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  • Working Together to Orient Faster: the Combined Effects of Alerting and Orienting Networks on Pupillary Responses at 8 Months of Age
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    David López Pérez; Sonia Ramotowska; Anna Malinowska-Korczak; Maciej Haman; Przemysław Tomalski

    Multiple visual attention mechanisms are active already in infancy, most notably one supporting orienting towards stimuli and another, maintaining appropriate levels of alertness, when exploring the environment. They are thought to depend on separate brain networks, but their effects are difficult to isolate in existing behavioural paradigms. Better understanding of the contribution of each network to individual differences in visual orienting may help to explain their role in attention development. Here, we tested whether alerting and spatial cues differentially modulate pupil dilation in 8-month-old infants in a visual orienting paradigm. We found differential effects in the time course of these responses depending on the cue type. Moreover, using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) we identified two main components of pupillary response, which may reflect the alerting and orienting network activity. In a regression analysis, these components together explained nearly 40% of variance in saccadic latencies in the spatial cueing condition of the task. These results likely demonstrate that both networks work together in 8-month-old infants and that their activity can be indexed with pupil dilation combined with PCA, but not with raw changes in pupil diameter.

  • The relationship between pubertal hormones and brain plasticity: Implications for cognitive training in adolescence
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Corinna Laube; Wouter van den Bos; Yana Fandakova

    Adolescence may mark a sensitive period for the development of higher-order cognition through enhanced plasticity of cortical circuits. At the same time, animal research indicates that pubertal hormones may represent one key mechanism for closing sensitive periods in the associative neocortex, thereby resulting in decreased plasticity of cortical circuits in adolescence. In the present review, we set out to solve some of the existing ambiguity and examine how hormonal changes associated with pubertal onset may modulate plasticity in higher-order cognition during adolescence. We build on existing age-comparative cognitive training studies to explore how the potential for change in neural resources and behavioral repertoire differs across age groups. We review animal and human brain imaging studies, which demonstrate a link between brain development, neurochemical mechanisms of plasticity, and pubertal hormones. Overall, the existent literature indicates that pubertal hormones play a pivotal role in regulating the mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity during adolescence. However, the extent to which hormonal changes associated with pubertal onset increase or decrease brain plasticity may depend on the specific cognitive domain, the sex, and associated brain networks. We discuss implications for future research and suggest that systematical longitudinal assessments of pubertal change together with cognitive training interventions may be a fruitful way toward a better understanding of adolescent plasticity. As the age of pubertal onset is decreasing across developed societies, this may also have important educational and clinical implications, especially with respect to the effects that earlier puberty has on learning.

  • Top-Down Knowledge Rapidly Acquired Through Abstract Rule Learning Biases Subsequent Visual Attention in 9-Month-Old Infants
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    D.M. Werchan; D. Amso

    Visual attention is an information-gathering mechanism that supports the emergence of complex perceptual and cognitive capacities. Yet, little is known about how the infant brain learns to direct attention to information that is most relevant for learning and behavior. Here we address this gap by examining whether learning a hierarchical rule structure, where there is a higher-order feature that organizes visual inputs into predictable sequences, subsequently biases 9-month-old infants’ visual attention to the higher-order visual feature. In Experiment 1, we found that individual differences in infants’ ability to structure simple visual inputs into generalizable rules was related to the change in infants’ attention biases towards higher-order features. In Experiment 2, we found that increased functional connectivity between the PFC and visual cortex was related to the efficacy of rule learning. Moreover, Granger causality analyses provided exploratory evidence that increased functional connectivity reflected PFC modulation of visual cortex. These findings provide new insights into how the infant brain learns to flexibly select features from the cluttered visual world that were previously relevant for learning and behavior.

  • Developmental Divergence of Structural Brain Networks as an Indicator of Future Cognitive Impairments in Childhood Brain Injury: Executive Functions
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Daniel J. King; Stefano Seri; Richard Beare; Cathy Catroppa; Vicki A. Anderson; Amanda G. Wood

    Brain insults during childhood can perturb the already non-linear trajectory of typical brain maturation. The diffuse effects of injury can be modelled using structural covariance networks (SCN), which change as a function of neurodevelopment. However, SCNs are estimated at the group-level, limiting applicability to predicting individual-subject outcomes. This study aimed to measure the divergence of the brain networks in paediatric traumatic brain injury (pTBI) patients and controls, and investigate relationships with executive functioning (EF) at 24 months post-injury. T1-weighted MRI acquired acutely in 78 child survivors of pTBI and 33 controls underwent 3D-tissue segmentation to estimate cortical thickness (CT) across 68 atlas-based regions-of-interest (ROIs). Using an ‘add-one-patient’ approach, we estimate a developmental divergence index (DDI). Our approach adopts a novel analytic framework in which age-appropriate reference networks to calculate the DDI were generated from control participants from the ABIDE dataset using a sliding-window approach. Divergence from the age-appropriate SCN was related to reduced EF performance and an increase in behaviours related to executive dysfunctions. The DDI measure showed predictive value with regard to executive functions, highlighting that early imaging can assist in prognosis for cognition.

  • From Movement to Action: An EEG Study into the Emerging Sense of Agency in Early Infancy
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Lorijn Zaadnoordijk; Marlene Meyer; Martina Zaharieva; Falma Kemalasari; Stan van Pelt; Sabine Hunnius

    Research into the developing sense of agency has traditionally focused on sensitivity to sensorimotor contingencies, but whether this implies the presence of a causal action-effect model has recently been called into question. Here, we investigated whether 3- to 4.5-month-old infants build causal action-effect models by focusing on behavioral and neural measures of violation of expectation. Infants had time to explore the causal link between their movements and audiovisual effects before the action-effect contingency was discontinued. We tested their ability to predict the consequences of their movements and recorded neural (EEG) and movement measures. If infants built a causal action-effect model, we expected to observe their violation of expectation in the form of a mismatch negativity (MMN) in the EEG and an extinction burst in their movement behavior after discontinuing the action-effect contingency. Our findings show that the group of infants who showed an MMN upon cessation of the contingent effect demonstrated a more pronounced limb-specific behavioral extinction burst, indicating a causal action-effect model, compared to the group of infants who did not show an MMN. These findings reveal that, in contrast to previous claims, the sense of agency is only beginning to emerge at this age.

  • Neural correlates of cognitive variability in childhood autism and relation to heterogeneity in decision-making dynamics
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    T. Iuculano; A. Padmanabhan; L. Chen; J. Nicholas; S. Mitsven; C. de los Angeles; V. Menon

    Heterogeneity in cognitive and academic abilities is a prominent feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), yet little is known about its underlying causes. Here we combine functional brain imaging during numerical problem-solving with hierarchical drift-diffusion models of behavior and standardized measures of numerical abilities to investigate neural mechanisms underlying cognitive variability in children with ASD, and their IQ-matched Typically Developing (TD) peers. Although the two groups showed similar levels of brain activation, the relation to individual abilities differed markedly in ventral temporal-occipital, parietal and prefrontal regions important for numerical cognition: children with ASD showed a positive correlation between functional brain activation and numerical abilities, whereas TD children showed the opposite pattern. Despite similar accuracy and response times, decision thresholds were significantly higher in the ASD group, suggesting greater evidence required for problem-solving. Critically, the relationship between individual abilities and engagement of prefrontal control systems anchored in the anterior insula was differentially moderated by decision threshold in subgroups of children with ASD. Our findings uncover novel cognitive and neural sources of variability in academically-relevant cognitive skills in ASD and suggest that multilevel measures and latent decision-making dynamics can aid in characterization of cognitive variability and heterogeneity in neurodevelopmental disorders.

  • Anatomo-functional correlates of auditory development in infancy
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Parvaneh Adibpour; Jessica Lebenberg; Claire Kabdebon; Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz; Jessica Dubois

    Brain development incorporates several intermingled mechanisms throughout infancy leading to intense and asynchronous maturation across cerebral networks and functional modalities. Combining electroencephalography (EEG) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), previous studies in the visual modality showed that the functional maturation of the event-related potentials (ERP) during the first postnatal semester relates to structural changes in the corresponding white matter pathways. Here we aimed to investigate similar issues in the auditory modality. We measured ERPs to syllables in 1- to 6-month-old infants and analyzed them in relation with the maturational properties of underlying neural substrates measured with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We first observed a decrease in the latency of the auditory P2, and a decrease of diffusivities in the auditory tracts and perisylvian regions with age. Secondly, we highlighted some of the early functional and structural substrates of lateralization. Contralateral responses to monoaural syllables were stronger and faster than ipsilateral responses, particularly in the left hemisphere. Besides, the acoustic radiations, arcuate fasciculus, middle temporal and angular gyri showed DTI asymmetries with a more complex and advanced microstructure in the left hemisphere, whereas the reverse was observed for the inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri. Finally, after accounting for the age-related variance, we correlated the inter-individual variability in P2 responses and in the microstructural properties of callosal fibers and inferior frontal regions. This study combining dedicated EEG and MRI approaches in infants highlights the complex relation between the functional responses to auditory stimuli and the maturational properties of the corresponding neural network.

  • Pubertal Testosterone Correlates with Adolescent Impatience and Dorsal Striatal Activity
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Corinna Laube; Robert Lorenz; Wouter van den Bos

    Recent self-report and behavioral studies have demonstrated that pubertal testosterone is related to an increase in risky and impulsive behavior. Yet, the mechanisms underlying such a relationship are poorly understood. Findings from both human and rodent studies point towards distinct striatal pathways including the ventral and dorsal striatum as key target regions for pubertal hormones. In this study we investigated task-related impatience of boys between 10 and 15 years of age (N = 75), using an intertemporal choice task combined with measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging and hormonal assessment. Increased levels of testosterone were associated with a greater response bias towards choosing the smaller sooner option. Furthermore, our results show that testosterone specifically modulates the dorsal, not ventral, striatal pathway. These results provide novel insights into our understanding of adolescent impulsive and risky behaviors and how pubertal hormones are related to neural processes.

  • Individualised MRI training for paediatric neuroimaging: A child-focused approach
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Emmanuel Peng Kiat Pua; Sarah Barton; Katrina Williams; Jeffrey M Craig; Marc L Seal

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) in paediatric cohorts is often complicated by reluctance to enter the scanner and head motion-related imaging artefacts. The process is particularly challenging for children with neurodevelopmental disorders where coping with novel task demands in an unfamiliar setting may be more difficult due to symptom-related deficits or distress. These issues often give rise to excessive head motion that can significantly reduce the quality of images acquired, or render data unusable. Here we report an individualised MRI training procedure that enables children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) to better tolerate the MRI scanner environment based on a child-focused approach and individualised familiarisation strategies, including a pre-visit interview, familiarisation package, and personalised rewards. A medical imaging mobile application was utilised to familiarise participants to multi-sensory aspects of the neuroimaging experience through a variety of themed mini-games and activities. The MRI training procedure was implemented for monozygotic twins (n = 12; 6 twin pairs; age range 7.1 to 12.9 years) concordant or discordant for ASD. MRI image quality indices were better or comparable to images acquired from a large independent multi-centre ASD cohort. Present findings are promising and suggest that child-focused strategies could improve the quality of paediatric neuroimaging in clinical populations.

  • Neural mechanisms of response-preparation and inhibition in bilingual and monolingual children: Lateralized Readiness Potentials (LRPs) during a nonverbal Stroop task
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Srishti Nayak, Hiba Salem, Amanda Tarullo

    Inhibitory control is a core executive function (EF) skill, thought to involve cognitive ‘interference suppression’ and motor ‘response inhibition’ sub-processes. A few studies have shown that early bilingualism shapes interference suppression but not response inhibition skills, however current behavioral measures do not fully allow us to disentangle these subcomponents. Lateralized Readiness Potentials (LRPs) are centroparietal event-related potentials (ERPs) that track motor response-preparations between stimulus-presentation and behavioral responses. We examine LRPs elicited during successful inhibitory control on a nonverbal Stroop task, in 6-8 year-old bilingual (n = 44) and monolingual (n = 48) children from comparable socio-economic backgrounds. Relative to monolinguals, bilinguals showed longer and stronger incorrect-response preparations, and a more mature pattern of correct-response preparation (shorter peak-latencies), underlying correct responses on Stroop-interference trials. Neural markers of response-inhibition were comparable between groups and no behavioral differences were found between-groups on the Stroop task. Results suggest group differences in underlying mechanisms of centroparietal motor-response preparation mechanisms in this age group, contrary to what has been shown using behavioral tasks previously. We discuss neural results in the context of speed-accuracy trade-offs. This is the first study to examine neural markers of motor-responses in bilingual children.

  • Inhibiting errors while they are produced: direct evidence for error monitoring and inhibitory control in children
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Kamila Śmigasiewicz, Solène Ambrosi, Agnès Blaye, Boris Burle

    The maturation of processes involved in performance monitoring, crucial for adaptive behavior, is a core aspect of developmental changes. Monitoring processes are often studied through the analysis of error processing. Previous developmental studies generally focused on post-error slowing and error-related EEG activities. Instead, the present study aims at collecting indicators of error monitoring processes occurring within trials that is, before the erroneous response is produced. Electromyographic (EMG) activity and force produced during responding were registered in 6 to 14-year-olds performing a choice-response task. As already reported in adults, force produced was weaker, EMG bursts were smaller, and motor times (interval between EMG onsets and responses) were longer during errors compared to correct responses. In contrast, the rising part of EMG burst, reflecting the initial motor command, was the same for both response outcomes. This suggests that error inhibition was applied online after the response was triggered but before the actual key was pressed. This error correction was already present in children as young as 6 years old. The effects of reduced EMG and force amplitudes remained stable across childhood. However, the prolonged motor times in young children suggests that they need more time to implement motor inhibition than their older peers.

  • Neurocognitive reorganization between crystallized intelligence, fluid intelligence and white matter microstructure in two age-heterogeneous developmental cohorts
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Ivan L. Simpson-Kent, Delia Fuhrmann, Joe Bathelt, Jascha Achterberg, Gesa Sophia Borgeest, Rogier A. Kievit

    Despite the reliability of intelligence measures in predicting important life outcomes such as educational achievement and mortality, the exact configuration and neural correlates of cognitive abilities remain poorly understood, especially in childhood and adolescence. Therefore, we sought to elucidate the factorial structure and neural substrates of child and adolescent intelligence using two cross-sectional, developmental samples (CALM: N = 551 (N = 165 imaging), age range: 5-18 years, NKI-Rockland: N = 337 (N = 65 imaging), age range: 6-18 years). In a preregistered analysis, we used structural equation modelling (SEM) to examine the neurocognitive architecture of individual differences in childhood and adolescent cognitive ability. In both samples, we found that cognitive ability in lower and typical-ability cohorts is best understood as two separable constructs, crystallized and fluid intelligence, which became more distinct across development, in line with the age differentiation hypothesis. Further analyses revealed that white matter microstructure, most prominently the superior longitudinal fasciculus, was strongly associated with crystallized (gc) and fluid (gf) abilities. Finally, we used SEM trees to demonstrate evidence for developmental reorganization of gc and gf and their white matter substrates such that the relationships among these factors dropped between 7-8 years before increasing around age 10. Together, our results suggest that shortly before puberty marks a pivotal phase of change in the neurocognitive architecture of intelligence.

  • A sensitive period in the neural phenotype of language in blind individuals
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Rashi Pant, Shipra Kanjlia, Marina Bedny

    Congenital blindness modifies the neural basis of language: “visual” cortices respond to linguistic information, and fronto-temporal language networks are less left-lateralized. We tested the hypothesis that this plasticity follows a sensitive period by comparing the neural basis of sentence processing between adult-onset blind (AB, n = 16), congenitally blind (CB, n = 22) and blindfolded sighted adults (n = 18). In Experiment 1, participants made semantic judgments for spoken sentences and, in a control condition, solved math equations. In Experiment 2, participants answered “who did what to whom” yes/no questions for grammatically complex (with syntactic movement) and simpler sentences. In a control condition, participants performed a memory task with non-words. In both experiments, visual cortices of CB and AB but not sighted participants responded more to sentences than control conditions, but the effect was much larger in the CB group. Only the “visual” cortex of CB participants responded to grammatical complexity. Unlike the CB group, the AB group showed no reduction in left-lateralization of fronto-temporal language network, relative to the sighted. These results suggest that congenital blindness modifies the neural basis of language differently from adult-onset blindness, consistent with a developmental sensitive period hypothesis.

  • Building Functional Connectivity Neuromarkers of Behavioral Self-Regulation across Children with and without Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Christiane S. Rohr, Shanty Kamal, Signe Bray

    Behavioral self-regulation develops rapidly during childhood and struggles in this area can have lifelong negative outcomes. Challenges with self-regulation are common to several neurodevelopmental conditions, including Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Little is known about the neural expression of behavioral regulation in children with and without neurodevelopmental conditions. We examined whole-brain brain functional correlations (FC) and behavioral regulation through connectome predictive modelling (CPM). CPM is a data-driven protocol for developing predictive models of brain–behavior relationships and assessing their potential as ‘neuromarkers’ using cross-validation. The data stems from the ABIDE II and comprises 276 children with and without ASD (8-13 years). We identified networks whose FC predicted individual differences in behavioral regulation. These network models predicted novel individuals’ inhibition and shifting from FC data in both a leave-one-out, and split halves, cross-validation. We observed commonalities and differences, with inhibition relying on more posterior networks, shifting relying on more anterior networks, and both involving regions of the DMN. Our findings substantially add to our knowledge on the neural expressions of inhibition and shifting across children with and without a neurodevelopmental condition. Given the numerous behavioral issues that can be quantified dimensionally, refinement of whole-brain neuromarker techniques may prove useful in the future.

  • Changes in Anterior and Posterior Hippocampus Differentially Predict Item-Space, Item-Time, and Item-Item Memory Improvement
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Joshua K. Lee, Yana Fandakova, Elliott G. Johnson, Neal J. Cohen, Silvia A. Bunge, Simona Ghetti

    Relational memory improves during middle childhood and adolescence, yet the neural correlates underlying those improvements are debated. Although memory for spatial, temporal, and other associative relations requires the hippocampus, it is not established whether within-individual changes in hippocampal structure contribute to memory improvements from middle childhood into adolescence. Here, we investigated how structural changes in hippocampal head, body, and tail subregions predict improvements in the capacity to remember item-space, item-time, and item-item relations. Memory for each relation and volumes of hippocampal subregions were assessed longitudinally in 171 participants across 3 time points (Mage at T1 = 9.45 years; Mage at T2 = 10.86 years, Mage at T3 = 12.12 years; comprising 393 behavioral assessments and 362 structural scans). Among older children, volumetric growth in: (a) head and body predicted improvements in item-time memory, (b) head predicted improvements in item-item memory; and (c) right tail predicted improvements in item-space memory. The present research establishes that changes in hippocampal structure are related to improvements in relational memory, and that sub-regional changes in hippocampal volume differentially predict changes in different aspects of relational memory. These findings underscore a division of labor along the anterior-posterior axis of the hippocampus during child development.

  • Development of Neural Responses to Hearing Their Own Name in Infants at Low and High Risk for Autism Spectrum Disorder
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Melda Arslan, Petra Warreyn, Nele Dewaele, Jan R. Wiersema, Ellen Demurie, Herbert Roeyers

    The own name is a salient stimulus, used by others to initiate social interaction. Typically developing infants orient towards the sound of their own name and exhibit enhanced event-related potentials (ERP) at 5 months. The lack of orientation to the own name is considered to be one of the earliest signs of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In this study, we investigated ERPs to hearing the own name in infants at high and low risk for ASD, at 10 and 14 months. We hypothesized that low-risk infants would exhibit enhanced frontal ERP responses to their own name compared to an unfamiliar name, while high-risk infants were expected to show attenuation or absence of this difference in their ERP responses. In contrast to expectations, we did not find enhanced ERPs to own name in the low-risk group. However, the high-risk group exhibited attenuated frontal positive-going activity to their own name compared to an unfamiliar name and compared to the low-risk group, at the age of 14 months. These results suggest that infants at high risk for ASD start to process their own name differently shortly after one year of age, a period when frontal brain development is happening at a fast rate.

  • I know that I know nothing: Cortical thickness and functional connectivity underlying meta-ignorance ability in pre-schoolers
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Elisa Filevich, Caroline Garcia Forlim, Carmen Fehrman, Carina Forster, Markus Paulus, Yee Lee Shing, Simone Kühn

    Metacognition plays a pivotal role in human development. The ability to realize that we do not know something, or meta-ignorance, emerges after approximately five years of age. We sought for the brain systems that underlie the developmental emergence of this ability in a preschool sample. Twenty-four children aged between five and six years answered questions under three conditions. In the critical partial knowledge condition, an experimenter first showed two toys to a child, then announced that she would place one of them in a box, out of sight from the child. The experimenter then asked the child whether she knew which toy was in the box. Children who gave consistently correct answers to this question (n = 9) showed greater cortical thickness in a cluster within left medial orbitofrontal cortex than children who did not (n = 15). Further, seed-based functional connectivity analyses of the brain during resting state revealed that this region is functionally connected to the medial orbitofrontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus and precuneus, and mid- and inferior temporal gyri. This finding suggests that the default mode network, critically through its prefrontal regions, supports introspective processing. It leads to the emergence of metacognitive monitoring allowing children to explicitly report their own ignorance.

  • Variation in early life maternal care predicts later long range frontal cortex synapse development in mice
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    A. Wren Thomas, Kristen Delevich, Irene Chang, Linda Wilbrecht

    Empirical and theoretical work suggests that early postnatal experience may inform later developing synaptic connectivity to adapt the brain to its environment. We hypothesized that early maternal experience may program the development of synaptic density on long range frontal cortex projections. To test this idea, we used maternal separation (MS) to generate environmental variability and examined how MS affected 1) maternal care and 2) synapse density on virally-labeled long range axons of offspring reared in MS or control conditions. We found that MS and variation in maternal care predicted bouton density on dorsal frontal cortex axons that terminated in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS) with more, fragmented care associated with higher density. The effects of maternal care on these distinct axonal projections of the frontal cortex were manifest at different ages. Maternal care measures were correlated with frontal cortex → BLA bouton density at mid-adolescence postnatal (P) day 35 and frontal cortex → DMS bouton density in adulthood (P85). Meanwhile, we found no evidence that MS or maternal care affected bouton density on ascending orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) or BLA axons that terminated in the dorsal frontal cortices. Our data show that variation in early experience can alter development in a circuit-specific and age-dependent manner that may be relevant to early life adversity.

  • Distentangling the systems contributing to changes in learning during adolescence
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Sarah L. Master, Maria K. Eckstein, Neta Gotlieb, Ronald Dahl, Linda Wilbrecht, Anne G.E. Collins

    Multiple neurocognitive systems contribute simultaneously to learning. For example, dopamine and basal ganglia (BG) systems are thought to support reinforcement learning (RL) by incrementally updating the value of choices, while the prefrontal cortex (PFC) contributes different computations, such as actively maintaining precise information in working memory (WM). It is commonly thought that WM and PFC show more protracted development than RL and BG systems, yet their contributions are rarely assessed in tandem. Here, we used a simple learning task to test how RL and WM contribute to changes in learning across adolescence. We tested 187 subjects ages 8 to 17 and 53 adults (25-30). Participants learned stimulus-action associations from feedback; the learning load was varied to be within or exceed WM capacity. Participants age 8-12 learned slower than participants age 13-17, and were more sensitive to load. We used computational modeling to estimate subjects’ use of WM and RL processes. Surprisingly, we found more protracted changes in RL than WM during development. RL learning rate increased with age until age 18 and WM parameters showed more subtle, gender- and puberty-dependent changes early in adolescence. These results can inform education and intervention strategies based on the developmental science of learning.

  • Lasting effects of stress physiology on the brain: Cortisol reactivity during preschool predicts hippocampal functional connectivity at school age
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Sarah L. Blankenship, Morgan Botdorf, Tracy Riggins, Lea R. Dougherty

    Prolonged exposure to glucocorticoid stress hormones, such as cortisol in humans, has been associated with structural and functional changes in the hippocampus. The majority of research demonstrating these associations in humans has been conducted in adult, clinical, or severely maltreated populations, with little research investigating these effects in young or more typically developing populations. The present study sought to address this gap by investigating longitudinal associations between preschool (3-5 years) and concurrent (5-9 years) cortisol reactivity to a laboratory stressor and hippocampal functional connectivity during a passive viewing fMRI scan. Results showed that, after controlling for concurrent cortisol reactivity, greater total cortisol release in response to a stressor during preschool predicted increased anterior and posterior hippocampal connectivity with the precuneus and cingulate gyrus at school-age. These findings are consistent with literature from adult and non-human investigations and suggest lasting impacts of early stress physiology on the brain.

  • Temporo-frontal activation during phonological processing predicts gains in arithmetic facts in young children
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Macarena Suárez-Pellicioni, Lynn Fuchs, James R. Booth

    Behavioral studies have shown discrepant results regarding the role of phonology in predicting math gains. The objective of this study was to use fMRI to study the role of activation during a rhyming judgment task in predicting behavioral gains on math fluency, multiplication, and subtraction skill. We focused within the left middle/superior temporal gyrus and left inferior frontal gyrus, brain areas associated with the storage of phonological representations and with their access, respectively. We ran multiple regression analyses to determine whether activation predicted gains in the three math measures, separately for younger (i.e. 10 years old) and older (i.e 12 years old) children. Results showed that activation in both temporal and frontal cortex only predicted gains in fluency and multiplication skill, and only for younger children. This study suggests that both temporal and frontal cortex activation during phonological processing are important in predicting gains in math tasks that involve the retrieval of facts that are stored as phonological codes in memory. Moreover, these results were specific to younger children, suggesting that phonology is most important in the early stages of math development. When the math task involved subtractions, which relies on quantity representations, phonological processes were not important in driving gains.

  • Modeling the Evolution of Sensitive Periods
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Willem E. Frankenhuis, Nicole Walasek

    In the past decade, there has been monumental progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of sensitive periods. Little is known, however, about the evolution of sensitive periods. Recent studies have started to address this gap. Biologists have built mathematical models exploring the environmental conditions in which sensitive periods are likely to evolve. These models investigate how mechanisms of plasticity can respond optimally to experience during an individual’s lifetime. This paper discusses the central tenets, insights, and predictions of these models, in relation to empirical work on humans and other animals. We also discuss which future models are needed to improve the bridge between theory and data, advancing their synergy. Our paper is written in an accessible manner and for a broad audience. We hope our work will contribute to recently emerging connections between the fields of developmental neuroscience and evolutionary biology.

  • Neurodevelopmental shifts in learned value transfer on cognitive control during adolescence
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Catherine Insel, Mia Charifson, Leah H. Somerville

    Value-associated cues in the environment often enhance subsequent goal-directed behaviors in adults, a phenomenon supported by integration of motivational and cognitive neural systems. Given the interactions among these systems change throughout adolescence, we tested when beneficial effects of value associations on subsequent cognitive control performance emerge during adolescence. Participants (N = 81) aged 13-20 completed a reinforcement learning task with four cue-incentive pairings that could yield high gain, low gain, high loss, or low loss outcomes. Next, participants completed a Go/NoGo task during fMRI where the NoGo targets comprised the previously learned cues, which tested how prior value associations influence cognitive control performance. Improved accuracy for previously learned high gain relative to low gain cues emerged with age. Older adolescents exhibited enhanced recruitment of the dorsal striatum and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during cognitive control execution to previously learned high gain relative to low gain cues. Older adolescents also expressed increased coupling between the dorsal striatum and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for high gain cues, whereas younger adolescents expressed increased coupling between the striatum and ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings reveal that learned high value cue-incentive associations enhance cognitive control in late adolescence in parallel with value-selective recruitment of corticostriatal systems.

  • Prosocial behavior relates to the rate and timing of cortical thinning from adolescence to young adulthood
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Lia Ferschmann, Nandita Vijayakumar, Håkon Grydeland, Knut Overbye, Donatas Sederevicius, Paulina Due-Tønnessen, Anders M. Fjell, Kristine B. Walhovd, Jennifer H. Pfeifer, Christian K. Tamnes

    Prosocial behavior, or voluntary actions that intentionally benefit others, relate to desirable developmental outcomes such as peer acceptance, while lack of prosocial behavior has been associated with several neurodevelopmental disorders. Mapping the biological foundations of prosociality may thus aid our understanding of both normal and abnormal development, yet how prosociality relates to cortical development is largely unknown. Here, relations between prosociality, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (self-report), and changes in thickness across the cortical mantle were examined using mixed-effects models. The sample consisted of 169 healthy individuals (92 females) aged 12-26 with repeated MRI from up to 3 time points, at approximately 3-year intervals (301 scans). In regions associated with social cognition and behavioral control, higher prosociality was associated with greater cortical thinning during early-to-middle adolescence, followed by attenuation of this process during the transition to young adulthood. Comparatively, lower prosociality was related to initially slower thinning, followed by comparatively protracted thinning into the mid-twenties. This study showed that prosocial behavior is associated with regional development of cortical thickness in adolescence and young adulthood. The results suggest that the rate of thinning in these regions, as well as its timing, may be factors related to prosocial behavior.

  • Altered neural correlates of episodic memory in adolescents with severe obesity
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Alaina L Pearce, Eleanor Mackey, J. Bradley C. Cherry, Alexandra Olson, Xiaozhen You, Evan P Nadler, Chandan J Vaidya

    Negative effects of obesity on memory and associated medial temporal circuitry have been noted in animal models, but the status in humans, particularly children, is not well established. Our study is the first to examine neural correlates of successful memory encoding of visual scenes and their associated context in adolescents with severe obesity (age 14-18 years, 43% male). Despite similar subsequent memory as adolescents without obesity (BMI for age and sex <95th percentile), those with severe obesity (BMI for age and sex 120% above <95th percentile) showed reduced hippocampal, parahippocampal, frontal, and parietal engagement during encoding of remembered visual scenes and greater lateral temporal engagement during encoding of their associated context. Standardized testing revealed a trend level group difference in memory performance, with a larger magnitude of obesity-related difference in recollection-related memory that was mediated by individual differences in lateral temporal activation during contextual encoding. The observed widespread functional alterations are concerning in light of the importance of mnemonic processing for academic achievement and feeding behavior and underscore the need for prevention and intervention initiatives for pediatric obesity.

  • Reinforcement learning across development: What insights can we draw from a decade of research?
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Kate Nussenbaum, Catherine A. Hartley

    The past decade has seen the emergence of the use of reinforcement learning models to study developmental change in value-based learning. It is unclear, however, whether these computational modeling studies, which have employed a wide variety of tasks and model variants, have reached convergent conclusions. In this review, we examine whether the tuning of model parameters that govern different aspects of learning and decision-making processes vary consistently as a function of age, and what neurocognitive developmental changes may account for differences in these parameter estimates across development. We explore whether patterns of developmental change in these estimates are better described by differences in the extent to which individuals adapt their learning processes to the statistics of different environments, or by more static learning biases that emerge across varied contexts. We focus specifically on learning rates and inverse temperature parameter estimates, and find evidence that from childhood to adulthood, individuals become better at optimally weighting recent outcomes during learning across diverse contexts and less exploratory in their value-based decision-making. We provide recommendations for how these two possibilities — and potential alternative accounts — can be tested more directly to build a cohesive body of research that yields greater insight into the development of core learning processes.

  • Distinct aspects of the early environment shape associative memory, cued attention, and memory-guided attention: Implications for academic achievement
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Maya L. Rosen, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Margaret A. Sheridan, Katie A. McLaughlin

    Childhood socioeconomic status (SES) is associated with numerous aspects of cognitive development and disparities in academic achievement. The specific environmental factors that contribute to these disparities remain poorly understood. We used observational methods to characterize three aspects of the early environment that may contribute to SES-related differences in cognitive development: violence exposure, cognitive stimulation, and quality of the physical environment. We evaluated the associations of these environmental characteristics with associative memory, cued attention, and memory-guided attention in a sample of 101 children aged 60-75 months. We further investigated whether these specific cognitive abilities mediated the association between SES and academic achievement 18 months later. Violence exposure was specifically associated with poor associative memory, but not cued attention or memory-guided attention. Cognitive stimulation and higher quality physical environment were positively associated with cued attention accuracy, and the quality of the physical environment was associated with memory-guided attention accuracy. Of the cognitive abilities examined, only memory-guided attention contributed to SES-related differences in academic achievement. These findings suggest specificity in how particular aspects of early environmental experience scaffold different types of attention and memory subserved by distinct neural circuits and shed light on a novel cognitive-developmental mechanism underlying SES-related disparities in academic achievement.

  • Always on my mind: Cross-brain associations of mental health symptoms during simultaneous parent-child scanning
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Kelly T. Cosgrove, Kara L. Kerr, Robin L. Aupperle, Erin L. Ratliff, Danielle C. DeVille, Jennifer S. Silk, Kaiping Burrows, Andrew J. Moore, Chase Antonacci, Masaya Misaki, Susan F. Tapert, Jerzy Bodurka, W. Kyle Simmons, Amanda Sheffield Morris

    How parents manifest symptoms of anxiety or depression may affect how children learn to modulate their own distress, thereby influencing the children's risk for developing an anxiety or mood disorder. Conversely, children’s mental health symptoms may impact parents' experiences of negative emotions. Therefore, mental health symptoms can have bidirectional effects in parent-child relationships, particularly during moments of distress or frustration (e.g., when a parent or child makes a costly mistake). The present study used simultaneous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of parent-adolescent dyads to examine how brain activity when responding to each other's costly errors (i.e., dyadic error processing) may be associated with symptoms of anxiety and depression. While undergoing simultaneous fMRI scans, healthy dyads completed a task involving feigned errors that indicated their family member made a costly mistake. Inter-brain, random-effects multivariate modeling revealed that parents who exhibited decreased medial prefrontal cortex and posterior cingulate cortex activation when viewing their child's costly error response had children with more symptoms of depression and anxiety. Adolescents with increased anterior insula activation when viewing a costly error made by their parent had more anxious parents. These results reveal cross-brain associations between mental health symptomatology and brain activity during parent-child dyadic error processing.

  • The relationship between performance in a theory of mind task and intrinsic functional connectivity in youth with early onset psychosis
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Daniel Ilzarbe, Elena de la Serna, Inmaculada Baeza, Mireia Rosa, Olga Puig, Anna Calvo, Mireia Masias, Roger Borras, Jose C. Pariente, Josefina Castro-Fornieles J, Gisela Sugranyes

    Psychotic disorders are characterized by theory of mind (ToM) impairment. Although ToM undergoes maturational changes throughout adolescence, there is a lack of studies examining ToM performance and its brain functional correlates in individuals with an early onset of psychosis (EOP; onset prior to age 18), and its relationship with age. Twenty-seven individuals with EOP were compared with 41 healthy volunteers using the “Reading-the-Mind-in-the-Eyes” Test, as a measure of ToM performance. A resting-state functional MRI scan was also acquired, in which the default mode network was used to identify areas relevant to ToM processing employing independent component analysis. Group effects revealed worse ToM performance and less intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex in EOP relative to healthy volunteers. Group by age interaction revealed age-positive associations in ToM task performance and in intrinsic connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex in healthy volunteers, which were not present in EOP. Differences in ToM performance were partially mediated by intrinsic functional connectivity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Poorer ToM performance in EOP, coupled with less medial prefrontal cortex connectivity, could be associated with the impact of psychosis during a critical period of development of the social brain, limiting normative age-related maturation.

  • Combined effects of age and BMI are related to altered cortical thickness in adolescence and adulthood
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Margaret L. Westwater, Raquel Vilar-López, Hisham Ziauddeen, Antonio Verdejo-García, Paul C. Fletcher

    Overweight and obesity are associated with functional and structural alterations in the brain, but how these associations change across critical developmental periods remains unknown. Here, we examined the relationship between age, body mass index (BMI) and cortical thickness (CT) in healthy adolescents (n = 70; 14 – 19 y) and adults (n = 75; 25 – 45 y). We also examined the relationship between adiposity, impulsivity, measured by delay discounting (DD), and CT of the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), a region key to impulse control. A significant age-by-BMI interaction was observed in both adolescents and adults; however, the direction of this relationship differed between age groups. In adolescents, increased age-adjusted BMI Z-score attenuated age-related CT reductions globally and in frontal, temporal and occipital regions. In adults, increased BMI augmented age-related CT reductions, both globally and in bilateral parietal cortex. Although DD was unrelated to adiposity in both groups, increased DD and adiposity were both associated with reduced IFG thickness in adolescents and adults. Our findings suggest that the known age effects on CT in adolescence and adulthood are moderated by adiposity. The association between weight, cortical development and its functional implications would suggest that future studies of adolescent and adult brain development take adiposity into account.

  • Longitudinal Link between Trait Motivation and Risk-Taking Behaviors via Neural Risk Processing
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Mengjiao Li, Nina Lauharatanahirun, Laurence Steinberg, Brooks King-Casas, Jungmeen Kim-Spoon, Kirby Deater-Deckard

    Prior research has emphasized the importance of the motivational system in risky decision-making, yet the mechanisms through which individual differences in motivation may influence adolescents’ risk-taking behaviors remain to be determined. Based on developmental neuroscience literature illustrating the importance of risk processing in explaining individual differences in value-based decision making, we examined risk processing as a potential mediator of the association between trait motivations and adolescents’ risk-taking behaviors. The sample consisted of 167 adolescents (47% females) annually assessed for three years (13-14 years of age at Time 1). Approach and avoidance motivations were measured using adolescent self-report. Risk preference was estimated based on adolescents’ decisions during a modified economic lottery choice task with neural risk processing being measured by blood-oxygen-level-dependent responses in the bilateral insular cortex for chosen options. Adolescents’ risk-taking behaviors were assessed by laboratory-based risky decision making using the Stoplight task. Longitudinal mediation analyses revealed a significant indirect effect of approach motivation, such that higher motivation was correlated with increases in risk-taking behaviors via decreases in neural activation in the bilateral insular cortex during risk processing. The findings illustrate a neural pathway through which approach motivation is translated into the vulnerability to risk taking development.

  • Deficits in arithmetic error detection in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure: an ERP study
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Andrea Berger, Michael Shmueli, Svetlana Lisson, Mattan S. Ben-Shachar, Nadine M. Lindinger, Catherine E. Lewis, Neil C. Dodge, Christopher D. Molteno, Ernesta M. Meintjes, Joseph L. Jacobson, Sandra W. Jacobson

    Prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with a range of physical, cognitive, and behavioral problems, particularly in arithmetic. We report ERP data collected from 32 infants (mean age = 6.8 mo; SD = 0.6; range = 6.1-8.1; 16 typically-developing (TD); 16 prenatally alcohol-exposed) during a task designed to assess error detection. Evidence of error monitoring at this early age suggests that precursors of the onset of executive control can already be detected in infancy. As predicted, the ERPs of the TD infants, time-locked to the presentation of the solution to simple arithmetic equations, showed greater negative activity for the incorrect solution condition at middle-frontal scalp areas. Spectral analysis indicated specificity to the 6-7 Hz frequency range. By contrast, the alcohol-exposed infants did not show the increased middle-frontal negativity seen in the TD group nor the increased power in the 6-7 Hz frequency, suggesting a marked developmental delay in error detection and/or early impairment in information processing of small quantities. Overall, our research demonstrates that (a) the brain network involved in error detection can be identified and highly specified in TD young infants, and (b) this effect is replicable and can be utilized for studying developmental psychopathology at very early ages.

  • Father-infant interactions and infant regional brain volumes: A cross-sectional MRI study.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Vaheshta Sethna,Jasmine Siew,Inês Pote,Siying Wang,Maria Gudbrandsen,Charlotte Lee,Emily Perry,Kerrie P H Adams,Clare Watson,Johanna Kangas,Vladimira Stoencheva,Eileen Daly,Maria Kuklisova-Murgasova,Steven C R Williams,Michael C Craig,Declan G M Murphy,Grainne M McAlonan

    Fathers play a crucial role in their children's socio-emotional and cognitive development. A plausible intermediate phenotype underlying this association is father's impact on infant brain. However, research on the association between paternal caregiving and child brain biology is scarce, particularly during infancy. Thus, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to investigate the relationship between observed father-infant interactions, specifically paternal sensitivity, and regional brain volumes in a community sample of 3-to-6-month-old infants (N = 28). We controlled for maternal sensitivity and examined the moderating role of infant communication on this relationship. T2-weighted MR images were acquired from infants during natural sleep. Higher levels of paternal sensitivity were associated with smaller cerebellar volumes in infants with high communication levels. In contrast, paternal sensitivity was not associated with subcortical grey matter volumes in the whole sample, and this was similar in infants with both high and low communication levels. This preliminary study provides the first evidence for an association between father-child interactions and variation in infant brain anatomy.

  • Using fNIRS to examine occipital and temporal responses to stimulus repetition in young infants: Evidence of selective frontal cortex involvement.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2016-12-25
    Lauren L Emberson,Grace Cannon,Holly Palmeri,John E Richards,Richard N Aslin

    How does the developing brain respond to recent experience? Repetition suppression (RS) is a robust and well-characterized response of to recent experience found, predominantly, in the perceptual cortices of the adult brain. We use functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to investigate how perceptual (temporal and occipital) and frontal cortices in the infant brain respond to auditory and visual stimulus repetitions (spoken words and faces). In Experiment 1, we find strong evidence of repetition suppression in the frontal cortex but only for auditory stimuli. In perceptual cortices, we find only suggestive evidence of auditory RS in the temporal cortex and no evidence of visual RS in any ROI. In Experiments 2 and 3, we replicate and extend these findings. Overall, we provide the first evidence that infant and adult brains respond differently to stimulus repetition. We suggest that the frontal lobe may support the development of RS in perceptual cortices.

  • Longitudinal stability of the folding pattern of the anterior cingulate cortex during development.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2016-03-15
    A Cachia,G Borst,C Tissier,C Fisher,M Plaze,O Gay,D Rivière,N Gogtay,J Giedd,J-F Mangin,O Houdé,A Raznahan

    Prenatal processes are likely critical for the differences in cognitive ability and disease risk that unfold in postnatal life. Prenatally established cortical folding patterns are increasingly studied as an adult proxy for earlier development events - under the as yet untested assumption that an individual's folding pattern is developmentally fixed. Here, we provide the first empirical test of this stability assumption using 263 longitudinally-acquired structural MRI brain scans from 75 typically developing individuals spanning ages 7 to 32 years. We focus on the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) - an intensely studied cortical region that presents two qualitatively distinct and reliably classifiable sulcal patterns with links to postnatal behavior. We show - without exception-that individual ACC sulcal patterns are fixed from childhood to adulthood, at the same time that quantitative anatomical ACC metrics are undergoing profound developmental change. Our findings buttress use of folding typology as a postnatally-stable marker for linking variations in early brain development to later neurocognitive outcomes in ex utero life.

  • Forgetting the best when predicting the worst: Preliminary observations on neural circuit function in adolescent social anxiety.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2015-05-02
    Johanna M Jarcho,Adrienne L Romer,Tomer Shechner,Adriana Galvan,Amanda E Guyer,Ellen Leibenluft,Daniel S Pine,Eric E Nelson

    Social anxiety disorder typically begins in adolescence, a sensitive period for brain development, when increased complexity and salience of peer relationships requires novel forms of social learning. Disordered social learning in adolescence may explain how brain dysfunction promotes social anxiety. Socially anxious adolescents (n = 15) and adults (n = 19) and non-anxious adolescents (n = 24) and adults (n = 32) predicted, then received, social feedback from high and low-value peers while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). A surprise recall task assessed memory biases for feedback. Neural correlates of social evaluation prediction errors (PEs) were assessed by comparing engagement to expected and unexpected positive and negative feedback. For socially anxious adolescents, but not adults or healthy participants of either age group, PEs elicited heightened striatal activity and negative fronto-striatal functional connectivity. This occurred selectively to unexpected positive feedback from high-value peers and corresponded with impaired memory for social feedback. While impaired memory also occurred in socially-anxious adults, this impairment was unrelated to brain-based PE activity. Thus, social anxiety in adolescence may relate to altered neural correlates of PEs that contribute to impaired learning about social feedback. Small samples necessitate replication. Nevertheless, results suggest that the relationship between learning and fronto-striatal function may attenuate as development progresses.

  • Age-related changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity of the human ventral vs. dorsal striatum from childhood to middle age.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2014-09-27
    James N Porter,Amy K Roy,Brenda Benson,Christina Carlisi,Paul F Collins,Ellen Leibenluft,Daniel S Pine,Monica Luciana,Monique Ernst

    The striatum codes motivated behavior. Delineating age-related differences within striatal circuitry can provide insights into neural mechanisms underlying ontogenic behavioral changes and vulnerabilities to mental disorders. To this end, a dual ventral/dorsal model of striatal function was examined using resting state intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) imaging in 106 healthy individuals, ages 9-44. Broadly, the dorsal striatum (DS) is connected to prefrontal and parietal cortices and contributes to cognitive processes; the ventral striatum (VS) is connected to medial orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices, and contributes to affective valuation and motivation. Findings revealed patterns of age-related changes that differed between VS and DS iFCs. We found an age-related increase in DS iFC with posterior cingulate cortex (pCC) that stabilized after the mid-twenties, but a decrease in VS iFC with anterior insula (aIns) and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) that persisted into mid-adulthood. These distinct developmental trajectories of VS vs. DS iFC might underlie adolescents' unique behavioral patterns and vulnerabilities to psychopathology, and also speaks to changes in motivational networks that extend well past 25 years old.

  • Loss aversion and 5HTT gene variants in adolescent anxiety.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-11-28
    Monique Ernst,Rista C Plate,Christina O Carlisi,Elena Gorodetsky,David Goldman,Daniel S Pine

    Loss aversion, a well-documented behavioral phenomenon, characterizes decisions under risk in adult populations. As such, loss aversion may provide a reliable measure of risky behavior. Surprisingly, little is known about loss aversion in adolescents, a group who manifests risk-taking behavior, or in anxiety disorders, which are associated with risk-avoidance. Finally, loss aversion is expected to be modulated by genotype, particularly the serotonin transporter (SERT) gene variant, based on its role in anxiety and impulsivity. This genetic modulation may also differ between anxious and healthy adolescents, given their distinct propensities for risk taking. The present work examines the modulation of loss aversion, an index of risk-taking, and reaction-time to decision, an index of impulsivity, by the serotonin-transporter-gene-linked polymorphisms (5HTTLPR) in healthy and clinically anxious adolescents. Findings show that loss aversion (1) does manifest in adolescents, (2) does not differ between healthy and clinically anxious participants, and (3), when stratified by SERT genotype, identifies a subset of anxious adolescents who are high SERT-expressers, and show excessively low loss-aversion and high impulsivity. This last finding may serve as preliminary evidence for 5HTTLPR as a risk factor for the development of comorbid disorders associated with risk-taking and impulsivity in clinically anxious adolescents.

  • Neural circuitry of masked emotional face processing in youth with bipolar disorder, severe mood dysregulation, and healthy volunteers.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-11-19
    Laura A Thomas,Melissa A Brotman,Brian L Bones,Gang Chen,Brooke H Rosen,Daniel S Pine,Ellen Leibenluft

    Youth with bipolar disorder (BD) and those with severe, non-episodic irritability (severe mood dysregulation, SMD) show face-emotion labeling deficits. These groups differ from healthy volunteers (HV) in neural responses to emotional faces. It is unknown whether awareness is required to elicit these differences. We compared activation in BD (N=20), SMD (N=18), and HV (N=22) during "Aware" and "Non-aware" priming of shapes by emotional faces. Subjects rated how much they liked the shape. In aware, a face (angry, fearful, happy, neutral, blank oval) appeared (187 ms) before the shape. In non-aware, a face appeared (17 ms), followed by a mask (170 ms), and shape. A Diagnosis-by-Awareness-by-Emotion ANOVA was not significant. There were significant Diagnosis-by-Awareness interactions in occipital regions. BD and SMD showed increased activity for non-aware vs. aware; HV showed the reverse pattern. When subjects viewed angry or neutral faces, there were Emotion-by-Diagnosis interactions in face-emotion processing regions, including the L precentral gyrus, R posterior cingulate, R superior temporal gyrus, R middle occipital gyrus, and L medial frontal gyrus. Regardless of awareness, BD and SMD differ in activation patterns from HV and each other in multiple brain regions, suggesting that BD and SMD are distinct developmental mood disorders.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developmental effects of decision-making on sensitivity to reward: an fMRI study.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2012-05-18
    Johanna M Jarcho,Brenda E Benson,Rista C Plate,Amanda E Guyer,Allison M Detloff,Daniel S Pine,Ellen Leibenluft,Monique Ernst

    Studies comparing neural correlates of reward processing across development yield inconsistent findings. This challenges theories characterizing adolescents as globally hypo- or hypersensitive to rewards. Developmental differences in reward sensitivity may fluctuate based on reward magnitude, and on whether rewards require decision-making. We examined whether these factors modulate developmental differences in neural response during reward anticipation and/or receipt in 26 adolescents (14.05±2.37 yrs) and 26 adults (31.25±8.23 yrs). Brain activity was assessed with fMRI during reward anticipation, when subjects made responses with-vs.-without decision-making, to obtain large-vs.-small rewards, and during reward receipt. When reward-receipt required decision-making, neural activity did not differ by age. However, when reward receipt did not require decision-making, neural activity varied by development, reward magnitude, and stage of the reward task. During anticipation, adolescents, but not adults, exhibited greater activity in the insula, extending into putamen, and cingulate gyrus for large-vs.-small incentives. During feedback, adults, but not adolescents, exhibited greater activity in the precuneus for large-vs.-small incentives. These data indicate that age-related differences in reward sensitivity cannot be characterized by global hypo- or hyper-responsivity. Instead, neural responding in striatum, prefrontal cortex and precuneus is influenced by both situational demands and developmental factors. This suggests nuanced maturational effects in adolescent reward sensitivity.

  • New perspectives on adolescent motivated behavior: attention and conditioning.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2011-10-07
    Monique Ernst,Teresa Daniele,Kyle Frantz

    Adolescence is a critical transition period, during which fundamental changes prepare the adolescent for becoming an adult. Heuristic models of the neurobiology of adolescent behavior have emerged, promoting the central role of reward and motivation, coupled with cognitive immaturities. Here, we bring focus to two basic sets of processes, attention and conditioning, which are essential for adaptive behavior. Using the dual-attention model developed by Corbetta and Shulman (2002), which identifies a stimulus-driven and a goal-driven attention network, we propose a balance that favors stimulus-driven attention over goal-driven attention in youth. Regarding conditioning, we hypothesize that stronger associations tend to be made between environmental cues and appetitive stimuli, and weaker associations with aversive stimuli, in youth relative to adults. An attention system geared to prioritize stimulus-driven attention, together with more powerful associative learning with appetitive incentives, contribute to shape patterns of adolescent motivated behavior. This proposed bias in attention and conditioning function could facilitate the impulsive, novelty-seeking and risk-taking behavior that is typical of many adolescents.

  • The development of the ventral prefrontal cortex and social flexibility.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2011-08-02
    Eric E Nelson,Amanda E Guyer

    Over the last several years a number of studies in both humans and animals have suggested that the orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices play an important role in generating flexible behavior. We suggest that input from these brain regions contribute to three functions involved in generating flexible behavior within social contexts: valuation, inhibition, and rule use. Recent studies have also demonstrated that the prefrontal cortex undergoes a prolonged course of maturation that extends well after puberty. Here, we review evidence that the prolonged development of these prefrontal regions parallels a slowly emerging ability for flexible social behavior. We also speculate on the possibility that sensitive periods for organizing social behavior may be embedded within this developmental time-fame. Finally, we discuss the role of prefrontal cortex in adolescent mood and anxiety disorders, particularly as orbitofrontal and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices are engaged in a social context.

  • A brief validated screen to identify boys and girls at risk for early marijuana use.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2018-04-16
    Rolf Loeber,Duncan B Clark,Lia Ahonen,Douglas FitzGerald,Elisa M Trucco,Robert A Zucker

    To guide recruitment, the ABCD Study requires a method for identifying children at high risk for early-onset substance use that may be utilized during the recruitment process. This study was undertaken to inform the development of a brief screen for identifying youths' risk of early-onset substance use and other adverse outcomes. To be acceptable by participants in this context, consideration of potential items was limited to child characteristics previously determined to be potentially pertinent and parental cigarette smoking. To focus the analyses on a single target substance use outcome pertinent to the stated goals of the ABCD Study, early-onset marijuana use was selected. Utilizing data collected prior to the initiation of the ABCD Study, four longitudinal data sets were used in nine secondary data analyses to test, replicate and validate a brief screening assessment for boys and girls to identify those at risk for early-onset marijuana use by ages 14-15. The combination of child externalizing problems reported by the parent (4 items: destroys things belonging to his/her family or others; disobedience at school; lying or cheating; steals outside the home) and parent smoking (1 item) proved to be the optimal screen. This was largely replicated across the four data sets. Indicators of predictive efficiency were modest in magnitude and statistically significant in 8 out of the 9 analyses. The results informed the screen's optimal threshold for identifying children at risk for early-onset marijuana use. The addition of child internalizing problems did not improve these predictions. Further analyses showed the predictive utility of the screen for several other substance use outcomes at ages 15 to 18, including alcohol and nicotine use. The results support the use of a short screening assessment to identify youth at risk for early-onset substance use in the ABCD Study and other research.

  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Developmental changes in the inferior frontal cortex for selecting semantic representations.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2012-02-18
    Shu-Hui Lee,James R Booth,Shiou-Yuan Chen,Tai-Li Chou

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to examine the neural correlates of semantic judgments to Chinese words in a group of 10-15 year old Chinese children. Two semantic tasks were used: visual-visual versus visual-auditory presentation. The first word was visually presented (i.e. character) and the second word was either visually or auditorily presented, and the participant had to determine if these two words were related in meaning. Different from English, Chinese has many homophones in which each spoken word corresponds to many characters. The visual-auditory task, therefore, required greater engagement of cognitive control for the participants to select a semantically appropriate answer for the second homophonic word. Weaker association pairs produced greater activation in the mid-ventral region of left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 45) for both tasks. However, this effect was stronger for the visual-auditory task than for the visual-visual task and this difference was stronger for older compared to younger children. The findings suggest greater involvement of semantic selection mechanisms in the cross-modal task requiring the access of the appropriate meaning of homophonic spoken words, especially for older children.

  • Fronto-temporoparietal connectivity and self-awareness in 18-month-olds: A resting state fNIRS study.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2019-07-13
    Chiara Bulgarelli,Anna Blasi,Carina C J M de Klerk,John E Richards,Antonia Hamilton,Victoria Southgate

    How and when a concept of the 'self' emerges has been the topic of much interest in developmental psychology. Self-awareness has been proposed to emerge at around 18 months, when toddlers start to show evidence of physical self-recognition. However, to what extent physical self-recognition is a valid indicator of being able to think about oneself, is debated. Research in adult cognitive neuroscience has suggested that a common network of brain regions called Default Mode Network (DMN), including the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) and the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), is recruited when we are reflecting on the self. We hypothesized that if mirror self-recognition involves self-awareness, toddlers who exhibit mirror self-recognition might show increased functional connectivity between frontal and temporoparietal regions of the brain, relative to those toddlers who do not yet show mirror self-recognition. Using fNIRS, we collected resting-state data from 18 Recognizers and 22 Non-Recognizers at 18 months of age. We found significantly stronger fronto-temporoparietal connectivity in Recognizers compared to Non-Recognizers, a finding which might support the hypothesized relationship between mirror-self recognition and self-awareness in infancy.

  • Modeling Developmental Change: Contemporary Approaches to Key Methodological Challenges in Developmental Neuroimaging.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2018-11-06
    Jennifer H Pfeifer,Nicholas B Allen,Michelle L Byrne,Kathryn L Mills

  • Social touch: A new vista for developmental cognitive neuroscience?
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2018-06-18
    Teodora Gliga,Teresa Farroni,Carissa J Cascio

  • Reading skill related to left ventral occipitotemporal cortex during a phonological awareness task in 5-6-year old children.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2018-02-18
    Jin Wang,Marc F Joanisse,James R Booth

    The left ventral occipitotemporal cortex (vOT) is important in visual word recognition. Studies have shown that the left vOT is generally observed to be involved in spoken language processing in skilled readers, suggesting automatic access to corresponding orthographic information. However, little is known about where and how the left vOT is involved in the spoken language processing of young children with emerging reading ability. In order to answer this question, we examined the relation of reading ability in 5-6-year-old kindergarteners to the activation of vOT during an auditory phonological awareness task. Two experimental conditions: onset word pairs that shared the first phoneme and rhyme word pairs that shared the final biphone/triphone, were compared to allow a measurement of vOT's activation to small (i.e., onsets) and large grain sizes (i.e., rhymes). We found that higher reading ability was associated with better accuracy of the onset, but not the rhyme, condition. In addition, higher reading ability was only associated with greater sensitivity in the posterior left vOT for the contrast of the onset versus rhyme condition. These results suggest that acquisition of reading results in greater specialization of the posterior vOT to smaller rather than larger grain sizes in young children.

  • Age-related differences in the neural correlates of trial-to-trial variations of reaction time.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2016-05-31
    Nancy E Adleman,Gang Chen,Richard C Reynolds,Anna Frackman,Varun Razdan,Daniel H Weissman,Daniel S Pine,Ellen Leibenluft

    Intra-subject variation in reaction time (ISVRT) is a developmentally-important phenomenon that decreases from childhood through young adulthood in parallel with the development of executive functions and networks. Prior work has shown a significant association between trial-by-trial variations in reaction time (RT) and trial-by-trial variations in brain activity as measured by the blood-oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) response in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies. It remains unclear, however, whether such "RT-BOLD" relationships vary with age. Here, we determined whether such trial-by-trial relationships vary with age in a cross-sectional design. We observed an association between age and RT-BOLD relationships in 11 clusters located in visual/occipital regions, frontal and parietal association cortex, precentral/postcentral gyrus, and thalamus. Some of these relationships were negative, reflecting increased BOLD associated with decreased RT, manifesting around the time of stimulus presentation and positive several seconds later. Critically for present purposes, all RT-BOLD relationships increased with age. Thus, RT-BOLD relationships may reflect robust, measurable changes in the brain-behavior relationship across development.

  • Cannabis use in early adolescence: Evidence of amygdala hypersensitivity to signals of threat.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2015-09-09
    Philip A Spechler,Catherine A Orr,Bader Chaarani,Kees-Jan Kan,Scott Mackey,Aaron Morton,Mitchell P Snowe,Kelsey E Hudson,Robert R Althoff,Stephen T Higgins,Anna Cattrell,Herta Flor,Frauke Nees,Tobias Banaschewski,Arun L W Bokde,Robert Whelan,Christian Büchel,Uli Bromberg,Patricia Conrod,Vincent Frouin,Dimitri Papadopoulos,Jurgen Gallinat,Andreas Heinz,Henrik Walter,Bernd Ittermann,Penny Gowland,Tomáš Paus,Luise Poustka,Jean-Luc Martinot,Eric Artiges,Michael N Smolka,Gunter Schumann,Hugh Garavan,

    Cannabis use in adolescence may be characterized by differences in the neural basis of affective processing. In this study, we used an fMRI affective face processing task to compare a large group (n=70) of 14-year olds with a history of cannabis use to a group (n=70) of never-using controls matched on numerous characteristics including IQ, SES, alcohol and cigarette use. The task contained short movies displaying angry and neutral faces. Results indicated that cannabis users had greater reactivity in the bilateral amygdalae to angry faces than neutral faces, an effect that was not observed in their abstinent peers. In contrast, activity levels in the cannabis users in cortical areas including the right temporal-parietal junction and bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex did not discriminate between the two face conditions, but did differ in controls. Results did not change after excluding subjects with any psychiatric symptomology. Given the high density of cannabinoid receptors in the amygdala, our findings suggest cannabis use in early adolescence is associated with hypersensitivity to signals of threat. Hypersensitivity to negative affect in adolescence may place the subject at-risk for mood disorders in adulthood.

  • Learning to remember: the early ontogeny of episodic memory.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2014-02-01
    Sinéad L Mullally,Eleanor A Maguire

    Over the past 60 years the neural correlates of human episodic memory have been the focus of intense neuroscientific scrutiny. By contrast, neuroscience has paid substantially less attention to understanding the emergence of this neurocognitive system. In this review we consider how the study of memory development has evolved. In doing so, we concentrate primarily on the first postnatal year because it is within this time window that the most dramatic shifts in scientific opinion have occurred. Moreover, this time frame includes the critical age (∼9 months) at which human infants purportedly first begin to demonstrate rudimentary hippocampal-dependent memory. We review the evidence for and against this assertion, note the lack of direct neurocognitive data speaking to this issue, and question how demonstrations of exuberant relational learning and memory in infants as young as 3-months old can be accommodated within extant models. Finally, we discuss whether current impasses in the infant memory literature could be leveraged by making greater use of neuroimaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), which have been deployed so successfully in adults.

  • White matter connectivity and aerobic fitness in male adolescents.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-12-18
    Megan M Herting,John B Colby,Elizabeth R Sowell,Bonnie J Nagel

    Exercise has been shown to have positive effects on the brain and behavior throughout various stages of the lifespan. However, little is known about the impact of exercise on neurodevelopment during the adolescent years, particularly with regard to white matter microstructure, as assessed by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Both tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) and tractography-based along-tract statistics were utilized to examine the relationship between white matter microstructure and aerobic exercise in adolescent males, ages 15-18. Furthermore, we examined the data by both (1) grouping individuals based on aerobic fitness self-reports (high fit (HF) vs. low fit (LF)), and (2) using VO2 peak as a continuous variable across the entire sample. Results showed that HF youth had an overall higher number of streamline counts compared to LF peers, which was driven by group differences in corticospinal tract (CST) and anterior corpus callosum (Fminor). In addition, VO2 peak was negatively related to FA in the left CST. Together, these results suggest that aerobic fitness relates to white matter connectivity and microstructure in tracts carrying frontal and motor fibers during adolescence. Furthermore, the current study highlights the importance of considering the environmental factor of aerobic exercise when examining adolescent brain development.

  • Electrophysiological measures of attention during speech perception predict metalinguistic skills in children.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-12-10
    Lori Astheimer,Monika Janus,Sylvain Moreno,Ellen Bialystok

    Event-related potential (ERP) evidence demonstrates that preschool-aged children selectively attend to informative moments such as word onsets during speech perception. Although this observation indicates a role for attention in language processing, it is unclear whether this type of attention is part of basic speech perception mechanisms, higher-level language skills, or general cognitive abilities. The current study examined these possibilities by measuring ERPs from 5-year-old children listening to a narrative containing attention probes presented before, during, and after word onsets as well as at random control times. Children also completed behavioral tests assessing verbal and nonverbal skills. Probes presented after word onsets elicited a more negative ERP response beginning around 100 ms after probe onset than control probes, indicating increased attention to word-initial segments. Crucially, the magnitude of this difference was correlated with performance on verbal tasks, but showed no relationship to nonverbal measures. More specifically, ERP attention effects were most strongly correlated with performance on a complex metalinguistic task involving grammaticality judgments. These results demonstrate that effective allocation of attention during speech perception supports higher-level, controlled language processing in children by allowing them to focus on relevant information at individual word and complex sentence levels.

  • Caudate responses to reward anticipation associated with delay discounting behavior in healthy youth.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-12-07
    Margaret M Benningfield,Jennifer U Blackford,Melissa E Ellsworth,Gregory R Samanez-Larkin,Peter R Martin,Ronald L Cowan,David H Zald

    BACKGROUND Choices requiring delay of gratification made during adolescence can have significant impact on life trajectory. Willingness to delay gratification can be measured using delay discounting tasks that require a choice between a smaller immediate reward and a larger delayed reward. Individual differences in the subjective value of delayed rewards are associated with risk for development of psychopathology including substance abuse. The neurobiological underpinnings related to these individual differences early in life are not fully understood. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we tested the hypothesis that individual differences in delay discounting behavior in healthy youth are related to differences in responsiveness to potential reward. METHOD Nineteen 10-14 year-olds performed a monetary incentive delay task to assess neural sensitivity to potential reward and a questionnaire to measure discounting of future monetary rewards. RESULTS Left ventromedial caudate activation during anticipation of potential reward was negatively correlated with delay discounting behavior. There were no regions where brain responses during notification of reward outcome were associated with discounting behavior. CONCLUSIONS Brain activation during anticipation of potential reward may serve as a marker for individual differences in ability or willingness to delay gratification in healthy youth.

  • Cognitive control network connectivity in adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-11-26
    Peter C Clasen,Christopher G Beevers,Jeanette A Mumford,David M Schnyer

    BACKGROUND Adolescent women with a parental history of depression are at high risk for the onset of major depressive disorder (MDD). Cognitive theories suggest this vulnerability involves deficits in cognitive control over emotional information. Among adolescent women with and without a parental history of depression, we examined differences in connectivity using resting state functional connectivity analysis within a network associated with cognitive control over emotional information. METHODS Twenty-four depression-naïve adolescent women underwent resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). They were assigned to high-risk (n=11) and low-risk (n=13) groups based their parents' depression history. Seed based functional connectivity analysis was used to examine group differences in connectivity within a network associated with cognitive control. RESULTS High-risk adolescents had lower levels of connectivity between a right inferior prefrontal region and other critical nodes of the attention control network, including right middle frontal gyrus and right supramarginal gyrus. Further, greater severity of the parents' worst episode of depression was associated with altered cognitive control network connectivity in their adolescent daughters. CONCLUSIONS Depressed parents may transmit depression vulnerability to their adolescent daughters via alterations in functional connectivity within neural circuits that underlie cognitive control of emotional information.

  • The influence of reading ability on subsequent changes in verbal IQ in the teenage years.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-07-23
    Sue Ramsden,Fiona M Richardson,Goulven Josse,Clare Shakeshaft,Mohamed L Seghier,Cathy J Price

    Intelligence Quotient (IQ) is regularly used in both education and employment as a measure of cognitive ability. Although an individual's IQ is generally assumed to stay constant across the lifespan, a few studies have suggested that there may be substantial variation at the individual level. Motivated by previous reports that reading quality/quantity has a positive influence on vocabulary acquisition, we hypothesised that reading ability in the early teenage years might contribute to changes in verbal IQ (VIQ) over the next few years. We found that good readers were more likely to experience relative improvements in VIQ over time, with the reverse true for poor readers. These effects were largest when there was a discrepancy between Time 1 reading ability and Time 1 VIQ. In other words, VIQ increases tended to be greatest when reading ability was high relative to VIQ. Additional analyses supported these findings by showing that variance in VIQ change associated with Time 1 behaviour was also associated with independent measurements of brain structure. Our finding that reading in the early teenage years can predict a significant proportion of the variance in subsequent VIQ change has implications for targeted education in both home and school environments.

  • Predicting IQ change from brain structure: a cross-validation study.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-04-10
    C J Price,S Ramsden,T M H Hope,K J Friston,M L Seghier

    Procedures that can predict cognitive abilities from brain imaging data are potentially relevant to educational assessments and studies of functional anatomy in the developing brain. Our aim in this work was to quantify the degree to which IQ change in the teenage years could be predicted from structural brain changes. Two well-known k-fold cross-validation analyses were applied to data acquired from 33 healthy teenagers - each tested at Time 1 and Time 2 with a 3.5 year interval. One approach, a Leave-One-Out procedure, predicted IQ change for each subject on the basis of structural change in a brain region that was identified from all other subjects (i.e., independent data). This approach predicted 53% of verbal IQ change and 14% of performance IQ change. The other approach used half the sample, to identify regions for predicting IQ change in the other half (i.e., a Split half approach); however--unlike the Leave-One-Out procedure--regions identified using half the sample were not significant. We discuss how these out-of-sample estimates compare to in-sample estimates; and draw some recommendations for k-fold cross-validation procedures when dealing with small datasets that are typical in the neuroimaging literature.

  • Neurophysiological responses to faces and gaze direction differentiate children with ASD, ADHD and ASD+ADHD.
    Dev. Cogn. Neurosci. (IF 4.920) Pub Date : 2013-03-08
    Charlotte Tye,Evelyne Mercure,Karen L Ashwood,Bahare Azadi,Philip Asherson,Mark H Johnson,Patrick Bolton,Gráinne McLoughlin

    Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate face processing abnormalities that may underlie social impairment. Despite substantial overlap between ASD and ADHD, ERP markers of face and gaze processing have not been directly compared across pure and comorbid cases. Children with ASD (n=19), ADHD (n=18), comorbid ASD+ADHD (n=29) and typically developing (TD) controls (n=26) were presented with upright/inverted faces with direct/averted gaze, with concurrent recording of the P1 and N170 components. While the N170 was predominant in the right hemisphere in TD and ADHD, children with ASD (ASD/ASD+ADHD) showed a bilateral distribution. In addition, children with ASD demonstrated altered response to gaze direction on P1 latency and no sensitivity to gaze direction on midline-N170 amplitude compared to TD and ADHD. In contrast, children with ADHD (ADHD/ASD+ADHD) exhibited a reduced face inversion effect on P1 latency compared to TD and ASD. These findings suggest children with ASD have specific abnormalities in gaze processing and altered neural specialisation, whereas children with ADHD show abnormalities at early visual attention stages. Children with ASD+ADHD are an additive co-occurrence with deficits of both disorders. Elucidating the neural basis of the overlap between ASD and ADHD is likely to inform aetiological investigation and clinical assessment.

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