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  • Mini-brain computations converting dynamic olfactory inputs into orientation behavior
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-25
    Matthieu Louis

    The neural logic underlying the conversion of non-stationary (dynamic) olfactory inputs into odor-search behaviors has been difficult to crack due to the distributed nature of the olfactory code — food odors typically co-activate multiple olfactory sensory neurons. In the Drosophila larva, the activity of a single olfactory sensory neuron is sufficient to direct accurate reorientation maneuvers in odor gradients (chemotaxis). In this reduced sensory system, a descending pathway essential for larval chemotaxis has been delineated from the peripheral olfactory system down to the premotor system. Here, I review how anatomical and functional inspections of this pathway have advanced our understanding of the neural mechanisms that convert behaviorally relevant sensory signals into orientation responses.

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Multisensory control of navigation in the fruit fly
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Timothy A. Currier; Katherine I. Nagel

    Spatial navigation is influenced by cues from nearly every sensory modality and thus provides an excellent model for understanding how different sensory streams are integrated to drive behavior. Here we review recent work on multisensory control of navigation in the model organism Drosophila melanogaster, which allows for detailed circuit dissection. We identify four modes of integration that have been described in the literature—suppression, gating, summation, and association—and describe regions of the larval and adult brain that have been implicated in sensory integration. Finally we discuss what circuit architectures might support these different forms of integration. We argue that Drosophila is an excellent model to discover these circuit and biophysical motifs

    更新日期:2019-12-26
  • Intestinal neuro-immune interactions: focus on macrophages, mast cells and innate lymphoid cells
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Nathalie Stakenborg; Maria F. Viola; Guy E. Boeckxstaens

    Intestinal homeostasis relies on the reciprocal crosstalk between enteric neurons and immune cells, which together form neuro-immune units that occupy distinct anatomical niches within the gut. Here we will review the recent advances in our understanding of neuro-immune crosstalk within the gut, with focus on macrophages, mast cells and innate lymphoid cells. In particular, we will discuss the role of neuron-immune cell crosstalk in homeostasis, and how aberrant communication may underlie disease in the gastro-intestinal tract.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Intimate neuro-immune interactions: breaking barriers between systems to make meaningful progress
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Jami L Saloman; Jonathan A Cohen; Daniel H Kaplan

    The nervous system is often viewed as an isolated system that integrates information from the environment and host. Recently, there has been a renewed focus exploring the concept that the nervous system also communicates across biological systems. Specifically, several high profile studies have recently highlighted the importance of neuro-immune communication in the context of homeostasis, central nervous system disorders, host defense and injury. Here, we discuss the history of shared mechanisms and interconnectedness of the nervous, immune and epithelial compartments. In light of these overlapping mechanisms, it is perhaps unsurprising that neuro-immune-epithelial signaling plays a key role in regulating diverse biological phenomena. In this review, we explore recent breakthroughs in understanding neuro-immune signaling to highlight the importance of interdisciplinary approaches to biomedical research and the future development of novel therapeutics.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Meningeal lymphatics, immunity and neuroinflammation
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Natalie Frederick, Antoine Louveau

    In the past five years, the surrounding of the brain, that is the meninges (singular meninx) have evolved from being a physical barrier that protects the brain parenchyma to becoming a central player for both the maintenance of normal brain function and the modulation of neurological disorders. Indeed, the meninges are an immunologically active compartment that communicates with the periphery via the (re)discovered meningeal lymphatic system. From its ties to both the periphery and the central nervous system, the meninges are becoming a prevalent organ to understand and modulate brain homeostasis. Here we will focus on current advances in our understanding of the meningeal compartment with an emphasis on the meningeal lymphatic network as a key regulator.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • The gut microbiome: an unexpected player in cancer immunity
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Scott N Peterson, Linda M Bradley, Ze’ev A Ronai

    Numerous independent studies link gut microbiota composition and disease and imply a causal role of select commensal microbes in disease etiology. In the gut, commensal microbiota or pathobionts secrete metabolites that underlie pathological conditions, often impacting proximal tissues and gaining access to the bloodstream. Here we focus on extrinsic and intrinsic factors affecting composition of gut microbiota and their impact on the immune system, as key drivers of anti-tumor immunity. In discussing exciting advances relevant to microbiome-tumor interaction, we note existing knowledge gaps that need to be filled to advance basic and clinical research initiatives.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Gut microbiota – host interactions now also brain-immune axis
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-06
    Haitham Hajjo, Naama Geva-Zatorsky

    The ‘gut-brain axis’ is a fairly new term in the fairly new field of the gut microbiota. The gut microbiota, the collection of microorganisms residing in intestines of vertebrates, was shown to have major effects on host physiology. The field has seen a renaissance due to advances in deep-sequencing. Recently, there is an explosion of studies on the physiological and therapeutic potential of the gut microbiota. These microbes are considered to reside in symbiosis with their hosts, and are termed ‘commensals’, originated from Latin — ‘at table together’. We provide the gut microbes nutrients and a living niche, and they in turn, provide us with essentially the same — nutrients derived from the food we eat, that we cannot digest, and essential functions for health and longevity. In the past few years it has been appreciated that gut microbes can even affect our brain, behavior, and neurological disorders, which we here review.

    更新日期:2019-12-06
  • Neuro-immune circuits in C. elegans
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Jogender Singh, Alejandro Aballay

    The nervous and immune systems use bi-directional communication to control host responses against microbial pathogens. Recent studies at the interface of the two systems have highlighted important roles of the nervous system in the regulation of both microbicidal pathways and pathogen avoidance behaviors. Studies on the neural circuits in the simple model host Caenorhabditis elegans have significantly improved our understanding of the roles of conserved neural mechanisms in controlling innate immunity. Moreover, behavioral studies have advanced our understanding of how the nervous system may sense potential pathogens and consequently elicit pathogen avoidance, reducing the risk of infection. In this review, we discuss the neural circuits that regulate both behavioral immunity and molecular immunity in C. elegans.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Ménage à trois: regulation of host immunity by enteric neuro-immune-microbiota cross talks
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Nissan Yissachar

    Over the past decade, our understanding of intestinal immunology has been transformed by the realization that the gut microbiota shapes immune development, function and disease susceptibility. Strikingly, the enteric nervous system is now emerging as a cellular hub that sense microbiota-derived signals and rapidly orchestrate immunological outcomes. Here, I discuss recent advances in our understanding of intestinal neuroimmune communications, their modulation by the gut microbiota, and the consequent impact on host immunity, in health and disease.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Imbalance in the force: the dark side of the microbiota on stroke risk and progression
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Kathryn Prame Kumar, Connie HY Wong

    The composition of the gut microbiota depends on many factors, including our lifestyle, diet, metabolism, antibiotic use and hygiene. The contribution of these factors in shaping the gut microbiota and the subsequent effects on the prevention and development of stroke has been under intense investigation. Furthermore, several reports have uncovered the impact of stroke on intestinal dysfunction and gut dysbiosis, highlighting the delicate interplay between the brain, gut and microbiome following this acute brain injury. Despite our growing appreciation of the gut microbiota in shaping brain health, the immune system, host metabolism and disease progression, its therapeutic capability in stroke is yet to be fully exploited. This review will explore the microbiota-gut-brain axis in stroke, and examine the potential role of the gut microbiota in the onset, progression and recovery phase of stroke.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Regulation of pain by neuro-immune interactions between macrophages and nociceptor sensory neurons
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Ouyang Chen, Christopher R Donnelly, Ru-Rong Ji

    Inflammation is the body’s protective reaction to injury and infection. Pain is a hallmark of inflammation and can be either protective or detrimental during acute or chronic phase. Macrophages play a chief role in the pathogenesis of pain and have bilateral communications with nociceptors, the specialized primary sensory neurons that sense pain. Macrophages ‘talk to’ nociceptors by releasing pro-inflammatory mediators (e.g. pro-inflammatory cytokines) that induce pain via direct activation of nociceptors. Macrophages also ‘listen to’ nociceptors, by which nociceptors secrete neuropeptides and chemokines which act on macrophages. Activation of toll-like receptors (TLRs) in nociceptors releases CCL2, activating macrophages and potentiating pathological pain. Emerging evidence also points to a pro-resolution role of macrophages in inflammation and pain. Macrophage GPR37 is activated by neuroprotectin D1, a specialized pro-resolving mediator (SPM) and resolves inflammatory pain via phagocytosis and production of IL-10 that inhibits nociceptors. Macrophage-nociceptor interactions are also mediated by microRNAs and microRNA-containing exosomes in chronic pain. Notably, extracellular microRNAs (e.g. let-7b and miR-711) can directly bind and activate nociceptors. Targeting macrophage-nociceptor interactions will help to control inflammation and pain.

    更新日期:2019-12-03
  • Nervous system control of intestinal host defense in C. elegans
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Khursheed A Wani, Debanjan Goswamy, Javier E Irazoqui
    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Histone demethylases in neuronal differentiation, plasticity, and disease
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-03-14
    Vijay Swahari, Anne E West

    For more than 40 years after its discovery, histone methylation was thought to be largely irreversible. However, the first histone demethylase (HDM) was identified in 2004, challenging this notion. Since that time, more than 20 HDMs have been identified and characterized, and many have been shown to have critical roles in organismal development, cell fate, and disease. Here, we highlight some of the recent advances in our understanding of the function of HDMs in the context of neuronal development, plasticity, and disease. We focus, in particular, on molecular genetic studies of LSD1, Kdm6b, and Kdm5c that have elucidated both enzymatic and non-enzymatic gene regulatory functions of these HDMs in neurons.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • CBP/p300 in brain development and plasticity: disentangling the KAT’s cradle
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-03-08
    Michal Lipinski, Beatriz del Blanco, Angel Barco
    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Location, location, location: nuclear structure regulates gene expression in neurons
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-18
    Emily Brookes, Antonella Riccio

    Genome architecture plays a critical role in regulating the expression of genes that are essential for nervous system development. During neuronal differentiation, spatially and temporally regulated transcription allows neuronal migration, the growth of dendrites and axons, and at later stages, synaptic formation and the establishment of neuronal circuitry. Genome topology and relocation of gene loci within the nucleus are now regarded as key factors that contribute to transcriptional regulation. Here, we review recent work supporting the hypothesis that the dynamic organization of chromatin within the nucleus impacts gene activation in response to extrinsic signalling and during neuronal differentiation. The consequences of disruption of the genome architecture on neuronal health will be also discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Recent advances in neuroepigenetic editing
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-20
    Song-Jun Xu, Elizabeth A Heller

    A wealth of studies in the mammalian nervous system indicate the role of epigenetic gene regulation in both basic neurobiological function and disease. However, the relationship between epigenetic regulation and neuropathology is largely correlational due to the presence of mixed cell populations within brain regions and the genome-wide effects of classical approaches to manipulate the epigenome. Locus-specific epigenetic editing allows direct epigenetic regulation of specific genes to elucidate the direct causal relationship between epigenetic modifications and transcription. This review discusses some of the latest innovations in the efficacy and flexibility in this approach that hold promise for neurobiological application.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Shaping the human brain: evolutionary cis-regulatory plasticity drives changes in synaptic activity-controlled adaptive gene expression
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Priit Pruunsild, Hilmar Bading

    Neuronal activity-induced gene expression programs involved in synaptic structure- and plasticity-related functions are similar in mice and humans, yet bear distinct features. These include gains or losses of activity-responsiveness of certain genes and differences in gene induction profiles. Here, we discuss a possible origin of dissimilarities in activity-regulated transcription between species. We highlight that while synapse-to-nucleus signalling pathways are evolutionarily conserved, cis-regulatory plasticity has been driving species-specific remodelling of the activity-controlled enhancer landscape, thereby affecting gene regulation. In particular, evolutionary rearrangements of transcription factor binding site placements together with potential species-dependent developmental stage- and/or cell type-specific epigenetic and other trans-acting mechanisms are most likely at least in part accountable for between-species diversity in activity-regulated transcription. It is conceivable that cis-regulatory plasticity may have equipped the synaptic activity-driven adaptive gene program in human neurons with unique, species-specific qualities.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Emerging roles for MEF2 in brain development and mental disorders
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Ahlem Assali, Adam J Harrington, Christopher W Cowan

    The MEF2 family of transcription factors regulate large programs of gene expression important for the development and maintenance of many tissues, including the brain. MEF2 proteins are regulated by neuronal synaptic activity, and they recruit several epigenetic enzymes to influence chromatin structure and gene expression during development and throughout adulthood. Here, we provide a brief review of the recent literature reporting important roles for MEF2 during early brain development and function, and we highlight emerging roles for MEF2 as a risk factor for multiple neurodevelopmental disorders and mental illnesses, such as autism, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The epitranscriptome and synaptic plasticity
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-17
    Mathieu N Flamand, Kate D Meyer

    RNA modifications, collectively referred to as ‘the epitranscriptome,’ have recently emerged as a pervasive feature of cellular mRNAs which have diverse impacts on gene expression. In the last several years, technological advances improving our ability to identify mRNA modifications, coupled with the discovery of proteins that add and remove these marks, have substantially expanded our knowledge of how the epitranscriptome shapes gene expression. Efforts to uncover functional roles for mRNA modifications have begun to reveal important roles for some marks within the nervous system, and animal models have emerged which demonstrate severe neurodevelopmental and neurocognitive abnormalities resulting from the loss of mRNA modification machinery. Here, we review the recent advances in the field of neuroepitranscriptomics, with a particular emphasis on how modifications to mRNAs within the brain contribute to synaptic activity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Regulation of neuronal connectivity in the mammalian brain by chromatin remodeling
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Jared V. Goodman, Azad Bonni

    Precise temporal and spatial control of gene expression is essential for brain development. Besides DNA sequence-specific transcription factors, epigenetic factors play an integral role in the control of gene expression in neurons. Among epigenetic mechanisms, chromatin remodeling enzymes have emerged as essential to the control of neural circuit assembly and function in the brain. Here, we review recent studies on the roles and mechanisms of the chromodomain-helicase-DNA-binding (Chd) family of chromatin remodeling enzymes in the regulation of neuronal morphogenesis and connectivity in the mammalian brain. We explore the field through the lens of Chd3, Chd4, and Chd5 proteins, which incorporate into the nucleosome remodeling and deacetylase (NuRD) complex, and the related proteins Chd7 and Chd8, implicated in the pathogenesis of intellectual disability and autism spectrum disorders. These studies have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms that regulate neuronal connectivity in brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders of cognition.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The chromatin landscape of neuronal plasticity
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Margaret Herre, Erica Korb

    Examining the links between neuronal activity, transcriptional output, and synaptic function offers unique insights into how neurons adapt to changing environments and form memories. Epigenetic markers, such as DNA methylation and histone modifications, have been implicated in the formation of not only cellular memories such as cell fate, but also memories of experience at the organismal level. Here, we review recent advances in chromatin regulation that contribute to synaptic plasticity and drive adaptive behaviors through dynamic and precise regulation of transcription output in neurons. We discuss chromatin-associated proteins, histone variant proteins, the contribution of cis-regulatory elements and their interaction with histone modifications, and how these mechanisms are integrated into distinct behavior and environmental response paradigms.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • New subtypes of allele-specific epigenetic effects: implications for brain development, function and disease
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-30
    Stephanie N Kravitz, Christopher Gregg

    Typically, it is assumed that the maternal and paternal alleles for most genes are equally expressed. Known exceptions include canonical imprinted genes, random X-chromosome inactivation, olfactory receptors and clustered protocadherins. Here, we highlight recent studies showing that allele-specific expression is frequent in the genome and involves subtypes of epigenetic allelic effects that differ in terms of heritability, clonality and stability over time. Different forms of epigenetic allele regulation could have different roles in brain development, function, and disease. An emerging area involves understanding allelic effects in a cell-type and developmental stage-specific manner and determining how these effects influence the impact of genetic variants and mutations on the brain. A deeper understanding of epigenetics at the allele and cellular level in the brain could help clarify the mechanisms underlying phenotypic variance.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The neuronal stimulation–transcription coupling map
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-01
    Kelsey M Tyssowski, Jesse M Gray

    Neurons transcribe different genes in response to different extracellular stimuli, and these genes regulate neuronal plasticity. Thus, understanding how different stimuli regulate different stimulus-dependent gene modules would deepen our understanding of plasticity. To systematically dissect the coupling between stimulation and transcription, we propose creating a ‘stimulation–transcription coupling map’ that describes the transcription response to each possible extracellular stimulus. While we are currently far from having a complete map, recent genomic experiments have begun to facilitate its creation. Here, we describe the current state of the stimulation–transcription coupling map as well as the transcriptional regulation that enables this coupling.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Convergence of spectrums: neuronal gene network states in autism spectrum disorder
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-18
    Josefa M Sullivan, Silvia De Rubeis, Anne Schaefer

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a prevalent neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social deficits and restrictive and/or repetitive behaviors. The breadth of ASD symptoms is paralleled by the multiplicity of genes that have been implicated in its etiology. Initial findings revealed numerous ASD risk genes that contribute to synaptic function. More recently, genomic and gene expression studies point to altered chromatin function and impaired transcriptional control as additional risk factors for ASD. The consequences of impaired transcriptional alterations in ASD involve consistent changes in synaptic gene expression and cortical neuron specification during brain development. The multiplicity of genetic and environmental factors associated with ASD risk and their convergence onto common molecular pathways in neurons point to ASD as a disorder of gene regulatory networks.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • MeCP2: an epigenetic regulator of critical periods
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-01
    Nathalie Picard, Michela Fagiolini

    Complex adult behaviors arise from the integration of sequential and often overlapping critical periods (CPs) early in life and adolescence. These processes rely on a subtle interplay between the set of genes inherited from the parents, the surrounding environment and epigenetic regulation. Methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has been shown to recognize epigenetic states and regulate gene expression by reading methylated DNA. Here, we will review the recent findings revealing the role of MeCP2 during postnatal CPs of development using mouse models of Rett (RTT) syndrome.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Spatial genome exploration in the context of cognitive and neurological disease
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Prashanth Rajarajan, Tyler Borrman, Will Liao, Sergio Espeso-Gil, Sandhya Chandrasekaran, Yan Jiang, Zhiping Weng, Kristen J Brennand, Schahram Akbarian

    The ‘non-linear’ genome, or the spatial proximity of non-contiguous sequences, emerges as an important regulatory layer for genome organization and function, including transcriptional regulation. Here, we review recent genome-scale chromosome conformation mappings (‘Hi-C’) in developing and adult human and mouse brain. Neural differentiation is associated with widespread remodeling of the chromosomal contact map, reflecting dynamic changes in cell-type-specific gene expression programs, with a massive (estimated 20–50%) net loss of chromosomal contacts that is specific for the neuronal lineage. Hi-C datasets provided an unexpected link between locus-specific abnormal expansion of repeat sequences positioned at the boundaries of self-associating topological chromatin domains, and monogenic neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Furthermore, integrative cell-type-specific Hi-C and transcriptomic analysis uncovered an expanded genomic risk space for sequences conferring liability for schizophrenia and other cognitive disease. We predict that spatial genome exploration will deliver radically new insights into the brain nucleome in health and disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Genetic and epigenetic control of retinal development in zebrafish
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Pawat Seritrakul, Jeffrey M Gross

    The vertebrate retina is a complex structure composed of seven cell types (six neuron and one glia), and all of which originate from a seemingly homogeneous population of proliferative multipotent retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) that exit the cell cycle and differentiate in a spatio-temporally regulated and stereotyped fashion. This neurogenesis process requires intricate genetic regulation involving a combination of cell intrinsic transcription factors and extrinsic signaling molecules, and many critical factors have been identified that influence the timing and composition of the developing retina. Adding complexity to the process, over the past decade, a variety of epigenetic regulatory mechanisms have been shown to influence neurogenesis, and these include changes in histone modifications and the chromatin landscape and changes in DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation patterns. This review summarizes recent findings in the genetic and epigenetic regulation of retinal development, with an emphasis on the zebrafish model system, and it outlines future areas of investigation that will continue to push the field forward into the epigenomics era.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Epigenetics and addiction
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-27
    Peter J Hamilton, Eric J Nestler

    As an individual becomes addicted to a drug of abuse, nerve cells within the brain’s reward circuitry adapt at the epigenetic level during the course of repeated drug exposure. These drug-induced epigenetic adaptations mediate enduring changes in brain function which contribute to life-long, drug-related behavioral abnormalities that define addiction. Targeting these epigenetic alterations will enhance our understanding of the biological basis of addiction and might even yield more effective anti-addiction therapies. However, the complexity of the neuroepigenetic landscape makes it difficult to determine which drug-induced epigenetic changes causally contribute to the pathogenic mechanisms of drug addiction. In this review, we highlight the evidence that epigenetic modifications, specifically histone modifications, within key brain reward regions are correlated with addiction. We then discuss the emerging field of locus-specific neuroepigenetic editing, which is a promising method for determining the causal epigenetic molecular mechanisms that drive an addicted state. Such approaches will substantially increase the field’s ability to establish the precise epigenetic mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and could lead to novel treatments for addictive disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • From insects to mammals: regulation of genome architecture in neural development
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-07-09
    Tanguy Lucas, Minoree Kohwi

    One of the hallmarks of the metazoan genome is that genes are non-randomly positioned within the cell nucleus; in fact, the entire genome is packaged in a highly organized manner to orchestrate proper gene expression for each cell type. This is an especially daunting task for the development of the brain, which consists of an incredibly diverse population of neural cells. How genome architecture is established, maintained, and regulated to promote diverse cell fates and functions are fascinating questions with important implications in development and disease. The explosion in various biochemical and imaging techniques to analyze chromatin is now making it possible to interrogate the genome at an unprecedented resolution. Here we will focus on current advances in understanding genome architecture and gene regulation in the context of neural development.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Three-dimensional chromosome architecture and drug addiction
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-07-02
    Javed M Chitaman, Peter Fraser, Jian Feng

    Aberrant gene expression underlies drug addiction. Therefore, studying the regulation of gene expression in drug addiction may provide mechanistic insights into this disease, for which there are still only limited treatments. Recently, the three-dimensional (3D) organization of linear DNA in the nucleus has been recognized as having a major influence on gene transcription. Here, we review its roles in both basic brain function and neuropsychiatric disorders, while also highlighting its emerging implications in drug addiction. Unraveling the 3D architecture of chromosomes in drug addiction is adding to our understanding of this disease and has the potential to trigger novel approaches for better diagnosis and therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The generation of a protocadherin cell-surface recognition code for neural circuit assembly
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-11-08
    Daniele Canzio, Tom Maniatis

    The assembly of functional neural circuits in vertebrate organisms requires complex mechanisms of self-recognition and self-avoidance. Neurites (axons and dendrites) from the same neuron recognize and avoid self, but engage in synaptic interactions with other neurons. Vertebrate neural self-avoidance requires the expression of distinct repertoires of clustered Protocadherin (Pcdh) cell-surface protein isoforms, which act as cell-surface molecular barcodes that mediate highly specific homophilic self-recognition, followed by repulsion. The generation of sufficiently diverse cell-surface barcodes is achieved by the stochastic and combinatorial activation of a subset of clustered Pcdh promoters in individual neurons. This remarkable mechanism leads to the generation of enormous molecular diversity at the cell surface. Here we review recent studies showing that stochastic expression of individual Pcdhα isoforms is accomplished through an extraordinary mechanism involving the activation of ‘antisense strand’ promoter within Pcdhα ‘variable’ exons, antisense transcription of a long non-coding RNA through the upstream ‘sense strand’ promoter, demethylation of this promoter, binding of the CTCF/cohesin complex and DNA looping to a distant enhancer through a mechanism of chromatin ‘extrusion’.

    更新日期:2019-11-11
  • Deep learning tools for the measurement of animal behavior in neuroscience.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : null
    Mackenzie Weygandt Mathis,Alexander Mathis

    Recent advances in computer vision have made accurate, fast and robust measurement of animal behavior a reality. In the past years powerful tools specifically designed to aid the measurement of behavior have come to fruition. Here we discuss how capturing the postures of animals-pose estimation - has been rapidly advancing with new deep learning methods. While challenges still remain, we envision that the fast-paced development of new deep learning tools will rapidly change the landscape of realizable real-world neuroscience.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Editorial: Neural epigenetics.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : null
    Michael E Greenberg,Stavros Lomvardas

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards the neural population doctrine.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-03-17
    Shreya Saxena,John P Cunningham

    Across neuroscience, large-scale data recording and population-level analysis methods have experienced explosive growth. While the underlying hardware and computational techniques have been well reviewed, we focus here on the novel science that these technologies have enabled. We detail four areas of the field where the joint analysis of neural populations has significantly furthered our understanding of computation in the brain: correlated variability, decoding, neural dynamics, and artificial neural networks. Together, these findings suggest an exciting trend towards a new era where neural populations are understood to be the essential unit of computation in many brain regions, a classic idea that has been given new life.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural data science: accelerating the experiment-analysis-theory cycle in large-scale neuroscience.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2018-05-09
    L Paninski,J P Cunningham

    Modern large-scale multineuronal recording methodologies, including multielectrode arrays, calcium imaging, and optogenetic techniques, produce single-neuron resolution data of a magnitude and precision that were the realm of science fiction twenty years ago. The major bottlenecks in systems and circuit neuroscience no longer lie in simply collecting data from large neural populations, but also in understanding this data: developing novel scientific questions, with corresponding analysis techniques and experimental designs to fully harness these new capabilities and meaningfully interrogate these questions. Advances in methods for signal processing, network analysis, dimensionality reduction, and optimal control-developed in lockstep with advances in experimental neurotechnology-promise major breakthroughs in multiple fundamental neuroscience problems. These trends are clear in a broad array of subfields of modern neuroscience; this review focuses on recent advances in methods for analyzing neural time-series data with single-neuronal precision.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Object shape and surface properties are jointly encoded in mid-level ventral visual cortex.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-07
    Anitha Pasupathy,Taekjun Kim,Dina V Popovkina

    Recognizing a myriad visual objects rapidly is a hallmark of the primate visual system. Traditional theories of object recognition have focused on how crucial form features, for example, the orientation of edges, may be extracted in early visual cortex and utilized to recognize objects. An alternative view argues that much of early and mid-level visual processing focuses on encoding surface characteristics, for example, texture. Neurophysiological evidence from primate area V4 supports a third alternative - the joint, but independent, encoding of form and texture - that would be advantageous for segmenting objects from the background in natural scenes and for object recognition that is independent of surface texture. Future studies that leverage deep convolutional network models, especially focusing on network failures to match biology and behavior, can advance our insights into how such a joint representation of form and surface properties might emerge in visual cortex.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Editorial overview: Neuronal Identity.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-06-06
    Oliver Hobert,Sacha Nelson

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of neuronal identity in the cerebral cortex.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-20
    Maria Antonietta Tosches,Gilles Laurent

    To understand neocortex evolution, we must define a theory for the elaboration of cell types, circuits, and architectonics from an ancestral structure that is consistent with developmental, molecular, and genetic data. To this end, cross-species comparison of cortical cell types emerges as a very informative approach. We review recent results that illustrate the contribution of molecular and transcriptomic data to the construction of plausible models of cortical cell-type evolution.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell diversity in the human cerebral cortex: from the embryo to brain organoids.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Paola Arlotta,Sergiu P Paşca

    The development and wiring of the central nervous system is a remarkable biological process that starts with the generation of and interaction between a large diversity of cell types. Our understanding of the developmental logic that drives cellular diversification in the mammalian brain comes, to a large extent, from studies in rodents. However, identifying the unique cellular processes underlying primate corticogenesis has been slow, due to the challenges associated with directly observing and manipulating brain tissue from these species. Recent technological advances in two areas hold promise to accelerate discovery of the mechanisms that govern human brain development, evolution, and pathophysiology of disease. Molecular profiling of large numbers of single cells can now capture cell identity and cell states within a complex tissue. Furthermore, modeling aspects of human organogenesis in vitro, even for tissues as complex as the brain, has been advanced by the use of three-dimensional organoid systems. Here, we describe how these approaches have been applied to date and how they promise to uncover the principles of cell diversification in the developing human brain.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Principles of progenitor temporal patterning in the developing invertebrate and vertebrate nervous system.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-19
    Polina Oberst,Gulistan Agirman,Denis Jabaudon

    During the development of the central nervous system, progenitors successively generate distinct types of neurons which assemble into the circuits that underlie our ability to interact with the environment. Spatial and temporal patterning mechanisms are partially evolutionarily conserved processes that allow generation of neuronal diversity from a limited set of progenitors. Here, we review examples of temporal patterning in neuronal progenitors in the Drosophila ventral nerve cord and in the mammalian cerebral cortex. We discuss cell-autonomous mechanisms and environmental influences on the temporal transitions of neuronal progenitors. Identifying the principles controlling the temporal specification of progenitors across species, as highlighted here, may help understand the evolutionary constraints over brain circuit design and function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell type and circuit modules in the spinal cord.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    Peter J Osseward,Samuel L Pfaff

    The spinal cord contains an extraordinarily diverse population of interconnected neurons to process somatosensory information and execute movement. Studies of the embryonic spinal cord have elucidated basic principles underlying the specification of spinal cord neurons, while adult and postnatal studies have provided insight into cell type function and circuitry. However, the overarching principles that bridge molecularly defined subtypes with their connectivity, physiology, and function remain unclear. This review consolidates recent work in spinal neuron characterization, examining how molecular and spatial features of individual spinal neuron types relate to the reference points of connectivity and function. This review will focus on how spinal neuron subtypes are organized to control movement in the mouse.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuronal diversity in the somatosensory system: bridging the gap between cell type and function.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-07
    Graziana Gatto,Kelly Megan Smith,Sarah Elizabeth Ross,Martyn Goulding

    A recent flurry of genetic studies in mice have provided key insights into how the somatosensory system is organized at a cellular level to encode itch, pain, temperature, and touch. These studies are largely predicated on the idea that functional cell types can be identified by their unique developmental provenance and gene expression profile. However, the extent to which gene expression profiles can be correlated with functional cell types and circuit organization remains an open question. In this review, we focus on recent progress in characterizing the sensory afferent and dorsal horn neuron cell types that process cutaneous somatosensory information and ongoing circuit studies that are beginning to bridge the divide between cell type and function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Vascular and neural basis of the BOLD signal.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Patrick J Drew

    Neural activity in the brain is usually coupled to increases in local cerebral blood flow, leading to the increase in oxygenation that generates the BOLD fMRI signal. Recent work has begun to elucidate the vascular and neural mechanisms underlying the BOLD signal. The dilatory response is distributed throughout the vascular network. Arteries actively dilate within a second following neural activity increases, while venous distensions are passive and have a time course that last tens of seconds. Vasodilation, and thus local blood flow, is controlled by the activity of both neurons and astrocytes via multiple different pathways. The relationship between sensory-driven neural activity and the vascular dynamics in sensory areas are well-captured with a linear convolution model. However, depending on the behavioral state or brain region, the coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic signals can be weak or even inverted.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New perspectives on dimensionality and variability from large-scale cortical dynamics.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Tatiana A Engel,Nicholas A Steinmetz

    The neocortex is a multi-scale network, with intricate local circuitry interwoven into a global mesh of long-range connections. Neural activity propagates within this network on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales. At the micro scale, neurophysiological recordings reveal coordinated dynamics in local neural populations, which support behaviorally relevant computations. At the macro scale, neuroimaging modalities measure global activity fluctuations organized into spatiotemporal patterns across the entire brain. Here we review recent advances linking the local and global scales of cortical dynamics and their relationship to behavior. We argue that diverse experimental observations on the dimensionality and variability of neural activity can be reconciled by considering how activity propagates in space and time on multiple spatial scales.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Optimal models of decision-making in dynamic environments.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-07-22
    Zachary P Kilpatrick,William R Holmes,Tahra L Eissa,Krešimir Josić

    Nature is in constant flux, so animals must account for changes in their environment when making decisions. How animals learn the timescale of such changes and adapt their decision strategies accordingly is not well understood. Recent psychophysical experiments have shown humans and other animals can achieve near-optimal performance at two alternative forced choice (2AFC) tasks in dynamically changing environments. Characterization of performance requires the derivation and analysis of computational models of optimal decision-making policies on such tasks. We review recent theoretical work in this area, and discuss how models compare with subjects' behavior in tasks where the correct choice or evidence quality changes in dynamic, but predictable, ways.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Relating network connectivity to dynamics: opportunities and challenges for theoretical neuroscience.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-07-19
    Carina Curto,Katherine Morrison

    We review recent work relating network connectivity to the dynamics of neural activity. While concepts stemming from network science provide a valuable starting point, the interpretation of graph-theoretic structures and measures can be highly dependent on the dynamics associated to the network. Properties that are quite meaningful for linear dynamics, such as random walk and network flow models, may be of limited relevance in the neuroscience setting. Theoretical and computational neuroscience are playing a vital role in understanding the relationship between network connectivity and the nonlinear dynamics associated to neural networks.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards neural co-processors for the brain: combining decoding and encoding in brain-computer interfaces.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-04-08
    Rajesh Pn Rao

    The field of brain-computer interfaces is poised to advance from the traditional goal of controlling prosthetic devices using brain signals to combining neural decoding and encoding within a single neuroprosthetic device. Such a device acts as a 'co-processor' for the brain, with applications ranging from inducing Hebbian plasticity for rehabilitation after brain injury to reanimating paralyzed limbs and enhancing memory. We review recent progress in simultaneous decoding and encoding for closed-loop control and plasticity induction. To address the challenge of multi-channel decoding and encoding, we introduce a unifying framework for developing brain co-processors based on artificial neural networks and deep learning. These 'neural co-processors' can be used to jointly optimize cost functions with the nervous system to achieve desired behaviors ranging from targeted neuro-rehabilitation to augmentation of brain function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Harnessing behavioral diversity to understand neural computations for cognition.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Simon Musall,Anne E Urai,David Sussillo,Anne K Churchland

    With the increasing acquisition of large-scale neural recordings comes the challenge of inferring the computations they perform and understanding how these give rise to behavior. Here, we review emerging conceptual and technological advances that begin to address this challenge, garnering insights from both biological and artificial neural networks. We argue that neural data should be recorded during rich behavioral tasks, to model cognitive processes and estimate latent behavioral variables. Careful quantification of animal movements can also provide a more complete picture of how movements shape neural dynamics and reflect changes in brain state, such as arousal or stress. Artificial neural networks (ANNs) could serve as artificial model organisms to connect neural dynamics and rich behavioral data. ANNs have already begun to reveal how a wide range of different behaviors can be implemented, generating hypotheses about how observed neural activity might drive behavior and explaining diversity in behavioral strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A common probabilistic framework for perceptual and statistical learning.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    József Fiser,Gábor Lengyel

    System-level learning of sensory information is traditionally divided into two domains: perceptual learning that focuses on acquiring knowledge suitable for fine discrimination between similar sensory inputs, and statistical learning that explores the mechanisms that develop complex representations of unfamiliar sensory experiences. The two domains have been typically treated in complete separation both in terms of the underlying computational mechanisms and the brain areas and processes implementing those computations. However, a number of recent findings in both domains call in question this strict separation. We interpret classical and more recent results in the general framework of probabilistic computation, provide a unifying view of how various aspects of the two domains are interlinked, and suggest how the probabilistic approach can also alleviate the problem of dealing with widely different types of neural correlates of learning. Finally, we outline several directions along which our proposed approach fosters new types of experiments that can promote investigations of natural learning in humans and other species.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Editorial overview: Computational neuroscience.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-23
    Brent Doiron,Máté Lengyel

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual novelty, curiosity, and intrinsic reward in machine learning and the brain.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Andrew Jaegle,Vahid Mehrpour,Nicole Rust

    A strong preference for novelty emerges in infancy and is prevalent across the animal kingdom. When incorporated into reinforcement-based machine learning algorithms, visual novelty can act as an intrinsic reward signal that vastly increases the efficiency of exploration and expedites learning, particularly in situations where external rewards are difficult to obtain. Here we review parallels between recent developments in novelty-driven machine learning algorithms and our understanding of how visual novelty is computed and signaled in the primate brain. We propose that in the visual system, novelty representations are not configured with the principal goal of detecting novel objects, but rather with the broader goal of flexibly generalizing novelty information across different states in the service of driving novelty-based learning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Noise correlations and perceptual inference.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-09
    Mihály Bányai,Gergő Orbán

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mind the last spike - firing rate models for mesoscopic populations of spiking neurons.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Tilo Schwalger,Anton V Chizhov

    The dominant modeling framework for understanding cortical computations are heuristic firing rate models. Despite their success, these models fall short to capture spike synchronization effects, to link to biophysical parameters and to describe finite-size fluctuations. In this opinion article, we propose that the refractory density method (RDM), also known as age-structured population dynamics or quasi-renewal theory, yields a powerful theoretical framework to build rate-based models for mesoscopic neural populations from realistic neuron dynamics at the microscopic level. We review recent advances achieved by the RDM to obtain efficient population density equations for networks of generalized integrate-and-fire (GIF) neurons - a class of neuron models that has been successfully fitted to various cell types. The theory not only predicts the nonstationary dynamics of large populations of neurons but also permits an extension to finite-size populations and a systematic reduction to low-dimensional rate dynamics. The new types of rate models will allow a re-examination of models of cortical computations under biological constraints.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • V1 microcircuits underlying mouse visual behavior.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Steffen Katzner,Gregory Born,Laura Busse

    Visual behavior is based on the concerted activity of neurons in visual areas, where sensory signals are integrated with top-down information. In the past decade, the advent of new tools, such as functional imaging of populations of identified single neurons, high-density electrophysiology, virus-assisted circuit mapping, and precisely timed, cell-type specific manipulations, has advanced our understanding of the neuronal microcircuits underlying visual behavior. Studies in head-fixed mice, where such tools can routinely be applied, begin to provide new insights into the neural code of primary visual cortex (V1) underlying visual perception, and the micro-circuits of attention, predictive processing, and learning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Functional flexibility in cortical circuits.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-05
    Jessica A Cardin

    Cortical networks receive a highly variable stream of inputs from internal and external influences, and must flexibly adapt their operations on a short timescale. Recent work has highlighted this state-dependent functional flexibility of cortical circuits and provided initial insights into underlying circuit-level mechanisms. Transitions from quiescent to aroused or task-engaged behavioral states are associated with common motifs of network activity, including changes in correlations and enhanced sensory encoding. Evidence points to a key role for selective activation of specific GABAergic interneuron populations in mediating mode-switching in cortical networks. Finally, inhibitory interneurons may function as a critical target for convergent state-dependent neuromodulatory sculpting of cortical circuits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Choice (-history) correlations in sensory cortex: cause or consequence?
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-04
    Jakob H Macke,Hendrikje Nienborg

    One challenge in neuroscience, as in other areas of science, is to make inferences about the underlying causal structure from correlational data. Here, we discuss this challenge in the context of choice correlations in sensory neurons, that is, trial-by-trial correlations, unexplained by the stimulus, between the activity of sensory neurons and an animal's perceptual choice. Do these choice-correlations reflect feedforward, feedback signalling, both, or neither? We highlight recent results of correlational and causal examinations of choice and choice-history signals in sensory, and in part sensorimotor, cortex and address formal statistical frameworks to infer causal interactions from data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Causes and consequences of representational drift.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Michael E Rule,Timothy O'Leary,Christopher D Harvey

    The nervous system learns new associations while maintaining memories over long periods, exhibiting a balance between flexibility and stability. Recent experiments reveal that neuronal representations of learned sensorimotor tasks continually change over days and weeks, even after animals have achieved expert behavioral performance. How is learned information stored to allow consistent behavior despite ongoing changes in neuronal activity? What functions could ongoing reconfiguration serve? We highlight recent experimental evidence for such representational drift in sensorimotor systems, and discuss how this fits into a framework of distributed population codes. We identify recent theoretical work that suggests computational roles for drift and argue that the recurrent and distributed nature of sensorimotor representations permits drift while limiting disruptive effects. We propose that representational drift may create error signals between interconnected brain regions that can be used to keep neural codes consistent in the presence of continual change. These concepts suggest experimental and theoretical approaches to studying both learning and maintenance of distributed and adaptive population codes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The role of adaptation in neural coding.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Alison I Weber,Adrienne L Fairhall

    The concept of 'neural coding' supposes that neural firing patterns in some sense represent some external correlate, whether sensory, motor, or structural knowledge about the world. While the implied existence of a one-to-one mapping between external referents and neural firing has been useful, the prevalence of adaptation challenges this. Adaptation provides neural responses with dynamics on timescales that range from milliseconds up to many seconds. These timescales are highly relevant for sensory experience in the natural world, in which local statistical properties of inputs change continuously, and are additionally altered by active sensing. Adaptation has a number of consequences for coding: it creates short-term history dependence; it engenders complex feature selectivity that is time-varying; and it can serve to enhance information representation in dynamic environments. Considering how to best incorporate adaptation into neural models exposes a fundamental dichotomy in approaches to the description of neural systems: ones that take an explicitly 'coding' perspective versus ones that describe the system's dynamics. Here we discuss the pros and cons of different approaches to the modeling of adaptive dynamics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Learning predictive structure without a teacher: decision strategies and brain routes.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-10-01
    Zoe Kourtzi,Andrew E Welchman

    Extracting the structure of complex environments is at the core of our ability to interpret the present and predict the future. This skill is important for a range of behaviours from navigating a new city to learning music and language. Classical approaches that investigate our ability to extract the principles of organisation that govern complex environments focus on reward-based learning. Yet, the human brain is shown to be expert at learning generative structure based on mere exposure and without explicit reward. Individuals are shown to adapt to-unbeknownst to them-changes in the environment's temporal statistics and predict future events. Further, we present evidence for a common brain architecture for unsupervised structure learning and reward-based learning, suggesting that the brain is built on the premise that 'learning is its own reward' to support adaptive behaviour.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuroscience out of control: control-theoretic perspectives on neural circuit dynamics.
    Curr. Opin. Neurobiol. (IF 6.014) Pub Date : 2019-09-29
    Ta-Chu Kao,Guillaume Hennequin

    A major challenge in systems neuroscience is to understand how the dynamics of neural circuits give rise to behaviour. Analysis of complex dynamical systems is also at the heart of control engineering, where it is central to the design of robust control strategies. Although a rich engineering literature has grown over decades to facilitate the analysis of such systems, little of it has percolated into neuroscience so far. Here, we give a brief introduction to a number of core control-theoretic concepts that provide useful perspectives on neural circuit dynamics. We introduce important mathematical tools related to these concepts, and establish connections to neural circuit analysis, focusing on a number of themes that have arisen from the modern 'state-space' view on neural population dynamics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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