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  • Portable, field-based neuroimaging using high-density diffuse optical tomography
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Andrew K. Fishell; Ana María Arbeláez; Claudia P. Valdés; Tracy M. Burns-Yocum; Arefeh Sherafati; Edward J. Richter; Margarita Torres; Adam T. Eggebrecht; Christopher D. Smyser; Joseph P. Culver

    Behavioral and cognitive tests in individuals who were malnourished as children have revealed malnutrition-related deficits that persist throughout the lifespan. These findings have motivated recent neuroimaging investigations that use highly portable functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) instruments to meet the demands of brain imaging experiments in low-resource environments and enable longitudinal investigations of brain function in the context of long-term malnutrition. However, recent studies in healthy subjects have demonstrated that high-density diffuse optical tomography (HD-DOT) can significantly improve image quality over that obtained with sparse fNIRS imaging arrays. In studies of both task activations and resting state functional connectivity, HD-DOT is beginning to approach the data quality of fMRI for superficial cortical regions. In this work, we developed a customized HD-DOT system for use in malnutrition studies in Cali, Colombia. Our results evaluate the performance of the HD-DOT instrument for assessing brain function in a cohort of malnourished children. In addition to demonstrating portability and wearability, we show the HD-DOT instrument's sensitivity to distributed brain responses using a sensory processing task and measurements of homotopic functional connectivity. Task-evoked responses to the passive word listening task produce activations localized to bilateral superior temporal gyrus, replicating previously published work using this paradigm. Evaluating this localization performance across sparse and dense reconstruction schemes indicates that greater localization consistency is associated with a dense array of overlapping optical measurements. These results provide a foundation for additional avenues of investigation, including identifying and characterizing a child's individual malnutrition burden and eventually contributing to intervention development.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Cardiac and respiration-induced brain deformations in humans quantified with high-field MRI
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Jacob-Jan Sloots; Geert Jan Biessels; Jaco J.M. Zwanenburg

    Microvascular blood volume pulsations due to the cardiac and respiratory cycles induce brain tissue deformation and, as such, are considered to drive the brain's waste clearance system. We have developed a high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) technique to quantify both cardiac and respiration-induced tissue deformations, which could not be assessed noninvasively before. The technique acquires motion encoded snapshot images in which various forms of motion and confounders are entangled. First, we optimized the motion sensitivity for application in the human brain. Next, we isolated the heartbeat and respiration-related deformations, by introducing a linear model that fits the snapshot series to the recorded physiological information. As a result, we obtained maps of the physiological tissue deformation with 3 mm isotropic spatial resolution. Heartbeat- and respiration induced volumetric strain were significantly different from zero in the basal ganglia (median (25–75% interquartile range): 0.85·10−3 (0.39·10−3–1.05·10−3), p = 0.0008 and −0.28·10−3 (−0.41·10−3–0.06·10−3), p = 0.047, respectively). Smaller volumetric strains were observed in the white matter of the centrum semi ovale (0.28·10−3 (0–0.59·10−3) and −0.06·10−3 (−0.17·10−3–0.20·10−3)), which was only significant for the heart beat (p = 0.02 and p = 0.7, respectively). Furthermore, heartbeat induced volumetric strain was about three times larger than respiration induced volumetric strain. This technique opens a window on the driving forces of the human brain clearance system.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Community structure of the creative brain at rest
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Yoed N. Kenett; Richard F. Betzel; Roger E. Beaty

    Recent studies have provided insight into inter-individual differences in creative thinking, focusing on characterizations of distributed large-scale brain networks both at the local level of regions and their pairwise interactions and at the global level of the brain as a whole. However, it remains unclear how creative thinking relates to mesoscale network features, e.g. community and hub organization. We applied a data-driven approach to examine community and hub structure in resting-state functional imaging data from a large sample of participants, and how they relate to individual differences in creative thinking. First, we computed for every participant the co-assignment probability of brain regions to the same community. We found that greater capacity for creative thinking was related to increased and decreased co-assignment of medial-temporal and subcortical regions to the same community, respectively, suggesting that creative capacity may be reflected in inter-individual differences in the meso-scale organization of brain networks. We then used participant-specific communities to identify network hubs—nodes whose connections form bridges across the boundaries of different communities—quantified based on their participation coefficients. We found that increased hubness of DMN and medial-temporal regions were positively and negatively related with creative ability, respectively. These findings suggest that creative capacity may be reflected in inter-individual differences in community interactions of DMN and medial-temporal structures. Collectively, these results demonstrate the fruitfulness of investigating mesoscale brain network features in relation to creative thinking.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • A real-time marker of object-based attention in the human brain. A possible component of a “gate-keeping mechanism” performing late attentional selection in the Ventro-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    M. Perrone-Bertolotti; S. El Bouzaïdi Tiali; J.R. Vidal; M. Petton; A.C. Croize; P. Deman; S. Rheims; L. Minotti; M. Bhattacharjee; M. Baciu; P. Kahane; J.P. Lachaux

    The decision to process an incoming stimulus attentively - and to trigger a follow-up cascade of high-level processes - is strategic for the human brain as it becomes transiently unavailable to subsequent stimulus processing. In this study, we set to identify brain networks that carry out such evaluations. We therefore assessed the time-course of neural responses with intracerebral EEG in human patients during an attentional reading task, contrasting to-be-attended vs. to-be-ignored items. We measured High-Frequency Activity [50–150 Hz] as a proxy of population-level spiking activity and we identified a crucial component of a Gate-Keeping Mechanism bilateral in the mid-Ventro-Lateral Prefrontal Cortex (VLPFC), at the interplay of the Ventral and Dorsal Attention Networks, that selectively reacts before domain specialized cortical regions that engage in full stimulus analysis according to task demands.

    更新日期:2020-01-23
  • Fidelity imposed network edit (FINE) for solving ill-posed image reconstruction
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Jinwei Zhang; Zhe Liu; Shun Zhang; Hang Zhang; Pascal Spincemaille; Thanh D. Nguyen; Mert R. Sabuncu; Yi Wang

    Deep learning (DL) is increasingly used to solve ill-posed inverse problems in medical imaging, such as reconstruction from noisy and/or incomplete data, as DL offers advantages over conventional methods that rely on explicit image features and hand engineered priors. However, supervised DL-based methods may achieve poor performance when the test data deviates from the training data, for example, when it has pathologies not encountered in the training data. Furthermore, DL-based image reconstructions do not always incorporate the underlying forward physical model, which may improve performance. Therefore, in this work we introduce a novel approach, called fidelity imposed network edit (FINE), which modifies the weights of a pre-trained reconstruction network for each case in the testing dataset. This is achieved by minimizing an unsupervised fidelity loss function that is based on the forward physical model. FINE is applied to two important inverse problems in neuroimaging: quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and under-sampled image reconstruction in MRI. Our experiments demonstrate that FINE can improve reconstruction accuracy.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Targeting brain functions from the scalp: Transcranial brain atlas based on large-scale fMRI data synthesis
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Yihan Jiang; Zheng Li; Yang Zhao; Xiang Xiao; Wei Zhang; Peipei Sun; Yihong Yang; Chaozhe Zhu

    Transcranial brain mapping techniques, such as functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), have been playing an increasingly important role in studies of human brain functions. Given a brain function of interest, fNIRS probes and TMS coils should be properly placed on the scalp to ensure that the function is effectively measured or modulated. However, since brain activity is inside the skull and invisible to the researcher during placement, this blind targeting may cause the device to partially or completely miss the functional target, resulting in inconsistent experimental results and divergent clinical outcomes, especially when participants' structural MRI data are not available. To address this issue, we propose here a framework for targeting a designated function directly from the scalp. First, a functional brain atlas for the targeted brain function is constructed via a meta-analysis of large-scale functional magnetic resonance imaging datasets. Second, the functional brain atlas is presented on the scalp surface by using a transcranial mapping previously established from an structural MRI dataset (n = 114), resulting in a novel functional transcranial brain atlas (fTBA). Finally, a low-cost, portable scalp-navigation system is used to localize the transcranial device on the individual's scalp with the guidance of the fTBA. To demonstrate the feasibility of the targeting framework, both fNIRS and TMS mapping experiments were conducted. The results show that fTBA-guided fNIRS positioning can detect functional activity with high sensitivity and specificity for working memory and motor systems; Moreover, compared with traditional TMS targeting approaches (e.g. the International 10–20 System and the conventional 5-cm rule), the fTBA suggested motor stimulation site is closesr to both the motor hotspot and the center of gravity of motor evoked potentials (MEP-COG). In summary, the proposed method unblinds the transcranial function targeting process using prior information, providing an effective and straightforward approach to transcranial brain mapping studies, especially those without participants' structural MRI data.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Convergent creative thinking performance is associated with white matter structures: Evidence from a large sample study
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Hikaru Takeuchi; Yasuyuki Taki; Izumi Matsudaira; Shigeyuki Ikeda; Kelssy H. dos S. Kawata; Rui Nouchi; Kohei Sakaki; Seishu Nakagawa; Takayuki Nozawa; Susumu Yokota; Tsuyoshi Araki; Sugiko Hanawa; Ryo Ishibashi; Shohei Yamazaki; Ryuta Kawashima

    In laboratory settings, creativity is measured using tasks of divergent as well as convergent thinking. It has been suggested that brain connectivity is important for creativity. In the present study, we investigated the associations of convergent thinking performance of compound Remote Associates Test (CRAT) with fractional anisotropy (FA) in diffusion tensor imaging and regional white matter (WM) volume (rWMV) in voxel-based morphometry in a large sample of healthy young adults (360 males and 280 females; mean age: 20.9 years, SD = 1.6). We showed that CRAT performance was positively correlated with WM pathway property (i.e., FA) in the left fronto-occipital fasciculus and the left inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which play important roles in processing of language and concept. Further, CRAT performance was negatively correlated with rWMV in the widespread frontal temporal subcortical and cerebellar WM areas, suggesting the unique association of convergent thinking with WM connectivity.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Isometric exercise facilitates attention to salient events in women via the noradrenergic system
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Mara Mather; Ringo Huang; David Clewett; Shawn E. Nielsen; Ricardo Velasco; Kristie Tu; Sophia Han; Briana Kennedy

    The locus coeruleus (LC) regulates attention via the release of norepinephrine (NE), with levels of tonic LC activity constraining the intensity of phasic LC responses. In the current fMRI study, we used isometric handgrip to modulate tonic LC-NE activity in older women and in young women with different hormone statuses during the time period immediately after the handgrip. During this post-handgrip time, an oddball detection task was used to probe how changes in tonic arousal influenced functional coordination between the LC and a right frontoparietal network that supports attentional selectivity. As expected, the frontoparietal network responded more to infrequent target and novel sounds than to frequent sounds. Across participants, greater LC-frontoparietal functional connectivity, pupil dilation, and faster oddball detection were all positively associated with LC MRI structural contrast from a neuromelanin-sensitive scan. Thus, LC structure was related to LC functional dynamics and attentional performance during the oddball task. We also found that handgrip influenced pupil and attentional processing during a subsequent oddball task. Handgrip decreased subsequent tonic pupil size, increased phasic pupil responses to oddball sounds, speeded oddball detection speed, and increased frontoparietal network activation, suggesting that inducing strong LC activity benefits attentional performance in the next few minutes, potentially due to reduced tonic LC activity. In addition, older women showed a similar benefit of handgrip on frontoparietal network activation as younger women, despite showing lower frontoparietal network activation overall. Together these findings suggest that a simple exercise may improve selective attention in healthy aging, at least for several minutes afterwards.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Natural music evokes correlated EEG responses reflecting temporal structure and beat
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Blair Kaneshiro; Duc T. Nguyen; Anthony M. Norcia; Jacek P. Dmochowski; Jonathan Berger
    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Myelin water imaging data analysis in less than one minute
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Hanwen Liu; Qing-San Xiang; Roger Tam; Adam V. Dvorak; Alex L. MacKay; Shannon H. Kolind; Anthony Traboulsee; Irene M. Vavasour; David K.B. Li; John K. Kramer; Cornelia Laule

    Purpose Based on a deep learning neural network (NN) algorithm, a super fast and easy to implement data analysis method was proposed for myelin water imaging (MWI) to calculate the myelin water fraction (MWF). Methods A NN was constructed and trained on MWI data acquired by a 32-echo 3D gradient and spin echo (GRASE) sequence. Ground truth labels were created by regularized non-negative least squares (NNLS) with stimulated echo corrections. Voxel-wise GRASE data from 4 healthy brains were used for NN training. The trained NN was tested on 2 healthy brains, 1 MS brain with segmented lesions, 1 healthy spinal cord, and 1 healthy brain acquired from a different scanner. Results Production of whole brain MWF maps in approximately 33 s can be achieved by a trained NN without graphics card acceleration. For all testing regions, no visual differences between NN and NNLS MWF maps were observed, and no obvious regional biases were found. Quantitatively, all voxels exhibited excellent agreement between NN and NNLS (all R2>0.98, p < 0.00001, mean absolute error <0.01). Conclusion The time for accurate MWF calculation can be dramatically reduced to less than 1 min by the proposed NN, addressing one of the barriers facing future clinical feasibility of MWI.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Test-retest reliability of FreeSurfer automated hippocampal subfield segmentation within and across scanners
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Emma M. Brown; Meghan E. Pierce; Dustin C. Clark; Bruce R. Fischl; Juan E. Iglesias; William P. Milberg; Regina E. McGlinchey; David H. Salat

    The human hippocampus is vulnerable to a range of degenerative conditions and as such, accurate in vivo measurement of the hippocampus and hippocampal substructures via neuroimaging is of great interest for understanding mechanisms of disease as well as for use as a biomarker in clinical trials of novel therapeutics. Although total hippocampal volume can be measured relatively reliably, it is critical to understand how this reliability is affected by acquisition on different scanners, as multiple scanning platforms would likely be utilized in large-scale clinical trials. This is particularly true for hippocampal subregional measurements, which have only relatively recently been measurable through common image processing platforms such as FreeSurfer. Accurate segmentation of these subregions is challenging due to their small size, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal loss in medial temporal regions of the brain, and lack of contrast for delineation from standard neuroimaging procedures. Here, we assess the test-retest reliability of the FreeSurfer automated hippocampal subfield segmentation procedure using 2 S model scanners (a Siemens Trio and Prismafit Trio upgrade). T1-weighted images were acquired for 11 generally healthy younger participants (two scans on the Trio and one scan on the Prismafit). Each scan was processed through the standard cross-sectional stream and the recently released longitudinal pipeline in FreeSurfer v6.0 for hippocampal segmentation. Test-retest reliability of the volumetric measures was examined for individual subfields as well as percent volume difference and Dice overlap among scans and intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC). Reliability was high in the molecular layer, dentate gyrus, and whole hippocampus with the inclusion of three time points with mean volume differences among scans less than 3%, overlap greater than 80%, and ICC >0.95. The parasubiculum and hippocampal fissure showed the least improvement in reliability with mean volume difference greater than 5%, overlap less than 70%, and ICC scores ranging from 0.78 to 0.89. Other subregions, including the CA regions, were stable in their mean volume difference and overlap (<5% difference and >75% respectively) and showed improvement in reliability with the inclusion of three scans (ICC > 0.9). Reliability was generally higher within scanner (Trio-Trio), however, Trio-Prismafit reliability was also high and did not exhibit an obvious bias. These results suggest that the FreeSurfer automated segmentation procedure is a reliable method to measure total as well as hippocampal subregional volumes and may be useful in clinical applications including as an endpoint for future clinical trials of conditions affecting the hippocampus.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Developmental dynamics of the periventricular parietal crossroads of growing cortical pathways in the fetal brain – In vivo fetal MRI with histological correlation
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Ruxandra-Iulia Milos; Nataša Jovanov-Milošević; Christian Mitter; Mihaela Bobić-Rasonja; Ivana Pogledic; Gerlinde M. Gruber; Gregor Kasprian; Peter C. Brugger; Michael Weber; Miloš Judaš; Daniela Prayer

    The periventricular crossroads have been described as transient structures of the fetal brain where major systems of developing fibers intersect. The triangular parietal crossroad constitutes one major crossroad region. By combining in vivo and post-mortem fetal MRI with histological and immunohistochemical methods, we aimed to characterize these structures. Data from 529 in vivo and 66 post-mortem MRI examinations of fetal brains between gestational weeks (GW) 18–39 were retrospectively reviewed. In each fetus, the area adjacent to the trigone of the lateral ventricles at the exit of the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) was assessed with respect to signal intensity, size, and shape on T2-weighted images. In addition, by using in vivo diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), the main fiber pathways that intersect in these areas were identified. In order to explain the in vivo features of the parietal crossroads (signal intensity and developmental profile), we analyzed 23 post-mortem fetal human brains, between 16 and 42 GW of age, processed by histological and immunohistochemical methods. The parietal crossroads were triangular-shaped areas with the base in the continuity of the PLIC, adjacent to the germinal matrix and the trigone of the lateral ventricles, with the tip pointing toward the subplate. These areas appeared hyperintense to the subplate, and corresponded to a convergence zone of the developing external capsule, the PLIC, and the fronto-occipital association fibers. They were best detected between GW 25–26, and, at term, they became isointense to the adjacent structures. The immunohistochemical results showed a distinct cellular, fibrillar, and extracellular matrix arrangement in the parietal crossroads, depending on the stage of development, which influenced the MRI features. The parietal crossroads are transient, but important structures in white matter maturation and their damage may be indicative of a poor prognosis for a fetus with regard to neurological development. In addition, impairment of this region may explain the complex neurodevelopmental deficits in preterm infants with periventricular hypoxic/ischemic or inflammatory lesions.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Role of beta-band resting-state functional connectivity as a predictor of motor learning ability
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Hisato Sugata; Kazuhiro Yagi; Shogo Yazawa; Yasunori Nagase; Kazuhito Tsuruta; Takashi Ikeda; Ippei Nojima; Masayuki Hara; Kojiro Matsushita; Kenji Kawakami; Keisuke Kawakami

    It has been suggested that resting-state functional connectivity (rs-FC) between the primary motor area (M1) region of the brain and other brain regions may be a predictor of motor learning, although this suggestion is still controversial. In the work reported here, we investigated the relationship between M1 seed-based rs-FC and motor learning. Fifty-three healthy volunteers undertook random button-press and sequential motor learning tasks. Five-minute resting-state data acquisition was performed between the two tasks. Oscillatory neural activities during the random task and the rest period were measured using magnetoencephalography. M1 seed-based rs-FC was calculated for the alpha and beta bands using amplitude envelope correlation, in which the seed location was defined as an M1 position with peak event-related desynchronization value. The relationship between rs-FC and the performance of motor learning was examined using whole brain correlation analysis. The results showed that beta-band resting-state cross-network connectivity between the sensorimotor network and the core network, particularly the theory of mind network, affected the performance of subsequent motor learning tasks. Good learners could be distinguished from poor learners by the strength of rs-FC between the M1 and the left superior temporal gyrus, a part of the theory of mind network. These results suggest that cross-network connectivity between the sensorimotor network and the theory of mind network can be used as a predictor of motor learning performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Comparing MEG and high-density EEG for intrinsic functional connectivity mapping
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    N. Coquelet; X. De Tiège; F. Destoky; L. Roshchupkina; M. Bourguignon; S. Goldman; P. Peigneux; V. Wens

    Magnetoencephalography (MEG) has been used in conjunction with resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) based on band-limited power envelope correlation to study the intrinsic human brain network organization into resting-state networks (RSNs). However, the limited availability of current MEG systems hampers the clinical applications of electrophysiological rsFC. Here, we directly compared well-known RSNs as well as the whole-brain rsFC connectome together with its state dynamics, obtained from simultaneously-recorded MEG and high-density scalp electroencephalography (EEG) resting-state data. We also examined the impact of head model precision on EEG rsFC estimation, by comparing results obtained with boundary and finite element head models. Results showed that most RSN topographies obtained with MEG and EEG are similar, except for the fronto-parietal network. At the connectome level, sensitivity was lower to frontal rsFC and higher to parieto-occipital rsFC with MEG compared to EEG. This was mostly due to inhomogeneity of MEG sensor locations relative to the scalp and significant MEG-EEG differences disappeared when taking relative MEG-EEG sensor locations into account. The default-mode network was the only RSN requiring advanced head modeling in EEG, in which gray and white matter are distinguished. Importantly, comparison of rsFC state dynamics evidenced a poor correspondence between MEG and scalp EEG, suggesting sensitivity to different components of transient neural functional integration. This study therefore shows that the investigation of static rsFC based on the human brain connectome can be performed with scalp EEG in a similar way than with MEG, opening the avenue to widespread clinical applications of rsFC analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Identifying and characterizing projections from the subthalamic nucleus to the cerebellum in humans
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Zhen-Ming Wang; Peng-Hu Wei; Yi Shan; Meizhen Han; Miao Zhang; Hesheng Liu; Jia-Hong Gao; Jie Lu

    A connection between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the cerebellum which has been shown to exist in non-human primates, was recently identified in humans. However, its anatomical features, network properties and function have yet to be elucidated in humans. In the present study, we quantified the STN-cerebellum pathway in humans and explored its function based on structural observations. Anatomical features and asymmetry index (AI) were explored using high definition fiber tractography data of 30 individuals from the Massachusetts General Hospital – Human Connectome Project adult diffusion database. Pearson's correlation analysis was performed to determine the interrelationship between the subdivisions of the STN-cerebellum and the global cortical-STN connections. The pathway was visualized bilaterally in all the subjects. Typically, after setting out from the STN, the STN-cerebellum projections incorporated into the nearby corticopontine tracts, passing through the cerebral peduncle, mediated by the pontine nucleus and then connecting in two opposite directions to join the bilateral middle cerebellar peduncle. On the group averaged level, 78.03% and 62.54% of fibers from the right and left STN respectively, distributed to Crus I in the cerebellum, part of the remaining fibers projected to Crus II, with most of the fibers crossing contralaterally. According to the AI evaluation, 60% of the participants were right STN dominant, 23% were left STN dominant, and 17% were relatively symmetric. Pearson's correlation analysis further indicated that the number of pathways from mesial Brodmann area 8 to the STN (hyperdirect pathway associated with decision making) was positively correlated with the number of fibers from the right STN to Crus I. The insertion and termination, the right-side dominance, and the positive correlation with the hyperdirect pathway all suggest that the STN-cerebellum pathway might be involved in decision-making processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Metacontrol of human creativity: The neurocognitive mechanisms of convergent and divergent thinking
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Weitao Zhang; Zsuzsika Sjoerds; Bernhard Hommel

    Creativity is a complex construct that would benefit from a more comprehensive mechanistic approach. Two processes have been defined to be central to creative cognition: divergent and convergent thinking. These two processes are most often studied using the Alternate Uses Test (heavily relying on divergent thinking), and the Remote Associates Test (heavily relying on convergent thinking, at least with analytical solutions). Although creative acts should be regarded compound processes, most behavioral and neuroimaging studies ignore the composition of basic operations relevant for the task they investigate. In order to provide leverage for a more mechanistic, and eventually even comprehensive computational, approach to creative cognition, we compare findings from divergent and convergent thinking studies and review the similarities and differences between the two underlying types of processes, from a neurocognitive perspective with a strong focus on cortical structures. In this narrative review, we discuss a broad scope of neural correlates of divergent and convergent thinking. We provide a first step towards theoretical integration, by suggesting that creative cognition in divergent- and convergent-thinking heavy tasks is modulated by metacontrol states, where divergent thinking and insight solutions in convergent-thinking tasks seem to benefit from metacontrol biases towards flexibility, whereas convergent, analytical thinking seems to benefit from metacontrol biases towards persistence. These particular biases seem to be reflected by specific cortical brain-activation patterns, involving left frontal and right temporal/parietal networks. Our tentative framework could serve as a first proxy to guide neuroscientific creativity research into assessing more mechanistic details of human creative cognition.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Striatal iron content is linked to reduced fronto-striatal brain function under working memory load
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Karen M. Rodrigue; Ana M. Daugherty; Chris M. Foster; Kristen M. Kennedy

    Non-heme iron accumulation contributes to age-related decline in brain structure and cognition via a cascade of oxidative stress and inflammation, although its effect on brain function is largely unexplored. Thus, we examine the impact of striatal iron on dynamic range of BOLD modulation to working memory load. N = 166 healthy adults (age 20–94) underwent cognitive testing and an imaging session including n-back (0-, 2-, 3-, and 4-back fMRI), R2*-weighted imaging, and pcASL to measure cerebral blood flow. A statistical model was constructed to predict voxelwise BOLD modulation by age, striatal iron content and an age × iron interaction, controlling for cerebral blood flow, sex, and task response time. A significant interaction between age and striatal iron content on BOLD modulation was found selectively in the putamen, caudate, and inferior frontal gyrus. Greater iron was associated with reduced modulation to difficulty, particularly in middle-aged and younger adults with greater iron content. Further, iron-related decreases in modulation were associated with poorer executive function in an age-dependent manner. These results suggest that iron may contribute to differences in functional brain activation prior to older adulthood, highlighting the potential role of iron as an early factor contributing to trajectories of functional brain aging.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Interactions between stimuli-evoked cortical activity and spontaneous low frequency oscillations measured with neuronal calcium
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Wei Chen; Kicheon Park; Yingtian Pan; Alan P. Koretsky; Congwu Du

    Spontaneous brain activity has been widely used to map brain connectivity. The interactions between task-evoked brain responses and the spontaneous cortical oscillations, especially within the low frequency range of ∼0.1 Hz, are not fully understood. Trial-to-trial variabilities in brain's response to sensory stimuli and the ability for brain to detect under noisy conditions suggest an appreciable impact of the brain state. Using a multimodality imaging platform, we simultaneously imaged neuronal Ca2+ and cerebral hemodynamics at baseline and in response to single-pulse forepaw stimuli in rat's somatosensory cortex. The high sensitivity of this system enables detection of responses to very weak and strong stimuli and real time determination of low frequency oscillations without averaging. Results show that the ongoing neuronal oscillations inversely modulate Ca2+ transients evoked by sensory stimuli. High intensity stimuli reset the spontaneous neuronal oscillations to an unpreferable excitability following the stimulus. Cerebral hemodynamic responses also inversely interact with the spontaneous hemodynamic oscillations, correlating with the neuronal Ca2+ transient changes. The results reveal competing interactions between spontaneous oscillations and stimulation-evoked brain activities in somatosensory cortex and the resultant hemodynamics.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Transcranial alternating current stimulation in the theta band but not in the delta band modulates the comprehension of naturalistic speech in noise
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Mahmoud Keshavarzi; Mikolaj Kegler; Shabnam Kadir; Tobias Reichenbach

    Auditory cortical activity entrains to speech rhythms and has been proposed as a mechanism for online speech processing. In particular, neural activity in the theta frequency band (4–8 Hz) tracks the onset of syllables which may aid the parsing of a speech stream. Similarly, cortical activity in the delta band (1–4 Hz) entrains to the onset of words in natural speech and has been found to encode both syntactic as well as semantic information. Such neural entrainment to speech rhythms is not merely an epiphenomenon of other neural processes, but plays a functional role in speech processing: modulating the neural entrainment through transcranial alternating current stimulation influences the speech-related neural activity and modulates the comprehension of degraded speech. However, the distinct functional contributions of the delta- and of the theta-band entrainment to the modulation of speech comprehension have not yet been investigated. Here we use transcranial alternating current stimulation with waveforms derived from the speech envelope and filtered in the delta and theta frequency bands to alter cortical entrainment in both bands separately. We find that transcranial alternating current stimulation in the theta band but not in the delta band impacts speech comprehension. Moreover, we find that transcranial alternating current stimulation with the theta-band portion of the speech envelope can improve speech-in-noise comprehension beyond sham stimulation. Our results show a distinct contribution of the theta- but not of the delta-band stimulation to the modulation of speech comprehension. In addition, our findings open up a potential avenue of enhancing the comprehension of speech in noise.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Precuneus stimulation alters the neural dynamics of autobiographical memory retrieval
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Melissa Hebscher; Christine Ibrahim; Asaf Gilboa

    Autobiographical memory (AM) unfolds over time, but little is known about the dynamics of its retrieval. Space-based models of memory implicate the hippocampus, retrosplenial cortex, and precuneus in early memory computations. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate the causal role of the precuneus in the dynamics of AM retrieval. During early memory construction, precuneus stimulation compared to vertex stimulation led to delayed evoked neural activity within 1000 ms after cue presentation. During later memory elaboration, stimulation led to decreased sustained positivity. We further identified a parietal late positive component during memory elaboration, the amplitude of which was associated with spatial perspective during recollection. This association was disrupted following precuneus stimulation, suggesting that this region plays an important role in the neural representation of spatial perspective during AM. These findings demonstrate a causal role for the precuneus in early AM retrieval, during memory search before a specific memory is accessed, and during the initial stages of memory elaboration and re-experiencing. By utilizing the high temporal resolution of MEG and the causality of TMS, this study helps clarify the neural correlates of early memory retrieval.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Early childhood development of white matter fiber density and morphology
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Dennis Dimond; Christiane S. Rohr; Robert E. Smith; Thijs Dhollander; Ivy Cho; Catherine Lebel; Deborah Dewey; Alan Connelly; Signe Bray

    Early childhood is an important period for cognitive and brain development, though white matter changes specific to this period remain understudied. Here we utilize a novel analytic approach to quantify and track developmental changes in white matter micro- and macro-structure, calculated from individually oriented fiber-bundle populations, termed “fixels”. Fixel-based analysis and mixed-effects models were used to assess tract-wise changes in fiber density and bundle morphology in 73 girls scanned at baseline (ages 4.09–7.02, mean = 5.47, SD = 0.81), 6-month (N = 7), and one-year follow-up (N = 42). For comparison, we also assessed changes in commonly utilized diffusion tensor metrics: fractional anisotropy (FA), and mean, radial and axial diffusivity (MD, RD, AD). Maturational increases in fixel-metrics were seen in most major white matter tracts, with the most rapid increases in the corticospinal tract and slowest or non-significant increases in the genu of the corpus callosum and uncinate fasciculi. As expected, we observed developmental increases in FA and decreases in MD, RD and AD, though percentage changes were smaller relative to fixel-metrics. The majority of tracts showed more substantial morphological than microstructural changes. These findings highlight early childhood as a period of dynamic white matter maturation, characterized by large increases in macroscopic fiber bundle size, mild changes in axonal density, and parallel, albeit less substantial, changes in diffusion tensor metrics.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Brain GABA and glutamate levels across pain conditions: A systematic literature review and meta-analysis of 1H-MRS studies using the MRS-Q quality assessment tool
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Aimie Laura Peek; Trudy Rebbeck; Nicolaas AJ. Puts; Julia Watson; Maria Eliza Aguila; Andrew M. Leaver

    Background A proposed mechanism of chronic pain is dysregulation between the main inhibitory (GABA) and excitatory (glutamate) neurometabolites of the central nervous system. The level of these neurometabolites appears to differ in individual studies of people with pain compared to pain-free controls across different pain conditions. However, this has yet to be systematically investigated. Aims To establish whether GABA, glutamate, glutamine and Glx levels differ across pain conditions when compared to pain-free controls. Methods Five databases were searched. Studies were included if they investigated: 1) A pain condition compared to control. 2) Reported GABA, glutamate, glutamine or glutamate/glutamine level. 3) Used 1H-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (Prospero Project ID CRD42018092170). Data extracted included neurometabolite level, pain diagnosis, and spectroscopy parameters. Meta-analyses were conducted to establish the difference in neurometabolite level between participants with pain and pain-free controls for different pain conditions. The MRS-Q was developed from existing clinical consensus to allow for the assessment of quality in the included studies. Results Thirty-five studies were included investigating combinations of migraine (n = 11), musculoskeletal pain (n = 8), chronic pain syndromes (n = 9) and miscellaneous pain (n = 10). Higher GABA levels were found in participants with migraine compared to controls (Hedge's G 0.499, 95%CI: 0.2 to 0.798). In contrast, GABA levels in musculoskeletal pain conditions (Hedge's G −0.189, 95%CI: 0.530 to 0.153) and chronic pain syndromes (Hedge's G 0.077, 95%CI: 1.612 to 1.459) did not differ from controls. Results for other brain neurometabolites revealed significantly higher levels for glutamate in participants with migraine and Glx in chronic pain syndromes compared to controls. Conclusion These results support the theory that underlying neurometabolite levels may be unique in different pain conditions and therefore representative of biomarkers for specific pain conditions.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Improved motion correction of submillimetre 7T fMRI time series with boundary-based registration (BBR)
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Pei Huang; Johan D. Carlin; Richard N. Henson; Marta M. Correia

    Ultra-high field functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has allowed us to acquire images with submillimetre voxels. However, in order to interpret the data clearly, we need to accurately correct head motion and the resultant distortions. Here, we present a novel application of Boundary Based Registration (BBR) to realign functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) data and evaluate its effectiveness on a set of 7T submillimetre data, as well as millimetre 3T data for comparison. BBR utilizes the boundary information from high contrast present in structural data to drive registration of functional data to the structural data. In our application, we realign each functional volume individually to the structural data, effectively realigning them to each other. In addition, this realignment method removes the need for a secondary aligning of functional data to structural data for purposes such as laminar segmentation or registration to data from other scanners. We demonstrate that BBR realignment outperforms standard realignment methods across a variety of data analysis methods. For instance, the method results in a 15% increase in linear discriminant contrast, a cross-validated estimate of multivariate discriminability. Further analysis shows that this benefit is an inherent property of the BBR cost function and not due to the difference in target volume. Our results show that BBR realignment is able to accurately correct head motion in 7T data and can be utilized in preprocessing pipelines to improve the quality of 7T data.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • EEG-based classification of natural sounds reveals specialized responses to speech and music
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Nathaniel J. Zuk; Emily S. Teoh; Edmund C. Lalor

    Humans can easily distinguish many sounds in the environment, but speech and music are uniquely important. Previous studies, mostly using fMRI, have identified separate regions of the brain that respond selectively for speech and music. Yet there is little evidence that brain responses are larger and more temporally precise for human-specific sounds like speech and music compared to other types of sounds, as has been found for responses to species-specific sounds in other animals. We recorded EEG as healthy, adult subjects listened to various types of two-second-long natural sounds. By classifying each sound based on the EEG response, we found that speech, music, and impact sounds were classified better than other natural sounds. But unlike impact sounds, the classification accuracy for speech and music dropped for synthesized sounds that have identical frequency and modulation statistics based on a subcortical model, indicating a selectivity for higher-order features in these sounds. Lastly, the patterns in average power and phase consistency of the two-second EEG responses to each sound replicated the patterns of speech and music selectivity observed with classification accuracy. Together with the classification results, this suggests that the brain produces temporally individualized responses to speech and music sounds that are stronger than the responses to other natural sounds. In addition to highlighting the importance of speech and music for the human brain, the techniques used here could be a cost-effective, temporally precise, and efficient way to study the human brain's selectivity for speech and music in other populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Four-dimensional map of direct effective connectivity from posterior visual areas
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Ayaka Sugiura; Brian H. Silverstein; Jeong-Won Jeong; Yasuo Nakai; Masaki Sonoda; Hirotaka Motoi; Eishi Asano

    Lower- and higher-order visual cortices in the posterior brain, ranging from the medial- and lateral-occipital to fusiform regions, are suggested to support visual object recognition, whereas the frontal eye field (FEF) plays a role in saccadic eye movements which optimize visual processing. Previous studies using electrophysiology and functional MRI techniques have reported that tasks requiring visual object recognition elicited cortical activation sequentially in the aforementioned posterior visual regions and FEFs. The present study aims to provide unique evidence of direct effective connectivity outgoing from the posterior visual regions by measuring the early component (10–50 ms) of cortico-cortical spectral responses (CCSRs) elicited by weak single-pulse direct cortical electrical stimulation. We studied 22 patients who underwent extraoperative intracranial EEG recording for clinical localization of seizure foci and functionally-important brain regions. We used animations to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of gamma band CCSRs elicited by stimulation of three different posterior visual regions. We quantified the strength of CCSR-defined effective connectivity between the lower- and higher-order posterior visual regions as well as from the posterior visual regions to the FEFs. We found that effective connectivity within the posterior visual regions was larger in the feedforward (i.e., lower-to higher-order) direction compared to the opposite direction. Specifically, connectivity from the medial-occipital region was largest to the lateral-occipital region, whereas that from the lateral-occipital region was largest to the fusiform region. Among the posterior visual regions, connectivity to the FEF was largest from the lateral-occipital region and the mean peak latency of CCSR propagation from the lateral-occipital region to FEF was 26 ms. Our invasive study of the human brain using a stimulation-based intervention supports the model that the posterior visual regions have direct cortico-cortical connectivity pathways in which neural activity is transferred preferentially from the lower-to higher-order areas. The human brain has direct cortico-cortical connectivity allowing a rapid transfer of neural activity from the lateral-occipital region to the FEF.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • BNST-insula structural connectivity in humans
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Elizabeth A. Flook; Brandee Feola; Suzanne N. Avery; Danny G. Winder; Neil D. Woodward; Stephan Heckers; Jennifer Urbano Blackford

    The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) is emerging as a critical region in multiple psychiatric disorders including anxiety, PTSD, and alcohol and substance use disorders. In conjunction with growing knowledge of the BNST, an increasing number of studies examine connections of the BNST and how those connections impact BNST function. The importance of this BNST network is highlighted by rodent studies demonstrating that projections from other brain regions regulate BNST activity and influence BNST-related behavior. While many animal and human studies replicate the components of the BNST network, to date, structural connections between the BNST and insula have only been described in rodents and have yet to be shown in humans. In this study, we used probabilistic tractography to examine BNST-insula structural connectivity in humans. We used two methods of dividing the insula: 1) anterior and posterior insula, to be consistent with much of the existing insula literature; and 2) eight subregions that represent informative cytoarchitectural divisions. We found evidence of a BNST-insula structural connection in humans, with the strongest BNST connectivity localized to the anteroventral insula, a region of agranular cortex. BNST-insula connectivity differed by hemisphere and was moderated by sex. These results translate rodent findings to humans and lay an important foundation for future studies examining the role of BNST-insula pathways in psychiatric disorders.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Strong health messages increase audience brain coupling
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Martin A. Imhof; Ralf Schmälzle; Britta Renner; Harald T. Schupp
    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Anterior insula reflects surprise in value-based decision-making and perception
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Leyla Loued-Khenissi; Adrien Pfeuffer; Wolfgang Einhäuser; Kerstin Preuschoff

    The brain has been theorized to employ inferential processes to overcome the problem of uncertainty. Inference is thought to underlie neural processes, including in disparate domains such as value-based decision-making and perception. Value-based decision-making commonly involves deliberation, a time-consuming process that requires conscious consideration of decision variables. Perception, by contrast, is thought to be automatic and effortless. Both processes may call on a general neural system to resolve for uncertainty however. We addressed this question by directly comparing uncertainty signals in visual perception and an economic task using fMRI. We presented the same individuals with different versions of a bi-stable figure (Necker's cube) and with a gambling task during fMRI acquisition. We experimentally varied uncertainty, either on perceptual state or financial outcome. We found that inferential errors indexed by a formal account of surprise in the gambling task yielded BOLD responses in the anterior insula, in line with earlier findings. Moreover, we found perceptual uncertainty and surprise in the Necker Cube task yielded similar responses in the anterior insula. These results suggest that uncertainty, irrespective of domain, correlates to a common brain region, the anterior insula. These findings provide empirical evidence that the brain interacts with its environment through inferential processes.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Neuro-current response functions: A unified approach to MEG source analysis under the continuous stimuli paradigm
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Proloy Das; Christian Brodbeck; Jonathan Z. Simon; Behtash Babadi

    Characterizing the neural dynamics underlying sensory processing is one of the central areas of investigation in systems and cognitive neuroscience. Neuroimaging techniques such as magnetoencephalography (MEG) and Electroencephalography (EEG) have provided significant insights into the neural processing of continuous stimuli, such as speech, thanks to their high temporal resolution. Existing work in the context of auditory processing suggests that certain features of speech, such as the acoustic envelope, can be used as reliable linear predictors of the neural response manifested in M/EEG. The corresponding linear filters are referred to as temporal response functions (TRFs). While the functional roles of specific components of the TRF are well-studied and linked to behavioral attributes such as attention, the cortical origins of the underlying neural processes are not as well understood. In this work, we address this issue by estimating a linear filter representation of cortical sources directly from neuroimaging data in the context of continuous speech processing. To this end, we introduce Neuro-Current Response Functions (NCRFs), a set of linear filters, spatially distributed throughout the cortex, that predict the cortical currents giving rise to the observed ongoing MEG (or EEG) data in response to continuous speech. NCRF estimation is cast within a Bayesian framework, which allows unification of the TRF and source estimation problems, and also facilitates the incorporation of prior information on the structural properties of the NCRFs. To generalize this analysis to M/EEG recordings which lack individual structural magnetic resonance (MR) scans, NCRFs are extended to free-orientation dipoles and a novel regularizing scheme is put forward to lessen reliance on fine-tuned coordinate co-registration. We present a fast estimation algorithm, which we refer to as the Champ-Lasso algorithm, by leveraging recent advances in optimization, and demonstrate its utility through application to simulated and experimentally recorded MEG data under auditory experiments. Our simulation studies reveal significant improvements over existing methods that typically operate in a two-stage fashion, in terms of spatial resolution, response function reconstruction, and recovering dipole orientations. The analysis of experimentally-recorded MEG data without MR scans corroborates existing findings, but also delineates the distinct cortical distribution of the underlying neural processes at high spatiotemporal resolution. In summary, we provide a principled modeling and estimation paradigm for MEG source analysis tailored to extracting the cortical origin of electrophysiological responses to continuous stimuli.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Relating anthropometric indicators to brain structure in 2-month-old Bangladeshi infants growing up in poverty: A pilot study
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ted Turesky; Wanze Xie; Swapna Kumar; Danielle D. Sliva; Borjan Gagoski; Jennifer Vaughn; Lilla Zöllei; Rashidul Haque; Shahria Hafiz Kakon; Nazrul Islam; William A. Petri; Charles A. Nelson; Nadine Gaab

    Anthropometric indicators, including stunting, underweight, and wasting, have previously been associated with poor neurocognitive outcomes. This link may exist because malnutrition and infection, which are known to affect height and weight, also impact brain structure according to animal models. However, a relationship between anthropometric indicators and brain structural measures has not been tested yet, perhaps because stunting, underweight, and wasting are uncommon in higher-resource settings. Further, with diminished anthropomorphic growth prevalent in low-resource settings, where biological and psychosocial hazards are most severe, one might expect additional links between measures of poverty, anthropometry, and brain structure. To begin to examine these relationships, we conducted an MRI study in 2-3-month-old infants growing up in the extremely impoverished urban setting of Dhaka, Bangladesh. The sample size was relatively small because the challenges of investigating infant brain structure in a low-resource setting needed to be realized and resolved before introducing a larger cohort. Initially, fifty-four infants underwent T1 sequences using 3T MRI, and structural images were segmented into gray and white matter maps, which were carefully evaluated for accurate tissue labeling by a pediatric neuroradiologist. Gray and white matter volumes from 29 infants (79 ± 10 days-of-age; F/M = 12/17), whose segmentations were of relatively high quality, were submitted to semi-partial correlation analyses with stunting, underweight, and wasting, which were measured using height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and weight-for-height (WHZ) scores. Positive semi-partial correlations (after adjusting for chronological age and sex and correcting for multiple comparisons) were observed between white matter volume and HAZ and WAZ; however, WHZ was not correlated with any measure of brain volume. In examining the role of poverty, no associations were observed between income-to-needs or maternal education and brain volumetric measures, suggesting that risk factors previously linked with poverty were not associated with total brain tissue volume pre- or peri-natally in this sample. Overall, these results provide the first link between diminished anthropomorphic growth and white matter volume in infancy. Challenges of conducting a developmental neuroimaging study in a low-resource country are described.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Medial prefrontal decoupling from the default mode network benefits memory
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    N.C.J. Müller; M. Dresler; G. Janzen; C.F. Beckmann; G. Fernández; N. Kohn

    In the last few years the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in memory processing has received increased attention. It has been shown to be centrally involved when we use prior knowledge (schemas) to improve learning of related material. With the mPFC also being one of the core hubs of the default mode network (DMN) and the DMN's role in memory retrieval, we decided to investigate whether the mPFC in a schema paradigm acts independent of the DMN. We tested this with data from a cross-sectional developmental study with a schema paradigm. During retrieval of schema items, the mPFC decoupled from the DMN with the degree of decoupling predicting memory performance. This finding suggests that a demand specific reconfiguration of the DMN supports schema memory. Additionally, we found that in the control condition, which relied on episodic memory, activity in the parahippocampal gyrus was positively related to memory performance. We interpret these results as a demand specific network reconfiguration of the DMN: a decoupling of the mPFC to support schema memory and a decoupling of the parahippocampal gyrus facilitating episodic memory.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Overlapping attentional networks yield divergent behavioral predictions across tasks: Neuromarkers for diffuse and focused attention?
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    Esther X.W. Wu; Gwenisha J. Liaw; Rui Zhe Goh; Tiffany T.Y. Chia; Alisia M.J. Chee; Takashi Obana; Monica D. Rosenberg; B.T. Thomas Yeo; Christopher L. Asplund

    Attention is a critical cognitive function, allowing humans to select, enhance, and sustain focus on information of behavioral relevance. Attention contains dissociable neural and psychological components. Nevertheless, some brain networks support multiple attentional functions. In this study, we used the visual attentional blink (VAB) as a test of the functional generalizability of the brain's attentional networks. In a VAB task, attention devoted to a target often causes a subsequent item to be missed. Although frequently attributed to limitations in attentional capacity or selection, VAB deficits attenuate when participants are distracted or deploy attention diffusely. The VAB is also behaviorally and theoretically dissociable from other attention tasks. Here we used Connectome-based Predictive Models (CPMs), which associate individual differences in task performance with functional connectivity patterns, to test their ability to predict performance for multiple attentional tasks. We constructed visual attentional blink (VAB) CPMs, and then used them and a sustained attention network model (saCPM; Rosenberg et al., 2016a,b) to predict performance. The latter model had been previously shown to successfully predict performance across tasks involving selective attention, inhibitory control, and even reading recall. Participants (n = 73; 24 males) underwent fMRI while performing the VAB task and while resting. Outside the scanner, they completed other cognitive tasks over several days. A vabCPM constructed from VAB task data (behavior and fMRI) successfully predicted VAB performance. Strikingly, the network edges that predicted better VAB performance (positive edges) predicted worse performance for selective and sustained attention tasks, and vice versa. Predictions from applying the saCPM to the data mirrored these results, with the network's negative edges predicting better VAB performance. The vabCPM's positive edges partially yet significantly overlapped with the saCPM's negative edges, and vice versa. Many positive edges from the vabCPM involved the default mode network, whereas many negative edges involved the salience/ventral attention network. We conclude that the vabCPM and saCPM networks reflect general attentional functions that influence performance on many tasks. The networks may indicate an individual's propensity to deploy attention in a more diffuse or a more focused manner.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The role of transient spectral ‘bursts’ in functional connectivity: A magnetoencephalography study
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Zelekha A. Seedat; Andrew Quinn; Diego Vidaurre; Lucrezia Liuzzi; Lauren E. Gascoyne; Benjamin A.E. Hunt; George C. O'Neill; Daisie O. Pakenham; Karen J. Mullinger; Peter G. Morris; Mark W. Woolrich; Matthew J. Brookes

    Neural oscillations dominate electrophysiological measures of macroscopic brain activity, and fluctuations in these rhythms offer an insightful window on cortical excitation, inhibition, and connectivity. However, in recent years the ‘classical’ picture of smoothly varying oscillations has been challenged by the idea that many ‘oscillations’ may actually be formed from the recurrence of punctate high-amplitude bursts in activity, whose spectral composition intersects the traditionally defined frequency ranges (e.g. alpha/beta band). This finding offers a new interpretation of measurable brain activity, however neither the methodological means to detect bursts, nor their link to other findings (e.g. connectivity) have been settled. Here, we use a new approach to detect bursts in magnetoencephalography (MEG) data. We show that a time-delay embedded Hidden Markov Model (HMM) can be used to delineate single-region bursts which are in agreement with existing techniques. However, unlike existing techniques, the HMM looks for specific spectral patterns in timecourse data. We characterise the distribution of burst duration, frequency of occurrence and amplitude across the cortex in resting state MEG data. During a motor task we show how the movement related beta decrease and post movement beta rebound are driven by changes in burst occurrence. Finally, we show that the beta band functional connectome can be derived using a simple measure of burst overlap, and that coincident bursts in separate regions correspond to a period of heightened coherence. In summary, this paper offers a new methodology for burst identification and connectivity analysis which will be important for future investigations of neural oscillations.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Neighborhood poverty predicts altered neural and behavioral response inhibition
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Rachel C. Tomlinson; S. Alexandra Burt; Rebecca Waller; John Jonides; Alison L. Miller; Ashley N. Gearhardt; Scott J. Peltier; Kelly L. Klump; Julie C. Lumeng; Luke W. Hyde

    Socioeconomic disadvantage during childhood is associated with a myriad of negative adult outcomes. One mechanism through which disadvantage undermines positive outcomes may be by disrupting the development of self-control. The goal of the present study was to examine pathways from three key indicators of socioeconomic disadvantage – low family income, low maternal education, and neighborhood poverty – to neural and behavioral measures of response inhibition. We utilized data from a representative cohort of 215 twins (ages 7–18 years, 70% male) oversampled for exposure to disadvantage, who participated in the Michigan Twins Neurogenetics Study (MTwiNS), a study within the Michigan State University Twin Registry (MSUTR). Our child-friendly Go/No-Go task activated the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and activation during this task predicted behavioral inhibition performance, extending prior work on adults to youth. Critically, we also found that neighborhood poverty, assessed via geocoding, but not family income or maternal education, was associated with IFG activation, a finding that we replicated in an independent sample of disadvantaged youth. Further, we found that neighborhood poverty predicted response inhibition performance via its effect on IFG activation. These results provide the first mechanistic evidence that disadvantaged contexts may undermine self-control via their effect on the brain. The broader neighborhood, beyond familial contexts, may be critically important for this association, suggesting that contexts beyond the home have profound effects on the developing brain and behaviors critical for future health, wealth, and wellbeing.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Objects seen as scenes: Neural circuitry for attending whole or parts
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Mitchell Valdés-Sosa; Marlis Ontivero-Ortega; Jorge Iglesias-Fuster; Agustin Lage-Castellanos; Jinnan Gong; Cheng Luo; Ana Maria Castro-Laguardia; Maria Antonieta Bobes; Daniele Marinazzo; Dezhong Yao

    Depending on our goals, we pay attention to the global shape of an object or to the local shape of its parts, since it's difficult to do both at once. This typically effortless process can be impaired in disease. However, it is not clear which cortical regions carry the information needed to constrain shape processing to a chosen global/local level. Here, novel stimuli were used to dissociate functional MRI responses to global and local shapes. This allowed identification of cortical regions containing information about level (independent from shape). Crucially, these regions overlapped part of the cortical network implicated in scene processing. As expected, shape information (independent of level) was mainly located in category-selective areas specialized for object- and face-processing. Regions with the same informational profile were strongly linked (as measured by functional connectivity), but were weak when the profiles diverged. Specifically, in the ventral-temporal-cortex (VTC) regions favoring level and shape were consistently separated by the mid-fusiform sulcus (MFS). These regions also had limited crosstalk despite their spatial proximity, thus defining two functional pathways within VTC. We hypothesize that object hierarchical level is processed by neural circuitry that also analyses spatial layout in scenes, contributing to the control of the spatial-scale used for shape recognition. Use of level information tolerant to shape changes could guide whole/part attentional selection but facilitate illusory shape/level conjunctions under impoverished vision.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • The dot-compartment revealed? Diffusion MRI with ultra-strong gradients and spherical tensor encoding in the living human brain
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Chantal M.W. Tax; Filip Szczepankiewicz; Markus Nilsson; Derek K. Jones
    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Correlative x-ray phase-contrast tomography and histology of human brain tissue affected by Alzheimer's disease
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Mareike Töpperwien; Franziska van der Meer; Christine Stadelmann; Tim Salditt

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder which is characterized by increasing dementia. It is accompanied by the development of extracellular β-amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the gray matter of the brain. Histology is the gold standard for the visualization of this pathology, but also has intrinsic shortcomings. Fully three-dimensional analysis and quantitative metrics of alterations in the tissue structure require a complementary approach. In this work we use X-ray phase-contrast tomography to obtain three-dimensional reconstructions of human hippocampal tissue affected by AD. Due to intrinsic electron density differences, tissue components and structures such as the granule cells of the dentate gyrus, blood vessels, or mineralized plaques can be identified and segmented in large volumes. Based on correlative histology, protein (tau, β-amyloid) and elemental content (iron, calcium) can be attributed to certain morphological features occurring in the entire volume. In the vicinity of senile plaques, an accumulation of microglia in combination with a loss of neuronal cells can be observed.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Dissociated neuronal phase- and amplitude-coupling patterns in the human brain
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Marcus Siems; Markus Siegel

    Coupling of neuronal oscillations may reflect and facilitate the communication between neuronal populations. Two primary neuronal coupling modes have been described: phase-coupling and amplitude-coupling. Theoretically, both coupling modes are independent, but so far, their neuronal relationship remains unclear. Here, we combined MEG, source-reconstruction and simulations to systematically compare cortical amplitude-coupling and phase-coupling patterns in the human brain. Importantly, we took into account a critical bias of amplitude-coupling measures due to phase-coupling. We found differences between both coupling modes across a broad frequency range and most of the cortex. Furthermore, by combining empirical measurements and simulations we ruled out that these results were caused by methodological biases, but instead reflected genuine neuronal amplitude coupling. Our results show that cortical phase- and amplitude-coupling patterns are non-redundant, which may reflect at least partly distinct neuronal mechanisms. Furthermore, our findings highlight and clarify the compound nature of amplitude coupling measures.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Diffusion time dependency along the human corpus callosum and exploration of age and sex differences as assessed by oscillating gradient spin-echo diffusion tensor imaging
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Pascal Tétreault; Kevin D. Harkins; Corey A. Baron; Rob Stobbe; Mark D. Does; Christian Beaulieu

    Conventional diffusion imaging uses pulsed gradient spin echo (PGSE) waveforms with diffusion times of tens of milliseconds (ms) to infer differences of white matter microstructure. The combined use of these long diffusion times with short diffusion times (<10 ms) enabled by oscillating gradient spin echo (OGSE) waveforms can enable more sensitivity to changes of restrictive boundaries on the scale of white matter microstructure (e.g. membranes reflecting the axon diameters). Here, PGSE and OGSE images were acquired at 4.7 T from 20 healthy volunteers aged 20–73 years (10 males). Mean, radial, and axial diffusivity, as well as fractional anisotropy were calculated in the genu, body and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Monte Carlo simulations were also conducted to examine the relationship of intra- and extra-axonal radial diffusivity with diffusion time over a range of axon diameters and distributions. The results showed elevated diffusivities with OGSE relative to PGSE in the genu and splenium (but not the body) in both males and females, but the OGSE-PGSE difference was greater in the genu for males. Females showed positive correlations OGSE-PGSE diffusivity difference with age across the CC, whereas there were no such age correlations in males. Simulations of radial diffusion demonstrated that for axon sizes in human brain both OGSE and PGSE diffusivities were dominated by extra-axonal water, but the OGSE-PGSE difference nonetheless increased with area-weighted outer-axon diameter. Therefore, the lack of OGSE-PGSE difference in the body is not entirely consistent with literature that suggests it is composed predominantly of axons with large diameter. The greater OGSE-PGSE difference in the genu of males could reflect larger axon diameters than females. The OGSE-PGSE difference correlation with age in females could reflect loss of smaller axons at older ages. The use of OGSE with short diffusion times to sample the microstructural scale of restriction implies regional differences of axon diameters along the corpus callosum with preliminary results suggesting a dependence on age and sex.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Fiber-specific variations in anterior transcallosal white matter structure contribute to age-related differences in motor performance
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Hamed Zivari Adab; Sima Chalavi; Thiago S. Monteiro; Jolien Gooijers; Thijs Dhollander; Dante Mantini; Stephan P. Swinnen

    Age-related differences in bimanual motor performance have been extensively documented, but their underlying neural mechanisms remain less clear. Studies applying diffusion MRI in the aging population have revealed evidence for age-related white matter variations in the corpus callosum (CC) which are related to bimanual motor performance. However, the diffusion tensor model used in those studies is confounded by partial volume effects in voxels with complex fiber geometries which are present in up to 90% of white matter voxels, including the bilateral projections of the CC. A recently developed whole-brain analysis framework, known as fixel-based analysis (FBA), enables comprehensive statistical analyses of white matter quantitative measures in the presence of such complex fiber geometries. To investigate the contribution of age-related fiber-specific white matter variations to age-related differences in bimanual performance, a cross-sectional lifespan sample of healthy human adults (N = 95; 20–75 years of age) performed a bimanual tracking task. Furthermore, diffusion MRI data were acquired and the FBA metrics associated with fiber density, cross-section, and combined fiber density and cross-section were estimated. Whole-brain FBA revealed significant negative associations between age and fiber density, cross-section, and combined metrics of multiple white matter tracts, including the bilateral projections of the CC, indicative of white matter micro- and macrostructural degradation with age. More importantly, mediation analyses demonstrated that age-related variations in the combined (fiber density and cross-section) metric of the genu, but not splenium, of the CC contributed to the observed age-related differences in bimanual coordination performance. These findings highlight the contribution of variations in interhemispheric communication between prefrontal (non-motor) cortices to age-related differences in motor performance.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The effect of network thresholding and weighting on structural brain networks in the UK Biobank
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Colin R. Buchanan; Mark E. Bastin; Stuart J. Ritchie; David C. Liewald; James W. Madole; Elliot M. Tucker-Drob; Ian J. Deary; Simon R. Cox

    Whole-brain structural networks can be constructed using diffusion MRI and probabilistic tractography. However, measurement noise and the probabilistic nature of the tracking procedure result in an unknown proportion of spurious white matter connections. Faithful disentanglement of spurious and genuine connections is hindered by a lack of comprehensive anatomical information at the network-level. Therefore, network thresholding methods are widely used to remove ostensibly false connections, but it is not yet clear how different thresholding strategies affect basic network properties and their associations with meaningful demographic variables, such as age. In a sample of 3153 generally healthy volunteers from the UK Biobank Imaging Study (aged 44–77 years), we constructed whole-brain structural networks and applied two principled network thresholding approaches (consistency and proportional thresholding). These were applied over a broad range of threshold levels across six alternative network weightings (streamline count, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity and three novel weightings from neurite orientation dispersion and density imaging) and for four common network measures (mean edge weight, characteristic path length, network efficiency and network clustering coefficient). We compared network measures against age associations and found that: 1) measures derived from unthresholded matrices yielded the weakest age-associations (0.033 ≤ |β| ≤ 0.409); and 2) the most commonly-used level of proportional-thresholding from the literature (retaining 68.7% of all possible connections) yielded significantly weaker age-associations (0.070 ≤ |β| ≤ 0.406) than the consistency-based approach which retained only 30% of connections (0.140 ≤ |β| ≤ 0.409). However, we determined that the stringency of the threshold was a stronger determinant of the network-age association than the choice of threshold method and the two thresholding approaches identified a highly overlapping set of connections (ICC = 0.84), when matched at 70% network sparsity. Generally, more stringent thresholding resulted in more age-sensitive network measures in five of the six network weightings, except at the highest levels of sparsity (>90%), where crucial connections were then removed. At two commonly-used threshold levels, the age-associations of the connections that were discarded (mean β ≤ |0.068|) were significantly smaller in magnitude than the corresponding age-associations of the connections that were retained (mean β ≤ |0.219|, p < 0.001, uncorrected). Given histological evidence of widespread degeneration of structural brain connectivity with increasing age, these results indicate that stringent thresholding methods may be most accurate in identifying true white matter connections.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Spatio-temporal dynamics of face perception
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    I. Muukkonen; K. Ölander; J. Numminen; V.R. Salmela

    The temporal and spatial neural processing of faces has been investigated rigorously, but few studies have unified these dimensions to reveal the spatio-temporal dynamics postulated by the models of face processing. We used support vector machine decoding and representational similarity analysis to combine information from different locations (fMRI), time windows (EEG), and theoretical models. By correlating representational dissimilarity matrices (RDMs) derived from multiple pairwise classifications of neural responses to different facial expressions (neutral, happy, fearful, angry), we found early EEG time windows (starting around 130 ms) to match fMRI data from primary visual cortex (V1), and later time windows (starting around 190 ms) to match data from lateral occipital, fusiform face complex, and temporal-parietal-occipital junction (TPOJ). According to model comparisons, the EEG classification results were based more on low-level visual features than expression intensities or categories. In fMRI, the model comparisons revealed change along the processing hierarchy, from low-level visual feature coding in V1 to coding of intensity of expressions in the right TPOJ. The results highlight the importance of a multimodal approach for understanding the functional roles of different brain regions in face processing.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Changes in brain activity following the voluntary control of empathy
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    K.C. Borja Jimenez; A.R. Abdelgabar; L. De Angelis; L. McKay; C. Keysers; V. Gazzola

    In neuroscience, empathy is often conceived as relatively automatic. The voluntary control that people can exert on brain mechanisms that map the emotions of others onto our own emotions has received comparatively less attention. Here, we therefore measured brain activity while participants watched emotional Hollywood movies under two different instructions: to rate the main characters' emotions by empathizing with them, or to do so while keeping a detached perspective. We found that participants yielded highly consistent and similar ratings of emotions under both conditions. Using intersubject correlation-based analyses we found that, when encouraged to empathize, participants’ brain activity in limbic (including cingulate and putamen) and somatomotor regions (including premotor, SI and SII) synchronized more during the movie than when encouraged to detach. Using intersubject functional connectivity we found that comparing the empathic and detached perspectives revealed widespread increases in functional connectivity between large scale networks. Our findings contribute to the increasing awareness that we have voluntary control over the neural mechanisms through which we process the emotions of others.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Functional disconnection of associative cortical areas predicts performance during BCI training
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Marie-Constance Corsi; Mario Chavez; Denis Schwartz; Nathalie George; Laurent Hugueville; Ari E. Kahn; Sophie Dupont; Danielle S. Bassett; Fabrizio De Vico Fallani

    Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been largely developed to allow communication, control, and neurofeedback in human beings. Despite their great potential, BCIs perform inconsistently across individuals and the neural processes that enable humans to achieve good control remain poorly understood. To address this question, we performed simultaneous high-density electroencephalographic (EEG) and magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings in a motor imagery-based BCI training involving a group of healthy subjects. After reconstructing the signals at the cortical level, we showed that the reinforcement of motor-related activity during the BCI skill acquisition is paralleled by a progressive disconnection of associative areas which were not directly targeted during the experiments. Notably, these network connectivity changes reflected growing automaticity associated with BCI performance and predicted future learning rate. Altogether, our findings provide new insights into the large-scale cortical organizational mechanisms underlying BCI learning, which have implications for the improvement of this technology in a broad range of real-life applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Dissociable neural systems for unconditioned acute and sustained fear
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Matthew Hudson; Kerttu Seppälä; Vesa Putkinen; Lihua Sun; Enrico Glerean; Tomi Karjalainen; Henry K. Karlsson; Jussi Hirvonen; Lauri Nummenmaa

    Fear protects organisms by increasing vigilance and preparedness, and by coordinating survival responses during life-threatening encounters. The fear circuit must thus operate on multiple timescales ranging from preparatory sustained alertness to acute fight-or-flight responses. Here we studied the brain basis of sustained and acute fear using naturalistic functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) enabling analysis of different time-scales of fear responses. Subjects (N = 37) watched feature-length horror movies while their hemodynamic brain activity was measured with fMRI. Time-variable intersubject correlation (ISC) was used to quantify the reliability of brain activity across participants, and seed-based phase synchronization was used for characterizing dynamic connectivity. Subjective ratings of fear were used to assess how synchronization and functional connectivity varied with emotional intensity. These data suggest that acute and sustained fear are supported by distinct neural pathways, with sustained fear amplifying mainly sensory responses, and acute fear increasing activity in brainstem, thalamus, amygdala and cingulate cortices. Sustained fear increased ISC in regions associated with acute fear, and also amplified functional connectivity within this network. The results were replicated in an independent experiment with a different subject sample and stimulus movie. The functional interplay between cortical networks involved in sustained anticipation of, and acute response to, threat involves a complex and dynamic interaction that depends on the proximity of threat, and the need to employ threat appraisals and vigilance for decision making and response selection.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Aging relates to a disproportionately weaker functional architecture of brain networks during rest and task states
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Colleen Hughes; Joshua Faskowitz; Brittany S. Cassidy; Olaf Sporns; Anne C. Krendl

    Functional connectivity – the co-activation of brain regions – forms the basis of the brain's functional architecture. Often measured during resting-state (i.e., in a task-free setting), patterns of functional connectivity within and between brain networks change with age. These patterns are of interest to aging researchers because age differences in resting-state connectivity relate to older adults' relative cognitive declines. Less is known about age differences in large-scale brain networks during directed tasks. Recent work in younger adults has shown that patterns of functional connectivity are highly correlated between rest and task states. Whether this finding extends to older adults remains largely unexplored. To this end, we assessed younger and older adults' functional connectivity across the whole brain using fMRI while participants underwent resting-state or completed directed tasks (e.g., a reasoning judgement task). Resting-state and task functional connectivity were less strongly correlated in older as compared to younger adults. This age-dependent difference could be attributed to significantly lower consistency in network organization between rest and task states among older adults. Older adults had less distinct or segregated networks during resting-state. This more diffuse pattern of organization was exacerbated during directed tasks. Finally, the default mode network, often implicated in neurocognitive aging, contributed strongly to this pattern. These findings establish that age differences in functional connectivity are state-dependent, providing greater insight into the mechanisms by which aging may lead to cognitive declines.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Neuronal population correlates of target selection and distractor filtering
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Elaine Astrand; Claire Wardak; Suliann Ben Hamed

    Frontal Eye Field (FEF) neurons discriminate between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli and their response magnitude predicts conscious perception. How this is reflected in the spatial representation of a visual stimulus at the neuronal population level is unknown. We recorded neuronal population activity in the FEF while monkeys were performing a forced choice cued detection task with identical target and distractor stimuli. We quantified, using machine learning techniques, estimates of target and distractor location from FEF population multiunit activities. We found that the FEF population activity provides a precise single trial estimate of reported stimuli locations. Importantly, the closer this prefrontal population single trial estimate is to the veridical stimulus location, the higher the probability that the target or the distractor is reported as perceived. We show that stimulus perception is rescued by the estimate of attention allocation specifically when the latter is close enough to the actual stimulus location, thus indicating a partial independence between attention and perception. Overall, we thus show that how and what we perceive of our environment depends on the spatial precision with which this environment is coded by prefrontal neuronal populations.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • In vivo imaging of deep neural activity from the cortical surface during hippocampal epileptiform events in the rat brain using electrical impedance tomography
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Sana Hannan; Mayo Faulkner; Kirill Aristovich; James Avery; Matthew C. Walker; David S. Holder

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a medical imaging technique which reconstructs images of the internal impedance changes within an object using non-penetrating surface electrodes. To date, EIT has been used to image fast neural impedance changes during somatosensory evoked potentials and epileptiform discharges through the rat cerebral cortex with a resolution of 2 m s and <300 μm. However, imaging of neural activity in subcortical structures has never been achieved with this technique. Here, we evaluated the feasibility of using EIT to image epileptiform activity in the rat hippocampus using non-penetrating electrodes implanted on the cortical surface. Hippocampal epileptiform events, comprising repetitive 30–50 Hz ictal spikes, were induced by electrically stimulating the perforant path of rats anaesthetised with fentanyl-isoflurane. For each of ≥30 seizures, impedance measurements were obtained by applying 100 μA current at 1.4 kHz through an independent pair of electrodes on a 54-electrode planar epicortical array and recording boundary voltages on all remaining electrodes. EIT images of averaged ictal spikes were reconstructed using impedance recordings from all seizures in each animal. These revealed a focus of neural activity localised to the dentate gyrus which was spatially and temporally aligned to local field potential (LFP) recordings and could be reconstructed reproducibly in all animals with a localisation accuracy of ≤400 μm (p < 0.03125, N = 5). These findings represent the first experimental evidence of the ability of EIT to image neural activity in subcortical structures from the surface of the cortex with high spatiotemporal resolution and suggest that this method may be used for improving understanding of functional connectivity between cortico-hippocampal networks in both physiological and pathophysiological states.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Using temporal EEG signal decomposition to identify specific neurophysiological correlates of distractor-response bindings proposed by the theory of event coding
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Antje Opitz; Christian Beste; Ann-Kathrin Stock

    The ability to cope with distracting information is a major requirement for goal-directed behavior. It is particularly challenged when distracting information is either potentially relevant or temporally close to goal-direct responses, resulting in so-called distractor-response bindings. According to the theory of event coding (TEC), distractor-response bindings should be reflected by processes in the event file, but not in object file (which stores stimulus features) or the action file (which stores response features). But even though the predictions of this theory are quite elaborated, their electrophysiological underpinnings and the associated functional neuroanatomical structures have remained largely elusive. To examine this, we used a distractor-response binding paradigm in combination with temporal EEG signal decomposition (RIDE) and source localization techniques. We showed that distractor-response binding effects are exclusively evident in the N450 time window of the central C-cluster. Source reconstructions revealed that distractor response binding effects were associated with brain regions involved in updating internal representations by using task-relevant information to decide on response execution (temporo-parietal junction, BA40), alongside with brain regions involved in conflict resolution processes (right middle frontal gyrus, BA8). Our results suggest that RIDE can be used to dissociate binding processes from stimulus- and response-related processes. On top of this, the results of EEG decomposition match the key assumption of the TEC, that distractor-response bindings occur in event files, but not in object or action files. The results show how cognitive-theoretical frameworks, such as TEC, can directly be mapped onto the underlying neurophysiological processes using EEG signal decomposition.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Following Forrest Gump: Smooth pursuit related brain activation during free movie viewing
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Ioannis Agtzidis; Inga Meyhöfer; Michael Dorr; Rebekka Lencer

    Most fMRI studies investigating smooth pursuit (SP) related brain activity have used simple synthetic stimuli such as a sinusoidally moving dot. However, real-life situations are much more complex and SP does not occur in isolation but within sequences of saccades and fixations. This raises the question whether the same brain networks for SP that have been identified under laboratory conditions are activated when following moving objects in a movie. Here, we used the publicly available studyforrest data set that provides eye movement recordings along with 3 T fMRI recordings from 15 subjects while watching the Hollywood movie “Forrest Gump”. All three major eye movement events, namely fixations, saccades, and smooth pursuit, were detected with a state-of-the-art algorithm. In our analysis, smooth pursuit (SP) was the eye movement of interest, while saccades were acting as the steady state of viewing behaviour due to their lower variability. For the fMRI analysis we used an event-related design modelling saccades and SP as regressors initially. Because of the interdependency of SP and content motion, we then added a new low-level content motion regressor to separate brain activations from these two sources. We identified higher BOLD-responses during SP than saccades bilaterally in MT+/V5, in middle cingulate extending to precuneus, and in the right temporoparietal junction. When the motion regressor was added, SP showed higher BOLD-response relative to saccades bilaterally in the cortex lining the superior temporal sulcus, precuneus, and supplementary eye field, presumably due to a confounding effect of background motion. Only parts of V2 showed higher activation during saccades in comparison to SP. Taken together, our approach should be regarded as proof of principle for deciphering brain activity related to SP, which is one of the most prominent eye movements besides saccades, in complex dynamic naturalistic situations.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Functional brain network architecture supporting the learning of social networks in humans
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Steven H. Tompson; Ari E. Kahn; Emily B. Falk; Jean M. Vettel; Danielle S. Bassett

    Most humans have the good fortune to live their lives embedded in richly structured social groups. Yet, it remains unclear how humans acquire knowledge about these social structures to successfully navigate social relationships. Here we address this knowledge gap with an interdisciplinary neuroimaging study drawing on recent advances in network science and statistical learning. Specifically, we collected BOLD MRI data while participants learned the community structure of both social and non-social networks, in order to examine whether the learning of these two types of networks was differentially associated with functional brain network topology. We found that participants learned the community structure of the networks, as evidenced by a slower reaction time when a trial moved between communities than when a trial moved within a community. Learning the community structure of social networks was also characterized by significantly greater functional connectivity of the hippocampus and temporoparietal junction when transitioning between communities than when transitioning within a community. Furthermore, temporoparietal regions of the default mode were more strongly connected to hippocampus, somatomotor, and visual regions for social networks than for non-social networks. Collectively, our results identify neurophysiological underpinnings of social versus non-social network learning, extending our knowledge about the impact of social context on learning processes. More broadly, this work offers an empirical approach to study the learning of social network structures, which could be fruitfully extended to other participant populations, various graph architectures, and a diversity of social contexts in future studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Gossip information increases reward-related oscillatory activity
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Helena Alicart; David Cucurell; Josep Marco-Pallarés

    Previous research has described the process by which the interaction between the firing in midbrain dopamine neurons and the hippocampus results in promoting memory for high-value motivational and rewarding events, both extrinsically and intrinsically driven (i.e. curiosity). Studies on social cognition and gossip have also revealed the activation of similar areas from the reward network. In this study we wanted to assess the electrophysiological correlates of the anticipation and processing of novel information (as an intrinsic cognitive reward) depending on the degree of elicited curiosity and the content of the information. 24 healthy volunteers participated in this EEG experiment. The task consisted of 150 questions and answers divided into three different conditions: trivia-like questions, personal-gossip information about celebrities and personal-neutral information about the same celebrities. Our main results from the ERPs and time-frequency analysis pinpointed main differences for gossip in comparison with personal-neutral and trivia-like conditions. Specifically, we found an increase in beta oscillatory activity in the outcome phase and a decrease of the same frequency band in the expectation phase. Larger amplitudes in P300 component were also found for gossip condition. Finally, gossip answers were the most remembered in a one-week memory test. The arousing value and saliency of gossip information, its rewarding effect evidenced by the increase of beta oscillatory power and the recruitment of areas from the brain reward network in previous fMRI studies, as well as its potential social value have been argued in order to explain its differential processing, encoding and recall.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Task-specific signatures in the expert brain: Differential correlates of translation and reading in professional interpreters
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Martin Dottori; Eugenia Hesse; Micaela Santilli; Martina G. Vilas; Miguel Martorell Caro; Daniel Fraiman; Lucas Sedeño; Agustín Ibáñez; Adolfo M. García

    Insights on the neurocognitive particularities of expert individuals have recently benefited from language studies on professional simultaneous interpreters (PSIs). Accruing research indicates that behavioral advantages in this population are restricted to those skills that are directly taxed during professional practice (e.g., translation as opposed to reading), but little is known about the neural signatures of such selective effects. To illuminate the issue, we recruited 17 PSIs and 15 non-interpreter bilinguals and compared behavioral and electrophysiological markers of word reading and translation from and into their native and non-native languages (L1 and L2, respectively). PSIs exhibited greater delta-theta (1–8 Hz) power across all tasks over varying topographies, but these were accompanied by faster performance only in the case of translation conditions. Moreover, neural differences in PSIs were most marked for L2-L1 translation (the dominant interpreting direction in their market), which exhibited maximally widespread modulations that selectively correlated with behavioral outcomes. Taken together, our results suggest that interpreting experience involves distinct neural signatures across reading and translation mechanisms, but that these are systematically related with processing efficiency only in domains that face elevated demands during everyday practice (i.e., L2-L1 translation). These findings can inform models of simultaneous interpreting, in particular, and expert cognitive processing, in general.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • In vivo functional localization of the temporal monocular crescent representation in human primary visual cortex
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Shahin Nasr; Cristen LaPierre; Christopher E. Vaughn; Thomas Witzel; Jason P. Stockmann; Jonathan R. Polimeni

    The temporal monocular crescent (TMC) is the most peripheral portion of the visual field whose perception relies solely on input from the ipsilateral eye. According to a handful of post-mortem histological studies in humans and non-human primates, the TMC is represented visuotopically within the most anterior portion of the primary visual cortical area (V1). However, functional evidence of the TMC visuotopic representation in human visual cortex is rare, mostly due to the small size of the TMC representation (∼6% of V1) and due to the technical challenges of stimulating the most peripheral portion of the visual field inside the MRI scanner. In this study, by taking advantage of custom-built MRI-compatible visual stimulation goggles with curved displays, we successfully stimulated the TMC region of the visual field in eight human subjects, half of them right-eye dominant, inside a 3 T MRI scanner. This enabled us to localize the representation of TMC, along with the blind spot representation (another visuotopic landmark in V1), in all volunteers, which match the expected spatial pattern based on prior anatomical studies. In all hemispheres, the TMC visuotopic representation was localized along the peripheral border of V1, within the most anterior portion of the calcarine sulcus, without any apparent extension into the second visual area (V2). We further demonstrate the reliability of this localization within/across experimental sessions, and consistency in the spatial location of TMC across individuals after accounting for inter-subject structural differences.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Characterization of information processing in the subthalamic area of Parkinson's patients
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Immo Weber; Esther Florin; Michael von Papen; Veerle Visser-Vandewalle; Lars Timmermann

    Despite advances in symptomatic treatment options, the pathomechanism of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly understood. Animal studies from recent years suggest pathological information processing in the basal ganglia network to be responsible for major movement deficits observed in patients, which, according to the information lesion hypothesis, might also explain the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation (DBS). Using novel measures from information theory we characterize the information content, storage and transfer of intraoperatively recorded local field potentials (LFP) from the subthalamic area of n = 19 PD patients undergoing surgery for implantation of electrodes for deep brain stimulation. In agreement with recent animal studies, we demonstrate a significant positive correlation of subthalamic information content and movement deficits (ρ > 0.48). Analysis of information storage reveals a larger processing memory in the zona incerta (ZI) than in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). We discuss possible implications for the efficiency of high frequency DBS. Further, we estimate the information transfer between forearm muscles and ZI/STN. Here, we show that the bidirectional information flow with respect to the STN is larger compared to the ZI. In contrast to the STN, however, the bidirectional information flow in the ZI is modulated, namely increased, by movement. The results of our study may help to understand the mechanism of action of deep brain stimulation and further explain recent studies claiming efficiency of ZI stimulation for certain motor symptoms.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • A prospective population-based study of gestational vitamin D status and brain morphology in preadolescents
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Runyu Zou; Hanan El Marroun; John J. McGrath; Ryan L. Muetzel; Manon Hillegers; Tonya White; Henning Tiemeier

    Low vitamin D level during pregnancy has been associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in children. However, the underlying neurobiological mechanism remains largely unknown. This study investigated the association between gestational 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration and brain morphology in 2597 children at the age of 10 years in the population-based Generation R Study. We studied both 25(OH)D in maternal venous blood in mid-gestation and in umbilical cord blood at delivery, in relation to brain volumetric measures and surface-based cortical metrics including cortical thickness, surface area, and gyrification using linear regression. We found exposure to higher maternal 25(OH)D concentrations in mid-gestation was associated with a larger cerebellar volume in children (b = 0.02, 95%CI 0.001 to 0.04), however this association did not remain after correction for multiple comparisons. In addition, children exposed to persistently deficient (i.e., <25 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentration from mid-gestation to delivery showed less cerebral gray matter and white matter volumes, as well as smaller surface area and less gyrification at 10 years than those with persistently sufficient (i.e., ≥50 nmol/L) 25(OH)D concentration. These results suggest temporal relationships between gestational vitamin D concentration and brain morphological development in children.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The disengaging brain: Dynamic transitions from cognitive engagement and alcoholism risk
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Enrico Amico; Mario Dzemidzic; Brandon G. Oberlin; Claire R. Carron; Jaroslaw Harezlak; Joaquín Goñi; David A. Kareken

    Human functional brain connectivity is usually measured either at “rest” or during cognitive tasks, ignoring life's moments of mental transition. We propose a different approach to understanding brain network transitions. We applied a novel independent component analysis of functional connectivity during motor inhibition (stop signal task) and during the continuous transition to an immediately ensuing rest. A functional network reconfiguration process emerged that: (i) was most prominent in those without familial alcoholism risk, (ii) encompassed brain areas engaged by the task, yet (iii) emerged only transiently after task cessation. The pattern was not present in a pre-task rest scan or in the remaining minutes of post-task rest. Finally, this transient network reconfiguration related to a key behavioral trait of addiction risk: reward delay discounting. These novel findings illustrate how dynamic brain functional reconfiguration during normally unstudied periods of cognitive transition might reflect addiction vulnerability, and potentially other forms of brain dysfunction.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Deep brain stimulation in the caudal zona incerta modulates the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral circuit in essential tremor
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Amar Awad; Patric Blomstedt; Göran Westling; Johan Eriksson

    Essential tremor is effectively treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS), but the neural mechanisms underlying the treatment effect are poorly understood. Essential tremor is driven by a dysfunctional cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit resulting in pathological tremor oscillations. DBS is hypothesised to interfere with these oscillations at the stimulated target level, but it is unknown whether the stimulation modulates the activity of the cerebello-thalamo-cerebral circuit during different task states (with and without tremor) in awake essential tremor patients. To address this issue, we used functional MRI in 16 essential tremor patients chronically implanted with DBS in the caudal zona incerta. During scanning, the patients performed unilateral tremor-inducing postural holding and pointing tasks as well as rest, with contralateral stimulation turned On and Off. We show that DBS exerts both task-dependent as well as task-independent modulation of the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral regions (p ≤ 0.05, FWE cluster-corrected for multiple comparisons). Task-dependent modulation (DBS × task interaction) resulted in two patterns of stimulation effects. Firstly, activity decreases (blood oxygen level-dependent signal) during tremor-inducing postural holding in the primary sensorimotor cortex and cerebellar lobule VIII, and activity increases in the supplementary motor area and cerebellar lobule V during rest (p ≤ 0.05, post hoc two-tailed t-test). These effects represent differences at the effector level and may reflect DBS-induced tremor reduction since the primary sensorimotor cortex, cerebellum and supplementary motor area exhibit less motor task-activity as compared to the resting condition during On stimulation. Secondly, task-independent modulation (main effect of DBS) was observed as activity increase in the lateral premotor cortex during all motor tasks, and also during rest (p ≤ 0.05, post hoc two-tailed t-test). This task-independent effect may mediate the therapeutic effects of DBS through the facilitation of the premotor control over the sensorimotor circuit, making it less susceptible to tremor entrainment. Our findings support the notion that DBS in essential tremor is modulating the sensorimotor cerebello-cerebral circuit, distant to the stimulated target, and illustrate the complexity of stimulation mechanisms by demonstrating task-dependent as well as task-independent actions in cerebello-cerebral regions.

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Diminished large-scale functional brain networks in absolute pitch during the perception of naturalistic music and audiobooks
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Christian Brauchli; Simon Leipold; Lutz Jäncke

    Previous studies have reported the effects of absolute pitch (AP) and musical proficiency on the functioning of specific brain regions or distinct subnetworks, but they provided an incomplete account of effects of AP and musical proficiency on whole-brain networks. In this study, we used EEG to estimate source-space whole-brain functional connectivity in a large sample comprising AP musicians (n = 46), relative pitch (RP) musicians (n = 45), and Non-musicians (n = 34) during resting state, naturalistic music listening, and audiobook listening. First, we assessed the global network density of the participants’ functional networks in these conditions. As revealed by cluster-based permutation testing, AP musicians showed a decreased mean degree compared to Non-musicians whereas RP musicians showed an intermediate mean degree not statistically different from Non-musicians or AP-musicians. This effect was present during naturalistic music and audiobook listening, but, crucially, not during resting state. Second, we identified subnetworks that drive group differences in global network density using the network-based statistic approach. We found that AP musicians showed decreased functional connectivity in major hubs of the default mode network during both music and audiobook listening compared to Non-musicians. Third, we assessed group differences in global network topology while controlling for network density. We did not find evidence for group differences in the clustering coefficient and characteristic path length. Taken together, we found first evidence of diminished whole-brain functional networks in AP musicians during the perception of naturalistic auditory stimuli. These differences might reflect a complex interplay between AP ability, musical proficiency, music processing, and auditory processing per se.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Dynamic intersubject neural synchronization reflects affective responses to sad music
    NeuroImage (IF 5.812) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Matthew E. Sachs; Assal Habibi; Antonio Damasio; Jonas T. Kaplan

    Psychological theories of emotion often highlight the dynamic quality of the affective experience, yet neuroimaging studies of affect have traditionally relied on static stimuli that lack ecological validity. Consequently, the brain regions that represent emotions and feelings as they unfold remain unclear. Recently, dynamic, model-free analytical techniques have been employed with naturalistic stimuli to better capture time-varying patterns of activity in the brain; yet, few studies have focused on relating these patterns to changes in subjective feelings. Here, we address this gap, using intersubject correlation and phase synchronization to assess how stimulus-driven changes in brain activity and connectivity are related to two aspects of emotional experience: emotional intensity and enjoyment. During fMRI scanning, healthy volunteers listened to a full-length piece of music selected to induce sadness. After scanning, participants listened to the piece twice while simultaneously rating the intensity of felt sadness or felt enjoyment. Activity in the auditory cortex, insula, and inferior frontal gyrus was significantly synchronized across participants. Synchronization in auditory, visual, and prefrontal regions was significantly greater in participants with higher measures of a subscale of trait empathy related to feeling emotions in response to music. When assessed dynamically, continuous enjoyment ratings positively predicted a moment-to-moment measure of intersubject synchronization in auditory, default mode, and striatal networks, as well as the orbitofrontal cortex, whereas sadness predicted intersubject synchronization in limbic and striatal networks. The results suggest that stimulus-driven patterns of neural communication in emotional processing and high-level cortical regions carry meaningful information with regards to our feeling in response to a naturalistic stimulus.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
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