As part of this project, we collected 1,218 surface water samples from 604 locations across eight countries and three continents to catalogue a total of 20 shipping ports distributed across the East and West Coast of the United States, Europe, and Asia to represent the largest study of port-associated microbial communities to date. Here, we demonstrated the utility of machine learning to leverage this robust system to characterize microbial biogeography by identifying trends in biodiversity across broad spatial scales. We found that for geographic locations sharing similar environmental conditions, subpopulations from the dominant phyla of these habitats ( Actinobacteria , Bacteroidetes , Cyanobacteria , and Proteobacteria ) can be used to differentiate 20 geographic locations distributed globally. These results suggest that despite the overwhelming diversity within microbial communities, members of the most abundant and ubiquitous microbial groups in the system can be used to differentiate a geospatial location across global spatial scales. Our study provides insight into how microbes are dispersed spatially and robust methods whereby we can interrogate microbial biogeography. IMPORTANCE Microbes are ubiquitous throughout the world and are highly diverse. Characterizing the extent of variation in the microbial diversity across large geographic spatial scales is a challenge yet can reveal a lot about what biogeography can tell us about microbial populations and their behavior. Machine learning approaches have been used mostly to examine the human microbiome and, to some extent, microbial communities from the environment. Here, we display how supervised machine learning approaches can be useful to understand microbial biodiversity and biogeography using microbes from globally distributed shipping ports. Our findings indicate that the members of globally dominant phyla are important for differentiating locations, which reduces the reliance on rare taxa to probe geography. Further, this study displays how global biogeographic patterning of aquatic microbial communities (and other systems) can be assessed through populations of the highly abundant and ubiquitous taxa that dominant the system.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Toxoplasma gondii Dysregulates Barrier Function and Mechanotransduction Signaling in Human Endothelial Cells
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Armond L. Franklin-Murray; Sharmila Mallya; Allen Jankeel; Suhas Sureshchandra; Ilhem Messaoudi; Melissa B. Lodoen; Katherine S. Ralston

    Toxoplasma gondii can infect and replicate in vascular endothelial cells prior to entering host tissues. However, little is known about the molecular interactions at the parasite-endothelial cell interface. We demonstrate that T. gondii infection of primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) altered cell morphology and dysregulated barrier function, increasing permeability to low-molecular-weight polymers. T. gondii disrupted vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) and β-catenin localization to the cell periphery and reduced VE-cadherin protein expression. Notably, T. gondii infection led to reorganization of the host cytoskeleton by reducing filamentous actin (F-actin) stress fiber abundance under static and microfluidic shear stress conditions and by reducing planar cell polarity. RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) comparing genome-wide transcriptional profiles of infected to uninfected endothelial cells revealed changes in gene expression associated with cell-cell adhesion, extracellular matrix reorganization, and cytokine-mediated signaling. In particular, genes downstream of Hippo signaling and the biomechanical sensor and transcriptional coactivator Yes-associated protein (YAP) were downregulated in infected endothelial cells. Interestingly, T. gondii infection activated Hippo signaling by increasing phosphorylation of LATS1, leading to cytoplasmic retention of YAP, and reducing YAP target gene expression. These findings suggest that T. gondii infection triggers Hippo signaling and YAP nuclear export, leading to an altered transcriptional profile of infected endothelial cells. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii is a foodborne parasite that infects virtually all warm-blooded animals and can cause severe disease in individuals with compromised or weakened immune systems. During dissemination in its infected hosts, T. gondii breaches endothelial barriers to enter tissues and establish the chronic infections underlying the most severe manifestations of toxoplasmosis. The research presented here examines how T. gondii infection of primary human endothelial cells induces changes in cell morphology, barrier function, gene expression, and mechanotransduction signaling under static conditions and under the physiological conditions of shear stress found in the bloodstream. Understanding the molecular interactions occurring at the interface between endothelial cells and T. gondii may provide insights into processes linked to parasite dissemination and pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Correlation between Bioassay and Protein Misfolding Cyclic Amplification for Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Decontamination Studies
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Maxime Bélondrade; Christelle Jas-Duval; Simon Nicot; Lilian Bruyère-Ostells; Charly Mayran; Laetitia Herzog; Fabienne Reine; Juan Maria Torres; Chantal Fournier-Wirth; Vincent Béringue; Sylvain Lehmann; Daisy Bougard; Mark D. Zabel

    To date, approximately 500 iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease cases have been reported worldwide, most of them resulting from cadaveric dura mater graft and from the administration of prion-contaminated human growth hormone. The unusual resistance of prions to decontamination processes, their large tissue distribution, and the uncertainty about the prevalence of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in the general population lead to specific recommendations regarding identification of tissue at risk and reprocessing of reusable medical devices, including the use of dedicated treatment for prion inactivation. We previously described an in vitro assay, called Surf-PMCA, which allowed us to classify prion decontamination treatments according to their efficacy on vCJD prions by monitoring residual seeding activity (RSA). Here, we used a transgenic mouse line permissive to vCJD prions to study the correlation between the RSA measured in vitro and the in vivo infectivity. Implantation in mouse brains of prion-contaminated steel wires subjected to different decontamination procedures allows us to demonstrate a good concordance between RSA measured by Surf-PMCA ( in vitro ) and residual infectivity ( in vivo ). These experiments emphasize the strength of the Surf-PMCA method as a rapid and sensitive assay for the evaluation of prion decontamination procedures and also confirm the lack of efficacy of several marketed reagents on vCJD prion decontamination. IMPORTANCE Creutzfeldt-Jakob diseases are neurodegenerative disorders for which transmission linked to medical procedures have been reported in hundreds of patients. As prion diseases, they are characterized by an unusual resistance to conventional decontamination processes. Moreover, their large tissue distribution and the ability of prions to attach to many surfaces raised the risk of transmission in health care facilities. It is therefore of major importance that decontamination procedures applied to medical devices before their reprocessing are thoroughly validated for prion inactivation. We previously described an in vitro assay, which allowed us to classify accurately prion decontamination treatments according to their efficacy on variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. The significance of this study is in demonstrating the concordance between previous in vitro results and infectivity studies in transgenic mice. Furthermore, commercial reagents currently used in hospitals were tested by both protocols, and we observed that most of them were ineffective on human prions.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Effect of HIV Envelope Vaccination on the Subsequent Antibody Response to HIV Infection
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Zanele Ditse; Nonhlanhla N. Mkhize; Michael Yin; Michael Keefer; David C. Montefiori; Georgia D. Tomaras; Gavin Churchyard; Kenneth H. Mayer; Shelly Karuna; Cecilia Morgan; Linda-Gail Bekker; Koleka Mlisana; Glenda Gray; Zoe Moodie; Peter Gilbert; Penny L. Moore; Carolyn Williamson; Lynn Morris; Benhur Lee

    Analysis of breakthrough HIV-1 infections could elucidate whether prior vaccination primes relevant immune responses. Here, we measured HIV-specific antibody responses in 14 South African volunteers who acquired HIV infection after participating in phase 1/2 trials of envelope-containing immunogens. Serum samples were collected annually following HIV-1 infection from participants in trials HVTN 073 (subtype C, DNA/MVA, phase 1 trial, n = 1), HVTN 086 (subtype C, DNA/MVA/gp140 protein, phase 1 trial, n = 2), and HVTN 204 (multisubtype, DNA/adenovirus serotype 5 [Ad5], phase 2 trial, n = 7) and 4 placebo recipients. Binding and neutralizing antibody responses to Env proteins and peptides were determined pre- and post-HIV infection using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the TZM-bl cell neutralization assay, respectively. HIV-infected South African individuals served as unvaccinated controls. Binding antibodies to gp41, V3, V2, the membrane-proximal external region (MPER), and the CD4 binding site were detected from the first year of HIV-1 subtype C infection, and the levels were similar in vaccinated and placebo recipients. Neutralizing antibody responses against tier 1A viruses were detected in all participants, with the highest titers being to a subtype C virus, MW965.26. No responses were observed just prior to infection, indicating that vaccine-primed HIV-specific antibodies had waned. Sporadic neutralization activity against tier 2 isolates was observed after 2 to 3 years of HIV infection, but these responses were similar in the vaccinated and placebo groups as well as the unvaccinated controls. Our data suggest that prior vaccination with these immunogens did not alter the antibody responses to HIV-1 infection, nor did it accelerate the development of HIV neutralization breadth. IMPORTANCE There is a wealth of information on HIV-specific vaccine-induced immune responses among HIV-uninfected participants; however, data on immune responses among participants who acquire HIV after vaccination are limited. Here we show that HIV-specific binding antibody responses in individuals with breakthrough HIV infections were not affected by prior vaccination with HIV envelope-containing immunogens. We also found that these vectored vaccines did not prime tier 2 virus-neutralizing antibody responses, which are thought to be required for prevention against HIV acquisition, or accelerate the development of neutralization breadth. Although this study is limited, such studies can provide insights into whether vaccine-elicited antibody responses are boosted by HIV infection to acquire broader neutralizing activity, which may help to identify antigens relevant to the design of more effective vaccines.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Bifidobacterium longum R0175 Protects Rats against d-Galactosamine-Induced Acute Liver Failure
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Kaicen Wang; Longxian Lv; Ren Yan; Qiangqiang Wang; Huiyong Jiang; Wenrui Wu; Yating Li; Jianzhong Ye; Jingjing Wu; Liya Yang; Xiaoyuan Bian; Xianwan Jiang; Yanmeng Lu; Jiaojiao Xie; Qing Wang; Jian Shen; Lanjuan Li; Maria L. Marco

    Acute liver failure is a severe liver disorder that poses considerable global challenges. Previous studies on Bifidobacterium longum R0175 have mainly focused on its psychotropic functions. The current research focused on the protective efficacy of B. longum R0175 against acute liver failure caused by d-galactosamine (d-GalN) in rats and further tested the hypothesis that B. longum R0175 exerted liver-protective effects by affecting the intestinal microbiota and fecal metabolites and by inhibiting inflammation. We found that oral gavage of B. longum R0175 markedly reduced the severity of liver injury in d-GalN-treated rats, as evidenced by decreased serum levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bile acids (TBAs) ( P < 0.05). Moreover, the plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β [IL-1β] and tumor necrosis factor-α [TNF-α]) and chemokines (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF], macrophage chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP-1], chemokine [C-X-C motif] ligand 1 [CXCL1], chemokine [C-C motif] ligand 5 [CCL5], and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α [MIP-1α]) were also markedly reduced ( P < 0.05). Pretreatment with B. longum R0175 partially reversed the gut microbiota dysbiosis in rats with liver injury by increasing the relative abundances of potentially beneficial bacteria, such as Alloprevotella spp., and decreasing the relative abundances of potentially harmful bacteria, such as Acetatifactor muris, Butyricimonas spp., and Oscillibacter spp. Furthermore, B. longum R0175 administration partially improved the metabolic function of the intestinal microbes, as indicated by the decreased level of lithocholic acid found in the feces. IMPORTANCE Our research investigated the protective and preventive roles of B. longum R0175 in a rat model of acute liver failure. The results illustrated that this probiotic strain exhibited protective effects in rats with acute liver failure. Thus, B. longum R0175 showed clinical application prospects that required further exploration.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae: First Steps to a Suitable Model System To Study the Function and Intracellular Transport of Human Kidney Anion Exchanger 1
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Hasib A. M. Sarder; Xiaobing Li; Charlotta Funaya; Emmanuelle Cordat; Manfred J. Schmitt; Björn Becker; J. Andrew Alspaugh

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been frequently used to study biogenesis, functionality, and intracellular transport of various renal proteins, including ion channels, solute transporters, and aquaporins. Specific mutations in genes encoding most of these renal proteins affect kidney function in such a way that various disease phenotypes ultimately occur. In this context, human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) represents an important bicarbonate/chloride exchanger which maintains the acid-base homeostasis in the human body. Malfunctions in kAE1 lead to a pathological phenotype known as distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA). Here, we evaluated the potential of baker's yeast as a model system to investigate different cellular aspects of kAE1 physiology. For the first time, we successfully expressed yeast codon-optimized full-length versions of tagged and untagged wild-type kAE1 and demonstrated their partial localization at the yeast plasma membrane (PM). Finally, pH and chloride measurements further suggest biological activity of full-length kAE1, emphasizing the potential of S. cerevisiae as a model system for studying trafficking, activity, and/or degradation of mammalian ion channels and transporters such as kAE1 in the future. IMPORTANCE Distal renal tubular acidosis (dRTA) is a common kidney dysfunction characterized by impaired acid secretion via urine. Previous studies revealed that α-intercalated cells of dRTA patients express mutated forms of human kidney anion exchanger 1 (kAE1) which result in inefficient plasma membrane targeting or diminished expression levels of kAE1. However, the precise dRTA-causing processes are inadequately understood, and alternative model systems are helpful tools to address kAE1-related questions in a fast and inexpensive way. In contrast to a previous study, we successfully expressed full-length kAE1 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Using advanced microscopy techniques as well as different biochemical and functionality assays, plasma membrane localization and biological activity were confirmed for the heterologously expressed anion transporter. These findings represent first important steps to use the potential of yeast as a model organism for studying trafficking, activity, and degradation of kAE1 and its mutant variants in the future.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Discovery of Bat Coronaviruses through Surveillance and Probe Capture-Based Next-Generation Sequencing
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Bei Li; Hao-Rui Si; Yan Zhu; Xing-Lou Yang; Danielle E. Anderson; Zheng-Li Shi; Lin-Fa Wang; Peng Zhou; Matthew B. Frieman

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) of bat origin have caused two pandemics in this century. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV both originated from bats, and it is highly likely that bat coronaviruses will cause future outbreaks. Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of these viruses in humans. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is currently the preferred methodology for virus discovery to ensure unbiased sequencing of bat CoVs, considering their high genetic diversity. However, unbiased NGS is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences due to the high background level of nonviral sequences present in surveillance field samples. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting most of the CoV species. Using this technology, we effectively reduced sequencing costs by increasing the sensitivity of detection. We discovered nine full genomes of bat CoVs in this study and revealed great genetic diversity for eight of them. IMPORTANCE Active surveillance is both urgent and essential to predict and mitigate the emergence of bat-origin CoV in humans and livestock. However, great genetic diversity increases the chance of homologous recombination among CoVs. Performing targeted PCR, a common practice for many surveillance studies, would not reflect this diversity. NGS, on the other hand, is an expensive methodology and is prone to missing low-abundance CoV sequences. Here, we employ a capture-based NGS approach using baits targeting all CoVs. Our work demonstrates that targeted, cost-effective, large-scale, genome-level surveillance of bat CoVs is now highly feasible.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Three-Dimensional Observations of an Aperiodic Oscillatory Gliding Behavior in Myxococcus xanthus Using Confocal Interference Reflection Microscopy
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Liam M. Rooney; Lisa S. Kölln; Ross Scrimgeour; William B. Amos; Paul A. Hoskisson; Gail McConnell; Katherine McMahon

    The deltaproteobacterium Myxococcus xanthus is a model for bacterial motility and has provided unprecedented insights into bacterial swarming behaviors. Fluorescence microscopy techniques have been invaluable in defining the mechanisms that are involved in gliding motility, but these have almost entirely been limited to two-dimensional (2D) studies, and there is currently no understanding of gliding motility in a three-dimensional (3D) context. We present here the first use of confocal interference reflection microscopy (IRM) to study gliding bacteria, revealing aperiodic oscillatory behavior with changes in the position of the basal membrane relative to the substrate on the order of 90 nm in vitro . First, we use a model planoconvex lens specimen to show how topological information can be obtained from the wavelength-dependent interference pattern in IRM. We then use IRM to observe gliding M. xanthus bacteria and show that cells undergo previously unobserved changes in their adhesion profile as they glide. We compare the wild type with mutants that have reduced motility, which also exhibit the same changes in the adhesion profile during gliding. We find that the general gliding behavior is independent of the proton motive force-generating complex AglRQS and suggest that the novel behavior that we present here may be a result of recoil and force transmission along the length of the cell body following firing of the type IV pili. IMPORTANCE 3D imaging of live bacteria with optical microscopy techniques is a challenge due to the small size of bacterial cells, meaning that previous studies have been limited to observing motility behavior in 2D. We introduce the application of confocal multiwavelength interference reflection microscopy to bacteria, which enables visualization of 3D motility behaviors in a single 2D image. Using the model organism Myxococcus xanthus, we identified novel motility behaviors that are not explained by current motility models, where gliding bacteria exhibit aperiodic changes in their adhesion to an underlying solid surface. We concluded that the 3D behavior was not linked to canonical motility mechanisms and that IRM could be applied to study a range of microbiological specimens with minimal adaptation to a commercial microscope.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Mouse Genetic Background Affects Transfer of an Antibiotic Resistance Plasmid in the Gastrointestinal Tract
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Logan C. Ott; Zachary R. Stromberg; Graham A. J. Redweik; Michael J. Wannemuehler; Melha Mellata; Krishna Rao

    Dissemination of antibiotic resistance (AR) genes, often on plasmids, leads to antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, which is a major problem for animal and public health. Bacterial conjugation is the primary route of AR gene transfer in the mammalian gastrointestinal tract. Significant gaps in knowledge about which gastrointestinal communities and host factors promote plasmid transfer remain. Here, we used Salmonella enterica serovar Kentucky strain CVM29188 carrying plasmid pCVM29188_146 (harboring streptomycin and tetracycline resistance genes) to assess plasmid transfer to Escherichia coli under in vitro conditions and in various mouse strains with a conventional or defined microbiota. As an initial test, the transfer of pCVM29188_146 to the E. coli strains was confirmed in vitro . Colonization resistance and, therefore, a lack of plasmid transfer were found in wild-type mice harboring a conventional microbiota. Thus, mice harboring the altered Schaedler flora (ASF), or ASF mice, were used to probe for host factors in the context of a defined microbiota. To assess the influence of inflammation on plasmid transfer, we compared interleukin-10 gene-deficient 129S6/SvEv ASF mice (proinflammatory environment) to wild-type 129S6/SvEv ASF mice and found no difference in transconjugant yields. In contrast, the mouse strain influenced plasmid transfer, as C3H/HeN ASF mice had significantly lower levels of transconjugants than 129S6/SvEv ASF mice. Although gastrointestinal members were identical between the ASF mouse strains, a few differences from C3H/HeN ASF mice were detected, with C3H/HeN ASF mice having significantly lower abundances of ASF members 356 ( Clostridium sp.), 492 (Eubacterium plexicaudatum), and 502 ( Clostridium sp.) than 129S6/SvEv ASF mice. Overall, we demonstrate that microbiota complexity and mouse genetic background influence in vivo plasmid transfer. IMPORTANCE Antibiotic resistance is a threat to public health. Many clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes are carried on plasmids that can be transferred to other bacterial members in the gastrointestinal tract. The current study used a murine model to study the transfer of a large antibiotic resistance plasmid from a foodborne Salmonella strain to a gut commensal E. coli strain in the gastrointestinal tract. We found that different mouse genetic backgrounds and a different diversity of microbial communities influenced the level of Escherichia coli that acquired the plasmid in the gastrointestinal tract. This study suggests that the complexity of the microbial community and host genetics influence plasmid transfer from donor to recipient bacteria.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • Role of Horizontal Gene Transfer in the Development of Multidrug Resistance in Haemophilus influenzae
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Kristin Hegstad; Haima Mylvaganam; Jessin Janice; Ellen Josefsen; Audun Sivertsen; Dagfinn Skaare; Paul D. Fey

    Haemophilus influenzae colonizes the respiratory tract in humans and causes both invasive and noninvasive infections. Resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins in H. influenzae is rare in Europe. In this study, we defined acquired resistance gene loci and ftsI mutations in multidrug-resistant (MDR) and/or PBP3-mediated beta-lactam-resistant (rPBP3) H. influenzae strains, intending to understand the mode of spread of antibiotic resistance determinants in this species. Horizontal transfer of mobile genetic elements and transformation with resistance-conferring ftsI alleles were contributory. We found one small plasmid and three novel integrative conjugative elements (ICEs) which carry different combinations of resistance genes. Demonstration of transfer and/or ICE circular forms showed that the ICEs are functional. Two extensively MDR genetically unrelated H. influenzae strains (F and G) from the same geographical region shared an identical novel MDR ICE (Tn 6686 ) harboring bla TEM-1, catA2 -like, and tet (B). The first Nordic case of MDR H. influenzae septicemia, strain 0, originating from the same geographical area as these strains, had a similar resistance pattern but contained another ICE [Tn 6687 with bla TEM-1, catP and tet (B)] with an overall structure quite similar to that of Tn 6686. Comparison of the complete ftsI genes among rPBP3 strains revealed that the entire gene or certain regions of it are identical in genetically unrelated strains, indicating horizontal gene transfer. Our findings illustrate that H. influenzae is capable of acquiring resistance against a wide range of commonly used antibiotics through horizontal gene transfer, in terms of conjugative transfer of ICEs and transformation of chromosomal genes. IMPORTANCE Haemophilus influenzae colonizes the respiratory tract in humans and causes both invasive and noninvasive infections. As a threat to treatment, resistance against critically important antibiotics is on the rise in H. influenzae. Identifying mechanisms for horizontal acquisition of resistance genes is important to understand how multidrug resistance develops. The present study explores the antimicrobial resistance genes and their context in beta-lactam-resistant H. influenzae with coresistance to up to four non-beta-lactam groups. The results reveal that this organism is capable of acquiring resistance to a wide range of commonly used antibiotics through conjugative transfer of mobile genetic elements and transformation of chromosomal genes, resulting in mosaic genes with a broader resistance spectrum. Strains with chromosomally mediated resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins, co-trimoxazole, and quinolones combined with mobile genetic elements carrying genes mediating resistance to ampicillin, tetracyclines, and chloramphenicol have been reported, and further dissemination of such strains represents a particular concern.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • mSphere of Influence: Peering through a Keyhole into the Unseen World
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Sarah L. Lebeis

    Sarah Lebeis studies the assembly and function of plant microbiomes. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how the paper “Functional Overlap of the Arabidopsis Leaf and Root Microbiota” (Y. Bai, D. B. Müller, G. Srinivas, R. Garrido-Oter, et al., Nature 528:364-369, 2015, ) provided a roadmap for how large culture collections composed of well-characterized bacterial isolates provide essential resources to test hypotheses concerning microbial communities. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-29
  • mSphere of Influence: Expanding the CRISPR Sphere with Single-Locus Proteomics
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Lucy Glover

    Lucy Glover’s research focuses on the role of DNA repair and recombination in antigenic variation in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of both human and animal African trypanosomiasis. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how “ A CRISPR-based approach for proteomic analysis of a single genomic locus” by Z. J. Waldrip, S. D. Byrum, A. J. Storey, J. Gao, et al. (Epigenetics 9:1207–1211, 2014, ) made an impact on her research by taking the precision of CRISPR-Cas9 and repurposing it to look at single-locus proteomics. By using this technology in trypanosomes, Dr. Glover and her colleagues could study the dynamic accumulation of repair proteins after specific damage and gain insight into how the location of a double-strand break (DSB) dictates repair pathway choice and how this may influence immune evasion in these parasites. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Cell-Mediated Immunity Generated in Response to a Purified Inactivated Vaccine for Dengue Virus Type 1
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Heather Friberg; Luis J. Martinez; Leyi Lin; Jason M. Blaylock; Rafael A. De La Barrera; Alan L. Rothman; J. Robert Putnak; Kenneth H. Eckels; Stephen J. Thomas; Richard G. Jarman; Jeffrey R. Currier; Marcela F. Pasetti

    Dengue is the most prevalent arboviral disease afflicting humans, and a vaccine appears to be the most rational means of control. Dengue vaccine development is in a critical phase, with the first vaccine licensed in some countries where dengue is endemic but demonstrating insufficient efficacy in immunologically naive populations. Since virus-neutralizing antibodies do not invariably correlate with vaccine efficacy, other markers that may predict protection, including cell-mediated immunity, are urgently needed. Previously, the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research developed a monovalent purified inactivated virus (PIV) vaccine candidate against dengue virus serotype 1 (DENV-1) adjuvanted with alum. The PIV vaccine was safe and immunogenic in a phase I dose escalation trial in healthy, flavivirus-naive adults in the United States. From that trial, peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained at various time points pre- and postvaccination were used to measure DENV-1-specific T cell responses. After vaccination, a predominant CD4+ T cell-mediated response to peptide pools covering the DENV-1 structural proteins was observed. Over half (13/20) of the subjects produced interleukin-2 (IL-2) in response to DENV peptides, and the majority (17/20) demonstrated peptide-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation. In addition, analysis of postvaccination cell culture supernatants demonstrated an increased rate of production of cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ), IL-5, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Overall, the vaccine was found to have elicited DENV-specific CD4+ T cell responses as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISpot), intracellular cytokine staining (ICS), lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production assays. Thus, together with antibody readouts, the use of a multifaceted measurement of cell-mediated immune responses after vaccination is a useful strategy for more comprehensively characterizing immunity generated by dengue vaccines. IMPORTANCE Dengue is a tropical disease transmitted by mosquitoes, and nearly half of the world’s population lives in areas where individuals are at risk of infection. Several vaccines for dengue are in development, including one which was recently licensed in several countries, although its utility is limited to people who have already been infected with one of the four dengue viruses. One major hurdle to understanding whether a dengue vaccine will work for everyone—before exposure—is the necessity of knowing which marker can be measured in the blood to signal that the individual has protective immunity. This report describes an approach measuring multiple different parts of immunity in order to characterize which signals one candidate vaccine imparted to a small number of human volunteers. This approach was designed to be able to be applied to any dengue vaccine study so that the data can be compared and used to inform future vaccine design and/or optimization strategies.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Paenibacillus odorifer, the Predominant Paenibacillus Species Isolated from Milk in the United States, Demonstrates Genetic and Phenotypic Conservation of Psychrotolerance but Clade-Associated Differences in Nitrogen Metabolic Pathways
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Sarah M. Beno; Rachel A. Cheng; Renato H. Orsi; Diana R. Duncan; Xiaodong Guo; Jasna Kovac; Laura M. Carroll; Nicole H. Martin; Martin Wiedmann; Maria L. Marco

    Paenibacillus is a spore-forming bacterial genus that is frequently isolated from fluid milk and is proposed to play a role in spoilage. To characterize the genetic and phenotypic diversity of Paenibacillus spp., we first used rpoB allelic typing data for a preexisting collection of 1,228 Paenibacillus species isolates collected from raw and processed milk, milk products, and dairy environmental sources. Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) and average nucleotide identity by BLAST (ANIb) analyses performed for a subset of 58 isolates representing unique and overrepresented rpoB allelic types in the collection revealed that these isolates represent 21 different Paenibacillus spp., with P. odorifer being the predominant species. Further genomic characterization of P. odorifer isolates identified two distinct phylogenetic clades, clades A and B, which showed significant overrepresentation of 172 and 164 ortholog clusters and 94 and 52 gene ontology (GO) terms, respectively. While nitrogen fixation genes were found in both clades, multiple genes associated with nitrate and nitrite reduction were overrepresented in clade A isolates; additional phenotypic testing demonstrated that nitrate reduction is specific to isolates in clade A. Hidden Markov models detected 9 to 10 different classes of cold shock-associated genetic elements in all P. odorifer isolates. Phenotypic testing revealed that all isolates tested here can grow in skim milk broth at 6°C, suggesting that psychrotolerance is conserved in P. odorifer . Overall, our data suggest that Paenibacillus spp. isolated from milk in the United States represent broad genetic diversity, which may provide challenges for targeted-control strategies aimed at reducing fluid milk spoilage. IMPORTANCE Although Paenibacillus species isolates are frequently isolated from pasteurized fluid milk, the link between the genetic diversity and phenotypic characteristics of these isolates was not well understood, especially as some Bacillales isolated from milk are unable to grow at refrigeration temperatures. Our data demonstrate that Paenibacillus spp. isolated from fluid milk represent tremendous interspecies diversity, with P. odorifer being the predominant Paenibacillus sp. isolated. Furthermore, genetic and phenotypic data support that P. odorifer is well suited to transition from a soil-dwelling environment, where nitrogen fixation (and other nitrate/nitrite reduction pathways present only in clade A) may facilitate growth, to fluid milk, where its multiple cold shock-associated adaptations enable it to grow at refrigeration temperatures throughout the storage of milk. Therefore, efforts to reduce bacterial contamination of milk will require a systematic approach to reduce P. odorifer contamination of raw milk.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Antibodies in Bactrian and Hybrid Camels from Dubai
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Susanna K. P. Lau; Kenneth S. M. Li; Hayes K. H. Luk; Zirong He; Jade L. L. Teng; Kwok-Yung Yuen; Ulrich Wernery; Patrick C. Y. Woo; Matthew B. Frieman

    So far, dromedary camels are the only known animal reservoir for Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) coronavirus (MERS-CoV). Previous published serological studies showed that sera of Bactrian camels were all negative for MERS-CoV antibodies. However, a recent study revealed that direct inoculation of Bactrian camels intranasally with MERS-CoV can lead to infection with abundant virus shedding and seroconversion. In this study, we examined the presence of MERS-CoV antibodies in Bactrian and hybrid camels in Dubai, the United Arab Emirates (where dromedaries are also present), and Bactrian camels in Xinjiang, China (where dromedaries are absent). For the 29 serum samples from Bactrian camels in Dubai tested by the MERS-CoV spike (S) protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (S-ELISA) and neutralization antibody test, 14 (48%) and 12 (41%), respectively, were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. All the 12 serum samples that were positive with the neutralization antibody test were also positive for the S-ELISA. For the 11 sera from hybrid camels in Dubai tested with the S-ELISA and neutralization antibody test, 6 (55%) and 9 (82%), respectively, were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. All the 6 serum samples that were positive for the S-ELISA were also positive with the neutralization antibody test. There was a strong correlation between the antibody levels detected by S-ELISA and neutralizing antibody titers, with a Spearman coefficient of 0.6262 ( P < 0.0001; 95% confidence interval, 0.5062 to 0.7225). All 92 Bactrian camel serum samples from Xinjiang were negative for MERS-CoV antibodies tested using both S-ELISA and the neutralization antibody test. Bactrian and hybrid camels are potential sources of MERS-CoV infection. IMPORTANCE Since its first appearance in 2012, Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) has affected >25 countries, with >2,400 cases and an extremely high fatality rate of >30%. The total number of mortalities due to MERS is already greater than that due to severe acute respiratory syndrome. MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) has been confirmed to be the etiological agent. So far, dromedaries are the only known animal reservoir for MERS-CoV. Previously published serological studies showed that sera of Bactrian camels were all negative for MERS-CoV antibodies. In this study, we observed that 41% of the Bactrian camel sera and 55% of the hybrid camel sera from Dubai (where dromedaries are also present), but none of the sera from Bactrian camels in Xinjiang (where dromedaries are absent), were positive for MERS-CoV antibodies. Based on these results, we conclude that in addition to dromedaries, Bactrian and hybrid camels are also potential sources of MERS-CoV infection.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Candida auris Forms High-Burden Biofilms in Skin Niche Conditions and on Porcine Skin
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Mark V. Horton; Chad J. Johnson; John F. Kernien; Tarika D. Patel; Brandon C. Lam; J. Z. Alex Cheong; Jennifer J. Meudt; Dhanansayan Shanmuganayagam; Lindsay R. Kalan; Jeniel E. Nett; Aaron P. Mitchell

    Emerging pathogen Candida auris causes nosocomial outbreaks of life-threatening invasive candidiasis. It is unclear how this species colonizes skin and spreads in health care facilities. Here, we analyzed C. auris growth in synthetic sweat medium designed to mimic axillary skin conditions. We show that C. auris demonstrates a high capacity for biofilm formation in this milieu, well beyond that observed for the most commonly isolated Candida sp., Candida albicans. The C. auris biofilms persist in environmental conditions expected in the hospital setting. To model C. auris skin colonization, we designed an ex vivo porcine skin model. We show that C. auris proliferates on porcine skin in multilayer biofilms. This capacity to thrive in skin niche conditions helps explain the propensity of C. auris to colonize skin, persist on medical devices, and rapidly spread in hospitals. These studies provide clinically relevant tools to further characterize this important growth modality. IMPORTANCE The emerging fungal pathogen Candida auris causes invasive infections and is spreading in hospitals worldwide. Why this species exhibits the capacity to transfer efficiently among patients is unknown. Our findings reveal that C. auris forms high-burden biofilms in conditions mimicking sweat on the skin surface. These adherent biofilm communities persist in environmental conditions expected in the hospital setting. Using a pig skin model, we show that C. auris also forms high-burden biofilm structures on the skin surface. Identification of this mode of growth sheds light on how this recently described pathogen persists in hospital settings and spreads among patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Candida auris Biofilm Colonization on Skin Niche Conditions
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Priya Uppuluri

    Candida auris, an emerging multidrug-resistant yeast, has recently been associated with outbreaks of invasive infections in health care facilities worldwide. Its success as a nosocomial pathogen lies in its capability to sustain for prolonged periods in the intensive care unit (ICU), adeptly colonize skin, and spread among patients. Little is known of the mechanism behind the predilection of C. auris for skin or the extent of its resilience on it. Now, M. V. Horton, C. J. Johnson, J. F. Kernien, T. D. Patel, et al. (mSphere 5:e00910-19, 2020, ) demonstrate that in synthetic sweat medium designed to mimic axillary skin conditions, C. auris can grow into multilayers of cells called biofilms that can resist desiccation. C. auris’ propensity to form biofilms was further elaborated using a novel ex vivo porcine skin model of skin colonization. These studies provide early evidence that C. auris biofilm cells persisting on skin could serve as source of continuing outbreaks in health care facilities. Interventions blocking C. auris biofilm growth on skin will help control the spread of this pathogen. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • mSphere of Influence: the Mycobiota in Human Health and Disease
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Soo Chan Lee

    Soo Chan Lee works in the field of medical mycology. In this mSphere of Influence article, he reflects on how “Interactions between commensal fungi and the C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 influence colitis” (Science 336:1314–1317, 2012, ) by I. D. Iliev, V. A. Funari, K. D. Taylor, Q. Nguyen, et al., “CX3CR1+ mononuclear phagocytes control immunity to intestinal fungi” (Science 359:232–236, 2018, ) by I. Leonardi, X. Li, A. Semon, D. Li, et al., and “The fungal mycobiome promotes pancreatic oncogenesis via activation of MBL” (Nature 574:264–267, 2019, ) by B. Aykut, S. Pushalkar, R. Chen, Q. Li, et al. made an impact on him to study medically important fungi by providing a forum to understand the roles of fungal microbiota or mycobiota in human diseases and health. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Proposed Changes to U.S. Policy on Potential Pandemic Pathogen Oversight and Implementation
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Thomas V. Inglesby; Marc Lipsitch

    We propose here changes to the U.S. government policy on potential pandemic pathogen (PPP) oversight and implementation, emphasizing transparency of the review process and the content of the review, publication of the review in advance, responsible publication of enhanced PPP research, high-level signoff on approvals of enhanced PPP experiments, and the need for a significant effort to establish a common international approach to enhanced PPP work. We advocate that the U.S. government recommend, and non-U.S. government funders and journals adopt, a set of best practices that would extend important considerations of biosafety and biosecurity to all work on enhanced potential pandemic pathogens regardless of funding source. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Binding of the von Willebrand Factor A Domain of Capillary Morphogenesis Protein 2 to Anthrax Protective Antigen Vaccine Reduces Immunogenicity in Mice
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Fabiana Freire Mendes de Oliveira; Sireesha Mamillapalli; Srinivas Gonti; Robert N. Brey; Han Li; Jarad Schiffer; Arturo Casadevall; James G. Bann; David W. Pascual

    Protective antigen (PA) is a component of anthrax toxin that can elicit toxin-neutralizing antibody responses. PA is also the major antigen in the current vaccine to prevent anthrax, but stability problems with recombinant proteins have complicated the development of new vaccines containing recombinant PA. The relationship between antigen physical stability and immunogenicity is poorly understood, but there are theoretical reasons to think that this parameter can affect immune responses. We investigated the immunogenicity of anthrax PA, in the presence and absence of the soluble von Willebrand factor A domain of the human form of receptor capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (sCMG2), to elicit antibodies to PA in BALB/c mice. Prior studies showed that sCMG2 stabilizes the 83-kDa PA structure to pH, chemical denaturants, temperature, and proteolysis and slows the hydrogen-deuterium exchange rate of histidine residues far from the binding interface. In contrast to a vaccine containing PA without adjuvant, we found that mice immunized with PA in stable complex with sCMG2 showed markedly reduced antibody responses to PA, including toxin-neutralizing antibodies and antibodies to domain 4, which correlated with fewer toxin-neutralizing antibodies. In contrast, mice immunized with PA in concert with a nonbinding mutant of sCMG2 (D50A) showed anti-PA antibody responses similar to those observed with PA alone. Our results suggest that addition of sCMG2 to a PA vaccine formulation is likely to result in a significantly diminished immune response, but we discuss the multitude of factors that could contribute to reduced immunogenicity. IMPORTANCE The anthrax toxin PA is the major immunogen in the current anthrax vaccine (anthrax vaccine adsorbed). Improving the anthrax vaccine for avoidance of a cold chain necessitates improvements in the thermodynamic stability of PA. We address how stabilizing PA using sCMG2 affects PA immunogenicity in BALB/c mice. Although the stability of PA is increased by binding to sCMG2, PA immunogenicity is decreased. This study emphasizes that, while binding of a ligand retains or improves conformational stability without affecting the native sequence, epitope recognition or processing may be affected, abrogating an effective immune response.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Linking Sfl1 Regulation of Hyphal Development to Stress Response Kinases in Candida albicans
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Ohimai Unoje; Mengli Yang; Yang Lu; Chang Su; Haoping Liu; Michael Lorenz

    Candida albicans is an important human pathogen responsible for causing both superficial and systemic infections. Its ability to switch from the yeast form to the hyphal growth form is required for its pathogenicity. Acidic pH inhibits hyphal initiation, but the nature of the mechanism for this inhibition is not completely clear. We show that acidic pH represses hyphal initiation independently of the temperature- and farnesol-mediated Nrg1 downregulation. Using a collection of transcription factor deletion mutants, we observed that the sfl1 mutant induced hyphae in acidic pH but not in farnesol at 37°C. Furthermore, transcription of hyphal regulators BRG1 and UME6 was not induced in wild-type (WT) cells but was induced in the sfl1 mutant during hyphal induction in acidic pH. Using the same screening conditions with the collection of kinase mutants, we found that deletions of the core stress response mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase HOG1 and its kinase PBS2, the cell wall stress MAP kinase MKC1 , and the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase CMK1 allowed hyphal initiation in acidic pH. Furthermore, Hog1 phosphorylation induced by high osmotic stress also retarded hyphal initiation, and the effect was abolished in the sfl1 and three kinase mutants but was enhanced in the phosphatase mutant ptp2 ptp3 . We also found functional associations among Cmk1, Hog1, and Sfl1 for cation stress. Our study results suggest that robust hyphal initiation requires downregulation of both Nrg1 and Sfl1 transcriptional repressors as well as timely BRG1 expression. Acidic pH and cationic stress retard hyphal initiation via the stress-responsive kinases and Sfl1. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is a commensal as well as a pathogen of humans. C. albicans is able to mount a cellular response to a diverse range of external stimuli in the host and switch reversibly between the yeast and hyphal growth forms. Hyphal development is a key virulence determinant. Here, we studied how C. albicans senses different environmental signals to control its growth forms. Our study results suggest that robust hyphal development requires downregulation of two transcriptional repressors, Nrg1 and Sfl1. Acidic pH or cationic stress inhibits hyphal formation via stress-responsive kinases and Sfl1.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • High Genomic Diversity and Heterogenous Origins of Pathogenic and Antibiotic-Resistant Escherichia coli in Household Settings Represent a Challenge to Reducing Transmission in Low-Income Settings
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Maria Camila Montealegre; Alba Talavera Rodríguez; Subarna Roy; Muhammed Iqbal Hossain; Mohammad Aminul Islam; Val F. Lanza; Timothy R. Julian; Mariana Castanheira

    Escherichia coli is present in multiple hosts and environmental compartments as a normal inhabitant, temporary or persistent colonizer, and as a pathogen. Transmission of E. coli between hosts and with the environment is considered to occur more often in areas with poor sanitation. We performed whole-genome comparative analyses on 60 E. coli isolates from soils and fecal sources (cattle, chickens, and humans) in households in rural Bangladesh. Isolates from household soils were in multiple branches of the reconstructed phylogeny, intermixed with isolates from fecal sources. Pairwise differences between all strain pairs were large (minimum, 189 single nucleotide polymorphisms [SNPs]), suggesting high diversity and heterogeneous origins of the isolates. The presence of multiple virulence and antibiotic resistance genes is indicative of the risk that E. coli from soil and feces represent for the transmission of variants that pose potential harm to people. Analysis of the accessory genomes of the Bangladeshi E. coli relative to E. coli genomes available in NCBI identified a common pool of accessory genes shared among E. coli isolates in this geographic area. Together, these findings indicate that in rural Bangladesh, a high level of E. coli in soil is likely driven by contributions from multiple and diverse E. coli sources (human and animal) that share an accessory gene pool relatively unique to previously published E. coli genomes. Thus, interventions to reduce environmental pathogen or antimicrobial resistance transmission should adopt integrated One Health approaches that consider heterogeneous origins and high diversity to improve effectiveness and reduce prevalence and transmission. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is reported in high levels in household soil in low-income settings. When E. coli reaches a soil environment, different mechanisms, including survival, clonal expansion, and genetic exchange, have the potential to either maintain or generate E. coli variants with capabilities of causing harm to people. In this study, we used whole-genome sequencing to identify that E. coli isolates collected from rural Bangladeshi household soils, including pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant variants, are diverse and likely originated from multiple diverse sources. In addition, we observed specialization of the accessory genome of this Bangladeshi E. coli compared to E. coli genomes available in current sequence databases. Thus, to address the high level of pathogenic and antibiotic-resistant E. coli transmission in low-income settings, interventions should focus on addressing the heterogeneous origins and high diversity.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Campylobacter Abundance in Breastfed Infants and Identification of a New Species in the Global Enterics Multicenter Study
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Xiaoming Bian; Jolene M. Garber; Kerry K. Cooper; Steven Huynh; Jennifer Jones; Michael K. Mills; Daniel Rafala; Dilruba Nasrin; Karen L. Kotloff; Craig T. Parker; Sharon M. Tennant; William G. Miller; Christine M. Szymanski; Vincent B. Young

    Campylobacter jejuni is a leading cause of bacterial diarrhea worldwide and is associated with high rates of mortality and growth stunting in children inhabiting low- to middle-resource countries. To better understand the impact of breastfeeding on Campylobacter infection in infants in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, we examined fecal microbial compositions, bacterial isolates, and their carbohydrate metabolic pathways in Campylobacter -positive infants <1 year of age from the Global Enterics Multicenter Study. Exclusively breastfed infants with diarrhea exhibited high Campylobacter abundances, and this negatively correlated with bacterial carbohydrate metabolism. Although C. jejuni and Campylobacter coli are prevalent among these infants, the second most abundant Campylobacter species was a new species, which we named “ Candidatus Campylobacter infans.” Asymptomatic Campylobacter carriers also possess significantly different proportions of specific gut microbes compared to diarrheal cases. These findings provide insight into Campylobacter infections in infants in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia and help inform strategies aimed at eliminating campylobacteriosis in these areas. IMPORTANCE Campylobacter is the primary cause of bacterial diarrhea in the United States and can lead to the development of the postinfectious autoimmune neuropathy known as Guillain-Barré syndrome. Also, drug-resistant campylobacters are becoming a serious concern both locally and abroad. In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), infection with Campylobacter is linked to high rates of morbidity, growth stunting, and mortality in children, and breastfeeding is important for infant nutrition, development, and protection against infectious diseases. In this study, we examined the relationship between breastfeeding and Campylobacter infection and demonstrate the increased selection for C. jejuni and C. coli strains unable to metabolize fucose. We also identify a new Campylobacter species coinfecting these infants with a high prevalence in five of the seven countries in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia examined. These findings indicate that more detailed studies are needed in LMICs to understand the Campylobacter infection process in order to devise a strategy for eliminating this pathogenic microbe.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Dominance of Gas-Eating, Biofilm-Forming Methylobacterium Species in the Evaporator Cores of Automobile Air-Conditioning Systems
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Chulwoo Park; Hye Su Jung; Soyoon Park; Che Ok Jeon; Woojun Park; Katherine McMahon

    Microbial communities in the evaporator core (EC) of automobile air-conditioning systems have a large impact on indoor air quality, such as malodor and allergenicity. DNA-based microbial population analysis of the ECs collected from South Korea, China, the United States, India, and the United Arab Emirates revealed the extraordinary dominance of Methylobacterium species in EC biofilms. Mixed-volatile organic compound (VOC) utilization and biofilm-forming capabilities were evaluated to explain the dominance of Methylobacterium species in the ECs. The superior growth of all Methylobacterium species could be possible under mixed-VOC conditions. Interestingly, two lifestyle groups of Methylobacterium species could be categorized as the aggregator group, which sticks together but forms a small amount of biofilm, and the biofilm-forming group, which forms a large amount of biofilm, and their genomes along with phenotypic assays were analyzed. Pili are some of the major contributors to the aggregator lifestyle, and succinoglycan exopolysaccharide production may be responsible for the biofilm formation. However, the coexistence of these two lifestyle Methylobacterium groups enhanced their biofilm formation compared to that with each single culture. IMPORTANCE Air-conditioning systems (ACS) are indispensable for human daily life; however, microbial community analysis in automobile ACS has yet to be comprehensively investigated. A bacterial community analysis of 24 heat exchanger fins from five countries (South Korea, China, the United States, India, and the United Arab Emirates [UAE]) revealed that Methylobacterium species are some of the dominant bacteria in automobile ACS. Furthermore, we suggested that the predominance of Methylobacterium species in automobile ACS is due to the utilization of mixed volatile organic compounds and their great ability for aggregation and biofilm formation.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Biosynthesis of β-(1→5)-Galactofuranosyl Chains of Fungal-Type and O-Mannose-Type Galactomannans within the Invasive Pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Yuria Chihara; Yutaka Tanaka; Minoru Izumi; Daisuke Hagiwara; Akira Watanabe; Kaoru Takegawa; Katsuhiko Kamei; Nobuyuki Shibata; Kazuyoshi Ohta; Takuji Oka; Aaron P. Mitchell

    The pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus contains galactomannans localized on the surface layer of its cell walls, which are involved in various biological processes. Galactomannans comprise α-(1→2)-/α-(1→6)-mannan and β-(1→5)-/β-(1→6)-galactofuranosyl chains. We previously revealed that GfsA is a β-galactofuranoside β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyltransferase involved in the biosynthesis of β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl chains. In this study, we clarified the biosynthesis of β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl chains in A. fumigatus. Two paralogs exist within A. fumigatus: GfsB and GfsC. We show that GfsB and GfsC, in addition to GfsA, are β-galactofuranoside β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyltransferases by biochemical and genetic analyses. GfsA, GfsB, and GfsC can synthesize β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl oligomers at up to lengths of 7, 3, and 5 galactofuranoses within an established in vitro highly efficient assay of galactofuranosyltransferase activity. Structural analyses of galactomannans extracted from Δ gfsB , Δ gfsC , Δ gfsAC , and Δ gfsABC strains revealed that GfsA and GfsC synthesized all β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residues of fungal-type and O -mannose-type galactomannans and that GfsB exhibited limited function in A. fumigatus. The loss of β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residues decreased the hyphal growth rate and conidium formation ability and increased the abnormal hyphal branching structure and cell surface hydrophobicity, but this loss is dispensable for sensitivity to antifungal agents and virulence toward immunocompromised mice. IMPORTANCE β-(1→5)-Galactofuranosyl residues are widely distributed in the subphylum Pezizomycotina of the phylum Ascomycota. Pezizomycotina includes many plant and animal pathogens. Although the structure of β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residues of galactomannans in filamentous fungi was discovered long ago, it remains unclear which enzyme is responsible for biosynthesis of this glycan. Fungal cell wall formation processes are complicated, and information concerning glycosyltransferases is essential for understanding them. In this study, we showed that GfsA and GfsC are responsible for the biosynthesis of all β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residues of fungal-type and O -mannose-type galactomannans. The data presented here indicate that β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residues are involved in cell growth, conidiation, polarity, and cell surface hydrophobicity. Our new understanding of β-(1→5)-galactofuranosyl residue biosynthesis provides important novel insights into the formation of the complex cell wall structure and the virulence of the members of the subphylum Pezizomycotina.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Porphyrin Production and Regulation in Cutaneous Propionibacteria
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Emma Barnard; Tremylla Johnson; Tracy Ngo; Uma Arora; Gunilla Leuterio; Andrew McDowell; Huiying Li; Sarah E. F. D’Orazio

    Porphyrins are intermediate metabolites in the biosynthesis of vital molecules, including heme, cobalamin, and chlorophyll. Bacterial porphyrins are known to be proinflammatory, with high levels linked to inflammatory skin diseases. Propionibacterium species are dominant skin commensals and play essential roles in defending against pathogens and in triggering an inflammatory response. To better understand how the inflammatory potential of the skin microbiome may vary depending on its propionibacterial composition, we compared the production levels of porphyrins among Propionibacterium acnes, Propionibacterium granulosum, Propionibacterium avidum, and Propionibacterium humerusii strains. We found that porphyrin production varied among these species, with P. acnes type I strains producing significantly larger amounts of porphyrins than P. acnes type II and III strains and other Propionibacterium species. P. acnes strains that are highly associated with the common skin condition acne vulgaris responded to vitamin B12 supplementation with significantly higher porphyrin production. In contrast, vitamin B12 supplementation had no effect on the porphyrin production of health-associated P. acnes strains and other propionibacteria. We observed low-level porphyrin production in most Propionibacterium strains harboring the deoR repressor gene, with the exception of P. acnes strains belonging to type I clades IB-3 and IC. Our findings shed light on the proinflammatory potential of distinct phylogenetic lineages of P. acnes as well as other resident skin propionibacteria. We demonstrate that the overall species and strain composition is important in determining the metabolic output of the skin microbiome in health and disease. IMPORTANCE Porphyrins are a group of metabolites essential to the biosynthesis of heme, cobalamin, and chlorophyll in living organisms. Bacterial porphyrins can be proinflammatory, with high levels linked to human inflammatory diseases, including the common skin condition acne vulgaris. Propionibacteria are among the most abundant skin bacteria. Variations in propionibacteria composition on the skin may lead to different porphyrin levels and inflammatory potentials. This study characterized porphyrin production in all lineages of Propionibacterium acnes, the most dominant skin Propionibacterium , and other resident skin propionibacteria, including P. granulosum , P. avidum , and P. humerusii . We revealed that P. acnes type I strains produced significantly more porphyrins than did type II and III strains and other Propionibacterium species. The findings from this study shed light on the proinflammatory potential of the skin microbiome and can be used to guide the development of effective acne treatments by modulating the skin microbiome and its metabolic activities.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Toxoplasma gondii Parasitophorous Vacuole Membrane-Associated Dense Granule Proteins Regulate Maturation of the Cyst Wall
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Rebekah B. Guevara; Barbara A. Fox; David J. Bzik; Silvia N. J. Moreno

    After differentiation is triggered, the tachyzoite-stage Toxoplasma gondii parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) has been hypothesized to transition into the cyst membrane that surrounds the cyst wall and encloses bradyzoites. Here, we tracked the localization of two PVM dense granule (GRA) proteins (GRA5 and GRA7) after in vitro differentiation of the tachyzoite stage parasitophorous vacuole into the mature cyst. GRA5 and GRA7 were visible at the cyst periphery at 6 h and at all later times after differentiation, suggesting that the PVM remained intact as it transitioned into the cyst membrane. By day 3 postdifferentiation, GRA5 and GRA7 were visible in a continuous pattern at the cyst periphery. In mature 7- and 10-day-old cysts permeabilized with a saponin pulse, GRA5 and GRA7 were localized to the cyst membrane and the cyst wall regions. Cysts at different stages of cyst development exhibited differential susceptibility to saponin permeabilization, and, correspondingly, saponin selectively removed GRA5 from the cyst membrane and cyst wall region in 10-day-old cysts. GRA5 and GRA7 were localized at the cyst membrane and cyst wall region at all times after differentiation of the parasitophorous vacuole, which supports a previous model proposing that the PVM develops into the cyst membrane. In addition, evaluation of Δ gra3 , Δ gra5 , Δ gra7 , Δ gra8 , and Δ gra14 mutants revealed that PVM-localized GRAs were crucial to support the normal rate of accumulation of cyst wall proteins at the cyst periphery. IMPORTANCE Toxoplasma gondii establishes chronic infection in humans by forming thick-walled cysts that persist in the brain. Once host immunity wanes, cysts reactivate to cause severe, and often lethal, toxoplasmic encephalitis. There is no available therapy to eliminate cysts or to prevent their reactivation. Furthermore, how the cyst membrane and cyst wall structures develop is poorly understood. Here, we visualized and tracked the localization of Toxoplasma parasitophorous vacuole membrane (PVM) dense granules (GRA) proteins during cyst development in vitro. PVM-localized GRA5 and GRA7 were found at the cyst membrane and cyst wall region throughout cyst development, suggesting that the PVM remains intact and develops into the cyst membrane. In addition, our results show that genetic deletion of PVM GRAs reduced the rate of accumulation of cyst wall cargo at the cyst periphery and suggest that PVM-localized GRAs mediate the development and maturation of the cyst wall and cyst membrane.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Dual and Triple Epithelial Coculture Model Systems with Donor-Derived Microbiota and THP-1 Macrophages To Mimic Host-Microbe Interactions in the Human Sinonasal Cavities
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Charlotte De Rudder; Marta Calatayud Arroyo; Sarah Lebeer; Tom Van de Wiele; Craig D. Ellermeier

    The epithelium of the human sinonasal cavities is colonized by a diverse microbial community, modulating epithelial development and immune priming and playing a role in respiratory disease. Here, we present a novel in vitro approach enabling a 3-day coculture of differentiated Calu-3 respiratory epithelial cells with a donor-derived bacterial community, a commensal species (Lactobacillus sakei), or a pathobiont (Staphylococcus aureus). We also assessed how the incorporation of macrophage-like cells could have a steering effect on both epithelial cells and the microbial community. Inoculation of donor-derived microbiota in our experimental setup did not pose cytotoxic stress on the epithelial cell layers, as demonstrated by unaltered cytokine and lactate dehydrogenase release compared to a sterile control. Epithelial integrity of the differentiated Calu-3 cells was maintained as well, with no differences in transepithelial electrical resistance observed between coculture with donor-derived microbiota and a sterile control. Transition of nasal microbiota from in vivo to in vitro conditions maintained phylogenetic richness, and yet a decrease in phylogenetic and phenotypic diversity was noted. Additional inclusion and coculture of THP-1-derived macrophages did not alter phylogenetic diversity, and yet donor-independent shifts toward higher Moraxella and Mycoplasma abundance were observed, while phenotypic diversity was also increased. Our results demonstrate that coculture of differentiated airway epithelial cells with a healthy donor-derived nasal community is a viable strategy to mimic host-microbe interactions in the human upper respiratory tract. Importantly, including an immune component allowed us to study host-microbe interactions in the upper respiratory tract more in depth. IMPORTANCE Despite the relevance of the resident microbiota in sinonasal health and disease and the need for cross talk between immune and epithelial cells in the upper respiratory tract, these parameters have not been combined in a single in vitro model system. We have developed a coculture system of differentiated respiratory epithelium and natural nasal microbiota and incorporated an immune component. As indicated by absence of cytotoxicity and stable cytokine profiles and epithelial integrity, nasal microbiota from human origin appeared to be well tolerated by host cells, while microbial community composition remained representative for that of the human (sino)nasal cavity. Importantly, the introduction of macrophage-like cells enabled us to obtain a differential readout from the epithelial cells dependent on the donor microbial background to which the cells were exposed. We conclude that both model systems offer the means to investigate host-microbe interactions in the upper respiratory tract in a more representative way.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Whole-Genome-Sequence-Based Characterization of Extensively Drug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Hospital Outbreak
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Ghiwa Makke; Ibrahim Bitar; Tamara Salloum; Balig Panossian; Sahar Alousi; Harout Arabaghian; Matej Medvecky; Jaroslav Hrabak; Samar Merheb-Ghoussoub; Sima Tokajian; Mariana Castanheira

    Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) is an important opportunistic pathogen linked to a variety of nosocomial infections and hospital outbreaks worldwide. This study aimed at investigating and characterizing a CRAB outbreak at a large tertiary hospital in Lebanon. A total of 41 isolates were collected and analyzed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was performed on all the isolates, and long-read PacBio sequencing was used to generate reference genomes. The multilocus sequence types (MLST), repertoire of resistance genes, and virulence factors were determined from the sequencing data. The plasmid content was analyzed both in silico and using the A. baumannii PCR-based replicon typing (AB-PBRT) method. Genome analysis initially revealed two clones, one carrying bla OXA-23 on Tn 2006 (ST-1305, ST-195, and ST-218) and another carrying bla OXA-72 on pMAL-1 (ST-502 and ST-2059, a new ST), with the latter having two subclones, as revealed using the Bayesian transmission network. All isolates were extensively drug resistant (XDR). WGS analysis revealed the transmission pathways and demonstrated the diversity of CRAB isolates and mobile genetic elements in this health care setting. Outbreak detection using WGS and immediate implementation of infection control measures contribute to restraining the spread and decreasing mortality. IMPORTANCE Carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB) has been implicated in hospital outbreaks worldwide. Here, we present a whole-genome-based investigation of an extensively drug-resistant CRAB outbreak rapidly spreading and causing high incidences of mortality at numerous wards of a large tertiary hospital in Lebanon. This is the first study of its kind in the region. Two circulating clones were identified using a combination of molecular typing approaches, short- and long-read sequencing and Bayesian transmission network analysis. One clone carried bla OXA-23 on Tn 2006 (ST-1305, ST-195, and ST-218), and another carried bla OXA-72 on a pMAL-1 plasmid (ST-502 and ST-2059, a new ST). A pMAL-2 plasmid was circulating between the two clones. The approaches implemented in this study and the obtained findings facilitate the tracking of outbreak scenarios in Lebanon and the region at large.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • mSphere of Influence: Positive Research Culture Enables Excellence and Innovation
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Elizabeth R. Ballou

    Elizabeth Ballou works in the field of medical mycology. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how two papers by Okagaki et al. (PLoS Pathog 6:e1000953, 2010, ) and Zaragoza et al. (PLoS Pathog 6:e1000945, 2010, ) made an impact on her career by demonstrating an alternative to destructive publication practices. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Influences of Ingredients and Bakers on the Bacteria and Fungi in Sourdough Starters and Bread
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Aspen T. Reese; Anne A. Madden; Marie Joossens; Guylaine Lacaze; Robert R. Dunn; Garret Suen

    Sourdough starters are naturally occurring microbial communities in which the environment, ingredients, and bakers are potential sources of microorganisms. The relative importance of these pools remains unknown. Here, bakers from two continents used a standardized recipe and ingredients to make starters that were then baked into breads. We characterized the fungi and bacteria associated with the starters, bakers’ hands, and ingredients using 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and then measured dough acidity and bread flavor. Starter communities were much less uniform than expected, and this variation manifested in the flavor of the bread. Starter communities were most similar to those found in flour but shared some species with the bakers’ skin. While humans likely contribute microorganisms to the starters, the reverse also appears to be true. This bidirectional exchange of microorganisms between starters and bakers highlights the importance of microbial diversity on bodies and in our environments as it relates to foods. IMPORTANCE Sourdough starters are complex communities of yeast and bacteria which confer characteristic flavor and texture to sourdough bread. The microbes present in starters can be sourced from ingredients or the baking environment and are typically consistent over time. Herein, we show that even when the recipe and ingredients for starter and bread are identical, different bakers around the globe produce highly diverse starters which then alter bread acidity and flavor. Much of the starter microbial community comes from bread flour, but the diversity is also associated with differences in the microbial community on the hands of bakers. These results indicate that bakers may be a source for yeast and bacteria in their breads and/or that bakers’ jobs are reflected in their skin microbiome.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Systematic Analysis of Efflux Pump-Mediated Antiseptic Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus Suggests a Need for Greater Antiseptic Stewardship
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Patrick T. LaBreck; Audrey C. Bochi-Layec; Joshua Stanbro; Gina Dabbah-Krancher; Mark P. Simons; D. Scott Merrell; Paul Dunman

    Staphylococcus aureus-associated infections can be difficult to treat due to multidrug resistance. Thus, infection prevention is critical. Cationic antiseptics, such as chlorhexidine (CHX) and benzalkonium chloride (BKC), are liberally used in health care and community settings to prevent infection. However, increased administration of antiseptics has selected for S. aureus strains that show reduced susceptibilities to cationic antiseptics. This increased resistance has been associated with carriage of specific efflux pumps (QacA, QacC, and NorA). Since prior published studies focused on different strains and on strains carrying only a single efflux gene, the relative importance of these various systems to antiseptic resistance is difficult to ascertain. To overcome this, we engineered a collection of isogenic S. aureus strains that harbored norA , qacA , and qacC , individually or in combination. MIC assays showed that qacA was associated with increased resistance to CHX, cetrimide (CT), and BKC, qacC was associated with resistance to CT and BKC, and norA was necessary for basal-level resistance to the majority of tested antiseptics. When all three pumps were present in a single strain, an additive effect was observed in the MIC for CT. Transcriptional analysis revealed that expression of qacA and norA was significantly induced following exposure to BKC. Alarmingly, in a strain carrying qacA and norA , preexposure to BKC increased CHX tolerance. Overall, our results reveal increased antiseptic resistance in strains carrying multiple efflux pumps and indicate that preexposure to BKC, which is found in numerous daily-use products, can increase CHX tolerance. IMPORTANCE S. aureus remains a significant cause of disease within hospitals and communities. To reduce the burden of S. aureus infections, antiseptics are ubiquitously used in our daily lives. Furthermore, many antiseptic compounds are dual purpose and are found in household products. The increased abundance of antiseptic compounds has selected for S. aureus strains that carry efflux pumps that increase resistance to antiseptic compounds; however, the effect of carrying multiple pumps within S. aureus is unclear. We demonstrated that an isogenic strain carrying multiple efflux pumps had an additive resistance phenotype to cetrimide. Moreover, in a strain carrying qacA and norA , increased chlorhexidine tolerance was observed after the strain was preexposed to subinhibitory concentrations of a different common-use antiseptic. Taken together, our findings demonstrate cooperation between antiseptic resistance efflux pumps and suggest that their protective phenotype may be exacerbated by priming with subinhibitory concentrations of household antiseptics.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • mSphere of Influence: It’s Not Me, It’s You—How Donor Factors Influence Kidney Transplant Outcomes
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Diana Valeria Pastrana

    Diana V. Pastrana works in the field of DNA tumor virus biology. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how the two papers “Donor origin of BKV replication after kidney transplantation” (C. Schmitt, L. Raggub, S. Linnenweber-Held, O. Adams, et al., J Clin Virol 59:120–125, 2014, ) and “Neutralizing antibody-mediated response and risk of BK virus-associated nephropathy” (M. Solis, A. Velay, R. Porcher, P. Domingo-Calap, et al., J Am Soc Nephrol 29:326–334, 2018, ) reminded her of the importance of allowing data, and not adherence to dogma, to drive her research. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM .

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Role of yoaE Gene Regulated by CpxR in the Survival of Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis in Antibacterial Egg White
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Xiaozhen Huang; Mengjun Hu; Xiujuan Zhou; Yanhong Liu; Chunlei Shi; Xianming Shi; Maria L. Marco

    The survival ability of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis in antibacterial egg white is an important factor leading to Salmonella outbreaks through eggs and egg products. In this study, the role of the gene yoaE , encoding an inner membrane protein, in the survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white, and its transcriptional regulation by CpxR were investigated. Quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) results showed that the yoaE gene expression was upregulated 35-fold after exposure to egg white for 4 h compared to that in M9FeS medium, and the deletion of yoaE ( ΔyoaE ) dramatically decreased the survival rate of bacteria in egg white to less than 1% of the wild type (WT) and the complementary strain at both 37 and 20°C, indicating that yoaE was essential for bacteria to survive in egg white. Furthermore, the ΔyoaE strain was sensitive to a 3-kDa ultrafiltration matrix of egg white because of its high pH and antimicrobial peptide components. Putative conserved binding sites for the envelope stress response regulator CpxR were found in the yoaE promoter region. In vivo , the RT-qPCR assay results showed that the upregulation of yoaE in a ΔcpxR strain in egg white was 1/5 that of the WT. In vitro , results from DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays further demonstrated that CpxR could directly bind to the yoaE promoter region, and a specific CpxR binding sequence was identified. In conclusion, it was shown for the first time that CpxR positively regulated the transcription of yoaE , which was indispensable for survival of Salmonella Enteritidis in egg white. IMPORTANCE Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis is the predominant Salmonella serotype that causes human salmonellosis mainly through contaminated chicken eggs or egg products and has been a global public health threat. The spread and frequent outbreaks of this serotype through eggs correlate significantly with its exceptional survival in eggs, despite the antibacterial properties of egg white. Research on the survival mechanisms of S. Enteritidis in egg white will help develop effective strategies to control the contamination of eggs by this Salmonella serotype and help further elucidate the complex antibacterial mechanisms of egg white. This study revealed the importance of yoaE , a gene with unknown function, on the survival of S. Enteritidis in egg white, as well as its transcriptional regulation by CpxR. Our work provides the basis to reveal the mechanisms of survival of S. Enteritidis in egg white and the specific function of the yoaE gene.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Binning Singletons: Mentoring through Networking at ASM Microbe 2019
    mSphere Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Joseph B. James; Amanda L. Gunn; Denise M. Akob

    The American Society for Microbiology (ASM) national conference, Microbe, is the flagship meeting for microbiologists across the globe. The presence of roughly 10,000 attendees provides enormous opportunities for networking and learning. However, such a large meeting can be intimidating to many, especially early career scientists, students, those attending alone, and those from historically underrepresented groups. While mentorship is widely valued by ASM and its members, finding concrete ways to develop new and diverse mentoring opportunities can be a challenge. We recognized the need for an initiative aimed at expanding peer-to-peer mentoring, facilitating networking, and providing support for Microbe attendees; therefore, we created the program Binning Singletons for ASM Microbe 2019. The program consisted of five steps named after tools or phenomena in the profession of microbiology: (i) Identify the Singletons (e.g., individuals attending alone), (ii) Bin the Singletons, (iii) Horizontal Transfer, (iv) Quorum Sensing, and (v) Exponential Growth. These steps resulted in the matching of participants unsure of how to get the most out of their conference experience (e.g., singletons) with mentors who assisted with meeting planning, networking, and/or impostor syndrome. Started on social media only a month before ASM Microbe 2019, the program successfully launched despite limited time and resources. Binning Singletons improved inclusivity and networking opportunities for participants at the conference. Here, we discuss what worked, and what can be improved, with an eye toward development of the Binning Singletons model for future conferences to provide opportunities to increase inclusivity, networking, and accessibility for singletons and build a stronger scientific community. The views expressed in this article do not necessarily reflect the views of the journal or of ASM.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
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