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  • Cues to stress in English spelling
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Rebecca Treiman; Nicole Rosales; Lauren Cusner; Brett Kessler

    How do skilled readers of English decide which syllable of a word to stress? In four behavioral studies, we examined this issue using disyllabic nonwords that varied in number of initial and final consonants. The tasks included oral reading of sentences that contained the nonwords, pronunciation of isolated nonwords, and metalinguistic judgments about stress. Contrary to the influential view within linguistics that onsets are irrelevant to stress assignment, the rate of first-syllable stress increased with the number of consonants in the onset of the first syllable. Also influential were the number of consonants at the end of the nonword, the presence of letter strings that are potential prefixes, and the syntactic context of the nonword in a sentence. In our final study, which involved 3061 English words with the same general structure as the nonwords in the experiments, we found that stress could be predicted with a high degree of accuracy based on the same factors that influenced performance in the behavioral studies. The results are consistent with a statistical-learning view of reading according to which skilled readers have internalized cues to stress that exist in the language but less consistent with Rastle and Coltheart’s (2000) rule-based model of stress assignment in nonword reading.

    更新日期:2020-01-22
  • Long-lasting gradient activation of referents during spoken language processing
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    J. Benjamin Falandays; Sarah Brown-Schmidt; Joseph C. Toscano

    During speech processing, listeners must map a fundamentally continuous acoustic signal onto discrete symbols, such as words. A current debate concerns the time-course over which sub-phonemic (i.e., gradient) acoustic information continues to influence symbolic (i.e., linguistic) interpretation, which can provide evidence regarding the level of representation at which gradient information is maintained. In a visual-world paradigm experiment, participants indicated whether a spoken sentence matched a display while eye-gaze was monitored. Participants heard an acoustically ambiguous stimulus (a pronoun referring to either a male or female referent in the display), which was not disambiguated until later in the discourse. The acoustic properties of the pronouns and length of the ambiguous period were varied while responses and eye-movements to the discourse-relevant items were recorded, providing a measure of whether gradient referential uncertainty is maintained over time. Fixation patterns during the ambiguous period and latencies to fixate the target at the end of the trial varied linearly with the acoustics of the earlier pronoun, indicating that gradient information can be maintained over intervening periods of 35 syllables. These results provide strong evidence that gradient uncertainty is maintained at the level of referent representations.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Translation equivalent and cross-language semantic priming in bilingual toddlers
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Caroline Floccia; Claire Delle Luche; Irina Lepadatu; Janette Chow; Paul Ratnage; Kim Plunkett

    In adult bilinguals, a word in one language will activate a related word in the other language, with language dominance modulating the direction of these effects. To determine whether the early bilingual lexicon possesses similar properties to its adult counterpart, two experiments compared translation equivalent priming and cross-linguistic semantic priming in 27-month-old bilingual toddlers learning English and one other language. Priming effects were found in both experiments, irrespective of language dominance and distance between the child’s two languages. The time course of target word recognition revealed a similar pattern for translation equivalent priming and cross-language semantic priming. These results suggest that the early bilingual lexicon possesses properties similar to the adult one in terms of word to concept connections. However, the absence of an advantage of translation equivalent priming over semantic priming, and the lack of dominance and language distance effects, suggest that when two languages are acquired in parallel during infancy, their integration within a single dynamic system is highly robust to input variations.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Effects of chronological age on native and nonnative sentence processing: Evidence from subject-verb agreement in German
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Jana Reifegerste; Rebecca Jarvis; Claudia Felser

    While much attention has been devoted to the cognition of aging multilingual individuals, little is known about how age affects their grammatical processing. We assessed subject-verb number-agreement processing in sixty native (L1) and sixty non-native (L2) speakers of German (age: 18–84) using a binary-choice sentence-completion task, along with various individual-differences tests. Our results revealed differential effects of age on L1 and L2 speakers' accuracy and reaction times (RTs). L1 speakers’ RTs increased with age, and they became more susceptible to attraction errors. In contrast, L2 speakers’ RTs decreased, once age-related slowing was controlled for, and their overall accuracy increased. We interpret this as resulting from increased L2 exposure. Moreover, L2 speakers’ accuracy/RT patterns were more strongly affected by cognitive variables (working memory, interference control) than L1 speakers’. Our findings show that as regards bilinguals' grammatical processing ability, aging is associated with both gains (in experience) and losses (in cognitive abilities).

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Are graphemic effects real in skilled visual word recognition?
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Fabienne Chetail

    In the last decades, repeated evidence for graphemic effects has been reported in skilled readers. For example, a letter is more easily detected in a word when it corresponds to a simple grapheme (e.g., A in PLACE) than when it is embedded in a complex one (e.g., A in BEACH). Such effects have been taken as a demonstration that graphemes are processed as perceptual units by the reading system. However, this conclusion has been recently challenged by studies using different experimental designs. In the present study, we used four experimental situations to get a clearer picture of the reliability of graphemic effects. We used four types of tasks: letter detection (Experiment 1), length estimation (Experiment 2), mixing case lexical decision (Experiment 3), and primed lexical decision (Experiments 4 and 5). In each task, the processing of words with complex graphemes (e.g., BEACH) was compared to the processing of words with simple graphemes (e.g., PLACE). Overall, we found no reliable grapheme effect, supporting the claim that graphemes are not perceptual units in skilled visual word recognition. An alternative interpretation of ‘grapheme effects’ previously reported with the letter detection task is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Adaptive use of semantic representations and phonological representations in verbal memory maintenance
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Ryoji Nishiyama

    Findings from serial recall tasks, such as a recall disadvantage for long words (known as the word length effect or WLE), have suggested that individuals rely on phonological representations to perform immediate serial order recall of words. Findings from synonym recognition tasks suggest that individuals can also use semantic representations in immediate memory. This leads to the idea that individuals can switch from relying on phonological representations to relying on semantic representations according to demands of ongoing cognitive activities. This study investigated the WLE under articulatory suppression and when following the semantic instruction in serial recall of words of high and low imageability. In addition, the study investigated whether the WLE is affected by individual differences in capacity for maintaining semantic representations that are measured by the synonym recognition task. The results demonstrated that the WLE disappeared when maintaining highly imageable words but was still observed when maintaining words of low imageability under articulatory suppression. Moreover, the semantic instruction eliminated the WLE only in individuals who could perform the synonym recognition task well. These results provide clues to understanding the adaptive use of semantic and phonological representations in verbal working memory.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Maze Made Easy: Better and easier measurement of incremental processing difficulty
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Veronica Boyce, Richard Futrell, Roger P. Levy

    Behavioral measures of incremental language comprehension difficulty form a crucial part of the empirical basis of psycholinguistics. The two most common methods for obtaining these measures have significant limitations: eye tracking studies are resource-intensive, and self-paced reading can yield noisy data with poor localization. These limitations are even more severe for web-based crowdsourcing studies, where eye tracking is infeasible and self-paced reading is vulnerable to inattentive participants. Here we make a case for broader adoption of the Maze task, involving sequential forced choice between each successive word in a sentence and a contextually inappropriate distractor. We leverage natural language processing technology to automate the most researcher-laborious part of Maze – generating distractor materials – and show that the resulting A(uto)-Maze method has dramatically superior statistical power and localization for well-established syntactic ambiguity resolution phenomena. We make our code freely available online for widespread adoption of A-maze by the psycholinguistics community.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Interference patterns in subject-verb agreement and reflexives revisited: A large-sample study
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Lena A. Jäger, Daniela Mertzen, Julie A. Van Dyke, Shravan Vasishth

    Cue-based retrieval theories in sentence processing predict two classes of interference effect: (i) Inhibitory interference is predicted when multiple items match a retrieval cue: cue-overloading leads to an overall slowdown in reading time; and (ii) Facilitatory interference arises when a retrieval target as well as a distractor only partially match the retrieval cues; this partial matching leads to an overall speedup in retrieval time. Inhibitory interference effects are widely observed, but facilitatory interference apparently has an exception: reflexives have been claimed to show no facilitatory interference effects. Because the claim is based on underpowered studies, we conducted a large-sample experiment that investigated both facilitatory and inhibitory interference. In contrast to previous studies, we find facilitatory interference effects in reflexives. We also present a quantitative evaluation of the cue-based retrieval model of Engelmann, Jäger, and Vasishth (2019).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Scalar bounds and expected values of comparatively modified numerals
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Christoph Hesse, Anton Benz

    Speakers routinely employ world knowledge to draw scalar implicatures in numerals. For instance, in the context of ‘an exceptionally hot summer’, speakers will use their knowledge of average summer temperatures and record temperatures to construct a range of potential values. However, it is not clear how they do so when they do not have strong expectations or context is less informative. 1270 adult American English native speakers were shown short dialogues and stories containing numerals modified by ‘more than’ and ‘fewer than,’ and were asked to estimate the range of potential values and to name the potential value they thought was most likely. Results show the most likely value follows a Weber fraction relative to the numeral’s order of magnitude and preferences for certain boundaries of the range shift according to a similar Weber fraction. The similarity between the Weber fractions found and the acuity of the approximate number system (ANS) suggests that the ANS bootstraps scalar implicature in comparatively modified numerals whenever context is not informative enough to refine experiential beliefs about the range and likelihood of potential values. Contrary to previous findings, roundness of the modified numeral does not play a crucial role.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Global semantic similarity effects in recognition memory: Insights from BEAGLE representations and the diffusion decision model
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Adam F. Osth, Kevin D. Shabahang, Douglas J.K. Mewhort, Andrew Heathcote

    Recognition memory models posit that false alarm rates increase as the global similarity between the probe cue and the contents of memory is increased. Global similarity predictions have been commonly tested using category length designs where it has been found that false alarm rates increase as the number of studied items from a common category is increased. In this work, we explored global similarity predictions within unstructured lists of words using representations from the BEAGLE model (Jones & Mewhort, 2007). BEAGLE differs from traditional semantic space models in that it contains two types of representations: item vectors, which encode unordered co-occurrence, and order vectors, in which words are similar to the extent to which they are share neighboring words in the same relative positions. Global similarity among item and order vectors was regressed onto drift rates in the diffusion decision model (DDM: Ratcliff, 1978), which unifies both response times and accuracy. We implemented this model in a hierarchical Bayesian framework across seven datasets with lists composed of unrelated words. Results indicated clear deficits due to global similarity among item vectors, but only a minimal impact of global similarity among the order vectors. We also found evidence for a linear relationship between global similarity and drift rate and did not find any evidence that global similarity differentially affected performance in speed vs. accuracy emphasis conditions. In addition, we found that global semantic similarity could only partially account for the word frequency effect, suggesting that other factors besides semantic similarity may be responsible.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • Repairing speech errors: Competition as a source of repairs
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Sieb G. Nooteboom, Hugo Quené

    This paper focuses on the source of self-repairs of segmental speech errors during self-monitoring. A potential source of repairs are candidate forms competing with the form under production. In the time interval between self-monitoring internal and overt speech, activation of competitors probably decreases. From this theory of repairing we derived four main predictions specific for classical SLIP experiments: (1) Error-to-cutoff times are shorter after single elicited errors than after other errors. (2) Single elicited errors are relatively more often detected than other errors, but more so after internal than after external error detection. (3) The correct form is the most frequent form used as repair, but more so for single elicited than for other errors. (4) Cutoff-to-repair times are shorter for single elicited than for other errors. A re-analysis of data formerly obtained in two SLIP experiments mainly supports the theory of repairing for multiple but not for single non-elicited errors.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Psycholinguists should resist the allure of linguistic units as perceptual units
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Arthur G. Samuel

    The current study has empirical, methodological, and theoretical components. It draws heavily on two recent papers: Bowers et al. (2016) (JML, 87, 71–83) used results from selective adaptation experiments to argue that phonemes play a critical role in speech perception. Mitterer et al. (2018) (JML, 98, 77–92) responded with their own adaptation experiments to advocate instead for allophones. These studies are part of a renewed use of the selective adaptation paradigm. Empirically, the current study reports results that demonstrate that the Bowers et al. findings were artifactual. Methodologically, the renewed use of adaptation in the field is a positive development, but many recent studies suffer from a lack of knowledge of prior adaptation findings. As the use of selective adaptation grows, it will be important to draw on the considerable existing knowledge base (this literature is also relevant to the currently popular research on phonetic recalibration). Theoretically, for a half century there has been a recurring effort to demonstrate the psychological reality of various linguistic units, such as the phoneme or the allophone. The evidence is that listeners will use essentially any pattern that has been experienced often enough, not just the units that are well-suited to linguistic descriptions of language. Thus, rather than trying to identify any special perceptual status for linguistic units, psycholinguists should focus their efforts on more productive issues.

    更新日期:2019-11-27
  • Priming Lexical Neighbors of Spoken Words: Effects of Competition and Inhibition.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 1989-10-01
    Stephen D Goldinger,Paul A Luce,David B Pisoni

    Two experiments employing an auditory priming paradigm were conducted to test predictions of the Neighborhood Activation Model of spoken word recognition (Luce & Pisoni, 1989, Neighborhoods of words in the mental lexicon. Manuscript under review). Acoustic-phonetic similarity, neighborhood densities, and frequencies of prime and target words were manipulated. In Experiment 1, priming with low frequency, phonetically related spoken words inhibited target recognition, as predicted by the Neighborhood Activation Model. In Experiment 2, the same prime-target pairs were presented with a longer inter-stimulus interval and the effects of priming were eliminated. In both experiments, predictions derived from the Neighborhood Activation Model regarding the effects of neighborhood density and word frequency were supported. The results are discussed in terms of competing activation of lexical neighbors and the dissociation of activation and frequency in spoken word recognition.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A new on-line resource for psycholinguistic studies.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2004-08-01
    Anna Szekely,Thomas Jacobsen,Simona D'Amico,Antonella Devescovi,Elena Andonova,Daniel Herron,Ching Ching Lu,Thomas Pechmann,Csaba Pléh,Nicole Wicha,Kara Federmeier,Irina Gerdjikova,Gabriel Gutierrez,Daisy Hung,Jeanne Hsu,Gowri Iyer,Kathryn Kohnert,Teodora Mehotcheva,Araceli Orozco-Figueroa,Angela Tzeng,Ovid Tzeng,Analía Arévalo,Andras Vargha,Andrew C Butler,Robert Buffington,Elizabeth Bates

    Picture naming is a widely used technique in psycholinguistic studies. Here, we describe new on-line resources that our project has compiled and made available to researchers on the world wide web at http://crl.ucsd.edu/~aszekely/ipnp/. The website provides access to a wide range of picture stimuli and related norms in seven languages. Picture naming norms, including indices of name agreement and latency, for 520 black-and-white drawings of common objects and 275 concrete transitive and intransitive actions are presented. Norms for age-of-acquisition, word-frequency, familiarity, goodness-of-depiction, and visual complexity are included. An on-line database query system can be used to select a specific range of stimuli, based on parameters of interest for a wide range of studies on healthy and clinical populations, as well as studies of language development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • If you want a quick kiss, make it count: How choice of syntactic construction affects event construal.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Eva Wittenberg,Roger Levy

    When we hear an event description, our mental construal is not only based on lexical items, but also on the message's syntactic structure. This has been well-studied in the domains of causation, event participants, and object conceptualization. Less studied are the construals of temporality and numerosity as a function of syntax. We present a theory of how syntax affects the construal of event similarity and duration in a way that is systematically predictable from the interaction of mass/count syntax and verb semantics, and test these predictions in six studies. Punctive events in count syntax (give a kiss) and durative events in mass syntax (give advice) are construed as taking less time than in transitive frame (kiss and advise). Durative verbs in count syntax (give a talk), however, result in a semantic shift, orthogonal to duration estimates. These results demonstrate how syntactic and semantic structure together systematically affect event construal.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evidence for the Influence of Syntax on Prosodic Parsing.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-10-01
    Andrés Buxó-Lugo,Duane G Watson

    We investigate whether expectations based on syntactic position influence the processing of intonational boundaries. In a boundary detection task, we manipulated a) the strength of cues to the presence of a boundary and b) whether or not a location in the sentence was a plausible location for an intonational boundary to occur given the syntactic structure. Listeners consistently reported hearing more boundaries at syntactically licensed locations than at syntactically unlicensed locations, even when the acoustic evidence for an intonational boundary was controlled. This suggests that the processing of an intonational boundary is a product of both acoustic cues and listener expectations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Structure of Working Memory in Young Children and Its Relation to Intelligence.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-12-19
    Shelley Gray,Samuel Green,Mary Alt,Tiffany P Hogan,Trudy Kuo,Shara Brinkley,Nelson Cowan

    This study investigated the structure of working memory in young school-age children by testing the fit of three competing theoretical models using a wide variety of tasks. The best fitting models were then used to assess the relationship between working memory and nonverbal measures of fluid reasoning (Gf) and visual processing (Gv) intelligence. One hundred sixty-eight English-speaking 7-9 year olds with typical development, from three states, participated. Results showed that Cowan's three-factor embedded processes model fit the data slightly better than Baddeley and Hitch's (1974) three-factor model (specified according to Baddeley, 1986) and decisively better than Baddeley's (2000) four-factor model that included an episodic buffer. The focus of attention factor in Cowan's model was a significant predictor of Gf and Gv. The results suggest that the focus of attention, rather than storage, drives the relationship between working memory, Gf, and Gv in young school-age children. Our results do not rule out the Baddeley and Hitch model, but they place constraints on both it and Cowan's model. A common attentional component is needed for feature binding, running digit span, and visual short-term memory tasks; phonological storage is separate, as is a component of central executive processing involved in task manipulation. The results contribute to a zeitgeist in which working memory models are coming together on common ground (cf. Cowan, Saults, & Blume, 2014; Hu, Allen, Baddeley, & Hitch, 2016).

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Grammatical Constraints on Language Switching: Language Control is not Just Executive Control.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-09-27
    Tamar H Gollan,Matthew Goldrick

    The current study investigated the roles of grammaticality and executive control on bilingual language selection by examining production speed and failures of language control, or intrusion errors (e.g., saying el instead of the), in young and aging bilinguals. Production of mixed-language connected speech was elicited by asking Spanish-English bilinguals to read aloud paragraphs that had mostly grammatical (conforming to naturally occurring constraints) or mostly ungrammatical (haphazard mixing) language switches, and low or high switching rate. Mixed-language speech was slower and less accurate when switch-rate was high, but especially (for speed) or only (for intrusion errors) if switches were also ungrammatical. Executive function ability (measured with a variety of tasks in young bilinguals in Experiment 1, and aging bilinguals in Experiment 2), slowed production and increased intrusion rate in a generalized fashion, but with little or no interaction with grammaticality. Aging effects appeared to reflect reduced monitoring ability (evidenced by a lower rate of self-corrected intrusions). These results demonstrate robust effects of grammatical encoding on language selection, and imply that executive control influences bilingual language production only after sentence planning and lexical selection.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phonetic variation in bilingual speech: A lens for studying the production-comprehension link.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-07-19
    Melinda Fricke,Judith F Kroll,Paola E Dussias

    We exploit the unique phonetic properties of bilingual speech to ask how processes occurring during planning affect speech articulation, and whether listeners can use the phonetic modulations that occur in anticipation of a codeswitch to help restrict their lexical search to the appropriate language. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual codeswitching in the Bangor Miami Corpus (Deuchar et al., 2014) reveals that in anticipation of switching languages, Spanish-English bilinguals produce slowed speech rate and cross-language phonological influence on consonant voice onset time. A study of speech comprehension using the visual world paradigm demonstrates that bilingual listeners can indeed exploit these low-level phonetic cues to anticipate that a codeswitch is coming and to suppress activation of the non-target language. We discuss the implications of these results for current theories of bilingual language regulation, and situate them in terms of recent proposals relating the coupling of the production and comprehension systems more generally.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Examining the relationship between comprehension and production processes in code-switched language.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2017-07-04
    Rosa E Guzzardo Tamargo,Jorge R Valdés Kroff,Paola E Dussias

    We employ code-switching (the alternation of two languages in bilingual communication) to test the hypothesis, derived from experience-based models of processing (e.g., Boland, Tanenhaus, Carlson, & Garnsey, 1989; Gennari & MacDonald, 2009), that bilinguals are sensitive to the combinatorial distributional patterns derived from production and that they use this information to guide processing during the comprehension of code-switched sentences. An analysis of spontaneous bilingual speech confirmed the existence of production asymmetries involving two auxiliary + participle phrases in Spanish-English code-switches. A subsequent eye-tracking study with two groups of bilingual code-switchers examined the consequences of the differences in distributional patterns found in the corpus study for comprehension. Participants' comprehension costs mirrored the production patterns found in the corpus study. Findings are discussed in terms of the constraints that may be responsible for the distributional patterns in code-switching production and are situated within recent proposals of the links between production and comprehension.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Dynamically adapted context-specific hyper-articulation: Feedback from interlocutors affects speakers' subsequent pronunciations.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-07-05
    Esteban Buz,Michael K Tanenhaus,T Florian Jaeger

    We ask whether speakers can adapt their productions when feedback from their interlocutors suggests that previous productions were perceptually confusable. To address this question, we use a novel web-based task-oriented paradigm for speech recording, in which participants produce instructions towards a (simulated) partner with naturalistic response times. We manipulate (1) whether a target word with a voiceless plosive (e.g., pill) occurs in the presence of a voiced competitor (bill) or an unrelated word (food) and (2) whether or not the simulated partner occasionally misunderstands the target word. Speakers hyper-articulated the target word when a voiced competitor was present. Moreover, the size of the hyper-articulation effect was nearly doubled when partners occasionally misunderstood the instruction. A novel type of distributional analysis further suggests that hyper-articulation did not change the target of production, but rather reduced the probability of perceptually ambiguous or confusable productions. These results were obtained in the absence of explicit clarification requests, and persisted across words and over trials. Our findings suggest that speakers adapt their pronunciations based on the perceived communicative success of their previous productions in the current environment. We discuss why speakers make adaptive changes to their speech and what mechanisms might underlie speakers' ability to do so.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Talker-specificity and adaptation in quantifier interpretation.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2016-02-10
    Ilker Yildirim,Judith Degen,Michael K Tanenhaus,T Florian Jaeger

    Linguistic meaning has long been recognized to be highly context-dependent. Quantifiers like many and some provide a particularly clear example of context-dependence. For example, the interpretation of quantifiers requires listeners to determine the relevant domain and scale. We focus on another type of context-dependence that quantifiers share with other lexical items: talker variability. Different talkers might use quantifiers with different interpretations in mind. We used a web-based crowdsourcing paradigm to study participants' expectations about the use of many and some based on recent exposure. We first established that the mapping of some and many onto quantities (candies in a bowl) is variable both within and between participants. We then examined whether and how listeners' expectations about quantifier use adapts with exposure to talkers who use quantifiers in different ways. The results demonstrate that listeners can adapt to talker-specific biases in both how often and with what intended meaning many and some are used.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Is long-term structural priming affected by patterns of experience with individual verbs?
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-04-01
    Michael P Kaschak,Kristin L Borreggine

    Several recent papers have reported long-term structural priming effects in experiments where previous patterns of experience with the double object and prepositional object constructions are shown to affect later patterns of language production for those constructions. The experiments reported in this paper address the extent to which these long-term priming effects are modulated by the participants' patterns of experience with particular verbs within the double object and prepositional object constructions. The results of three experiments show that patterns of experience with particular verbs using the double object or prepositional object constructions do not have much effect on the shape of the longterm structural priming effects reported elsewhere in the literature. These findings lend support to the claim that structural priming is the result of adaptations to the language production system that occur on an abstract, structural level of representation that is separate from representations regarding the behavior of particular lexical items in particular constructions [e.g., Chang, F., Dell, G. S., & Bock, K. (2006). Becoming syntactic. Psychological Review, 113, 234-272]. 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effect of contextual constraint on parafoveal processing in reading.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2015-08-11
    Elizabeth R Schotter,Michelle Lee,Michael Reiderman,Keith Rayner

    Semantic preview benefit in reading is an elusive and controversial effect because empirical studies do not always (but sometimes) find evidence for it. Its presence seems to depend on (at least) the language being read, visual properties of the text (e.g., initial letter capitalization), the type of relationship between preview and target, and as shown here, semantic constraint generated by the prior sentence context. Schotter (2013) reported semantic preview benefit for synonyms, but not semantic associates when the preview/target was embedded in a neutral sentence context. In Experiment 1, we embedded those same previews/targets into constrained sentence contexts and in Experiment 2 we replicated the effects reported by Schotter (2013; in neutral sentence contexts) and Experiment 1 (in constrained contexts) in a within-subjects design. In both experiments, we found an early (i.e., first-pass) apparent preview benefit for semantically associated previews in constrained contexts that went away in late measures (e.g., total time). These data suggest that sentence constraint (at least as manipulated in the current study) does not operate by making a single word form expected, but rather generates expectations about what kinds of words are likely to appear. Furthermore, these data are compatible with the assumption of the E-Z Reader model that early oculomotor decisions reflect "hedged bets" that a word will be identifiable and, when wrong, lead the system to identify the wrong word, triggering regressions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phonological Neighborhood Competition Affects Spoken Word Production Irrespective of Sentential Context.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2015-07-01
    Neal P Fox,Megan Reilly,Sheila E Blumstein

    Two experiments examined the influence of phonologically similar neighbors on articulation of words' initial stop consonants in order to investigate the conditions under which lexically-conditioned phonetic variation arises. In Experiment 1, participants produced words in isolation. Results showed that the voice-onset time (VOT) of a target's initial voiceless stop was predicted by its overall neighborhood density, but not by its having a voicing minimal pair. In Experiment 2, participants read aloud the same targets after semantically predictive sentence contexts and after neutral sentence contexts. Results showed that, although VOTs were shorter in words produced after predictive contexts, the neighborhood density effect on VOT production persisted irrespective of context. These findings suggest that global competition from a word's neighborhood affects spoken word production independently of contextual modulation and support models in which activation cascades automatically and obligatorily among all of a selected target word's phonological neighbors during acoustic-phonetic encoding.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The acoustic salience of prosody trumps infants' acquired knowledge of language-specific prosodic patterns.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2015-04-15
    Kara Hawthorne,Reiko Mazuka,LouAnn Gerken

    There is mounting evidence that prosody facilitates grouping the speech stream into syntactically-relevant units (e.g., Hawthorne & Gerken, 2014; Soderstrom, Kemler Nelson, & Jusczyk, 2005). We ask whether prosody's role in syntax acquisition relates to its general acoustic salience or to the learner's acquired knowledge of correlations between prosody and syntax in her native language. English- and Japanese-acquiring 19-month-olds listened to sentences from an artificial grammar with non-native prosody (Japanese or English, respectively), then were tested on their ability to recognize prosodically-marked constituents when the constituents had moved to a new position in the sentence. Both groups were able to use non-native prosody to parse speech into cohesive, reorderable, syntactic constituent-like units. Comparison with Hawthorne & Gerken (2014), in which English-acquiring infants were tested on sentences with English prosody, suggests that 19-month-olds are equally adept at using native and non-native prosody for at least some types of learning tasks and, therefore, that prosody is useful in early syntactic segmentation because of its acoustic salience.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Production and comprehension show divergent constituent order preferences: Evidence from elicited pantomime.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2015-02-03
    Matthew L Hall,Y Danbi Ahn,Rachel I Mayberry,Victor S Ferreira

    All natural languages develop devices to communicate who did what to whom. Elicited pantomime provides one model for studying this process, by providing a window into how humans (hearing non-signers) behave in a natural communicative modality (silent gesture) without established conventions from a grammar. Most studies in this paradigm focus on production, although they sometimes make assumptions about how comprehenders would likely behave. Here, we directly assess how naïve speakers of English (Experiments 1 & 2), Korean (Experiment 1), and Turkish (Experiment 2) comprehend pantomimed descriptions of transitive events, which are either semantically reversible (Experiments 1 & 2) or not (Experiment 2). Contrary to previous assumptions, we find no evidence that Person-Person-Action sequences are ambiguous to comprehenders, who simply adopt an agent-first parsing heuristic for all constituent orders. We do find that Person-Action-Person sequences yield the most consistent interpretations, even in native speakers of SOV languages. The full range of behavior in both production and comprehension provides counter-evidence to the notion that producers' utterances are motivated by the needs of comprehenders. Instead, we argue that production and comprehension are subject to different sets of cognitive pressures, and that the dynamic interaction between these competing pressures can help explain synchronic and diachronic constituent order phenomena in natural human languages, both signed and spoken.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An onset is an onset: Evidence from abstraction of newly-learned phonotactic constraints.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2014-11-08
    Amélie Bernard

    Phonotactic constraints are language-specific patterns in the sequencing of speech sounds. Are these constraints represented at the syllable level (ng cannot begin syllables in English) or at the word level (ng cannot begin words)? In a continuous recognition-memory task, participants more often falsely recognized novel test items that followed than violated the training constraints, whether training and test items matched in word structure (one or two syllables) or position of restricted consonants (word-edge or word-medial position). E.g., learning that ps are onsets and fs codas, participants generalized from pef (one syllable) to putvif (two syllables), and from putvif (word-edge positions) to bufpak (word-medial positions). These results suggest that newly-learned phonotactic constraints are represented at the syllable level. The syllable is a representational unit available and spontaneously used when learning speech-sound constraints. In the current experiments, an onset is an onset and a coda a coda, regardless of word structure or word position.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lexical Retrieval is not by Competition: Evidence from the Blocked Naming Paradigm.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2014-10-07
    Eduardo Navarrete,Paul Del Prato,Francesca Peressotti,Bradford Z Mahon

    A central issue in research on speech production is whether or not the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon is a competitive process. An important experimental paradigm to study the dynamics of lexical retrieval is the blocked naming paradigm, in which participants name pictures of objects that are grouped by semantic category ('homogenous' or 'related' blocks) or not grouped by semantic category ('heterogeneous' or 'unrelated' blocks). Typically, pictures are repeated multiple times (or cycles) within both related and unrelated blocks. It is known that participants are slower in related than in unrelated blocks when the data are collapsed over all within-block repetitions. This semantic interference effect, as observed in the blocked naming task, is the strongest empirical evidence for the hypothesis of lexical selection by competition. Here we show, contrary to the accepted view, that the default polarity of semantic context effects in the blocked naming paradigm is facilitation, rather than interference. In a series of experiments we find that interference arises only when items repeat within a block, and only because of that repetition: What looks to be 'semantic interference' in the blocked naming paradigm is actually less repetition priming in related compared to unrelated blocks. These data undermine the theory of lexical selection by competition and indicate a model in which the most highly activated word is retrieved, regardless of the activation levels of nontarget words. We conclude that the theory of lexical selection by competition, and by extension the important psycholinguistic models based on that assumption, are no longer viable, and frame a new way to approach the question of how words are retrieved in spoken language production.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Role of Suppression and Enhancement in Understanding Metaphors.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2001-10-01
    Morton Ann Gernsbacher,Boaz Keysar,Rachel R W Robertson,Necia K Werner

    Participants read either a metaphorical prime sentence, such as That defense lawyer is a shark, or they read a baseline-prime sentence. The baseline-prime sentence was literally meaningful in Experiment 1 (e.g., That large hammerhead is a shark), nonsensical in Experiment 2 (e.g., His English notebook is a shark), and unrelated in Experiment 3 (e.g., That new student is a clown). After reading the prime sentence, participants verified a target property statement. Verification latencies for property statements relevant to the superordinate category (e.g., Sharks are tenacious) were faster after participants read the metaphor-prime sentence than after they read the baseline-prime sentence, producing an enhancement effect. In contrast, verification latencies for property statements relevant to only the basic-level meaning of the vehicle and not the superordinate (e.g., Sharks are good swimmers), were slower following the metaphor-versus the baseline-prime sentence, producing a suppression effect. As Glucksberg and Keysar's (1990) class inclusion theory of metaphor predicts, the enhancement effect demonstrates that the vehicle of a metaphor stands for the superordinate category of the vehicle, and the suppression effect demonstrates that the metaphorical vehicle does not stand for its basic-level meaning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How children explore the phonological network in child-directed speech: A survival analysis of children's first word productions.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2014-08-05
    Matthew T Carlson,Morgan Sonderegger,Max Bane

    We explored how phonological network structure influences the age of words' first appearance in children's (14-50 months) speech, using a large, longitudinal corpus of spontaneous child-caregiver interactions. We represent the caregiver lexicon as a network in which each word is connected to all of its phonological neighbors, and consider both words' local neighborhood density (degree), and also their embeddedness among interconnected neighborhoods (clustering coefficient and coreness). The larger-scale structure reflected in the latter two measures is implicated in current theories of lexical development and processing, but its role in lexical development has not yet been explored. Multilevel discrete-time survival analysis revealed that children are more likely to produce new words whose network properties support lexical access for production: high degree, but low clustering coefficient and coreness. These effects appear to be strongest at earlier ages and largely absent from 30 months on. These results suggest that both a word's local connectivity in the lexicon and its position in the lexicon as a whole influences when it is learned, and they underscore how general lexical processing mechanisms contribute to productive vocabulary development.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Event Structure Influences Language Production: Evidence from Structural Priming in Motion Event Description.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2013-09-28
    Ann Bunger,Anna Papafragou,John C Trueswell

    This priming study investigates the role of conceptual structure during language production, probing whether English speakers are sensitive to the structure of the event encoded by a prime sentence. In two experiments, participants read prime sentences aloud before describing motion events. Primes differed in 1) syntactic frame, 2) degree of lexical and conceptual overlap with target events, and 3) distribution of event components within frames. Results demonstrate that conceptual overlap between primes and targets led to priming of (a) the information that speakers chose to include in their descriptions of target events, (b) the way that information was mapped to linguistic elements, and (c) the syntactic structures that were built to communicate that information. When there was no conceptual overlap between primes and targets, priming was not successful. We conclude that conceptual structure is a level of representation activated during priming, and that it has implications for both Message Planning and Linguistic Formulation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Semantic indeterminacy in object relative clauses.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-01-01
    Silvia P Gennari,Maryellen C Macdonald

    This article examined whether semantic indeterminacy plays a role in comprehension of complex structures such as object relative clauses. Study 1 used a gated sentence completion task to assess which alternative interpretations are dominant as the relative clause unfolds; Study 2 compared reading times in object relative clauses containing different animacy configurations to unambiguous passive controls; and Study 3 related completion data and reading data. The results showed that comprehension difficulty was modulated by animacy configuration and voice (active vs. passive). These differences were well correlated with the availability of alternative interpretations as the relative clause unfolds, as revealed by the completion data. In contrast to approaches arguing that comprehension difficulty stems from syntactic complexity, these results suggest that semantic indeterminacy is a major source of comprehension difficulty in object relative clauses. Results are consistent with constraint-based approaches to ambiguity resolution and bring new insights into previously identified sources of difficulty.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mrs. Malaprop's Neighborhood: Using Word Errors to Reveal Neighborhood Structure.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2010-02-18
    Matthew Goldrick,Jocelyn R Folk,Brenda Rapp

    Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of neighbors, we examined the non-semantic errors produced in both spoken and written word production by four individuals who suffered neurological injury. Using converging evidence from multiple language tasks, we first demonstrate that the errors originate in disruption to the processes involved in the retrieval of word form representations from long-term memory. The targets and errors produced were then examined for their similarity along a number of dimensions. A novel statistical simulation procedure was developed to determine the significance of the observed similarities between targets and errors relative to multiple chance baselines. The results reveal that in addition to position-specific form overlap (the only consistent claim of traditional definitions of neighborhood structure) the dimensions of lexical frequency, grammatical category, target length and initial segment independently contribute to the activation of non-target words in both spoken and written production. Additional analyses confirm the relevance of these dimensions for word production showing that, in both written and spoken modalities, the retrieval of a target word is facilitated by increasing neighborhood density, as defined by the results of the target-error analyses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Arousal-Enhanced Location Memory for Pictures.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2009-02-05
    Mara Mather,Kathryn Nesmith

    Four experiments revealed arousal-enhanced location memory for pictures. After an incidental encoding task, participants were more likely to remember the locations of positive and negative arousing pictures than the locations of non-arousing pictures, indicating better binding of location to picture. This arousal-enhanced binding effect did not have a cost for the binding of nearby pictures to their locations. Thus, arousal can enhance binding of an arousing picture's content to its location without interfering with picture-location binding for nearby pictures. In addition, arousal-enhanced picture-location memory binding is not just a side effect of enhanced memory for the picture itself, as it occurs both when recognition memory is good and when it is poor.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Salvaging a Childhood Language.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-05-23
    Terry Kit-Fong Au,Janet S Oh,Leah M Knightly,Sun-Ah Jun,Laura F Romo

    Childhood experience with a language seems to help adult learners speak it with a more native-like accent. Can analogous benefits be found beyond phonology? This study focused on adult learners of Spanish who had spoken Spanish as their native language before age 7 and only minimally, if at all, thereafter until they began to re-learn Spanish around age 14 years. They were compared with native speakers, childhood overhearers, and typical late-second-language (L2)-learners of Spanish. Both childhood speakers and overhearers spoke Spanish with a more native-like accent than typical late-L2-learners. On grammar measures, childhood speakers-although far from native-like-reliably outperformed childhood overhearers as well as typical late-L2-learners. These results suggest that while simply overhearing a language during childhood could help adult learners speak it with a more native-like phonology, speaking a language regularly during childhood could help re-learners use it with more native-like grammar as well as phonology.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The effect of additional characters on choice of referring expression: Everyone counts.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-05-02
    Jennifer Arnold,Zenzi M Griffin

    Two story-telling experiments examine the process of choosing between pronouns and proper names in speaking. Such choices are traditionally attributed to speakers striving to make referring expressions maximally interpretable to addressees. The experiments revealed a novel effect: even when a pronoun would not be ambiguous, the presence of another character in the discourse decreased pronoun use and increased latencies to refer to the most prominent character in the discourse. In other words, speakers were more likely to call Minnie Minnie than shewhen Donald was also present. Even when the referent character appeared alone in the stimulus picture, the presence of another character in the preceding discourse reduced pronouns. Furthermore, pronoun use varied with features associated with the speaker's degree of focus on the preceding discourse (e.g., narrative style and disfluency). We attribute this effect to competition for attentional resources in the speaker's representation of the discourse.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The impact of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory in stroke aphasia and semantic dementia: A comparative study.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-04-29
    Elizabeth Jefferies,Paul Hoffman,Roy Jones,Matthew A Lambon Ralph

    This study presents the first direct comparison of immediate serial recall in semantic dementia (SD) and transcortical sensory aphasia (TSA). Previous studies of the effect of semantic impairment on verbal short-term memory (STM) have led to important theoretical advances. However, different conclusions have been drawn from these two groups. This research aimed to explain these inconsistencies. We observed (a) qualitative differences between SD and TSA in the nature of the verbal STM impairment and (b) considerable variation within the TSA group. The SD and TSA patients all had poor semantic processing and good phonology. Reflecting this, both groups remained sensitive to phonological similarity and showed a reduced effect of lexicality in immediate serial recall. The SD patients showed normal serial position effects; in contrast, the TSA patients had poor recall of the initial list items and exhibited large recency effects on longer lists. The error patterns of the two groups differed: the SD patients made numerous phoneme migration errors whereas the TSA group were more likely to produce entire words in the wrong order, often initiating recall with terminal list items. The SD cases also showed somewhat larger effects of word frequency and imageability. We propose that these contrasting performance patterns are explicable in terms of the nature of the underlying semantic impairment. SD is associated with anterior lobe atrophy and produces degradation of semantic knowledge - this is more striking for less frequent/imageable items, accentuating the effects of these lexical/semantic variables in STM. SD patients frequently recombine the phonemes of different list items due to the reduced semantic constraint upon phonology (semantic binding: Patterson et al., 1994). In contrast, the semantic impairment in TSA follows frontal or temporoparietal lesions and is associated with poor executive control of semantic processing (deregulated semantic cognition: Jefferies and Lambon Ralph, 2006), explaining why these patients are liable to recall entire words out of serial order.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia: Encoding of tense features.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-04-09
    Yasmeen Faroqi-Shah,Cynthia K Thompson

    Across most languages, verbs produced by agrammatic aphasic individuals are frequently marked by syntactically and semantically inappropriate inflectional affixes, such as Last night, I walking home. As per language production models, verb inflection errors in English agrammatism could arise from three potential sources: encoding the verbs' morphology based on temporal information at the conceptual level, accessing syntactic well-formedness constraints of verbal morphology, and encoding morphophonological form. We investigate these aspects of encoding verb inflections in agrammatic aphasia. Using three sentence completion experiments, it was demonstrated that production of verb inflections was impaired whenever temporal reference was involved; while morphological complexity and syntactic constraints were less likely to be the source of verb inflection errors in agrammatism. These findings are discussed in relation to current language production models.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • SOA does not Reveal the Absolute Time Course of Cognitive Processing in Fast Priming Experiments.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-04-02
    Boaz Tzur,Ram Frost

    Applying Bloch's law to visual word recognition research, both exposure duration of the prime and its luminance determine the prime's overall energy, and consequently determine the size of the priming effect. Nevertheless, experimenters using fast-priming paradigms traditionally focus only on the SOA between prime and target to reflect the absolute speed of cognitive processes under investigation. Some of the discrepancies in results regarding the time course of orthographic and phonological activation in word recognition research may be due to this factor. This hypothesis was examined by manipulating parametrically the luminance of the prime and its exposure duration, measuring their joint impact on masked repetition priming. The results show that small and non-significant priming effects can be more than tripled as a result of simply increasing luminance, when SOA is kept constant. Moreover, increased luminance may compensate for briefer exposure duration and vice versa.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retrieval interference in sentence comprehension.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-01-23
    Julie A Van Dyke,Brian McElree

    The role of interference effects in sentence processing has recently begun to receive attention, however whether these effects arise during encoding or retrieval remains unclear. This paper draws on basic memory research to help distinguish these explanations and reports data from an experiment that manipulates the possibility for retrieval interference while holding encoding conditions constant. We found clear support for the principle of cue-overload, wherein cues available at retrieval cannot uniquely distinguish among competitors, thus giving rise to interference effects. We discuss the data in relation to a cue-based parsing framework (Van Dyke & Lewis, 2003) and other interference effects observed in sentence processing (e.g., Gordon, Hendrick, & Johnson, 2001, 2004). We conclude from the available data that the memory system that subserves language comprehension operates according to similar principles as memory in other domains.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modeling age-related differences in immediate memory using SIMPLE.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2008-01-04
    Aimée M Surprenant,Ian Neath,Gordon D A Brown

    In the SIMPLE model (Scale Invariant Memory and Perceptual Learning), performance on memory tasks is determined by the locations of items in multidimensional space, and better performance is associated with having fewer close neighbors. Unlike most previous simulations with SIMPLE, the ones reported here used measured, rather than assumed, dimensional values. The data to be modeled come from an experiment in which younger and older adults recalled lists of acoustically confusable and non-confusable items. A multidimensional scaling solution based on the memory confusions was obtained. SIMPLE accounted for the overall difference in performance both between the two age groups and, within each age group, the overall difference between acoustically confusable and non-confusable items in terms of the MDS coordinates. Moreover, the model accounted for the serial position functions and error gradients. Finally, the generality of the model's account was examined by fitting data from an already published study. The data and the modeling support the hypothesis that older adults' memory may be worse, in part, because of altered representations due to age-related auditory perceptual deficits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Role of Recognition Memory in Anaphor Identification.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-12-29
    Stephen Dopkins,Catherine Trinh Ngo

    In studies of anaphor comprehension, the capacity for recognizing a noun in a sentence decreases following the resolution of a repeated-noun anaphor (Gernsbacher, 1989). In studies of recognition memory, the capacity for recognizing a noun in a scrambled sentence decreases following the recognition that another noun has occurred before in the scrambled sentence (Dopkins & Ngo, 2002). The results of the present study suggest that these two phenomena reflect the same recognition memory process. The results suggest further that this is not because participants in studies of anaphor comprehension ignore the discourse properties of the stimulus materials and treat them as lists of words upon which memory tests are to be given. These results suggest that recognition processes play a role in anaphor comprehension and that such processes are in part the means by which repeated-noun anaphors are identified as such.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The temporal dynamics of ambiguity resolution: Evidence from spoken-word recognition.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-12-12
    Delphine Dahan,M Gareth Gaskell

    Two experiments examined the dynamics of lexical activation in spoken-word recognition. In both, the key materials were pairs of onset-matched picturable nouns varying in frequency. Pictures associated with these words, plus two distractor pictures were displayed. A gating task, in which participants identified the picture associated with gradually lengthening fragments of spoken words, examined the availability of discriminating cues in the speech waveforms for these pairs. There was a clear frequency bias in participants' responses to short, ambiguous fragments, followed by a temporal window in which discriminating information gradually became available. A visual-world experiment examined speech contingent eye-movements. Fixation analyses suggested that frequency influences lexical competition well beyond the point in the speech signal at which the spoken word has been fully discriminated from its competitor (as identified using gating). Taken together, these data support models in which the processing dynamics of lexical activation are a limiting factor on recognition speed, over and above the temporal unfolding of the speech signal.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gradiency and Visual Context in Syntactic Garden-Paths.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-11-27
    Thomas A Farmer,Sarah A Cargill,Michael J Spivey

    Through recording the streaming x, y coordinates of computer-mouse movements, we report evidence that visual context provides an immediate constraint on the resolution of syntactic ambiguity in the visual-world paradigm. This finding converges with previous eye-tracking results that support a constraint-based account of sentence processing, in which multiple partially-active syntactic alternatives compete against one another with the help of not only syntactic, semantic, and statistical factors, but also nonlinguistic factors such as visual context. Eye-tracking results in the visual-world paradigm are consistent with theories that posit limited interaction between context and syntax, but they are still consistent with related theories that allow immediate interaction but require serial pursuit of syntactic structures, such as the unrestricted race model. To tease apart the constraint-based and unrestricted-race accounts of sentence processing, the distribution of computer-mouse trajectories was analyzed for evidence of two populations of trials: those where only the correct parse was pursued and those where only the incorrect parse was pursued. We found no evidence of bimodality in the distribution of trajectory curvatures. Simulations with a constraint-based model produced trajectories that matched the human data. A nonlinguistic control study demonstrated the mouse-tracking paradigm's ability to elicit bimodal distributions of trajectory curvatures in certain experimental conditions. With effects of context posing a challenge for syntax-first models, and the absence of bimodality in the distribution of garden-path magnitude posing a challenge for unrestricted-race models, these converging methods support the constraint-based theory's account that the reason diverse contextual factors are able to bias one or another parse at the point of ambiguity is because those syntactic alternatives are continually partially-active in parallel, not discretely winnowed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Halting in Single Word Production: A Test of the Perceptual Loop Theory of Speech Monitoring.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-10-06
    L Robert Slevc,Victor S Ferreira

    The perceptual loop theory of speech monitoring (Levelt, 1983) claims that inner and overt speech are monitored by the comprehension system, which detects errors by comparing the comprehension of formulated utterances to originally intended utterances. To test the perceptual loop monitor, speakers named pictures and sometimes attempted to halt speech in response to auditory (Experiments 1 and 3) or visual (Experiments 2, 4, and 5) words that differed from the picture name. These stop-signal words were varied in terms of their semantic or phonological similarity to the intended word. The ability to halt word production was sensitive to phonological similarity and, in Experiment 5, to emotional valence, but not to semantic similarity. These results suggest that the perceptual loop detects errors by making comparisons at a level where phonological knowledge is represented. These data also imply that dialogue, back channeling, and other areas where speech production is affected by simultaneous comprehension may operate based on phonological comparisons.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Processing Elided Verb Phrases with Flawed Antecedents: the Recycling Hypothesis.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-08-22
    Ana Arregui,Charles Clifton,Lyn Frazier,Keir Moulton

    Traditional syntactic accounts of verb phrase ellipsis (e.g. "Jason laughed. Sam did [ ] too.") categorize as ungrammatical many sentences that language users find acceptable (they "undergenerate"); semantic accounts overgenerate. We propose that a processing theory, together with a syntactic account, does a better job of describing and explaining the data on verb phrase-ellipsis. Five acceptability judgment experiments supported a "VP recycling hypothesis," which claims that when a syntactically-matching antecedent is not available, the listener/reader creates one using the materials at hand. Experiments 1 and 2 used verb phrase ellipsis sentences with antecedents ranging from perfect (a verb phrase in matrix verb phrase position) to impossible (a verb phrase containing only a deverbal word). Experiments 3 and 4 contrasted antecedents in verbal versus nominal gerund subjects. Experiment 5 explored the possibility that speakers are particularly likely to go beyond the grammar and produce elided constituents without perfect matching antecedents when the antecedent needed is less marked than the antecedent actually produced. This experiment contrasted active (unmarked) and passive antecedents to show that readers seem to honor such a tendency.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Development of Working Memory for Verbal-Spatial Associations.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-03-28
    Nelson Cowan,J Scott Saults,Candice C Morey

    Verbal-to-spatial associations in working memory may index a core capacity for abstract information limited in the amount concurrently retained. However, what look like associative, abstract representations could instead reflect verbal and spatial codes held separately and then used in parallel. We investigated this issue in two experiments on memory for associations between names and spatial locations, with or without a 1-to-1 correspondence between the two. Participants (children 9-10 and 12-13 years old and college students) saw series of names presented at spatial locations occupied by house icons and indicated the location at which a probe name had appeared. Only adults benefited from 1-to-1 correspondence between names and locations, and this benefit was eliminated by articulatory suppression. We maintain that the 1-to-1 benefit stems from verbal and spatial codes used in parallel. Without rehearsal, performance appears to index working memory for abstract, cross-modal information. Correlations with other tasks suggest that it is an excellent measure of working memory capacity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The interplay of discourse congruence and lexical association during sentence processing: Evidence from ERPs and eye tracking.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2007-01-16
    C Christine Camblin,Peter C Gordon,Tamara Y Swaab

    Five experiments used ERPs and eye tracking to determine the interplay of word-level and discourse-level information during sentence processing. Subjects read sentences that were locally congruent but whose congruence with discourse context was manipulated. Furthermore, critical words in the local sentence were preceded by a prime word that was associated or not. Violations of discourse congruence had early and lingering effects on ERP and eye-tracking measures. This indicates that discourse representations have a rapid effect on lexical semantic processing even in locally congruous texts. In contrast, effects of association were more malleable: Very early effects of associative priming were only robust when the discourse context was absent or not cohesive. Together these results suggest that the global discourse model quickly influences lexical processing in sentences, and that spreading activation from associative priming does not contribute to natural reading in discourse contexts.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Heavy NP shift is the parser's last resort: Evidence from eye movements.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2006-10-19
    Adrian Staub,Charles Clifton,Lyn Frazier

    Two eye movement experiments explored the roles of verbal subcategorization possibilities and transitivity biases in the processing of heavy NP shift sentences in which the verb's direct object appears to the right of a post-verbal phrase. In Experiment 1, participants read sentences in which a prepositional phrase immediately followed the verb, which was either obligatorily transitive or had a high transitivity bias (e.g., Jack praised/watched from the stands his daughter's attempt to shoot a basket). Experiment 2 compared unshifted sentences to sentences in which an adverb intervened between the verb and its object, and obligatorily transitive verbs to optionally transitive verbs with widely varying transitivity biases. In both experiments, evidence of processing difficulty appeared on the material that intervened between the verb and its object when the verb was obligatorily transitive, and on the shifted direct object when the verb was optionally transitive, regardless of transitivity bias. We conclude that the parser adopts the heavy NP shift analysis only when it is forced to by the grammar, which we interpret in terms of a preference for immediate incremental interpretation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Rhymes that the Reader Perused Confused the Meaning: Phonological Effects during On-line Sentence Comprehension.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-07-12
    Daniel J Acheson,Maryellen C Macdonald

    Research on written language comprehension has generally assumed that the phonological properties of a word have little effect on sentence comprehension beyond the processes of word recognition. Two experiments investigated this assumption. Participants silently read relative clauses in which two pairs of words either did or did not have a high degree of phonological overlap. Participants were slower reading and less accurate comprehending the overlap sentences compared to the non-overlapping controls, even though sentences were matched for plausibility and differed by only two words across overlap conditions. A comparison across experiments showed that the overlap effects were larger in the more difficult object relative than in subject relative sentences. The reading patterns showed that phonological representations affect not only memory for recently encountered sentences but also the developing sentence interpretation during on-line processing. Implications for theories of sentence processing and memory are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perception of Wordlikeness: Effects of Segment Probability and Length on the Processing of Nonwords.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2000-05-01
    Stefan A Frisch,Nathan R Large,David B Pisoni

    A probabilistic phonotactic grammar based on the probabilities of the constituents contained in a dictionary of English was used to generate multisyllabic nonwords. English-speaking listeners evaluated the wordlikeness of these patterns. Wordlikeness ratings were higher for nonwords containing high-probability constituents and were also higher for nonwords with fewer syllables. Differences in the processing of these same nonwords that partially reflected their perceived wordlikeness were also found in a recognition memory task. Nonwords with higher probability constituents yielded better recognition memory performance, suggesting that participants were able to use their knowledge of frequently occurring lexical patterns to improve recognition. These results suggest that lexical patterns provide the foundation of an emergent phonological competence used to process nonwords in both linguistic and metalinguistic tasks.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Gesturing makes memories that last.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-07-07
    Susan Wagner Cook,Terina Kuangyi Yip,Susan Goldin-Meadow

    When people are asked to perform actions, they remember those actions better than if they are asked to talk about the same actions. But when people talk, they often gesture with their hands, thus adding an action component to talking. The question we asked in this study was whether producing gesture along with speech makes the information encoded in that speech more memorable than it would have been without gesture. We found that gesturing during encoding led to better recall, even when the amount of speech produced during encoding was controlled. Gesturing during encoding improved recall whether the speaker chose to gesture spontaneously or was instructed to gesture. Thus, gesturing during encoding seems to function like action in facilitating memory.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of individual differences in verbal skills on eye-movement patterns during sentence reading.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-06-29
    Victor Kuperman,Julie A Van Dyke

    This study is a large-scale exploration of the influence that individual reading skills exert on eye-movement behavior in sentence reading. Seventy one non-college-bound 16-24 year-old speakers of English completed a battery of 18 verbal and cognitive skill assessments, and read a series of sentences as their eye movements were monitored. Statistical analyses were performed to establish what tests of reading abilities were predictive of eye-movement patterns across this population and how strong the effects were. We found that individual scores in rapid automatized naming and word identification tests (i) were the only participant variables with reliable predictivity throughout the time-course of reading; (ii) elicited effects that superceded in magnitude the effects of established predictors like word length or frequency; and (iii) strongly modulated the influence of word length and frequency on fixation times. We discuss implications of our findings for testing reading ability, as well as for research of eye-movements in reading.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The privileged status of locality in consonant harmony.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-06-21
    Sara Finley

    While the vast majority of linguistic processes apply locally, consonant harmony appears to be an exception. In this phonological process, consonants share the same value of a phonological feature, such as secondary place of articulation. In sibilant harmony, [s] and [ʃ] ('sh') alternate such that if a word contains the sound [ʃ], all [s] sounds become [ʃ]. This can apply locally as a first-order or non-locally as a second-order pattern. In the first-order case, no consonants intervene between the two sibilants (e.g., [pisasu], [piʃaʃu]). In second-order case, a consonant may intervene (e.g., [sipasu], [ʃipaʃu]). The fact that there are languages that allow second-order non-local agreement of consonant features has led some to question whether locality constraints apply to consonant harmony. This paper presents the results from two artificial grammar learning experiments that demonstrate the privileged role of locality constraints, even in patterns that allow second-order non-local interactions. In Experiment 1, we show that learners do not extend first-order non-local relationships in consonant harmony to second-order nonlocal relationships. In Experiment 2, we show that learners will extend a consonant harmony pattern with second-order long distance relationships to a consonant harmony with first-order long distance relationships. Because second-order non-local application implies first-order non-local application, but first-order non-local application does not imply second-order non-local application, we establish that local constraints are privileged even in consonant harmony.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Building complex reference objects from dual sets.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-06-15
    Nikole D Patson,Tessa Warren

    There has been considerable psycholinguistic investigation into the conditions that allow separately introduced individuals to be joined into a plural set and represented as a complex reference object (e.g., Eschenbach, et al., 1989; Garrod & Sanford, 1982; Koh & Clifton, 2002; Koh et al., 2008; Moxey et al., 2004; Sanford & Lockhart, 1990). The current paper reports three eye-tracking experiments that investigate the less-well understood question of what conditions allow pointers to be assigned to the individuals within a previously undifferentiated set, turning it into a complex reference object. The experiments made use of a methodology used in Patson and Ferreira (2009) to distinguish between complex reference objects and undifferentiated sets. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated that assigning different properties to the members of an undifferentiated dual set via a conjoined modifier or a comparative modifier transformed it into a complex reference object. Experiment 3 indicated that assigning a property to only one member of an undifferentiated dual set introduced pointers to both members. These results demonstrate that pointers can be established to referents within a plural set without picking them out via anaphors; they set boundaries on the kinds of implicit contrasts between referents that establish pointers; and they illustrate that extremely subtle properties of the semantic and referential context can affect early parsing decisions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Influences of Source - Item Contingency and Schematic Knowledge on Source Monitoring: Tests of the Probability-Matching Account.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-05-24
    Ute J Bayen,Beatrice G Kuhlmann

    The authors investigated conditions under which judgments in source-monitoring tasks are influenced by prior schematic knowledge. According to a probability-matching account of source guessing (Spaniol & Bayen, 2002), when people do not remember the source of information, they match source guessing probabilities to the perceived contingency between sources and item types. When they do not have a representation of a contingency, they base their guesses on prior schematic knowledge. The authors provide support for this account in two experiments with sources presenting information that was expected for one source and somewhat unexpected for another. Schema-relevant information about the sources was provided at the time of encoding. When contingency perception was impeded by dividing attention, participants showed schema-based guessing (Experiment 1). Manipulating source - item contingency also affected guessing (Experiment 2). When this contingency was schema-inconsistent, it superseded schema-based expectations and led to schema-inconsistent guessing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Direct-access retrieval during sentence comprehension: Evidence from Sluicing.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-05-18
    Andrea E Martin,Brian McElree

    Language comprehension requires recovering meaning from linguistic form, even when the mapping between the two is indirect. A canonical example is ellipsis, the omission of information that is subsequently understood without being overtly pronounced. Comprehension of ellipsis requires retrieval of an antecedent from memory, without prior prediction, a property which enables the study of retrieval in situ (Martin & McElree, 2008, 2009). Sluicing, or inflectional phrase ellipsis, in the presence of a conjunction, presents a test case where a competing antecedent position is syntactically licensed, in contrast with most cases of nonadjacent dependency, including verb phrase ellipsis. We present speed-accuracy tradeoff and eye-movement data inconsistent with the hypothesis that retrieval is accomplished via a syntactically guided search, a particular variant of search not examined in past research. The observed timecourse profiles are consistent with the hypothesis that antecedents are retrieved via a cue-dependent direct-access mechanism susceptible to general memory variables.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On the effectiveness of self-paced learning.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-04-26
    Jonathan G Tullis,Aaron S Benjamin

    Metacognitive monitoring and control must be accurate and efficient in order to allow self-guided learners to improve their performance. Yet few examples exist in which allowing learners to control learning produces higher levels of performance than restricting learners' control. Here we investigate the consequences of allowing learners to self-pace study of a list of words on later recognition, and show that learners with control of study-time allocation significantly outperformed subjects with no control, even when the total study time was equated between groups (Experiments 1 and 2). The self-pacing group also outperformed a group for which study time was automatically allocated as a function of normative item difficulty (Experiment 2). The advantage of self-pacing was apparent only in subjects who utilized a discrepancy reduction strategy-that is, who allocated more study time to normatively difficult items. Self-pacing can improve memory performance, but only when appropriate allocation strategies are used.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Benefits of Accumulating Versus Diminishing Cues in Recall.
    J. Mem. Lang. (IF 3.858) Pub Date : 2011-04-19
    Jason R Finley,Aaron S Benjamin,Matthew J Hays,Robert A Bjork,Nate Kornell

    Optimizing learning over multiple retrieval opportunities requires a joint consideration of both the probability and the mnemonic value of a successful retrieval. Previous research has addressed this trade-off by manipulating the schedule of practice trials, suggesting that a pattern of increasingly long lags-"expanding retrieval practice"-may keep retrievals successful while gradually increasing their mnemonic value (Landauer & Bjork, 1978). Here we explore the trade-off issue further using an analogous manipulation of cue informativeness. After being given an initial presentation of English-Iñupiaq word pairs, participants received practice trials across which letters of the target word were either accumulated (AC), diminished (DC), or always fully present. Diminishing cues yielded the highest performance on a final test of cued recall. Additional analyses suggest that AC practice promotes potent (effortful) retrieval at the cost of success, and DC practice promotes successful retrieval at the cost of potency. Experiment 2 revealed that the negative effects of AC practice can be partly ameliorated by providing feedback after each practice trial.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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