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  • A momentum effect in temporal arithmetic
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Mario Bonato; Umberto D'Ovidio; Wim Fias; Marco Zorzi

    The mental representation of brief temporal durations, when assessed in standard laboratory conditions, is highly accurate. Here we show that adding or subtracting temporal durations systematically results in strong and opposite biases, namely over-estimation for addition and under-estimation for subtraction. The difference with respect to a baseline temporal reproduction task changed across durations

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The singing voice is special: Persistence of superior memory for vocal melodies despite vocal-motor distractions
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Michael W. Weiss; Anne-Marie Bissonnette; Isabelle Peretz

    Vocal melodies sung without lyrics (la la) are remembered better than instrumental melodies. What causes the advantage? One possibility is that vocal music elicits subvocal imitation, which could promote enhanced motor representations of a melody. If this motor interpretation is correct, distracting the motor system during encoding should reduce the memory advantage for vocal over piano melodies. In

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Attention neglects a stare-in-the-crowd: Unanticipated consequences of prediction-error coding
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Nayantara Ramamoorthy; Maximilian Parker; Kate Plaisted-Grant; Alex Muhl-Richardson; Greg Davis

    Direct gaze — someone looking at you — is an important and subjectively-salient stimulus. Its processing is thought to be enhanced by the brain's internalised predictions — priors — that effectively specify it as the most likely gaze direction. Current consensus holds that, befitting its presumed importance, direct gaze attracts attention more powerfully than other gazes. Conversely, some Predictive

    更新日期:2020-11-22
  • Speaking for seeing: Sentence structure guides visual event apprehension
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Sebastian Sauppe; Monique Flecken

    Human experience and communication are centred on events, and event apprehension is a rapid process that draws on the visual perception and immediate categorization of event roles (“who does what to whom”). We demonstrate a role for syntactic structure in visual information uptake for event apprehension. An event structure foregrounding either the agent or patient was activated during speaking, transiently

    更新日期:2020-11-21
  • Learning vocabulary and grammar from cross-situational statistics
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-19
    Patrick Rebuschat; Padraic Monaghan; Christine Schoetensack

    Across multiple situations, child and adult learners are sensitive to co-occurrences between individual words and their referents in the environment, which provide a means by which the ambiguity of word-world mappings may be resolved (Monaghan & Mattock, 2012; Scott & Fisher, 2012; Smith & Yu, 2008; Yu & Smith, 2007). In three studies, we tested whether cross-situational learning is sufficiently powerful

    更新日期:2020-11-19
  • Metric biases in body representation extend to objects
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-17
    Valeria Peviani; Francesca Giulia Magnani; Gabriella Bottini; Lucia Melloni

    We typically misestimate the dimensions of our body e.g., we perceive our fingers as shorter, and our torso as more elongated, than they actually are. It stands to reason that those metric biases may also extend to objects that we interact with, to facilitate attunement with the environment. To explore this hypothesis, we compared the metric representations of seven objects and the subjects' own hand

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Love thy neighbor: Facilitation and inhibition in the competition between parallel predictions
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Tal Ness; Aya Meltzer-Asscher

    Ample evidence suggests that during word recognition and production, simultaneously activated lexical and sublexical representations interact, demonstrating varied patterns of facilitation and inhibition in various tasks and measures. A separate line of research has led to a growing consensus that prediction during sentence processing involves activating multiple possible predictions. However, very

    更新日期:2020-11-17
  • Evolution of social attentional cues: Evidence from the archerfish
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-15
    Keren Leadner; Liora Sekely; Raymond M. Klein; Shai Gabay

    Social cues such as gaze, head, and body orientation are essential for the survival of any social animal. The gaze cuing paradigm is a well-studied experimental manipulation, employed to detect automatic attentional shifts in humans. To the best of our knowledge, no previous study has tested non-primates in a paradigm that is similar to the one typically used on humans. Herein, three archerfish observed

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • When can young children reason about an exclusive disjunction? A follow up to Mody and Carey (2016)
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-14
    Shalini Gautam; Thomas Suddendorf; Jonathan Redshaw

    Mody and Carey (2016) investigated children's capacity to reason by the disjunctive syllogism by hiding stickers within two pairs of cups (i.e., there is one sticker in cup A or B, and one in cup C or D) and then showing one cup to be empty. They found that children as young as 3 years of age chose the most likely cup (i.e., not A, therefore choose B; and disregard C and D) and suggested that these

    更新日期:2020-11-15
  • Functional involvement of subcortical structures in global-local processing
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Margarita Soloveichick; Ruth Kimchi; Shai Gabay

    The present study examined the involvement of subcortical structures in the processing of global and local information. To this end, we used a stereoscope to present hierarchical stimuli (global shapes composed of local elements) in a dichoptic or a monocular fashion, such that global and local information was either presented to the same eye (same-eye condition) or segregated between the eyes (different-eyes

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Idiosyncratic spatial representations of the days of the week in individuals without synesthesia
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Shogo Makioka

    People with spatial sequence synesthesia have clear and stable mental images of spatial arrays of numbers, days of the week, and months. The shapes of the arrays vary by individual. We conducted an experiment to estimate the shapes of spatial arrays in people without synesthesia. We presented a pair of Japanese characters that represent the days of the week on a display, and asked participants without

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Temporal recalibration in vision requires location-based binding
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Li Gu; Xiaolin Mei; Qian Wu; Yingyu Huang; Xiang Wu

    Occupying the same location and occurring at the same time are the essential spatial and temporal factors for different features of a natural event or object to be integrated. Audio-visual temporal recalibration, as a temporal integration mechanism, refers to the brain's capacity to perceive simultaneity by adjusting for differential delays in the transmission of auditory and visual signals. Co-localization

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Environmental overlap and individual encoding strategy modulate memory interference in spatial navigation
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-07
    Qiliang He; Elizabeth H. Beveridge; Jon Starnes; Sarah C. Goodroe; Thackery I. Brown

    There has been great interest in how previously acquired knowledge interacts with newly learned knowledge and how prior knowledge facilitates semantic and “schema” learning. In studies of episodic memory, it is broadly associated with interference. Very few studies have examined the balance between interference and facilitation over the course of temporally-extended events and its individual differences

    更新日期:2020-11-09
  • The time-course of endogenous temporal attention – Super fast voluntary allocation of attention
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Yaffa Yeshurun; Shira Tkacz-Domb

    It is widely accepted that voluntary spatial attention is slow – it can only affect performance with medium and long cue-target intervals. Here, we examined whether this also holds for voluntary temporal attention. We performed a rigorous examination of the time-course of attention allocation to a point in time using two common paradigms for studying endogenous temporal attention: ‘constant foreperiod’

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • The metamemory expectancy illusion in source monitoring affects metamemory control and memory
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Marie Luisa Schaper; Ute J. Bayen

    In source monitoring, schematic expectations affect both memory and metamemory. In metamemory judgments, people predict better source memory for items that originated from an expected source (e.g., oven in the kitchen) than for items that originated from an unexpected source (e.g., hairdryer in the kitchen; expectancy effect; Schaper et al., 2019a). By contrast, actual source memory is either unaffected

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Incentives and voluntary stopping: The intentional hand task
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-05
    Kathrin Weidacker; Timo L. Kvamme; Seb Whiteford; Natalie Valle Guzman; Valerie Voon

    Intentional inhibition, the endogenous decision to stop or cancel an action, is arguably a more ecologically valid process than automatized, reactive, inhibition which occurs in response to an external stop signal without active decision making at the moment of inhibition. Choosing to stop an act of opening the fridge door, or of reaching for a bottle of alcohol may therefore extend beyond a reactive

    更新日期:2020-11-06
  • Should you save the more useful? The effect of generality on moral judgments about rescue and indirect effects
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Lucius Caviola; Stefan Schubert; Andreas Mogensen

    Across eight experiments (N = 2310), we studied whether people would prioritize rescuing individuals who may be thought to contribute more to society. We found that participants were generally dismissive of general rules that prioritize more socially beneficial individuals, such as doctors instead of unemployed people. By contrast, participants were more supportive of one-off decisions to save the

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Attentional control both helps and harms empathy
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Stephanie C. Goodhew; Mark Edwards

    Empathy is an important psychological process. It consists of two dissociable components: cognitive empathy (adopting another's perspective and understanding their emotions), and affective empathy (the vicarious experiences of another's emotions). Here we examined individual differences in cognitive and affective empathy, and how they were related to two different aspects of attentional control: focusing

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Visual statistical learning is facilitated in Zipfian distributions
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Ori Lavi-Rotbain; Inbal Arnon

    Humans can extract co-occurrence regularities from their environment, and use them for learning. This statistical learning ability (SL) has been studied extensively as a way to explain how we learn the structure of our environment. These investigations have illustrated the impact of various distributional properties on learning. However, almost all SL studies present the regularities to be learned

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Do serial order short-term memory and long-term learning abilities predict spelling skills in school-age children?
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-03
    Laura Ordonez Magro; Steve Majerus; Lucie Attout; Martine Poncelet; Eleonore H.M. Smalle; Arnaud Szmalec

    Compared to most human language abilities, the cognitive mechanisms underlying spelling have not been as intensively investigated as reading and therefore remain to this day less well understood. The current study aims to address this shortcoming by investigating the contribution of serial order short-term memory (STM) and long-term learning (LTL) abilities to emerging spelling skills. Indeed, although

    更新日期:2020-11-03
  • The role of the written script in shaping mirror-image discrimination: Evidence from illiterate, Tamil literate, and Tamil-Latin-alphabet bi-literate adults
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Tânia Fernandes; Mrudula Arunkumar; Falk Huettig

    Learning a script with mirrored graphs (e.g., d ≠ b) requires overcoming the evolutionary-old perceptual tendency to process mirror images as equivalent. Thus, breaking mirror invariance offers an important tool for understanding cultural re-shaping of evolutionarily ancient cognitive mechanisms. Here we investigated the role of script (i.e., presence vs. absence of mirrored graphs: Latin alphabet

    更新日期:2020-11-02
  • Principles of moral accounting: How our intuitive moral sense balances rights and wrongs
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Samuel G.B. Johnson; Jaye Ahn

    We are all saints and sinners: Some of our actions benefit others, while other actions lead to harm. How do people balance moral rights against moral wrongs when evaluating others' actions? Across 9 studies, we contrast the predictions of three conceptions of intuitive morality—outcome-based (utilitarian), act-based (deontologist), and person-based (virtue ethics) approaches. These experiments establish

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Vividness of recollection is supported by eye movements in individuals with high, but not low trait autobiographical memory
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Michael J. Armson; Nicholas B. Diamond; Laryssa Levesque; Jennifer D. Ryan; Brian Levine

    There are marked individual differences in the recollection of personal past events or autobiographical memory (AM). Theory concerning the relationship between mnemonic and visual systems suggests that eye movements promote retrieval of spatiotemporal details from memory, yet assessment of this prediction within naturalistic AM has been limited. We examined the relationship of eye movements to free

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Consistent verbal labels promote odor category learning
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Norbert Vanek; Márton Sóskuthy; Asifa Majid

    Recent research shows that speakers of most languages find smells difficult to abstract and name. Can verbal labels enhance the human capacity to learn smell categories? Few studies have examined how verbal labeling might affect non-visual cognitive processes, and thus far very little is known about word-assisted odor category learning. To address these gaps, we tested whether different types of training

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Meaning maps and saliency models based on deep convolutional neural networks are insensitive to image meaning when predicting human fixations
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-20
    Marek A. Pedziwiatr; Matthias Kümmerer; Thomas S.A. Wallis; Matthias Bethge; Christoph Teufel

    Eye movements are vital for human vision, and it is therefore important to understand how observers decide where to look. Meaning maps (MMs), a technique to capture the distribution of semantic information across an image, have recently been proposed to support the hypothesis that meaning rather than image features guides human gaze. MMs have the potential to be an important tool far beyond eye-movements

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • A computational theory of child overextension
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Renato Ferreira Pinto; Yang Xu

    Overextension—the phenomenon that children extend known words to describe referents outside their vocabulary—is a hallmark of lexical innovation in early childhood. Overextension is a subject of extensive inquiry in linguistics and developmental psychology, but there exists no coherent formal account of this phenomenon. We develop a general computational framework that captures important properties

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • False friends or real friends? False cognates show advantage in word form learning
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Marta Marecka; Jakub Szewczyk; Agnieszka Otwinowska; Joanna Durlik; Małgorzata Foryś-Nogala; Katarzyna Kutyłowska; Zofia Wodniecka

    We explored the acquisition of three types of second language (L2) words in a paired–associates learning task. Seventy–six Polish participants were presented with 24 nonwords paired with pictures; they completed 8 interleaving test blocks of form production and meaning recognition, both followed by feedback. The nonwords included “cognates” (nonwords resembling the Polish word for the object depicted

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Validity of attention self-reports in younger and older adults
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    Andra Arnicane; Klaus Oberauer; Alessandra S. Souza

    Human attention is subject to fluctuations. Mind-wandering (MW) – attending to thoughts unrelated to the current task demands – is considered a ubiquitous experience. According to the Control Failure x Concerns view (McVay & Kane, 2010), MW is curbed by executive control, and task-irrelevant thoughts enter consciousness due to attentional control lapses. The generation of off-task thoughts is assumed

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Deep learning of shared perceptual representations for familiar and unfamiliar faces: Reply to commentaries
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-24
    Nicholas M. Blauch; Marlene Behrmann; David C. Plaut

    We recently argued that human unfamiliar face identity perception reflects substantial perceptual expertise, and that the advantage for familiar over unfamiliar face identity matching reflects a learned mapping between generic high-level perceptual features and a unique identity representation of each individual (Blauch, Behrmann and Plaut, 2020). Here we respond to two commentaries by Young and Burton

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Jacques Mehler's early psycholinguistic days in Paris
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Ulrich H. Frauenfelder; Juan Segui

    This article first describes Jacques Mehler's initial efforts to make psycholinguistics and, more generally, the cognitive sciences better known during his first years in Paris. Two lines of research on sentence perception, that we conducted in collaboration with Jacques, are then presented to illustrate his focus. In the Seventies, sentence perception was a central topic in psycholinguistics, with

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Self-directed learning by preschoolers in a naturalistic overhearing context
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Ruthe Foushee; Mahesh Srinivasan; Fei Xu

    Three studies investigated preschoolers' self-directed learning ability in a naturalistic context: learning from overheard speech. In Experiment 1, 4.5- to 6-year-olds were exposed to 4 novel words and 6 arbitrary facts corresponding to a set of co-present toys; in Experiment 2, 3- to 4.5-year-olds heard 5 nouns and 3 facts. In the Pedagogical conditions, children were taught the information with the

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Do elevators compete with lifts?: Selecting dialect alternatives
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Alissa Melinger

    Recently, Melinger (2018) demonstrated that translation equivalent dialectal words compete for selection in a way that translation equivalent words from a non-target language do not. She argued that dialectal words are stored as within-language representations. However, Dylman and Barry (2018) showed that within-language synonyms behave like between-language translation equivalents, calling Melinger's

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Effects of language experience on domain-general perceptual strategies
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Kyle Jasmin; Hui Sun; Adam T. Tierney

    Speech and music are highly redundant communication systems, with multiple acoustic cues signaling the existence of perceptual categories. This redundancy makes these systems robust to the influence of noise, but necessitates the development of perceptual strategies: listeners need to decide how much importance to place on each source of information. Prior empirical work and modeling has suggested

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Attention in naïve psychology
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Fruzsina Elekes; Ildikó Király

    In everyday life, mentalizing is nested in a rich context of cognitive faculties and background information that potentially contribute to its success. Yet, we know little about these modulating effects. Here we propose that humans develop a naïve psychological model of attention (featured as a goal-dependent, intentional relation to the environment) and use this to fine-tune their mentalizing attempts

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Dynamic face mask enhances continuous flash suppression
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Shui'er Han; David Alais; Colin Palmer

    In continuous flash suppression (CFS), an image presented to one eye is suppressed from awareness by a dynamic image masker presented to the other eye. Previous studies report that face stimuli break out of CFS more readily when they are oriented upright and contain ecologically relevant information such as facial expressions or direct eye gaze, potentially implicating face processing in the mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • What does a critical period for second language acquisition mean?: Reflections on Hartshorne et al. (2018)
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-16
    Arturo E. Hernandez; Jean P. Bodet; Kevin Gehm; Shutian Shen

    Hartshorne et al. (2018) used a very large sample in order to disentangle the effects of age, years of experience, and age of exposure from each other in context of second-language acquisition. Participants were administered an online test of English grammar. Results revealed a critical period ending around 17 years of age for the most effective acquisition of a second language (L2). The findings of

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Variation in phonological bias: Bias for vowels, rather than consonants or tones in lexical processing by Cantonese-learning toddlers
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-17
    Hui Chen; Daniel T. Lee; Zili Luo; Regine Y. Lai; Hintat Cheung; Thierry Nazzi

    Consonants and vowels have been considered to fulfill different functions in language processing, vowels being more important for prosodic and syntactic processes and consonants for lexically related processes (Nespor, Peña, & Mehler, 2003). This C-bias hypothesis in lexical processing is supported by studies with adults and infants in many languages such as English, French, Spanish, although a few

    更新日期:2020-10-17
  • Trait anxiety is linked to increased usage of priors in a perceptual decision making task
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    N. Kraus; M. Niedeggen; G. Hesselmann

    Current predictive processing accounts consider negative affect to result from elevated rates of prediction error, thereby motivating changes in the degree with which prior expectancies and sensory evidence influence our perceptions. Trait anxiety is associated with the amount of negative affect a person is experiencing and has been linked to aberrant strategies in decision making and belief updating

    更新日期:2020-10-08
  • The priority for access to awareness of information matching VWM is mirror-invariant
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Yun Ding; Marnix Naber; Chris Paffen; Andre Sahakian; Stefan Van der Stigchel

    Previous studies suggest that 1) storing a visual representation of an item in visual working memory (VWM) prioritizes access to visual awareness for this item and that 2) VWM can contain representations of bound items instead of separate features. It is currently unclear whether VWM affects access to visual awareness at the individual feature level, the conjunction of multiple features level or the

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Thinking in a foreign language distorts allocation of cognitive effort: Evidence from reasoning
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-10-06
    Michał Białek; Rafał Muda; Kaiden Stewart; Paweł Niszczota; Damian Pieńkosz

    Bilinguals, in their foreign language, are spared from several decision-making biases. We examined this “Foreign Language Effect” in the context of logical reasoning, in which reasoners are required to track the logical status of a syllogism, ignoring its believability. Across three experiments, we found the reverse Foreign Language Effect; foreign language reasoners are less able to evaluate the logical

    更新日期:2020-10-06
  • Proactive gaze is present during biological and non-biological motion observation
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Laila Craighero; Sonia Mele

    Others' action observation activates in the observer a coordinated hand-eye motor program, covert for the hand (i.e. motor resonance), and overt for the eye (i.e. proactive gaze), similar to that of the observed agent. The biological motion hypothesis of action anticipation claims that proactive gaze occurs only in the presence of biological motion, and that kinematic information is sufficient to determine

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Distinguishing the role of conscious and unconscious knowledge in evaluative conditioning
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Laurent Waroquier; Marlène Abadie; Zoltan Dienes

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) refers to a change in liking of a conditioned stimulus (CS) subsequent to its repeated pairing with a valent stimulus (US). Two studies that bring new light on the highly debated question of the role of awareness in EC were conducted. We developed an innovative method motivated by higher order and integration theories of consciousness to distinguish between the role of

    更新日期:2020-09-25
  • Human electrophysiology reveals delayed but enhanced selection in inhibition of return
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-24
    Zhicheng Lin; Chengguo Miao; Yang Zhang

    Visual environment tends to be stable over the short run. An immediately visited location often doesn't provide new information and can be safely inhibited, as exemplified by inhibition of return (IOR)—attention takes longer to return to a previously cued location. Attention selection at this inhibited location has been widely characterized as inferior, in which the target at the cued location has

    更新日期:2020-09-24
  • Semantic preview benefit and cost: Evidence from parafoveal fast-priming paradigm
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Jinger Pan; Ming Yan; Jochen Laubrock

    How is semantic information in the mental lexicon accessed and selected during reading? Readers process information of both the foveal and parafoveal words. Recent eye-tracking studies hint at bi-phasic lexical activation dynamics, demonstrating that semantically related parafoveal previews can either facilitate, or interfere with lexical processing of target words in comparison to unrelated previews

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • Learning arbitrary stimulus-reward associations for naturalistic stimuli involves transition from learning about features to learning about objects.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-19
    Shiva Farashahi,Jane Xu,Shih-Wei Wu,Alireza Soltani

    Most cognitive processes are studied using abstract or synthetic stimuli with specific features to fully control what is presented to subjects. However, recent studies have revealed enhancements of cognitive capacities (such as working memory) when processing naturalistic versus abstract stimuli. Using abstract stimuli constructed from distinct visual features (e.g., color and shape), we have recently

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Vicarious representation: A new theory of social cognition.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Bence Nanay

    Theory of mind, the attribution of mental states to others is one form of social cognition. The aim of this paper is to highlight the importance of another, much simpler, form of social cognition, which I call vicarious representation. Vicarious representation is the attribution of other-centered properties to objects. This mental capacity is different from, and much simpler than, theory of mind as

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Illusions of control without delusions of grandeur.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Daniel Yon,Carl Bunce,Clare Press

    We frequently experience feelings of agency over events we do not objectively influence – so-called ‘illusions of control’. These illusions have prompted widespread claims that we can be insensitive to objective relationships between actions and outcomes, and instead rely on grandiose beliefs about our abilities. However, these illusory biases could instead arise if we are highly sensitive to action-outcome

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Judgments of spatial extent are fundamentally illusory: 'Additive-area' provides the best explanation.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Sami R Yousif,Richard N Aslin,Frank C Keil

    How do we represent extent in our spatial world? Recent work has shown that even the simplest spatial judgments — estimates of 2D area — present challenges to our visual system. Indeed, area judgments are best accounted for by ‘additive area’ (the sum of objects' dimensions) rather than ‘true area’ (i.e., a pixel count). But is ‘additive area’ itself the right explanation — or might other models better

    更新日期:2020-09-16
  • Why do human languages have homophones?
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Sean Trott,Benjamin Bergen

    Human languages are replete with ambiguity. This is most evident in homophony––where two or more words sound the same, but carry distinct meanings. For example, the wordform “bark” can denote either the sound produced by a dog or the protective outer sheath of a tree trunk. Why would a system evolved for efficient, effective communication display rampant ambiguity? Some accounts argue that ambiguity

    更新日期:2020-09-15
  • Culture influences how people divide continuous sensory experience into events.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Khena M Swallow,Qi Wang

    Everyday experience is divided into meaningful events as a part of human perception. Current accounts of this process, known as event segmentation, focus on how characteristics of the experience (e.g., situation changes) influence segmentation. However, characteristics of the viewers themselves have been largely neglected. We test whether one such viewer characteristic, their cultural background, impacts

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Timing is everything: Dance aesthetics depend on the complexity of movement kinematics.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Andrea Orlandi,Emily S Cross,Guido Orgs

    What constitutes a beautiful action? Research into dance aesthetics has largely focussed on subjective features like familiarity with the observed movement, but has rarely studied objective features like speed or acceleration. We manipulated the kinematic complexity of observed actions by creating dance sequences that varied in movement timing, but not in movement trajectory. Dance-naïve participants

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Acute stress enhances tolerance of uncertainty during decision-making.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Kaileigh A Byrne,Caitlin Peters,Hunter C Willis,Dana Phan,Astin Cornwall,Darrell A Worthy

    Acute stress has been shown to influence reward sensitivity, feedback learning, and risk-taking during decision-making, primarily through activation of the hypothalamic pituitary axis (HPA). However, it is unclear how acute stress affects decision-making among choices that vary in their degree of uncertainty. To address this question, we conducted two experiments in which participants repeatedly chose

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Cognitive and pragmatic factors in language production: Evidence from source-goal motion events.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-12
    Monica L Do,Anna Papafragou,John Trueswell

    In order to talk about an event they see in the world, speakers have to build a conceptual representation of that event and generate a message that selects the pragmatically appropriate (e.g., informative) parts of that event that they want to talk about. To further understand the relationship between a speaker's conceptual representations and the pragmatic factors that influence message generation

    更新日期:2020-09-12
  • Dissociating gait from static appearance: A virtual reality study of the role of dynamic identity signatures in person recognition.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Noa Simhi,Galit Yovel

    Studies on person recognition have primarily examined recognition of static faces, presented on a computer screen at a close distance. Nevertheless, in naturalistic situations we typically see the whole dynamic person, often approaching from a distance. In such cases, facial information may be less clear, and the motion pattern of an individual, their dynamic identity signature (DIS), may be used for

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Asymmetric visual representation of sex from human body shape.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Marco Gandolfo,Paul E Downing

    We efficiently infer others' states and traits from their appearance, and these inferences powerfully shape our social behaviour. One key trait is sex, which is strongly cued by the appearance of the body. What are the visual representations that link body shape to sex? Previous studies of visual sex judgment tasks find observers have a bias to report “male”, particularly for ambiguous stimuli. This

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Size coding of alternative responses is sufficient to induce a potentiation effect with manipulable objects.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Loïc P Heurley,Thibaut Brouillet,Alexandre Coutté,Nicolas Morgado

    The mere perception of manipulable objects usually grasped with a power-grip (e.g., an apple) or a precision-grip (e.g., a cherry) potentiate power-grip- and precision-grip-responses, respectively. This effect is seen as to be driven by automatic access of the representation of manipulable objects that includes a motor representation of usually performed grasping behaviors (i.e., the embodied view)

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Legal decision-making and the abstract/concrete paradox.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Noel Struchiner,Guilherme da F C F de Almeida,Ivar R Hannikainen

    Higher courts sometimes assess the constitutionality of law by working through a concrete case, other times by reasoning about the underlying question in a more abstract way. Prior research has found that the degree of concreteness or abstraction with which an issue is formulated can influence people's prescriptive views: For instance, people often endorse punishment for concrete misdeeds that they

    更新日期:2020-09-03
  • The role of visual awareness in processing of global structure: Evidence from the perceptual organization of hierarchical patterns.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Shahar Sabary,Dina Devyatko,Ruth Kimchi

    We examined whether the perceptual organization of hierarchical structure, and specifically, the integration of local elements into a global shape, requires visual awareness, using a masked priming paradigm, sandwich masking to render the prime invisible, and two types of primes, many-element hierarchical patterns composed of many relatively small elements (Experiment 1) and few-element hierarchical

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • 更新日期:2020-09-01
  • The impact of graphic motor programs and detailed visual analysis on letter-like shape recognition.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Lola Seyll,Florent Wyckmans,Alain Content

    Recent research suggests that graphic motor programs acquired through writing are part of letter representations and contribute to their recognition. Indeed, learning new letter-like shapes through handwriting gave rise to better recognition than learning through typing on a keyboard. However, handwriting and typing do not differ solely by the nature of the motor activity. Handwriting requires a detailed

    更新日期:2020-08-31
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