当前期刊: Cognition Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: IF: - GO 导出
  • Parallel and serial processes in number-to-quantity conversion
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Dror Dotan; Stanislas Dehaene

    Converting a multi-digit number to quantity requires processing not only the digits but also the number's decimal structure, thus raising several issues. First, are all the digits processed in parallel, or serially from left to right? Second, given that the same digit at different places can represent different quantities (e.g., “2” can mean 2, 20, etc.), how is each digit assigned to its correct decimal

  • Structural thinking about social categories: Evidence from formal explanations, generics, and generalization
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Nadya Vasilyeva; Tania Lombrozo

    Many theories of kind representation suggest that people posit internal, essence-like factors that underlie kind membership and explain properties of category members. Across three studies (N = 281), we document the characteristics of an alternative form of construal according to which the properties of social kinds are seen as products of structural factors: stable, external constraints that obtain

  • I spy without my eye: Covert attention in human social interactions
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Jill A. Dosso; Michelle Huynh; Alan Kingstone

    Looking at other people allows us to collect information about them, but it can also reveal our attentional state when we would rather conceal it. We report that individuals spontaneously employ sustained covert monitoring, rather than direct looking, when evaluating the actions of a live stranger. In contrast, individuals look directly at the actions of a stranger on video. We argue that the ability

  • Selective and distributed attention in human and pigeon category learning
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Leyre Castro; Olivera Savic; Victor Navarro; Vladimir M. Sloutsky; Edward A. Wasserman

    Attention to relevant stimulus features in a categorization task helps to optimize performance. However, the relationship between attention and categorization is not fully understood. For example, even when human adults and young children exhibit comparable categorization behavior, adults tend to attend selectively during learning, whereas young children tend to attend diffusely (Deng & Sloutsky, 2016)

  • Which bilinguals reverse language dominance and why?
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-04
    Mathieu Declerck; Daniel Kleinman; Tamar H. Gollan

    When naming pictures in mixed-language blocks, bilinguals sometimes exhibit reversed language dominance effects. These have been attributed to proactive inhibitory control of the dominant language, or adaptation of language-specific selection thresholds. Even though reversed dominance arguably provides the most striking evidence of inhibition, few studies have focused on when and why this effect occurs

  • Number sense biases children's area judgments
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Rachel C. Tomlinson; Nicholas K. DeWind; Elizabeth M. Brannon

    Humans are thought to use the approximate number system (ANS) to make quick approximations based on quantity even before learning to count. However, there has long been controversy regarding the salience of number versus other stimulus dimensions throughout development, including a recent proposal that number sense is derived from a sense of general magnitude. Here, we used a regression approach to

  • The smart intuitor: Cognitive capacity predicts intuitive rather than deliberate thinking
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Matthieu T.S. Raoelison; Valerie A. Thompson; Wim De Neys

    Cognitive capacity is commonly assumed to predict performance in classic reasoning tasks because people higher in cognitive capacity are believed to be better at deliberately correcting biasing erroneous intuitions. However, recent findings suggest that there can also be a positive correlation between cognitive capacity and correct intuitive thinking. Here we present results from 2 studies that directly

  • Definitely saw it coming? The dual nature of the pre-nominal prediction effect
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Damien S. Fleur; Monique Flecken; Joost Rommers; Mante S. Nieuwland

    In well-known demonstrations of lexical prediction during language comprehension, pre-nominal articles that mismatch a likely upcoming noun's gender elicit different neural activity than matching articles. However, theories differ on what this pre-nominal prediction effect means and on what is being predicted. Does it reflect mismatch with a predicted article, or ‘merely’ revision of the noun prediction

  • Listeners' adaptation to unreliable intonation is speaker-sensitive
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Timo B. Roettger; Kim Rimland

    Variable linguistic environments require the ability to quickly update expectations and behavior including speech comprehension. This adaptive capacity is key to understanding how listeners successfully recognize speaker intentions in light of the ubiquitous variability in speech. The present study investigates how listeners' real-time sentence comprehension adapts to speaker-specific prosodic variability

  • Statistical learning and memory
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Ansgar D. Endress; Lauren K. Slone; Scott P. Johnson

    Learners often need to identify and remember recurring units in continuous sequences, but the underlying mechanisms are debated. A particularly prominent candidate mechanism relies on distributional statistics such as Transitional Probabilities (TPs). However, it is unclear what the outputs of statistical segmentation mechanisms are, and if learners store these outputs as discrete chunks in memory

  • Dependencies in evidential reports: The case for informational advantages
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Toby D. Pilditch; Ulrike Hahn; Norman Fenton; David Lagnado

    Whether assessing the accuracy of expert forecasting, the pros and cons of group communication, or the value of evidence in diagnostic or predictive reasoning, dependencies between experts, group members, or evidence have traditionally been seen as a form of redundancy. We demonstrate that this conception of dependence conflates the structure of a dependency network, and the observations across this

  • Shared contributions of the head and torso to spatial reference frames across spatial judgments
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Matthew R. Longo; Sampath S. Rajapakse; Adrian J.T. Alsmith; Elisa R. Ferrè

    Egocentric frames of reference take the body as the point of origin of a spatial coordinate system. Bodies, however, are not points, but extended objects, with distinct parts that can move independently of one another. We recently developed a novel paradigm to probe the use of different body parts in simple spatial judgments, what we called the misalignment paradigm. In this study, we applied the misalignment

  • Errors lead to transient impairments in memory formation
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Alexandra Decker; Amy Finn; Katherine Duncan

    Making an error triggers a host of cognitive and behavioral adjustments theorized to boost task engagement and facilitate learning. Yet how errors influence memory formation – a cognitive process foundational to learning – remains unknown. Adaptive cognitive accounts of error processing propose that errors increase arousal, task-engagement, and attention, and should therefore enhance subsequent memory

  • Patterns of bilingual language use and response inhibition: A test of the adaptive control hypothesis
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Patrycja Kałamała; Jakub Szewczyk; Adam Chuderski; Magdalena Senderecka; Zofia Wodniecka

    Given prior studies that provided inconsistent results, there is an ongoing debate on the issue of whether bilingualism benefits cognitive control. We tested the Adaptive Control Hypothesis, according to which only the intense use of different languages in the same situation without mixing them in single utterances (called dual-language context) confers a bilingual advantage in response inhibition

  • Automaticity of facial attractiveness perception and sex-specific mating strategies
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Lisa Klümper; Peter Wühr; Manfred Hassebrauck; Sascha Schwarz

    The current literature shows mixed results regarding whether the perception of facial attractiveness is automatic, i.e. that it operates independently from attentional resources. We argue that an evolutionary perspective on mating strategies provides a comprehensive account of the findings. In two studies, we used the locus-of-slack logic in a psychological refractory period paradigm. Task 1 was a

  • Bayesian or biased? Analytic thinking and political belief updating
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-24
    Ben M. Tappin; Gordon Pennycook; David G. Rand

    A surprising finding from U.S. opinion surveys is that political disagreements tend to be greatest among the most cognitively sophisticated opposing partisans. Recent experiments suggest a hypothesis that could explain this pattern: cognitive sophistication magnifies politically biased processing of new information. However, the designs of these experiments tend to contain several limitations that

  • Computational insights into human perceptual expertise for familiar and unfamiliar face recognition
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Nicholas M. Blauch; Marlene Behrmann; David C. Plaut

    Humans are generally thought to be experts at face recognition, and yet identity perception for unfamiliar faces is surprisingly poor compared to that for familiar faces. Prior theoretical work has argued that unfamiliar face identity perception suffers because the majority of identity-invariant visual variability is idiosyncratic to each identity, and thus, each face identity must be learned essentially

  • Perception of causality and synchrony dissociate in the audiovisual bounce-inducing effect (ABE).
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Jean Vroomen,Mirjam Keetels

    A sound can cause 2 visual streaming objects appear to bounce (the audiovisual bounce-inducing effect, ABE). Here we examined whether the stream/bounce percept affects perception of audiovisual synchrony. Participants saw 2 disks that either clearly streamed, clearly bounced, or were ambiguous, and heard a sound around the point of contact (POC). They reported, on each trial, whether they perceived

  • Even his friend said he's bad: Children think personal alliances bias gossip
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-21
    Zoe Liberman; Alex Shaw

    Children learn about other people through gossip. Although gossip can be a valuable and efficient way to learn about others, evaluating gossip's credibility requires understanding when people may be biased, and using this information to update the truth-value placed on the gossip. For instance, people may be motivated to improve their and their friends' reputations (or to worsen their enemies' reputations)

  • Lack of selectivity for syntax relative to word meanings throughout the language network.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Evelina Fedorenko,Idan Asher Blank,Matthew Siegelman,Zachary Mineroff

    To understand what you are reading now, your mind retrieves the meanings of words and constructions from a linguistic knowledge store (lexico-semantic processing) and identifies the relationships among them to construct a complex meaning (syntactic or combinatorial processing). Do these two sets of processes rely on distinct, specialized mechanisms or, rather, share a common pool of resources? Linguistic

  • Danger is in the eyes of the beholder: The effect of visible and invisible affective faces on the judgment of social interactions.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Laura Sagliano,Barbara Maiese,Luigi Trojano

    Previous studies demonstrated that observation of facial expressions can modulate threat detection while looking at neutral or emotion-related scenes. Similarly, stimuli presented outside conscious awareness could influence social judgments of neutral novel stimuli. The two-fold aim of this study was: i) to evaluate whether observation of seen emotional faces could affect the judgment of social interactions

  • Neural correlates of turn-taking in the wild: Response planning starts early in free interviews.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Sara Bögels

    Conversation is generally characterized by smooth transitions between turns, with only very short gaps. This entails that responders often begin planning their response before the ongoing turn is finished. However, controversy exists about whether they start planning as early as they can, to make sure they respond on time, or as late as possible, to minimize the overlap between comprehension and production

  • Memory distortion for orthographically associated words in individuals with depressive symptoms.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Nicholas R Griffin,David M Schnyer

    While major depressive disorder has been associated with increased veridical memory for negative information, prior false memory literature has linked high depressive symptoms to increased false memory for negative information. We tested whether these contradictory findings may be due to semantic and emotional cohesion inflating false alarm rates in the most commonly used false memory paradigm – the

  • Deep learning and cognitive science.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Pietro Perconti,Alessio Plebe

    In recent years, the family of algorithms collected under the term “deep learning” has revolutionized artificial intelligence, enabling machines to reach human-like performances in many complex cognitive tasks. Although deep learning models are grounded in the connectionist paradigm, their recent advances were basically developed with engineering goals in mind. Despite of their applied focus, deep

  • Episodic mindreading: Mentalizing guided by scene construction of imagined and remembered events.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Brendan Gaesser

    Attributing mental states to other people fundamentally shapes how we bond, coordinate, and predict the actions of others. Perceiving a person's facial expressions and body language in the present contribute to our ability to understand what they are thinking and feeling. Yet, people do not exist in a vacuum and individuals often think about people who are not directly in front of them. People inhabit

  • Reward prediction errors create event boundaries in memory.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-17
    Nina Rouhani,Kenneth A Norman,Yael Niv,Aaron M Bornstein

    We remember when things change. Particularly salient are experiences where there is a change in rewards, eliciting reward prediction errors (RPEs). How do RPEs influence our memory of those experiences? One idea is that this signal directly enhances the encoding of memory. Another, not mutually exclusive, idea is that the RPE signals a deeper change in the environment, leading to the mnemonic separation

  • The communicative importance of agent-backgrounding: Evidence from homesign and Nicaraguan Sign Language.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Lilia Rissman,Laura Horton,Molly Flaherty,Ann Senghas,Marie Coppola,Diane Brentari,Susan Goldin-Meadow

    Some concepts are more essential for human communication than others. In this paper, we investigate whether the concept of agent-backgrounding is sufficiently important for communication that linguistic structures for encoding this concept are present in young sign languages. Agent-backgrounding constructions serve to reduce the prominence of the agent – the English passive sentence a book was knocked

  • I know what you're probably going to say: Listener adaptation to variable use of uncertainty expressions.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Sebastian Schuster,Judith Degen

    Pragmatic theories of utterance interpretation share the assumption that listeners reason about alternative utterances that a speaker could have produced, but didn't. For such reasoning to be successful, listeners must have precise expectations about a speaker's production choices. This is at odds with the considerable variability across speakers that exists at all levels of linguistic representation

  • Framing context effects with reference points.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Andrea M Cataldo,Andrew L Cohen

    Research on reference points highlights how alternatives outside the choice set can alter the perceived value of available alternatives, arguably framing the choice scenario. The present work utilizes reference points to study the effects of framing in preferential choice, using the similarity and attraction context effects as performance measures. We specifically test the predictions of Multialternative

  • Dunning-Kruger effects in face perception.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Xingchen Zhou,Rob Jenkins

    The Dunning–Kruger Effect refers to a common failure of metacognitive insight in which people who are incompetent in a given domain are unaware of their incompetence. This effect has been found in a wide range of tasks, raising the question of whether there is any ‘special’ domain in which it is not found. One plausible candidate is face perception, which has sometimes been thought to be ‘special’

  • Consistent use of proactive control and relation with academic achievement in childhood.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Maki Kubota,Lauren V Hadley,Simone Schaeffner,Tanja Könen,Julie-Anne Meaney,Bonnie Auyeung,Candice C Morey,Julia Karbach,Nicolas Chevalier

    As children become older, they better maintain task-relevant information in preparation of upcoming cognitive demands. This is referred to as proactive control, which is a key component of cognitive control development. However, it is still uncertain whether children engage in proactive control consistently across different contexts and how proactive control relates to academic abilities. This study

  • A brief history of risk.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Ying Li,Thomas Hills,Ralph Hertwig

    Despite increasing life expectancy and high levels of welfare, health care, and public safety in most post-industrial countries, the public discourse often revolves around perceived threats. Terrorism, global pandemics, and environmental catastrophes are just a few of the risks that dominate media coverage. Is this public discourse on risk disconnected from reality? To examine this issue, we analyzed

  • Sign phonological parameters modulate parafoveal preview effects in deaf readers.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Philip Thierfelder,Gillian Wigglesworth,Gladys Tang

    Research has found that deaf readers unconsciously activate sign translations of written words while reading. However, the ways in which different sign phonological parameters associated with these sign translations tie into reading processes have received little attention in the literature. In this study on Chinese reading, we used a parafoveal preview paradigm to investigate how four different types

  • The spatial logic of fear.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Giulia Ellena,Francesca Starita,Patrick Haggard,Elisabetta Làdavas

    Peripersonal space (PPS) refers to the space surrounding the body. PPS is characterised by distinctive patterns of multisensory integration and sensory-motor interaction. In addition, facial expressions have been shown to modulate PPS representation. In this study we tested whether fearful faces lead to a different distribution of spatial attention, compared to neutral and joyful faces. Participants

  • Reward motivation influences response bias on a recognition memory task.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Holly J Bowen,Michelle L Marchesi,Elizabeth A Kensinger

    Reward-motivated memory has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. Many recognition studies follow the same type of paradigm: stimuli are cued at encoding with high or low reward values which indicate the amount the stimulus is worth if successfully recognized on a subsequent memory test. Each incorrect endorsement of a lure at retrieval is penalized with an arbitrary value between

  • Asymmetrical learning and memory for acquired gain versus loss associations.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Ziyong Lin,Lilian E Cabrera-Haro,Patricia A Reuter-Lorenz

    Neutral stimuli can acquire value when people learn to associate them with positive or negative outcomes (i.e., gain versus loss associations). Acquired value has been shown to affect how gain and loss associated stimuli are attended, remembered, and acted upon. Here we investigate a potential and previously unreported learning asymmetry in the acquisition of gain and loss associations that may have

  • Nevertheless, it persists: Dimension-based statistical learning and normalization of speech impact different levels of perceptual processing.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Matthew Lehet,Lori L Holt

    Speech is notoriously variable, with no simple mapping from acoustics to linguistically-meaningful units like words and phonemes. Empirical research on this theoretically central issue establishes at least two classes of perceptual phenomena that accommodate acoustic variability: normalization and perceptual learning. Intriguingly, perceptual learning is supported by learning across acoustic variability

  • Simplicity and informativeness in semantic category systems.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Jon W Carr,Kenny Smith,Jennifer Culbertson,Simon Kirby

    Recent research has shown that semantic category systems, such as color and kinship terms, find an optimal balance between simplicity and informativeness. We argue that this situation arises through pressure for simplicity from learning and pressure for informativeness from communicative interaction, two distinct pressures that often (but not always) pull in opposite directions. Another account argues

  • Universals of listening: Equivalent prosodic entrainment in tone and non-tone languages.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Martin Ho Kwan Ip,Anne Cutler

    In English and Dutch, listeners entrain to prosodic contours to predict where focus will fall in an utterance. Here, we ask whether this strategy is universally available, even in languages with very different phonological systems (e.g., tone versus non-tone languages). In a phoneme detection experiment, we examined whether prosodic entrainment also occurs in Mandarin Chinese, a tone language, where

  • What do cows drink? A systems factorial technology account of processing architecture in memory intersection problems.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Zachary L Howard,Bianca Belevski,Ami Eidels,Simon Dennis

    It has long been known that cues can be used to improve performance on memory recall tasks. There is evidence to suggest additional cues provide further benefit, presumably by narrowing the search space. Problems that require integration of two or more cues, alternately referred to as memory intersections or multiply constrained memory problems, could be approached using several strategies, namely

  • Evaluating the independence of age, sex, and race in judgment of faces.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Daniel Fitousi

    Extracting the dimensions of age, sex, race from faces is fundamental for many aspects of social cognition such as person construal, impression formation, and social interaction. While cognitive researchers consider these dimensions to be independent in processing, social psychology researchers have recently demonstrated the emergence of strong interactive patterns between these categories, especially

  • Color associations in abstract semantic domains.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Douglas Guilbeault,Ethan O Nadler,Mark Chu,Donald Ruggiero Lo Sardo,Aabir Abubaker Kar,Bhargav Srinivasa Desikan

    The embodied cognition paradigm has stimulated ongoing debate about whether sensory data - including color - contributes to the semantic structure of abstract concepts. Recent uses of linguistic data in the study of embodied cognition have been focused on textual corpora, which largely precludes the direct analysis of sensory information. Here, we develop an automated approach to multimodal content

  • Abductive conditionals as a test case for inferentialism.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Patricia Mirabile,Igor Douven

    According to inferentialism, for an indicative conditional to be true, there must be a sufficiently strong inferential connection between its antecedent and its consequent. Previous experimental research has found support for inferentialism, but the materials used concerned a fairly abstract context, leaving open the question of how accurately the account can predict semantic judgments about more realistic

  • How sequence learning unfolds: Insights from anticipatory eye movements.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Amir Tal,Eli Vakil

    The acquisition of sequential knowledge is pivotal in forming skilled behavior. Despite extensive research of sequence learning, much remains unknown regarding what knowledge participants learn in such studies, and how that knowledge takes form over time. By tracking eye-movements made before stimuli appear on screen during a serial reaction time (SRT) task, we devised a method for assessing learning

  • Differences in time-based task characteristics help to explain the age-prospective memory paradox.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Simon J Haines,Susan E Randall,Gill Terrett,Lucy Busija,Gemma Tatangelo,Skye N McLennan,Nathan S Rose,Matthias Kliegel,Julie D Henry,Peter G Rendell

    Prior prospective memory (PM) research shows paradoxical findings—young adults outperform older adults in laboratory settings, but the reverse is found in naturalistic settings. Moreover, young-old outperform old-old adults in laboratory settings, but show no age differences in naturalistic settings. Here we highlight how time-based task characteristics have differed systematically between studies

  • Chaining and the growth of linguistic categories.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Amir Ahmad Habibi,Charles Kemp,Yang Xu

    We explore how linguistic categories extend over time as novel items are assigned to existing categories. As a case study we consider how Chinese numeral classifiers were extended to emerging nouns over the past half century. Numeral classifiers are common in East and Southeast Asian languages, and are prominent in the cognitive linguistics literature as examples of radial categories. Each member of

  • Spatial biases in mental arithmetic are independent of reading/writing habits: Evidence from French and Arabic speakers.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Nicolas Masson,Michael Andres,Marie Alsamour,Zoé Bollen,Mauro Pesenti

    The representation of numbers in human adults is linked to space. In Western cultures, small and large numbers are associated respectively with the left and right sides of space. An influential framework attributes the emergence of these spatial-numerical associations (SNAs) to cultural factors such as the direction of reading and writing, because SNAs were found to be reduced or inverted in right-to-left

  • Still no solution to non-verbal measures of analogical reasoning: Reply to Walker and Gopnik (2017).
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    G C Glorioso,S L Kuznar,M Pavlic,D J Povinelli

    Walker and Gopnik (2017) suggest they have solved a longstanding problem in comparative and developmental psychology: How to provide an unambiguous measure of analogical reasoning in nonverbal subjects. We argue that this test, much like many others that purport to measure analogical reasoning in nonverbal subjects, does not distinguish between the two competing accounts of successful performance:

  • When social influences reduce false recognition memory: A case of categorically related information.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Suparna Rajaram,Raeya Maswood,Luciane P Pereira-Pasarin

    Social interactions create opportunities for reminiscence and memory rehearsal but can also lead to memory errors. We tested how the type of information people remember can influence the magnitude of memory errors they make following collaborative discussion. Past findings show that unrelated item lists and emotional salient items reduce false alarms and improve memory discrimination, respectively

  • How much color do we see in the blink of an eye?
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-27
    Michael A Cohen,Jordan Rubenstein

    Visual experience is painted in color. A change in hue or saturation can dramatically alter our understanding of a scene and how we feel about it. Subjectively, color does not feel like an optional dimension to be extracted only when necessary, but an automatically represented property of our entire visual field. Here, we ask whether that subjective impression is true. Using a variant of an inattentional

  • The impact of false denials on forgetting and false memory.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Henry Otgaar,Mark L Howe,Ivan Mangiulli,Charlotte Bücken

    People sometimes falsely deny having experienced an event. In the current experiments, we examined the effect of false denials on forgetting and false memory formation. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with emotionally-negative and neutral associatively related word lists known to engender false memories. After encoding, half of the participants had to falsely deny having seen the words

  • Developing judgments about peers' obligation to intervene.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Julia Marshall,Kellen Mermin-Bunnell,Paul Bloom

    In some contexts, punishment is seen as an obligation limited to authority figures. In others, it is also a responsibility of ordinary citizens. In two studies with 4- to 7-year-olds (n = 232) and adults (n = 76), we examined developing judgments about whether certain individuals, either authority figures or peers, are obligated to intervene (Study 1) or to punish (Study 2) after witnessing an antisocial

  • Attentional mechanisms drive systematic exploration in young children.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Nathaniel J Blanco,Vladimir M Sloutsky

    Exploration is critical for discovering how the world works. Exploration should be particularly valuable for young children, who have little knowledge about the world. Theories of decision-making describe systematic exploration as being primarily driven by top-down cognitive control, which is immature in young children. Recent research suggests that a type of systematic exploration predominates in

  • Control it and it is yours: Children's reasoning about the ownership of living things.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Julia Espinosa,Christina Starmans

    One of the hallmarks of ownership is the right to control one's property. Living beings thus pose an interesting puzzle for ownership, since they have some capacity to decide what happens to themselves—they can direct their own motion, pursue their own goals, and make their own decisions. Recent work has shown that adults consider this autonomy to be the key factor in determining whether a human (or

  • A condition that produces sensory recalibration and abolishes multisensory integration.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Miya K Rand,Herbert Heuer

    We examined the influence of extended exposure to a visuomotor rotation, which induces both motor adaptation and sensory recalibration, on (partial) multisensory integration in a cursor-control task. Participants adapted to a 30° (adaptation condition) or 0° (control condition) visuomotor rotation by making center-out movements to remembered targets. In subsequent test trials of sensory integration

  • Memory for social interactions throughout early childhood.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Vishnu P Murty,Matthew R Fain,Christina Hlutkowsky,Susan B Perlman

    Previous research shows that forming memories of not only whom we have previously encountered but also the feedback of those encounters supports adaptive behavior. However, there are dynamic changes throughout childhood in declarative memory systems, leaving open the question about the precise timing for the emergence and maturation of memory for social interactions. In this study, we characterized

  • Language background shapes third-party communication expectations in 14-month-old infants.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-24
    M Colomer,N Sebastian-Galles

    Infants expect native and non-native speech to communicate, i.e. to transfer information between third-parties. Here, we explored if infants understand that communication depends on the use of shared conventional systems (e.g. speaking the same language), and if linguistic input (monolingual vs. bilingual) influences infants' expectations about who can communicate with whom. Fourteen-month-old monolingual

  • Individual differences in social and non-social cognitive control.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-24
    Kohinoor M Darda,Emily E Butler,Richard Ramsey

    Cognitive control refers to the ability of human beings to adapt flexibly and quickly to continuously changing environments. Several decades of research have identified a diverse range of mental processes that are associated with cognitive control but the extent to which shared systems underlie cognitive control in social and non-social contexts, as well as how these systems may vary across individuals

  • The varying nature of semantic effects in working memory.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Benjamin Kowialiewski,Steve Majerus

    Several studies have demonstrated an influence of semantic knowledge on verbal working memory (WM) performance, such as shown by the observation of semantic relatedness (related vs. unrelated words) and word imageability (high vs. low imageability words) effects in working memory. The present study extends these observations by examining in four experiments the extent to which semantic knowledge can

  • Attentional coordination in demonstrator-observer dyads facilitates learning and predicts performance in a novel manual task.
    Cognition (IF 3.294) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Murillo Pagnotta,Kevin N Laland,Moreno I Coco

    Observational learning is a form of social learning in which a demonstrator performs a target task in the company of an observer, who may as a consequence learn something about it. In this study, we approach social learning in terms of the dynamics of coordination rather than the more common perspective of transmission of information. We hypothesised that observers must continuously adjust their visual

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
Springer Nature Live 产业与创新线上学术论坛
ACS ES&T Engineering
ACS ES&T Water