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  • Challenges in the comparative study of empathy and related phenomena in animals
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    J.E.C. Adriaense; S.E. Koski; L. Huber; C. Lamm

    The aim of this review is to discuss recent arguments and findings in the comparative study of empathy. Based on a multidisciplinary approach including psychology and ethology, we review the non-human animal literature concerning theoretical frameworks, methodology, and research outcomes. One specific objective is to highlight discrepancies between theory and empirical findings, and to discuss ambiguities present in current data and their interpretation. In particular, we focus on emotional contagion and its experimental investigation, and on consolation and targeted helping as measures for sympathy. Additionally, we will address the feasibility to compare across species with behavioural data alone. One main conclusion of our review is that animal research on empathy still faces the challenge of closing the gap between theoretical concepts and empirical evidence. To advance our knowledge, we propose to focus more on the emotional basis of empathy, rather than on possibly ambiguous behavioural indicators, and we provide suggestions as to how the limitations of previous research can be overcome.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • The Neuroscience of Sadness: A Multidisciplinary Synthesis and Collaborative Review for the Human Affectome Project
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Juan A. Arias; Claire Williams; Rashmi Raghvani; Moji Aghajani; Sandra Baez; Catherine Belzung; Linda Booij; Geraldo Busatto; Julian Chiarella; Cynthia HY Fu; Agustin Ibanez; Belinda J. Liddell; Leroy Lowe; Brenda W.J.H. Penninx; Pedro Rosa; Andrew H. Kemp

    Sadness is typically characterized by raised inner eyebrows, lowered corners of the mouth, reduced walking speed, and slumped posture. Ancient subcortical circuitry provides a neuroanatomical foundation, extending from dorsal periaqueductal grey to subgenual anterior cingulate, the latter of which is now a treatment target in disorders of sadness. Electrophysiological studies further emphasize a role for reduced left relative to right frontal asymmetry in sadness, underpinning interest in the transcranial stimulation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex as an antidepressant target. Neuroimaging studies – including meta-analyses – indicate that sadness is associated with reduced cortical activation, which may contribute to reduced parasympathetic inhibitory control over medullary cardioacceleratory circuits. Reduced cardiac control may – in part – contribute to epidemiological reports of reduced life expectancy in affective disorders, effects equivalent to heavy smoking. We suggest that the field may be moving toward a theoretical consensus, in which different models relating to basic emotion theory and psychological constructionism may be considered as complementary, working at different levels of the phylogenetic hierarchy.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Neuroimaging the Consciousness of Self: Review, and Conceptual-Methodological Framework
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Paul Frewen; Matthias L. Schroeter; Giuseppe Riva; Pietro Cipresso; Beth Fairfield; Caterina Padulo; Andrew Haddon Kemp; Lena Palaniyappan; Mayowa Owolabi; Kwabena Kusi-Mensah; Maryna Polyakova; Nick Fehertoi; Wendy D’Andrea; Leroy Lowe; Georg Northoff

    We review neuroimaging research investigating self-referential processing (SRP), that is, how we respond to stimuli that reference ourselves, prefaced by a lexical-thematic analysis of words indicative of “self-feelings”. We consider SRP as occurring verbally (V-SRP) and non-verbally (NV-SRP), both in the controlled, “top-down” form of introspective and interoceptive tasks, respectively, as well as in the “bottom-up” spontaneous or automatic form of “mind wandering” and “body wandering” that occurs during resting state. Our review leads us to outline a conceptual and methodological framework for future SRP research that we briefly apply toward understanding certain psychological and neurological disorders symptomatically associated with abnormal SRP. Our discussion is partly guided by William James’ original writings on the consciousness of self.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Intracerebral seeding of amyloid-β and tau pathology in mice: factors underlying prion-like spreading and comparisons with α-synuclein
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-26
    Brendan B. McAllister; Sean G. Lacoursiere; Robert J. Sutherland; Majid H. Mohajerani

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is characterized neuropathologically by progressive neurodegeneration and by the presence of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. These plaques and tangles are composed, respectively, of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau proteins. While long recognized as hallmarks of AD, it remains unclear what causes the formation of these insoluble deposits. One theory holds that prion-like templated misfolding of Aβ and tau induces these proteins to form pathological aggregates, and propagation of this misfolding causes the stereotyped progression of pathology commonly seen in AD. Supporting this theory, numerous studies have been conducted in which aggregated Aβ, tau, or α-synuclein is injected intracerebrally into pathology-free host animals, resulting in robust formation of pathology. Here, we review this literature, focusing on in vivo intracerebral seeding of Aβ and tau in mice. We compare the results of these experiments to what is known about the seeding and spread of α-synuclein pathology, and we discuss how this research informs our understanding of the factors underlying the onset, progression, and outcomes of proteinaceous pathologies.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Earlier versus later cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): A meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Anna Kaiser; Pascal-M. Aggensteiner; Sarah Baumeister; Nathalie E. Holz; Tobias Banaschewski; Daniel Brandeis

    The current meta-analysis summarizes relevant literature on earlier (P100, N100, P200, N200, ERN/Ne) versus later (P300, Pe, CNV) cognitive Event-Related Potential (ERP) differences between children, adolescents, and adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and without ADHD (non-ADHD). Furthermore, the heterogeneity in previous research is addressed by analyzing potentially relevant demographic and methodological moderators (age group, IQ, medication, comorbidity, task, cognitive function, modality, inter-stimulus-interval, number of electrodes). Via database search 52 relevant articles were identified including n = 1576 ADHD and n = 1794 non-ADHD. Using multilevel-models, pooled effect sizes were calculated. For earlier components, individuals with ADHD showed shorter Go-P100-latencies than non-ADHD. For later ERPs, individuals with ADHD showed smaller Cue-P300-amplitudes, longer Go-P300-latencies, smaller NoGo-P300-amplitudes, longer NoGo-P300-latencies, smaller CNV-amplitudes, and smaller Pe-amplitudes. The substantial heterogeneity identified for most of the ERP components could be explained by the demographic and methodological moderators of interest. This meta-analysis identified relevant moderate group differences (-0.32

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Emotional expressions in human and non-human great apes
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Mariska E. Kret; Eliska Prochazkova; Elisabeth H.M. Sterck; Zanna Clay

    Humans and great apes are highly social species, and encounter conspecifics throughout their daily lives. During social interactions, they exchange information about their emotional states via expressions through different modalities including the face, body and voice. In this regard, their capacity to express emotions, intentionally or unintentionally, is crucial for them to successfully navigate their social worlds and to bond with group members. Darwin (1872) stressed similarities in how humans and other animals express their emotions, particularly with the great apes. Here, we show that emotional expressions have many conserved, yet also a number of divergent features. Some theorists consider emotional expressions as direct expressions of internal states, implying that they are involuntary, cannot be controlled and are inherently honest. Others see them as more intentional and/ or as indicators of the actor’s future behavior. After reviewing the human and ape literature, we establish an integrative, evolutionary perspective and provide evidence showing that these different viewpoints are not mutually exclusive. Recent insights indicate that, in both apes and humans, some emotional expressions can be controlled or regulated voluntarily, including in the presence of audiences, suggesting modulation by cognitive processes. However, even non-intentional expressions such as pupil dilation can nevertheless inform others and influence future behavior. In sum, while showing deep evolutionary homologies across closely related species, emotional expressions show relevant species variation.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • Animal affect and decision-making
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-25
    Michael Mendl; Elizabeth S. Paul

    The scientific study of animal affect (emotion) is an area of growing interest. Whilst research on mechanism and causation has predominated, the study of function is less advanced. This is not due to a lack of hypotheses; in both humans and animals, affective states are frequently proposed to play a pivotal role in coordinating adaptive responses and decisions. However, exactly how they might do this (what processes might implement this function) is often left rather vague. Here we propose a framework for integrating animal affect and decision-making that is couched in modern decision theory and employs an operational definition that aligns with dimensional concepts of core affect and renders animal affect empirically tractable. We develop a model of how core affect, including short-term (emotion-like) and longer-term (mood-like) states, influence decision-making via processes that we label affective options, affective predictions, and affective outcomes and which correspond to similar concepts in schema of the links between human emotion and decision-making. Our framework is generalisable across species and generates questions for future research.

    更新日期:2020-01-26
  • The nuts and bolts of animal emotion
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    L. Kremer; S.E.J. Klein Holkenborg; I.S. Reimert; J.E. Bolhuis; L.E. Webb

    Kremer, L., S.E.J. Klein Holkenborg, I.S. Reimert, J.E. Bolhuis, L.E. Webb. The nut and bolts of animal emotion. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV X, XXX-XXX, 2019. - The study of animal emotion, as with its human equivalent, can be confusing due to the complicated and inconsistent use of terminology, and the number of interlinked fields and topics it encompasses. With this review, we aim to provide an up-to-date and, to the best of our knowledge, complete overview of the field of animal emotion, especially intended for new-comers to the field who wish to get a grasp of this field. We start by tackling the terminology and proposing definitions of commonly used terms, and present the different frameworks used for the study of animal emotion. Here, we heavily draw from human literature, as the definitions of animal emotion are derived originally from human research. We follow-up with an overview of current methodologies for the study of animal emotion, in particular the valence dimension of emotion, and including some of the associated limitations linked to these methodologies. We end by pointing out key areas for future research.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Social Semantics: The role of conceptual knowledge and cognitive control in a neurobiological model of the social brain
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Richard J. Binney; Richard Ramsey

    Research in social neuroscience has primarily focused on carving up cognition into distinct pieces, as a function of mental process, neural network or social behaviour, while the need for unifying models that span multiple social phenomena has been relatively neglected. Here we present a novel framework that treats social cognition as a case of semantic cognition, which provides a neurobiologically constrained and generalizable framework, with clear, testable predictions regarding sociocognitive processing in the context of both health and disease. According to this framework, social cognition relies on two principal systems of representation and control. These systems are neuroanatomically and functionally distinct, but interact to (1) enable development of foundational, conceptual-level knowledge and (2) regulate access to this information in order to generate flexible and context-appropriate social behaviour. The Social Semantics framework shines new light on the mechanisms of social information processing by maintaining as much explanatory power as prior models of social cognition, whilst remaining simpler, by virtue of relying on fewer components that are “tuned” towards social interactions.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Demographic and clinical features as predictors of clozapine response in patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    C. Okhuijsen-Pfeifer; A.Y. Sterk; I.M. Horn; J. Terstappen; R.S. Kahn; J.J. Luykx

    Objectives Clozapine (CLZ) is prescribed to (relatively) treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Currently, it is unknown what factors predict response to CLZ. Therefore, we performed meta-analyses to identify predictors of CLZ response, hence aiming to facilitate timely and efficient prescribing of CLZ. Methods A systematic search was performed in ‘Pubmed’ and ‘Embase’ until 1 January 2019. Articles were eligible if they provided data on predictors of CLZ response measured demographic and clinical factors at baseline or biochemical factors at follow-up in schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients. Results A total of 34 articles (total number of participants = 9,386; N unique = 2,094) were eligible. Factors significantly associated with better CLZ response were: lower age, lower PANSS negative score and paranoid schizophrenia subtype. Conclusion The results of our meta-analyses suggest that three baseline demographic and clinical features are associated with better clozapine response, i.e. relatively young age, few negative symptoms and paranoid schizophrenia subtype. These variables may be taken into account by clinicians who consider treating a specific patient with CLZ. Keywords: Clozapine, response, schizophrenia spectrum disorders, prediction

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Disentangling the molecular mechanisms of multiple sclerosis: the contribution of twin studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    M.C. Buscarinu; A. Fornasiero; M. Ferraldeschi; S. Romano; R. Reniè; E. Morena; C. Romano; G. Pellicciari; A.C. Landi; C. Fagnani; M. Salvetti; G. Ristori

    Twin studies of disease concordance are useful to weight the relative contribution of genetic and environmental factors to the cause of common complex disorders. In multiple sclerosis (MS) different twinning rates from geographic areas at different prevalence suggested that heritable and non-heritable factors contribute in different proportions and ways to MS risk in diverse populations. This concept prompted genome-wide association studies, and the implementation of the co-twin control design, that allows stringent experimental approaches in MS-discordant identical pairs, controlling for genetic influences and many other known and unknown factors. The co-twin control design provided important clues on MS molecular model. These studies will be reviewed, focusing on those showing significant differences between affected and healthy co-twins. In some cases, differences that emerged in non-twin patients compared to matched controls were not confirmed in identical MS-discordant pairs, suggesting an ‘MS subclinical trait’. Early patterns of magnetic resonance imaging and predictive biomarkers that characterize ‘healthy’ co-twins may be useful for the identification of a prodromal reversible phase of the disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Overlapping mechanisms linking insulin resistance with cognition and neuroprogression in bipolar disorder
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ari B. Cuperfain; James L. Kennedy; Vanessa F. Goncalves

    Cognitive impairment is highly prevalent in the progression of both diabetes mellitus and bipolar disorder. The relationship between insulin resistance in diabetes and the risk of developing major neurocognitive disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease has been well described. Insulin resistance and the associated metabolic deficiencies lead to biochemical alteration which hasten neurodegeneration and subsequent cognitive impairment. For bipolar disorder, some patients experience a cyclical, yet progressive course of illness. These patients are also more likely to have medical comorbidities such as cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and insulin resistance in particular may precede the neuroprogressive course. Diabetes and bipolar disorder share epidemiological, biochemical, and structural signatures, as well as cognitive impairment within similar domains, suggesting a common mechanism between the two conditions. Here we describe the association between insulin resistance and cognitive changes in bipolar disorder, as well as potential implications for therapeutic modulation of neuroprogression.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Cognitive ability and education: how behavioural genetic research has advanced our knowledge and understanding of their association
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Margherita Malanchini; Kaili Rimfeld; Andrea G. Allegrini; Stuart J. Ritchie; Robert Plomin

    Cognitive ability and educational success predict positive outcomes across the lifespan, from higher earnings to better health and longevity. The shared positive outcomes associated with cognitive ability and education are emblematic of the strong interconnections between them. Part of the observed associations between cognitive ability and education, as well as their links with wealth, morbidity and mortality, are rooted in genetic variation. The current review evaluates the contribution of decades of behavioural genetic research to our knowledge and understanding of the biological and environmental basis of the association between cognitive ability and education. The evidence reviewed points to a strong genetic basis in their association, observed from middle childhood to old age, which is amplified by environmental experiences. In addition, the strong stability and heritability of educational success are not driven entirely by cognitive ability. This highlights the contribution of other educationally relevant noncognitive characteristics. Considering both cognitive and noncognitive skills as well as their biological and environmental underpinnings will be fundamental in moving towards a comprehensive, evidence-based model of education.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • The neuroethology of spontaneous mimicry and emotional contagion in human and non-human animals
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Elisabetta Palagi; Alessia Celeghin; Marco Tamietto; Piotr Winkielman; Ivan Norscia

    Spontaneous mimicry appears fundamental to emotional perception and contagion, especially when it involves facial emotional expressions. Here we cover recent evidence on spontaneous mimicry from ethology, psychology and neuroscience, in non-human and human animals. We first consider how mimicry unfolds in non-human animals (particularly primates) and how it relates to emotional contagion. We focus on two forms of mimicry-related phenomena: facial mimicry and yawn contagion, which are largely conserved across mammals and useful to draw evolutionary scenarios. Next, we expand on the psychological evidence from humans that bears on current theoretical debates and also informs non-human animal research. Finally, we cover the neural bases of facial mimicry and yawn contagion. We move beyond the perception/expression/experience trichotomy and from the correlational to the causal evidence that links facial mimicry to emotional contagion by presenting evidence from neuroimaging, direct manipulation, neuro-stimulation and lesion studies. In conclusion, this review proposes a bottom-up, multidisciplinary approach to the study of spontaneous mimicry that accounts for the evolutionary continuity linking non-human and human animals.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Pulvino-cortical interaction: an integrative role in the control of attention
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Alexia Bourgeois; Carole Guedj; Emmanuel Carrera; Patrik Vuilleumier

    Selective attention is a fundamental cognitive function that guides behavior by selecting and prioritizing salient or relevant sensory information of our environment. Despite early evidence and theoretical proposal pointing to an implication of thalamic control in attention, most studies in the past two decades focused on cortical substrates, largely ignoring the contribution of subcortical regions as well as cortico-subcortical interactions. Here, we suggest a key role of the pulvinar in the selection of salient and relevant information via its involvement in priority maps. Prioritization may be achieved through a pulvinar-mediated generation of alpha oscillations, which may then modulate neuronal gain in thalamo-cortical circuits. Such mechanism might orchestrate the synchrony of cortico-cortical interaction, by rendering neural communication more effective, precise and selective. We propose that this theoretical framework will support a timely shift from the prevailing cortico-centric view of cognition to a more integrative perspective of thalamic contributions to attention and executive control processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Mapping Sign-Tracking and Goal-Tracking onto Human Behaviors
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Janna M. Colaizzi; Shelly B. Flagel; Michelle A. Joyner; Ashley N. Gearhardt; Jennifer L. Stewart; Martin P. Paulus

    As evidenced through classic Pavlovian learning mechanisms, environmental cues can become incentivized and influence behavior. These stimulus-outcome associations are relevant in everyday life but may be particularly important for the development of impulse control disorders including addiction. Rodent studies have elucidated specific learning profiles termed ‘sign-tracking’ and ‘goal-tracking’ which map onto individual differences in impulsivity and other behaviors associated with impulse control disorders’ etiology, course, and relapse. Whereas goal-trackers are biased toward the outcome, sign-trackers fixate on features that are associated with but not necessary for achieving an outcome; a pattern of behavior that often leads to escalation of reward-seeking that can be maladaptive. The vast majority of the sign- and goal-tracking research has been conducted using rodent models and very few have bridged this concept into the domain of human behavior. In this review, we discuss the attributes of sign- and goal-tracking profiles, how these are manifested neurobiologically, and how these distinct learning styles could be an important tool for clinical interventions in human addiction.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Twin Studies of the Covariation of Pain with Depression and Anxiety: A Systematic Review and Re-Evaluation of Critical Needs
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Waqas Ullah Khan; Giorgia Michelini; Marco Battaglia

    Pain often co-occurs with depression and anxiety, and together cause considerable social and economic burden. Twin studies have investigated the aetiology of these covariations. However, to our knowledge, no systematic review examining the covariation between these conditions has been conducted. We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and PsychInfo for twin studies examining the covariation between pain with depression and/or anxiety published from inception to May 16, 2019. Included studies reported: original data on twin samples using the classical twin or co-twin control designs; investigated the association between pain and depression and/or anxiety; were published in peer-reviewed journals; used validated measures; included ≥100 twin pairs. Of 359 retrieved articles, 23 met our inclusion criteria. Most studies found that the covariation of pain with depression and/or anxiety was explained by genetic (n = 6) or both genetic and environmental (n = 16) factors. Most studies were cross-sectional, and all were led in adult populations. Future research requires the use of more standardized measurement tools, including quantitative sensory testing as well as assess child-adolescent cohorts.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • The anticonvulsant effects of cannabidiol in experimental models of epileptic seizures: from behavior and mechanisms to clinical insights
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Willian Lazarini-Lopes; Raquel A. Do Val-da Silva; Rui M.P. da Silva-Júnior; João P. Leite; Norberto Garcia-Cairasco

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the presence of seizures and neuropsychiatric comorbidities. Despite the number of antiepileptic drugs, one-third of patients did not have their seizures under control, leading to pharmacoresistance epilepsy. Cannabis sativa has been used since ancient times in Medicine for the treatment of many diseases, including convulsive seizures. In this context, Cannabidiol (CBD), a non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid present in Cannabis, has been a promising compound for treating epilepsies due to its anticonvulsant properties in animal models and humans, especially in pharmacoresistant patients. In this review, we summarize evidence of the CBD anticonvulsant activities present in a great diversity of animal models. Special attention was given to behavioral CBD effects and its translation to human epilepsies. CBD anticonvulsant effects are associated with a great variety of mechanisms of action such as endocannabinoid and calcium signaling. CBD has shown effectiveness in the clinical scenario for epilepsies, but its effects on epilepsy-related comorbidities are scarce even in basic research. More detailed and complex behavioral evaluation about CBD effects on seizures and epilepsy-related comorbidities are required.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • How interindividual differences shape approach-avoidance behavior: Relating self-report and diagnostic measures of interindividual differences to behavioral measurements of approach and avoidance
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Kim Fricke; Susanne Vogel

    FRICKE, K. and S. Vogel. How interindividual differences shape approach-avoidance behavior: Relating self-report and diagnostic measures of interindividual differences to behavioral measurements of approach and avoidance. NEUROSCI BIOBEHAV REV XX(X) XXX-XXX, XXXX. -Responding to stimuli in ambiguous environments is partially governed by approach-avoidance tendencies. Imbalances in these approach-avoidance behaviors are implicated in many mental disorders including anxiety disorders, phobias and substance use disorders. While factors biasing human behavior in approach-avoidance conflicts have been researched in numerous experiments, a much-needed comprehensive overview integrating those findings is missing. Here, we systematically searched the existing literature on individual differences in task-based approach-avoidance behavior and aggregated the current evidence for the effect of self-reported approach/avoidance traits, anxiety and anxiety disorders, specific phobias, depression, aggression, anger and psychopathy, substance use and related disorders, eating disorders and habits, trauma, acute stress and, finally, hormone levels (mainly testosterone, oxytocin). We highlight consistent findings, underrepresented research areas and unexpected results, and detail the amount of controversy between studies. We discuss potential reasons for ambiguous results in some research areas, offer practical advice for future studies and highlight potential variables such as task-related researcher decisions that may influence how interindividual differences and disorders drive automatic approach-avoidance biases in behavioral experiments.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Convergent neural representations of experimentally-induced acute pain in healthy volunteers: A large-scale fMRI meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Anna Xu; Bart Larsen; Erica B. Baller; J. Cobb Scott; Vaishnavi Sharma; Azeez Adebimpe; Allan I. Basbaum; Robert H. Dworkin; Robert R. Edwards; Clifford J. Woolf; Simon B. Eickhoff; Claudia R. Eickhoff; Theodore D. Satterthwaite

    Characterizing a reliable, pain-related neural signature is critical for translational applications. Many prior fMRI studies have examined acute nociceptive pain-related brain activation in healthy participants. However, synthesizing these data to identify convergent patterns of activation can be challenging due to the heterogeneity of experimental designs and samples. To address this challenge, we conducted a comprehensive meta-analysis of fMRI studies of stimulus-induced pain in healthy participants. Following pre-registration, two independent reviewers evaluated 4,927 abstracts returned from a search of 8 databases, with 222 fMRI experiments meeting inclusion criteria. We analyzed these experiments using Activation Likelihood Estimation with rigorous type I error control (voxel height p < 0.001, cluster p < 0.05 FWE-corrected) and found a convergent, largely bilateral pattern of pain-related activation in the secondary somatosensory cortex, insula, midcingulate cortex, and thalamus. Notably, these regions were consistently recruited regardless of stimulation technique, location of induction, and participant sex. These findings suggest a highly-conserved core set of pain-related brain areas, encouraging applications as a biomarker for novel therapeutics targeting acute nociceptive pain.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Focusing attention on biological markers of acute stressor intensity: empirical evidence and limitations
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Antonio Armario; Javier Labad; Roser Nadal

    ARMARIO, A, J. Labad and R. Nadal. Focusing attention on biological markers of acute stressor intensity: empirical evidence and limitations. NEUROSCIENCE AND BIOBEHAVIORAL REVIEWS. The availability of biological markers that objectively quantify stress is a highly relevant issue. However, experimental evidence suggests that most physiological changes elicited by emotional stressors do not reflect their intensity and are not useful for this purpose. Thus, we review experimental evidence in animals and humans about the putative validity of neuroendocrine and sympathetic/parasympathetic variables to measure stress. Plasma levels of some hormones (e.g. ACTH, glucocorticoids, prolactin and catecholamines) have been found to reflect, at least under certain conditions, the intensity of emotional stressors in animals and probably in humans. However, the temporal resolution of hormone changes is insufficient to reflect the very dynamic psychological processes taking place while experiencing stressors. Cardiovascular parameters (e.g. heart rate and blood pressure) have much better temporal resolution but their validity as markers of stressor intensity either in animals or humans is problematic. Skin conductance and pupil dilation appear to be promising. Additional and more systematic studies are needed to demonstrate the actual validity of stress-induced physiological changes to quantify stress.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The two-process theory of biological motion processing
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Masahiro Hirai; Atsushi Senju

    Perception, identification, and understanding of others’ actions from motion information are vital for our survival in the social world. A breakthrough in the understanding of action perception was the discovery that our visual system is sensitive to human action from the sparse motion input of only a dozen point lights, a phenomenon known as biological motion (BM) processing. Previous psychological and computational models cannot fully explain the emerging evidence for the existence of BM processing during early ontogeny. Here, we propose a two-process model of the mechanisms underlying BM processing. We hypothesize that the first system, the ‘Step Detector,’ rapidly processes the local foot motion and feet-below-the-body information that is specific to vertebrates, is less dependent on postnatal learning, and involves subcortical networks. The second system, the ‘Bodily Action Evaluator,’ slowly processes the fine global structure-from-motion, is specific to conspecific, and dependent on gradual learning processed in cortical networks. This proposed model provides new insight into research on the development of BM processing.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Dietary Phospholipids: Role in Cognitive Processes Across the Lifespan
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Marina Schverer; Siobhain M. O'Mahony; Kenneth J. O’Riordan; Francisco Donoso; Bernard L. Roy; Catherine Stanton; Timothy G. Dinan; Harriët Schellekens; John F. Cryan

    Chronic stress and ageing are two of the most important factors that negatively affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory across the lifespan. To date, pharmacological agents have been insufficient in reducing the impact of both on brain health, and thus, novel therapeutic strategies are required. Recent research has focused on nutritional interventions to modify behaviour and reduce the deleterious consequences of both stress and ageing. In this context, emerging evidence indicate that phospholipids, a specific type of fat, are capable of improving a variety of cognitive processes in both animals and humans. The mechanisms underlying these positive effects are actively being investigated but as of yet are not fully elucidated. In this review, we summarise the preclinical and clinical studies available on phospholipid-based strategies for improved brain health across the lifespan. Moreover, we summarize the hypothesized direct and indirect mechanisms of action of these lipid-based interventions which may be used to promote resilience to stress and improve age-related cognitive decline in vulnerable populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Can cocaine-induced neuroinflammation explain maladaptive cocaine-associated memories?
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Caroline Correia; Pascal Romieu; Mary C. Olmstead; Katia Befort

    Persistent and intrusive memories define a number of psychiatric disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder and substance use disorder. In the latter, memory for drug-paired cues plays a critical role in sustaining compulsive drug use as these are potent triggers of relapse. As with many drugs, cocaine-cue associated memory is strengthened across presentations as cues become reliable predictors of drug availability. Recently, the targeting of cocaine-associated memory through disruption of the reconsolidation process has emerged as a potential therapeutic strategy; reconsolidation reflects the active process by which memory is re-stabilized after retrieval. In addition, a separate line of work reveals that neuroinflammatory markers, regulated by cocaine intake, play a role in memory processes. Our review brings these two literatures together by summarizing recent findings on cocaine-associated reconsolidation and cocaine-induced neuroinflammation. We discuss the interactions between reconsolidation processes and neuroinflammation following cocaine use, concluding with a new perspective on treatment to decrease risk of relapse to cocaine use.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The contagion of social defeat stress: Insights from rodent studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Luca Carnevali; Nicola Montano; Eleonora Tobaldini; Julian F. Thayer; Andrea Sgoifo

    Stressful experiences can be transmitted among individuals through social interactions. Like humans, rodents are social creatures whose behavior and physiology can be influenced by the emotional state of fellow rodents. This paper will review rodent studies which have explored two conditions of potential social stress contagion using the social defeat paradigm. In the vicarious social defeat model, mice and rats that witness a conspecific being socially defeated exhibit physiological stress responses and develop a host of depressive- and anxiety-like behavioral deficits. Likewise, social interaction with a stressed partner in the aftermath of social defeat stress results in physiological stress responses and social avoidance behavior. After summarizing the existing literature on this newly emerging area of social defeat stress contagion in rodents, we will discuss the potential utility of these rodent models for investigating the neurobiological processes and sensory channels of information that allow for the spread of psychophysiological effects of stress across individuals.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Odors: from chemical structures to gaseous plumes
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Benjamin D. Young; James A. Escalon; Dennis Mathew

    We are immersed within an odorous sea of chemical currents that we parse into individual odors with complex structures. Odors have been posited as determined by the structural relation between the molecules that compose the chemical compounds and their interactions with the receptor site. But, naturally occurring smells are parsed from gaseous odor plumes. To give a comprehensive account of the nature of odors the chemosciences must account for these large distributed entities as well. We offer a focused review of what is known about the perception of odor plumes for olfactory navigation and tracking, which we then connect to what is known about the role odorants play as properties of the plume in determining odor identity with respect to odor quality. We end by motivating our central claim that more research needs to be conducted on the role that odorants play within the odor plume in determining odor identity.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • QUALITY OF LIFE AND FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE IN AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Jéssica Paloma Rosa Silva; José Bomfim Santiago Júnior; Elizabete Lima dos Santos; Fernanda Oliveira de Carvalho; Iandra Maria Pinheiro de França Costa; Deise Maria Furtado de Mendonça

    Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) leads to functional capacity decline, generating great impact in quality of life. Quality of life is directly related to physical integrity and functional independence. This systematic review aimed to analyze treatment protocols and their outcomes from clinical trials with focus on ALS rehabilitation that evaluated the effects on quality of life and functional independence from their intervention process. A literature search was conducted through MEDLINE-PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science and Scopus databases. A total of 3630 articles were identified. Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. They focused on different aspects of quality of life or functional independence, which are: respiratory care, mental health, communication skills and exercises. Use of bipap and inspiratory muscle training, anxiety and depression, communication devices implementation and exercises safety and tolerability were considered as key points. However, the drastic evolution of the disease is a limiting factor to the perception of quality of life improvement by patients. Further studies should be done to validate the benefits on patients' quality of life.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Deep brain stimulation for obsessive-compulsive disorder: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Petya Vicheva; Matthew Butler; Paul Shotbolt

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is considered a promising intervention for treatment-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (trOCD). We conducted a systematic search to investigate the efficacy and safety of DBS for OCD. Primary outcomes included the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS), adverse events (AE), and quality of life. We assessed affective state, global functioning, cognition, and tolerability as secondary outcomes. Eight studies comprising 80 patients with trOCD were analysed both individually and collectively. We found a pooled mean reduction in Y-BOCS of 38.68%, indicating DBS could be considered an effective therapy for trOCD. Most AE were mild and transient, however there were five severe surgery-related AE: intracerebral haemorrhage in three patients and infection in two. Mood-related serious AE were one completed suicide, three suicide attempts in two patients, and suicidal thoughts and depression in four. Despite this, affective state improved following stimulation. Despite being limited by significant heterogeneity across studies, our review has shown DBS to be an effective treatment in otherwise trOCD. There is a need to standardise study methodology in future research.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Beyond culture and the family: Evidence from twin studies on the genetic and environmental contribution to values
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Louise Twito; Ariel Knafo-Noam

    Human values are abstract goals, affecting decisions, choices and behavior (Schwartz, 1992). Despite much value research, there is a lack of research on the etiology of values, specifically potential genetic influences. We therefore reviewed all published twin studies on human values, classified as representing four higher order values across two bipolar dimensions: Self-transcendence versus Self-enhancement and Openness to change versus Conservation. Across most studies, and most values, monozygotic twins correlated more strongly than dizygotic twins, indicating genetic contribution to values. Significant heritability estimates ranged from 24.5 to 85.7%. The effects of the environment shared by family members were generally weaker. Finally, there was a contribution of the non-shared environment for all values. After discussing the implications for the neuropsychological research on values, we suggest several future research directions, which may help guide the future science of the etiology of values. We also discuss the possible discrepancy between our findings and theory and research on value socialization and discuss the interplay of genes and the environment in the development of values.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Twin MRI studies on genetic and environmental determinants of brain morphology and function in the early lifespan
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Eleonora Maggioni; Letizia Squarcina; Nicola Dusi; Vaibhav A. Diwadkar; Paolo Brambilla

    Neurodevelopment represents a period of increased opportunity and vulnerability, during which a complex confluence of genetic and environmental factors influences brain growth trajectories, cognitive and mental health outcomes. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies on twins have increased our knowledge of the extent to which genes, the environment and their interactions shape inter-individual brain variability. The present review draws from highly salient MRI studies in young twin samples to provide a robust assessment of the heritability of structural and functional brain changes during development. The available studies suggest that (as with many other traits), global brain morphology and network organization are highly heritable from early childhood to young adulthood. Conversely, genetic correlations among brain regions exhibit heterogeneous trajectories, and this heterogeneity reflects the progressive, experience-related increase in brain network complexity. Studies also support the key role of environment in mediating brain network differentiation via changes of genetic expression and hormonal levels. Thus, rest- and task-related functional brain circuits seem to result from a contextual and dynamic expression of heritability.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Epigenomic Landscapes and their Relationship to Variation, Fitness, and Evolution
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Marco Battaglia

    Doctor Tan’s paper (Anon, 2020) insightfully describes how epigenomic investigations of twins can help clarifying the mediation between environmental pressures, the genome, and behaviour. Here, I will expand on two implications that stem from their review, and the connections to the twin method. The first proposition deals with the transgenerational inheritance of epigenetic marks. The second examines the relationship between DNA methylation (DNAmeth) and mutation rate (MR), and their evolutionary implications.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Empathy and theory of mind in Parkinson’s disease: A meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Sarah P. Coundouris; Alexandra G. Adams; Julie D. Henry

    In contrast to well-documented deficits in the core social cognitive domains of social perception and theory of mind (ToM), how Parkinson’s disease (PD) affects one’s empathic capacity remains poorly understood. The current study provides the first meta-analytic review of both ToM and empathy as broad constructs, and also breaks these constructs down to clearly differentiate their overlapping (affective ToM and cognitive empathy) and distinct (affective empathy and cognitive ToM) components. A total of 38 studies contributed to these analyses, with results revealing that, relative to controls, PD is associated with significant and substantial deficits in the domain of cognitive ToM (g = -0.78), as well as the overlapping domains of affective ToM/cognitive empathy (g = -0.69). However, no group differences were identified for affective empathy (g = -0.08). These data speak to there being a potential preservation of affective empathic processing in PD, but because of the relatively limited research base on this topic, recommendations for future research are highlighted.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Twin studies of subjective sleep quality and sleep duration, and their behavioral correlates: Systematic review and meta-analysis of heritability estimates
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Juan J Madrid-Valero; María Rubio-Aparicio; Alice M. Gregory; Julio Sánchez-Meca; Juan R. Ordoñana

    Twin studies have shown that a substantial proportion of the variance for sleep variables is due to genetic factors. However, there is still considerable heterogeneity among research reports. Our main objectives were to: 1) Review the twin literature regarding sleep quality and duration, as well as their behavioural correlates; 2) Estimate the mean heritability of subjective sleep quality and sleep duration; 3) Assess heterogeneity among studies on these topics; and 4) Search for moderator variables. Two parallel meta-analyses were carried out for sleep quality and sleep duration. Seventeen articles were included in the meta-analysis. Mean MZ correlations were consistently higher than DZ correlations. A mean heritability of 0.31 (95% CI: 0.20, 0.41) was found for subjective sleep quality (range: 0-0.43) and 0.38 (95% CI: 0.16, 0.56) for sleep duration (range: 0-1). Heterogeneity indexes were significant for both sleep quality (I2 = 98.77, p < .001) and sleep duration (I2 = 99.73, p < .001). The high heterogeneity warrants further research considering possible moderators that may affect heritability.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Spatial metric in blindness: behavioural and cortical processing
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Monica Gori; Maria Bianca Amadeo; Claudio Campus

    Visual modality dominates spatial perception and, in lack of vision, space representation might be altered. Here we review our work showing that blind individuals have a strong deficit when performing spatial bisection tasks (Gori et al., 2014). We also describe the neural correlates associated with this deficit, as blind individuals do not show the same ERP response mimicking the visual C1 reported in sighted people during spatial bisection (Campus et al., 2019). Interestingly, the deficit is not always evident in late blind individuals, and it is dependent on blindness duration. We report that the deficit disappears when one presents coherent temporal and spatial cues to blind people. This suggests that they may use time information to infer spatial maps (Gori et al., 2018). Finally, we propose a model to explain why blind individuals are impaired in this task, speculating that a lack of vision drives the construction of a multi-sensory cortical network that codes space based on temporal, rather than spatial, coordinates.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • What we can learn from a genetic rodent model about autism
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Dorit Möhrle; Marta Fernández; Olga Peñagarikano; Andreas Frick; Brian Allman; Susanne Schmid

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are complex neurodevelopmental disorders that are caused by genetic and/or environmental impacts, often probably by the interaction of both. They are characterised by deficits in social communication and interaction and by restricted and repetitive behaviours and interests from early childhood on, causing significant impairment. While it is clear that no animal model captures the full complexity of ASD in humans, genetic models are extremely useful for studying specific symptoms associated with ASD and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. In this review we summarize the behavioral paradigms used in rodents to model ASD symptoms as they are listed in the DSM-5. We then review existing genetic rodent models with disruptions in ASD candidate genes, and we map their phenotypes onto these behavioural paradigms. The goal of this review is to give a comprehensive overview on how ASD symptoms can be studied in animal models and to give guidance for which animal models are appropriate to study specific symptom clusters.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Are the roots of human economic systems shared with non-human primates?
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Elsa Addessi; Sacha Bourgeois-Gironde

    We review and analyze evidence for an evolutionary rooting of human economic behaviors and organization in non-human primates. Rather than focusing on the direct application of economic models that a priori account for animal decision behavior, we adopt an inductive definition of economic behavior in terms of the contribution of individual cognitive capacities to the provision of resources within an exchange structure. We spell out to what extent non-human primates’ individual and strategic decision behaviors are shared with humans. We focus on the ability to trade, through barter or token-mediated exchanges, as a landmark of an economic system among members of the same species. It is an open question why only humans have reached a high level of economic sophistication. While primates have many of the necessary cognitive abilities (symbolic and computational) in isolation, one plausible issue we identify is the limits in exerting cognitive control to combine several sources of information. The difference between human and non-human primates’ economies might well then be in degree rather than kind.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • The need to incorporate aged animals into the preclinical modeling of neurological conditions
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Mujun Sun; Stuart J. McDonald; Rhys D. Brady; Lyndsey Collins-Praino; Glenn R. Yamakawa; Mastura Monif; Terence J. O’Brien; Geoff Cloud; Christopher G. Sobey; Richelle Mychasiuk; David J. Loane; Sandy R. Shultz

    Neurological conditions such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease are serious clinical problems that affect millions of people worldwide. The majority of clinical trials for these common conditions have failed, and there is a critical need to understand why treatments in preclinical animal models do not translate to patients. Many patients with these conditions are middle-aged or older, however, the majority of preclinical studies have used only young-adult animals. Considering that aging involves biological changes that are relevant to the pathobiology of neurological diseases, the lack of aged subjects in preclinical research could contribute to translational failures. This paper details how aging affects biological processes involved in neurological conditions, and reviews aging research in the context of traumatic brain injury, stroke, Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. We conclude that aging is an important, but often overlooked, factor that influences biology and outcomes in neurological conditions, and provide suggestions to improve our understanding and treatment of these diseases in aged patients.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Endometriosis and Pain in the Adolescent- Striking Early to Limit Suffering: A Narrative Review
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Christine B. Sieberg; Claire E. Lunde; David Borsook

    Endometriosis, a condition in which uterine tissue grows outside the uterus, is a debilitating disease, affecting millions of women and costing the United States approximately $78 billion annually in pain- related disability. It is also the leading cause of chronic pelvic pain (CPP), which is often unresponsive to existing treatments. Adolescent women with the disease are at particular risk as there are often significant diagnostic delays, which in turn can exacerbate pain. Research and treatment guidelines for adolescents with endometriosis are largely based on studies for adult women due to the limited number of studies focusing on adolescents. The current paper critically reviews the literature as it pertains to endometriosis pathophysiology, mechanisms contributing to CPP, and treatment implications and recommendations with a focus on gaps related to adolescents.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Neuropathic pain after spinal cord injury and physical exercise in animal models: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Juliete Palandi; Franciane Bobinski; Gabriela Martins de Oliveira; Jocemar Ilha

    The aim of this systematic review was to summarize the effects of physical exercise on neuropathic pain (NP) in animal models of SCI. The search was conducted in Medline and Science Direct to identify experimental pre-clinical studies involving animal models of SCI, physical exercise as an intervention and the assessment of NP. Fifteen articles met the eligibility criteria. The review shows that in studies of NP involving animal models of SCI, rodents are the most common species. Thoracic contusion is the most common injury and mechanical and thermal nociception are the most frequently assessed NP components. The benefits of physical exercise vary according to its starting period and total duration. In addition, there is considerable heterogeneity regarding the type and intensity of exercise capable of alleviating NP after SCI. Furthermore, physical exercise has beneficial effects on mechanical, thermal and cold nociception, and spontaneous pain. These results are weakened by the paucity of studies involving these pain outcomes. The review protocol is published for free access on the SyRF platform (http://syrf.org.uk/protocols/).

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Effects of acute caffeine consumption following sleep loss on cognitive, physical, occupational and driving performance: A systematic review and meta-analysis
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Christopher Irwin; Saman Khalesi; Ben Desbrow; Danielle McCartney

    Caffeine is widely used to counteract the effects of sleep loss. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the impact of acute caffeine consumption on cognitive, physical, occupational and driving performance in sleep deprived/restricted individuals. 45 publications providing 327 effect estimates (EEs) were included in the review. Caffeine improved response time (44 EEs; g = 0.86; 95% CI: 0.53-0.83) and accuracy (27 EEs; g = 0.68; 95% CI: 0.48-0.88) on attention tests, improved executive function (38 EEs; g = 0.35; 95% CI: 0.15-0.55), improved reaction time (12 EEs; g = 1.11; 95% CI: 0.75-1.47), improved response time (20 EEs; g = 1.95; 95% CI: 1.39-2.52) and accuracy (34 EEs; g = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.30-0.55) on information processing tasks, and enhanced lateral (29 EEs; g = 1.67; 95% CI: 1.32-2.02) and longitudinal (12 EEs; g = 1.60; 95% CI: 1.16-2.03) measures of vehicular control on driving tests. Studies also typically indicated benefit of caffeine on memory (25 EEs), crystallized intelligence (11 EEs), physical (39 EEs) and occupational (36 EEs) performance. Ingestion of caffeine is an effective counter-measure to the cognitive and physical impairments associated with sleep loss.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Dance and Parkinson’s: A review and exploration of the role of cognitive representations of action
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Judith Bek; Aline I. Arakaki; Adam Lawrence; Matthew Sullivan; Gayathri Ganapathy; Ellen Poliakoff

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease causing both sensorimotor and non-motor impairments, and there is a clear need for non-medical approaches to improve quality of life. Dance is an increasingly popular activity among people with PD, which demonstrates potential therapeutic benefits. However, findings to date have been inconsistent, and little is known about the mechanisms underlying benefits of dance in PD. In this review, we provide an overview of research into dance for people with PD. The majority of evidence is in the sensorimotor domain, but cognitive, psychological and social effects have also been reported. We consider the role of cognitive representations of action within dance through observation, imitation and imagery, which may contribute to both sensorimotor and non-motor outcomes for people with PD. Moreover, we discuss how these processes may be enhanced through dance to provide further benefits in everyday life. Finally, we propose avenues for future research to increase understanding of action representation in dance for PD, which has the potential to inform practice and maximize benefits.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Health risk behaviours and allostatic load: A systematic review
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Beena Suvarna; Aditya Suvarna; Riana Phillips; Robert-Paul Juster; Brett McDermott; Zoltan Sarnyai

    Health risk behaviours (HRB) across the lifespan have been associated with higher cumulative physiological burden as measured by allostatic load (AL). This study examines the contribution of HRB and their effects on multisystem biological risk associated with morbidity and early mortality. We systematically reviewed the literature to assess the links between HRB and AL. Twenty-six eligible human studies were included in our assessment of the current literature investigating the association of different HRB that included overeating/obesity, alcohol, smoking, drug use, physical inactivity and sleep impairments in relation to AL. We found that 50% of obesity and substance abuse, 75% of sleep and 62.5% of combined HRB studies showed a significant association with AL. Lifestyle coping behaviours therefore have a significant contribution to AL. This study is among the first to explore multiple domains of HRB in relation to AL. Further research should focus on evaluating lifestyle factors that adapt HRB as a strategy to cope with chronic stress to help decrease AL and resulting long-term negative health consequences.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Why do we move to the beat? A multi-scale approach, from physical principles to brain dynamics
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Loïc Damm; Déborah Varoqui; Valérie Cochen De Cock; Simone Dalla Bella; Benoît Bardy

    Humans’ ability to synchronize movement with auditory rhythms relies on motor networks, such as cortical areas, basal ganglia and the cerebellum, which also participate in rhythm perception and movement production. Current research has provided insights into the dependence of this action-perception coupling upon the entrainment of neuronal activity by external rhythms. At a physical level, advances on wearable robotics have enriched our understanding of the dynamical properties of the locomotor system showing evidences of mechanical entrainment. Here we defend the view that modelling brain and locomotor oscillatory activities as dynamical systems, at both neural and physical levels, provides a unified theoretical framework for the understanding of externally driven rhythmic entrainment of biological systems. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this multi-level entrainment during locomotion, we review in a common framework the core questions related to the dynamic properties of biological oscillators and the neural bases of auditory-motor synchronization. Illustrations of our approach, using personalized auditory stimulation, to gait rehabilitation in Parkinson disease and to manipulation of runners’ kinematics are presented.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Memory and neuromodulation: a perspective of DNA methylation
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Chi Him Poon; Lee Wei Lim

    Neuromodulation techniques have shown promising efficacy on memory function and understanding the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to these processes would shed light on the molecular outcomes essential for cognition. In this review, we highlight some epigenetic mechanisms underlying neuromodulation and regulatory effects of neuronal activity-induced DNA methylation on genes that are highly involved in memory formation. Next, we examine the evidence to support DNA methyltransferase 3a, methyl-CpG binding protein 2, and DNA demethylase as possible memory modulation targets. Finally, we report the recent developments in the field of neuromodulation and explore the potential of these techniques for future neuroepigenetic research.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Learning to lose control: A process-based account of behavioral addiction
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    José C. Perales; Daniel L. King; Juan F. Navas; Adriano Schimmenti; Guillaume Sescousse; Vladan Starcevic; Ruth J. van Holst; Joël Billieux

    Learning psycho(bio)logy has developed a solid corpus of evidence and theory regarding behavior control modes. The present article briefly reviews that literature and its influence on recent models in which the transition from goal-directed to compulsive behavior is identified as the main process underlying substance use disorders. This literature is also relevant to non-substance addictive disorders, and serves as basis to propose a restricted definition of behavioral addiction relying on the presence of behavior-specific compulsivity. Complementarily, we consider whether some activities can become disordered while remaining mostly goal-driven. Based on reinforcement learning models, relative outcome utility computation is proposed as an alternative mechanism through which dysfunctional behaviors (even not qualifying as addictive) can override adaptive ones, causing functional impairment. Beyond issues of conceptual delimitation, recommendations are made regarding the importance of identifying individual etiological pathways to dysregulated behavior, the necessity of accurately profiling at-risk individuals, and the potential hazards of symptom-based diagnosis. In our view, the validity of these recommendations does not depend on the position one takes in the nosological debate.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Twin studies of brain structure and cognition in schizophrenia
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Bianca Besteher; Paolo Brambilla; Igor Nenadić

    Twin studies in schizophrenia have been crucial in establishing estimates for the heritability and thus providing evidence for a genetic component in this disorder. Recent years have seen the application of the twin study paradigm to both putative intermediate phenotypes and biomarkers of disease as well as a diversification of its use in schizophrenia research. This review addressed studies of brain structure (T1 morphometry) and cognition in schizophrenia using twin study designs. We review major findings such as the overlap of genetic variance between schizophrenia and cognition as a model for the emergence of psychopathology. The use of novel hybrid models integrating molecular genetic risk markers, as well as the use of twin studies in epigenetics might prove to significantly enhance schizophrenia research in the post-GWAS era.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • A neuroscientist’s guide to transgenic mice and other genetic tools
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Shaghayegh Navabpour; Janine L. Kwapis; Timothy J. Jarome

    The past decade has produced an explosion in the number and variety of genetic tools available to neuroscientists, resulting in an unprecedented ability to precisely manipulate the genome and epigenome in behaving animals. However, no single resource exists that describes all of the tools available to neuroscientists. Here, we review the genetic, transgenic, and viral techniques that are currently available to probe the complex relationship between genes and cognition. Topics covered include types of traditional transgenic mouse models (knockout, knock-in, reporter lines), inducible systems (Cre-loxP, Tet-On, Tet-Off) and cell- and circuit-specific systems (TetTag, TRAP, DIO-DREADD). Additionally, we provide details on virus-mediated and siRNA/shRNA approaches, as well as a comprehensive discussion of the myriad manipulations that can be made using the CRISPR-Cas9 system, including single base pair editing and spatially- and temporally-regulated gene-specific transcriptional control. Collectively, this review will serve as a guide to assist neuroscientists in identifying and choosing the appropriate genetic tools available to study the complex relationship between the brain and behavior.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • The nature and nurture of ADHD and its comorbidities: a narrative review on twin studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Naomi Tistarelli; Corrado Fagnani; Miriam Troianiello; Maria Antonietta Stazi; Walter Adriani

    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder in children worldwide, and also the recognition of its persistence into adulthood is increasing. While ADHD in childhood is highly heritable and mostly driven by familial factors, during adulthood it appears to show a lower heritability, even if there is not total agreement on this yet. This disorder often co-occurs with many other conditions, which also vary across the different stages of development, and several studies have used the twin design to investigate these comorbidities, giving valuable insights into the origins of the observed co-occurrence. This review aims to summarize the main results of twin research, according to the following domains: individual traits, cognitive impairment, behavioral manifestations, clinical conditions and psychosocial risk factors. Individual features seem to play a role in this symptomatology and include personality traits such as negative emotionality, personality disorders and temperamental dimensions with a predominance of novelty seeking. At a lower level, ADHD is associated with both functional and anatomic brain characteristics. ADHD is also associated with some forms of cognitive impairment, such as sluggish cognitive tempo, and learning disabilities, with a specific predisposition to reading disability. In addition, ADHD is strongly associated with externalizing disorders such as conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder, and some behavioral outcomes, particularly substance use and abuse both in adolescence and adulthood. Moreover, ADHD symptoms often overlap with other psychological disorders, namely affective and internalizing disorders, as well as autism spectrum disorder and autistic-like traits in a wider sense. Notably, a genetic overlap has been found between asthma and ADHD, particularly with respect to hyperactivity/impulsivity dimensions. ADHD also appears to represent a risk factor for disordered eating, and, more specifically, for binge eating and bulimia nervosa. Finally, among psychosocial factors, an association has been proposed between childhood maltreatment and ADHD symptoms.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Neurochemical profiles in hereditary ataxias: A meta-analysis of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Janna Krahe; Ferdinand Binkofski; Jörg B. Schulz; Kathrin Reetz; Sandro Romanzetti

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is applied to investigate the neurochemical profiles of degenerative hereditary ataxias. This meta-analysis provides a quantitative review and reappraisal of MRS findings in spinocerebellar ataxias (SCA) and Friedreich ataxia (FA) available to date. From each study, changes in N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline-containing compounds (Cho) and myo-Inositol (mI) ratios to total creatine (Cr) were calculated for groups of patients (1499 patients in total: SCA1 = 223, SCA2 = 298, SCA3 = 711, SCA6 = 165, and FA = 102) relative to their own control group, mostly in cerebellum and pons. SCA1, 2, 3, 6, and FA patients showed overall decreased NAA/Cr compared to controls. Decreased Cho/Cr was visible in SCA1, 2, and 3 and elevated mI/Cr in SCA2 patients in cerebellum. In SCA6 and FA Cho/Cr and mI/Cr did not differ with respect to controls but SCA6 patients indicated higher Cho/Cr compared to SCA1 patients in cerebellum. SCA2 subjects showed the lowest NAA/Cr and Cho/Cr in cerebellum and the highest mI/Cr compared to controls and other genotypes, and therefore the most promising results for a potential biomarker.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Bilingual language processing: A meta-analysis of functional neuroimaging studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Simone Sulpizio; Nicola Del Maschio; Davide Fedeli; Jubin Abutalebi

    Notwithstanding rising interest, a coherent picture of the brain’s representation of two languages has not yet been achieved. In the present meta-analysis we analysed a large number of functional neuroimaging studies focusing on language processing in bilinguals. We used activation likelihood estimation (ALE) to enucleate activation areas involved in bilingual processing and control of different types of linguistic knowledge – lexico-semantics, grammar, phonology – in L1 and L2. Results show that surprisingly, compared to L2, lexico-semantic processing in L1 involves a widespread system of cortico-subcortical regions, especially when L2 is acquired later in life. By contrast, L2 processing recruits regions exceeding the L1 semantic network and relating to executive control processes. Only few regions displayed selective activation for grammar and phonology. Analyses of language switching highlight a functional overlap between domain-general and bilingual language control networks. Collectively, our findings point to a shared neural network for L1 and L2 with few differences depending on the linguistic level. The emerging picture identifies under-investigated issues, offering clear directions for future research.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Transcriptional and Epigenetic Changes of Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor Following Prenatal Stress: A Systematic Review of Animal Studies
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Negin Badihian; Seyede Shahrbanoo Daniali; Roya Kelishadi

    Gestational period plays critical role in neuropsychological development. One of the genes that undergoes changes by prenatal stress (PNS) exposure, is the gene coding brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Studies have reported different patterns of change following PNS in BDNF, which emphasizes the complexity of the issue. In this review, systematic search of PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science and Cochrane CENTRAL databases was performed. Primary searches resulted in 2132 studies and finally 43 studies were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Transcriptional and epigenetic changes of BDNF gene in the brain were recorded. Decreased or unchanged BDNF total mRNA and BDNF mature protein, with hypermethylation of the coding exons were the most reported changes. However, stress paradigm, gender of the fetus and the day of sacrifice were found to significantly affect the results. Hippocampus and prefrontal cortex are the most vulnerable regions. They can show long lasting and persistent transcriptional and epigenetics changes of BDNF gene following PNS. Further studies evaluating the importance of these findings in humans are essential.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Factors influencing the success of exposure therapy for specific phobia: A systematic review
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Joscha Böhnlein, Luisa Altegoer, Nina Kristin Muck, Kati Roesmann, Ronny Redlich, Udo Dannlowski, Elisabeth J. Leehr

    Although Exposure Therapy (ET) is the first-line treatment of Specific Phobia (SP), there is no clear consensus on which factors influence its success, and thus on how to conduct it most efficiently. This review summarizes the current state of research regarding this topic. N = 111 studies were in accordance with our eligibility criteria: participants had at least symptoms of SP, the intervention was ET and the study investigated a factor influencing its success. Best evidence for positive effects was found for low trait anxiety, high motivation and high self-efficacy before the ET, high cortisol levels and heart rate variation, evoking disgust additionally to anxiety, avoiding relaxation, focusing on cognitive changes, context variation, sleep, and memory-enhancing drugs. These factors may be conceptualized as modulating different aspects of learning as suggested in current models of ET that focus on inhibitory learning mechanisms. Limitations lie in the great heterogeneity concerning operationalization of factors and success. Based on these findings, we make suggestions for improvements in ET conduction and which factors should be researched in the future.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Opioid receptor modulation of neural circuits in depression: What can be learned from preclinical data?
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Corey B. Puryear, Julie Brooks, Laura Tan, Karen Smith, Yan Li, Jacobi Cunningham, Mark S. Todtenkopf, Reginald L. Dean, Connie Sanchez

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a heterogeneous clinical syndrome involving distinct pathological processes. Core features of MDD include anhedonia, reduced motivation, increased anxiety, negative affective bias, cognitive impairments, and dysregulated neuroplasticity mechanisms. There are multiple biological hypotheses related to MDD, including dysfunction of the opioid system. Although opium was abandoned as an antidepressant after the introduction of monoaminergic drugs, there has been renewed interest in targeting the opioid system for MDD. In this review, we discuss the preclinical support of this idea using a neurocircuitry- and molecular neuroplasticity-based approach. This article highlights how the opioid system potently modulates mesolimbic circuitry underlying motivation and reward processing, limbic circuitry underlying fear and anxiety responses, cortical and hippocampal circuitry underlying a variety of cognitive functions, as well as broad functional and structural plasticity mechanisms. Ultimately, a more thorough understanding of how the opioid system modulates these core functional domains may lead to novel treatment strategies and molecular targets in the treatment of MDD.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Are Candidate Neurocognitive Endophenotypes of OCD Present in Paediatric Patients? A Systematic Review
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Aleya A. Marzuki, Ana Maria Frota Lisboa Pereira de Souza, Barbara J. Sahakian, Trevor W. Robbins

    To-date it has been difficult to ascertain the exact cognitive profile of childhood OCD as studies report variable results. Adult OCD research lately utilises the endophenotype approach; studying cognitive traits that are present in both patients and their unaffected first-degree relatives, and are thought to lie closer to the genotype than the full-blown disorder. By observing whether candidate endopenotypes of adult OCD are present in child patients, we can determine whether the two subtypes show cognitive overlap. We conducted a systematic review of the paediatric OCD literature focussing on proposed neurocognitive endophenotypes of OCD: cognitive flexibility, response inhibition, memory, planning, decision-making, action monitoring, and reversal learning. We found that paediatric patients present robust increases in brain error related negativity associated with abnormal action monitoring, impaired decision-making under uncertainty, planning, and visual working memory, but there is less evidence for deficits in other cognitive domains. This implies that children with OCD show some cognitive similarities with adult patients, but other dysfunctions may only manifest later in the disorder trajectory.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • The connection between microbiome and schizophrenia
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Bogdana Golofast, Karel Vales

    There has been an accumulation of knowledge about the human microbiome, some detailed investigations of the gastrointestinal microbiota and its functions, and the highlighting of complex interactions between the gut, the gut microbiota, and the central nervous system. That assumes the involvement of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of various CNS diseases, including schizophrenia. Given this information and the fact, that the gut microbiota is sensitive to internal and environmental influences, we have speculated that among the factors that influence the formation and composition of gut microbiota during life, possible key elements in the schizophrenia development chain are hidden where gut microbiota is a linking component. This article aims to describe and understand the developmental relationships between intestinal microbiota and the risk of developing schizophrenia.

    更新日期:2019-12-09
  • Neuropharmacological modulation of the aberrant bodily self through psychedelics
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Jasmine T. Ho, Katrin H. Preller, Bigna Lenggenhager

    As a continual source of sensory input and fundamental component of self-referential processing, the body holds an integral modulatory role in cognition. In a healthy state, predictive coding of multisensory integration promotes the construction of a coherent self. However, several psychiatric disorders comprise aberrant perceptions of the bodily self that are purported to involve discrepancies in the integration and updating of multisensory systems. Changes in functional connectivity of somatomotor and high-level association networks in these disorders could be successfully remediated through 5-HT2A receptor agonism via psychedelics. Reported alterations of bodily self-awareness during psychedelic experiences allude to a potentially central role of the bodily self. In this article, we bridge the domains of (aberrant) bodily self-awareness and psychedelics by discussing the predictive coding mechanisms underlying the bodily self and psychedelics. Furthermore, we propose that psychedelically-induced desynchronization of predictive coding might involve modulation of somatomotor, sensorimotor, and high-level association networks that could remediate aberrant perceptions of the bodily self.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Long-term memory consolidation or reconsolidation impairment induces amnesia with key characteristics that are similar to key learning characteristics
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    V.P. Nikitin, S.V. Solntseva, S.A. Kozyrev, P.V. Nikitin

    According to a common perspective, amnesia is a passive consequence of memory consolidation or reconsolidation impairment. The results of our own study, as well as literature data, allowed us to offer an interpretation of amnesia. Amnesia is an active process whose key characteristics are similar to those of other long-term plastic rearrangements of the brain, including learning processes. In accordance with this hypothesis, the review considers the data we obtained on the mechanisms of amnesia induction and development caused by impairment of conditioned food aversion memory consolidation or reconsolidation. In particular, experimental data indicating the dependence of amnesia induction on protein and RNA syntheses are described. After amnesia induction, a time-dependent reorganization of its processes is shown to occur. In early amnesia stages (< 10 days), a gradual decrease in the possibility of memory formation during a second training was observed. In late stages of amnesia (10 days or more), an unusual physiological phenomenon was revealed—the second training did not lead to the formation of long-term memory. This effect was specific, as memory for a new type of food could possibly be formed in these animals. The described properties of amnesia facilitate its characterization as specific anterograde amnesia. In addition, at an early but not late amnesia stages, reminder presentation caused amnesia reactivation, impairment of which by DNA methyltransferase inhibitors caused memory recovery. The results obtained allow us to characterize amnesia as a specific, time-dependent, separate process. In conclusion, the potential biological significance of the described type of amnesia is considered, and we discuss the possible molecular mechanisms underlying it.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Effectiveness of language training and non-invasive brain stimulation on oral and written naming performance in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A meta-analysis and systematic review
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Maria Cotelli, Rosa Manenti, Clarissa Ferrari, Elena Gobbi, Ambra Macis, Stefano F. Cappa

    The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the efficacy of language training, alone or in combination with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques, designed to improve oral and written naming abilities in Primary Progressive Aphasia (PPA), and to investigate whether gains can be maintained over time and generalize to untrained items. An electronic database search was conducted up to 31st of May 2019. Forty-three articles on language training alone and seven articles on the combined treatment fitted the inclusion criteria for the systematic review. Results indicated that language training, alone or in combination with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), improves oral naming accuracy for trained items in patients with PPA, with a long-term maintenance of the gain over time. Only language training combined with tDCS improves oral naming accuracy for untrained items. Considering written naming abilities, language training combined with tDCS improves performance for both trained and untrained items, immediately after training and at follow-up.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Therapeutic use of serotoninergic hallucinogens: a review of the evidence and of the biological and psychological mechanisms
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Rafael Guimarães dos Santos, Jaime Eduardo Cecilio Hallak

    Serotoninergic hallucinogens include drugs such as lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD), dimethyltryptamine (DMT) and psilocybin. Recent trials with single/few doses of these compounds show that they induce rapid and sustained antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects. These effects are also observed in religious groups using the DMT-containing brew ayahuasca. The agonist action of these substances on 5-HT2A receptors expressed in frontal and limbic areas increase glutamatergic transmission and neuroplasticity. These neurochemical effects are associated with acute alterations on self-perception and increases in introspection and positive mood, and with subacute and long-term decreases in psychiatric symptoms, increases in some personality traits such as openness, improvements in emotional processing, and increases in empathy. These are preliminary but promising results that should be further explored in controlled trials with larger sample sizes, especially considering that these compounds could be beneficial in the treatment of treatment-resistant psychiatric disorders.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • The feeling of anger: from brain networks to linguistic expressions
    Neurosci. Biobehav. Rev. (IF 8.002) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Nelly Alia-Klein, Gabriela Gan, Gadi Gilam, Jessica Bezek, Antonio Bruno, Thomas F. Denson, Talma Hendler, Leroy Lowe, Veronica Mariotti, Maria R. Muscatello, Sara Palumbo, Silvia Pellegrini, Pietro Pietrini, Amelia Rizzo, Edelyn Verona

    This review of the neuroscience of anger is part of The Human Affectome Project, where we attempt to map anger and its components (i.e., physiological, cognitive, experiential) to the neuroscience literature (i.e., genetic markers, functional imaging of human brain networks) and to linguistic expressions used to describe anger feelings. Given the ubiquity of anger in both its normative and chronic states, specific language is used in humans to express states of anger. Following a review of the neuroscience literature, we explore the language that is used to convey angry feelings, as well as metaphors reflecting inner states of anger experience. We then discuss whether these linguistic expressions can be mapped on to the neural circuits during anger experience and to distinct components of anger. We also identify relationships between anger components, brain networks, and other affective research relevant to motivational states of dominance and basic needs for safety.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
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