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  • Immunometabolism in the Brain: How Metabolism Shapes Microglial Function
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Louis-Philippe Bernier; Elisa M. York; Brian A. MacVicar

    Immune cells react to their environment by flexibly reprogramming intracellular metabolic pathways that subsequently alter immune function, in a process called immunometabolism. However, in the CNS, the impact of metabolic reprogramming on microglia, neuroinflammation, and subsequently on brain function is poorly understood. As brain-resident macrophages, microglia are the CNS immune effectors and

  • This Is Your Brain on (Low) Glucose
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Patrick Miller-Rhodes; Harris A. Gelbard; Niccolò Terrando

    Brain functioning and high-order cognitive functions critically rely on glucose as a metabolic substrate. In a recent study, Kealy et al. investigated the impact of glucose availability on sickness behavior and delirium in mice and humans. They identified disrupted brain carbohydrate metabolism as a key mechanistic driver of these behaviors.

  • Vasopressin Neurons: Master Integrators of Time and Homeostasis
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Ivana L. Bussi; Raymond E.A. Sanchez; Horacio O. de la Iglesia

    A recent article by Gizowski and Bourque shows that vasopressinergic (VP) neurons within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) master circadian clock have the ability of encoding afferent input from osmosensors and generating appropriate homeostatic responses, suggesting that SCN neurons can integrate internal circadian time and acute changes in homeostatic markers.

  • Circuit-Based Biomarkers for Mood and Anxiety Disorders
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Frances Xia; Mazen A. Kheirbek

    Mood and anxiety disorders are complex heterogeneous syndromes that manifest in dysfunctions across multiple brain regions, cell types, and circuits. Biomarkers using brain-wide activity patterns in humans have proven useful in distinguishing between disorder subtypes and identifying effective treatments. In order to improve biomarker identification, it is crucial to understand the basic circuitry

  • VPS10P Domain Receptors: Sorting Out Brain Health and Disease
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Anna R. Malik; Thomas E. Willnow

    VPS10P (vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein) domain receptors are neuronal sorting receptors that direct cargo proteins to their destined location in subcellular compartments of the soma, dendrites, and the axon. Protein sorting by receptors such as SORLA, sortilin, and SorCS2 controls functional integrity and viability of neurons, whereas sorting receptor dysfunctions are linked to acute, psychiatric

  • Protecting Connections from Synapse Elimination.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Gabrielle L Sell,A Kimberley McAllister

    A recent paper by Cong et al. provides exciting evidence that neurons contain proteins that protect synapses from complement-mediated synapse elimination. SRPX2 binds C1q and blocks microglial synapse engulfment. The findings point at SRPX2, and potentially other related sushi domain proteins, as possible targets for therapies for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.

  • The Jekyll and Hyde of TREM2.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Javier Rueda-Carrasco,Soyon Hong

    In a recent paper, Gratuze et al. demonstrated a putative neuroprotective role of a key Alzheimer risk variant, TREM2R47H, against tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy. This study highlights the context-dependent response of microglia, and proposes antagonistic roles of TREM2 in Aβ- versus tau-mediated pathology.

  • Neurodevelopmental Optimization after Early-Life Adversity: Cross-Species Studies to Elucidate Sensitive Periods and Brain Mechanisms to Inform Early Intervention
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Joan L. Luby; Tallie Z. Baram; Cynthia E. Rogers; Deanna M. Barch

    Human brain development is influenced by early-life experiences, particularly during sensitive periods, with impact on cognitive and emotional outcomes. Understanding how the timing and nature of such experiences (including adversity, trauma, and enrichment) govern their influence on brain organization is crucial for harnessing key environmental factors early in life to enhance brain development. Here

  • A Multi-Brain Framework for Social Interaction.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Lyle Kingsbury,Weizhe Hong

    Social interaction can be seen as a dynamic feedback loop that couples action, reaction, and internal cognitive processes across individual agents. A fuller understanding of the social brain requires a description of how the neural dynamics across coupled brains are linked and how they coevolve over time. We elaborate a multi-brain framework that considers social interaction as an integrated network

  • Tapping into Multi-Faceted Human Behavior and Psychopathology Using fMRI Brain Dynamics.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Thomas A W Bolton,Elenor Morgenroth,Maria Giulia Preti,Dimitri Van De Ville

    Human behavior comprises many aspects that stand out by their dynamic nature. To quantify its neural underpinnings, time-resolved fMRI methods have blossomed over the past decade. In this review we conceptually organize a broad repertoire of dynamic analytical pipelines and extract general observations on their application to the study of behavior and brain disorders. We aim to provide an extensive

  • Hypothalamic Interactions with Large-Scale Neural Circuits Underlying Reinforcement Learning and Motivated Behavior.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Bruno B Averbeck,Elisabeth A Murray

    Biological agents adapt behavior to support the survival needs of the individual and the species. In this review we outline the anatomical, physiological, and computational processes that support reinforcement learning (RL). We describe two circuits in the primate brain that are linked to specific aspects of learning and goal-directed behavior. The ventral circuit, that includes the amygdala, ventral

  • The Paradox of HIV Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrance and Antiretroviral Drug Delivery Deficiencies.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Olivia Osborne,Nadia Peyravian,Madhavan Nair,Sylvia Daunert,Michal Toborek

    HIV attacks the body’s immune cells, frequently compromises the integrity of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and infects the CNS in the early stages of infection. Dysfunction of the BBB further potentiates viral replication within the CNS, which can lead to HIV-associated neuropathology. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly improves HIV patient outcomes and reduces mortality rates. However, there

  • Harmony Lost: Cell-Cell Communication at the Neuromuscular Junction in Motor Neuron Disease.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Anastasia Gromova,Albert R La Spada

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is the point of connection between motor neurons and skeletal muscle. Although developmental studies have established the importance of cell–cell communication at the NMJ for the integrity and full functionality of this synapse, the contribution of this structure as a primary driver in motor neuron disease pathogenesis remains uncertain

  • Principles of Corticocortical Communication: Proposed Schemes and Design Considerations.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Adam Kohn,Anna I Jasper,João D Semedo,Evren Gokcen,Christian K Machens,Byron M Yu

    Nearly all brain functions involve routing neural activity among a distributed network of areas. Understanding this routing requires more than a description of interareal anatomical connectivity: it requires understanding what controls the flow of signals through interareal circuitry and how this communication might be modulated to allow flexible behavior. Here we review proposals of how communication

  • How Do Sensory Neurons Sense Danger Signals?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Christopher R Donnelly,Ouyang Chen,Ru-Rong Ji

    Sensory neurons are activated by physical and chemical stimuli, eliciting sensations such as temperature, touch, pain, and itch. From an evolutionary perspective, sensing danger is essential for organismal survival. Upon infection and injury, immune cells respond to pathogen/damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

  • Circular RNAs: The Brain Transcriptome Comes Full Circle.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Akira Gokool,Clement T Loy,Glenda M Halliday,Irina Voineagu

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with a covalently closed loop structure formed by back-splicing of exon–exon junctions. The detection of circRNAs across many eukaryotic species, often with cell-type– and tissue-type–specific expression, has catalyzed a growing interest in understanding circRNA biogenesis and their potential functions. circRNAs are enriched in the brain, and accumulate

  • Basal Progenitor Morphology and Neocortex Evolution.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Nereo Kalebic,Wieland B Huttner

    The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian neocortex is widely considered to be a basis of increased cognitive abilities. This expansion is a consequence of the enhanced production of neurons during the fetal/embryonic development of the neocortex, which in turn reflects an increased proliferative capacity of neural progenitor cells; in particular basal progenitors (BPs). The remarkable heterogeneity

  • The Effects of Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain and Cognitive Function.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Kate Slade,Christopher J Plack,Helen E Nuttall

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a common problem for older adults, leading to communication difficulties, isolation, and cognitive decline. Recently, hearing loss has been identified as potentially the most modifiable risk factor for dementia. Listening in challenging situations, or when the auditory system is damaged, strains cortical resources, and this may change how the brain responds to cognitively

  • The Distributed Nociceptive System: A Framework for Understanding Pain.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Robert C Coghill

    Chronic pain remains challenging to both diagnose and treat. These challenges, in part, arise from limited systems-level understanding of the basic mechanisms that process nociceptive information and ultimately instantiate a subjectively available experience of pain. Here, I provide a framework, the distributed nociceptive system, for understanding nociceptive mechanisms at a systems level by integrating

  • Autophagy in Neuronal Development and Plasticity.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Angeleen Fleming,David C Rubinsztein

    Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular clearance pathway in which cytoplasmic contents are trafficked to the lysosome for degradation. Within neurons, it helps to remove damaged organelles and misfolded or aggregated proteins and has therefore been the subject of intense research in relation to neurodegenerative disease. However, far less is understood about the role of autophagy in other aspects

  • Atomic Structures of Amyloid-β Oligomers Illuminate a Neurotoxic Mechanism.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    April L Darling,James Shorter

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is a cardinal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the structural basis of Aβ-elicited neurotoxicity is unknown. In a recent paper, Ciudad et al. elucidate the first atomic structures of Aβ oligomers, which reveal how they form lipid-stabilized pores that might disrupt neuronal membranes and ion homeostasis.

  • Do Nicotinic Receptors Modulate High-Order Cognitive Processing?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Fani Koukouli,Jean-Pierre Changeux

    Recent studies provided strong evidence that deficits in cholinergic signaling cause disorders of cognition and affect conscious processing. Technical advances that combine molecular approaches, in vivo recordings in awake behaving animals, human brain imaging, and genetics have strengthened our understanding of the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the modulation of cognitive

  • Shedding Light on Chandelier Cell Development, Connectivity, and Contribution to Neural Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Nicholas B Gallo,Anirban Paul,Linda Van Aelst

    Chandelier cells (ChCs) are a unique type of GABAergic interneuron that selectively innervate the axon initial segment (AIS) of excitatory pyramidal neurons; the subcellular domain where action potentials are initiated. The proper genesis and maturation of ChCs is critical for regulating neural ensemble firing in the neocortex throughout development and adulthood. Recently, genetic and molecular studies

  • Movement-Related Signals in Sensory Areas: Roles in Natural Behavior.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Philip R L Parker,Morgan A Brown,Matthew C Smear,Cristopher M Niell

    Recent studies have demonstrated prominent and widespread movement-related signals in the brain of head-fixed mice, even in primary sensory areas. However, it is still unknown what role these signals play in sensory processing. Why are these sensory areas ‘contaminated’ by movement signals? During natural behavior, animals actively acquire sensory information as they move through the environment and

  • The Role of Astrocytes in Remyelination.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Khalil S Rawji,Ginez A Gonzalez Martinez,Amar Sharma,Robin J M Franklin

    Remyelination is the regeneration of myelin sheaths following demyelination. This regenerative process is critical for the re-establishment of axonal conduction velocity and metabolic support to the axons. Successful remyelination in the CNS generally depends on the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, other cell types play critical roles

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genetics to Functional Pathways.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Ilaria Parenti,Luis G Rabaneda,Hanna Schoen,Gaia Novarino

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of mutational events

  • The Gut-CNS Axis in Multiple Sclerosis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Atsushi Kadowaki,Francisco J Quintana

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS driven by the inflammatory activity of peripheral immune cells recruited to the CNS and by CNS-resident glial cells. MS pathogenesis has been linked to both genetic and environmental factors. In addition, the commensal flora have been shown to modulate immune processes relevant to MS pathogenesis. We discuss the effects of the

  • An Emerging Role for Prolactin in Female-Selective Pain.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yanxia Chen,Edita Navratilova,David W Dodick,Frank Porreca

    Women experience many pain conditions more frequently when compared with men, but the biological mechanisms underlying sex differences in pain remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about possible sex differences in peripheral nociceptors, the fundamental building blocks of pain transmission. Emerging evidence reveals that prolactin (PRL) signaling at its cognate prolactin receptor

  • How Outcome Uncertainty Mediates Attention, Learning, and Decision-Making.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Ilya E Monosov

    Animals and humans evolved sophisticated nervous systems that endowed them with the ability to form internal-models or beliefs and make predictions about the future to survive and flourish in a world in which future outcomes are often uncertain. Crucial to this capacity is the ability to adjust behavioral and learning policies in response to the level of uncertainty. Until recently, the neuronal mechanisms

  • From Complexity to Consciousness.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Tim Bayne,Anil K Seth,Marcello Massimini

  • Islands of Awareness or Cortical Complexity?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Benedetta Cecconi,Steven Laureys,Jitka Annen

  • Anterior to Posterior Whole-Brain Gradient for Different Types of Memories?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Irene Navarro-Lobato,Lisa Genzel

    Memories are consolidated from hippocampus to cortex, and recent evidence points to an anterior–posterior/ventral–dorsal gradient (in humans/rodents, respectively) across the brain that may be specialized for different types of memories. In a recent article, Cowan et al. provided evidence for this functional difference and gradient, which is also associated with sleep spindles.

  • Network Dynamics Governed by Lyapunov Functions: From Memory to Classification.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Merav Stern,Eric Shea-Brown

    In 1982, John Hopfield published a neural network model for memory retrieval, a model that became a cornerstone in theoretical neuroscience. In a recent paper, Krotov and Hopfield built on these early studies and showed how a network that incorporates a biologically plausible learning rule governed by a Lyapunov function can effectively perform classification tasks.

  • Remyelination-Promoting Inflammation: Novel Role for MyD88 Signaling in Microglia/Macrophages.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Gopal Murugaiyan,Mai Fujiwara,Lucien P Garo

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been linked to demyelination and remyelination. Using zebrafish and mouse models of demyelination and remyelination, Cunha et al. now describe a novel role for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling in supporting remyelination by promoting myeloid cell-mediated inflammatory responses via TNF-α, which are essential for phagocytic myelin

  • The Brain's Glymphatic System: Current Controversies.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Humberto Mestre,Yuki Mori,Maiken Nedergaard

    The glymphatic concept along with the discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels have, in recent years, highlighted that fluid is directionally transported within the central nervous system (CNS). Imaging studies, as well as manipulations of fluid transport, point to a key role of the glymphatic–lymphatic system in clearance of amyloid-β and other proteins. As such, the glymphatic–lymphatic system represents

  • Transitions in Brain Evolution: Space, Time and Entropy.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Kate J Jeffery,Carlo Rovelli

    How did brains evolve to become so complex, and what is their future? Brains pose an explanatory challenge because entropy, which inexorably increases over time, is commonly associated with disorder and simplicity. Recently we showed how evolution is an entropic process, building structures – organisms – which themselves facilitate entropy growth. Here we suggest that key transitional points in evolution

  • The Evolution-Driven Signature of Parkinson's Disease.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Nico J Diederich,Toshiki Uchihara,Sten Grillner,Christopher G Goetz

    In this review, we approach Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the context of an evolutionary mismatch of central nervous system functions. The neurons at risk have hyperbranched axons, extensive transmitter release sites, display spontaneous spiking, and elevated mitochondrial stress. They function in networks largely unchanged throughout vertebrate evolution, but now connecting to the expanded human cortex

  • Resurrecting the Mysteries of Big Tau.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-17
    Itzhak Fischer,Peter W Baas

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein that modifies the dynamic properties and organization of microtubules in neurons and affects axonal transport, shows remarkable heterogeneity, with multiple isoforms (45–65 kDa) generated by alternative splicing. A high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoform (110 kDa) that contains an additional large exon termed 4a was discovered more than 25 years ago. This isoform,

  • Kalirin and Trio: RhoGEFs in Synaptic Transmission, Plasticity, and Complex Brain Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Jeremiah D Paskus,Bruce E Herring,Katherine W Roche

    Changes in the actin cytoskeleton are a primary mechanism mediating the morphological and functional plasticity that underlies learning and memory. The synaptic Ras homologous (Rho) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) Kalirin and Trio have emerged as central regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse. The increased attention surrounding Kalirin and Trio stems from the growing evidence for their

  • Closing in on Mechanisms of Open Neural Tube Defects.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Sangmoon Lee,Joseph G Gleeson

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent a failure of the neural plate to complete the developmental transition to a neural tube. NTDs are the most common birth anomaly of the CNS. Following mandatory folic acid fortification of dietary grains, a dramatic reduction in the incidence of NTDs was observed in areas where the policy was implemented, yet the genetic drivers of NTDs in humans, and the mechanisms

  • Effects of Exercise on Brain and Cognition Across Age Groups and Health States.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Chelsea M Stillman,Irene Esteban-Cornejo,Belinda Brown,Catherine M Bender,Kirk I Erickson

    Exercise has been shown to benefit brain structure and function, particularly in aging populations. However, the mechanisms by which exercise exerts its effects, especially in humans, are not fully understood. This review argues that one reason for this knowledge gap is that exercise likely operates through multiple levels of mechanisms. Furthermore, the mechanisms of exercise may vary depending on

  • Local Sourcing of Secretory Proteins in Faraway Places.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Ryan J Farrell,Timothy A Ryan

    A recent paper by Carter et al. identifies a novel organelle, the ribosome-associated vesicle (RAV), that might serve as a portable, local factory for producing proteins destined for the secretory pathway. The appearance of RAVs in dendrites suggests they may serve to generate membrane and secreted proteins in distal processes.

  • Connecting Pathological Cellular Mechanisms to Large-Scale Seizure Structures.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Quynh-Anh Nguyen,Prannath Moolchand,Ivan Soltesz

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, where abnormal electrical activity begins in a local brain area and propagates before terminating. In a recent study, Liou and colleagues used multiscale computational modeling to gain mechanistic insights into clinical seizure dynamics based on cellular-level biophysical properties.

  • Social Cognition in the Age of Human-Robot Interaction.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Anna Henschel,Ruud Hortensius,Emily S Cross

    Artificial intelligence advances have led to robots endowed with increasingly sophisticated social abilities. These machines speak to our innate desire to perceive social cues in the environment, as well as the promise of robots enhancing our daily lives. However, a strong mismatch still exists between our expectations and the reality of social robots. We argue that careful delineation of the neurocognitive

  • Narratives for Neuroscience.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Roel M Willems,Samuel A Nastase,Branka Milivojevic

    People organize and convey their thoughts according to narratives. However, neuroscientists are often reluctant to incorporate narrative stimuli into their experiments. We argue that narratives deserve wider adoption in human neuroscience because they tap into the brain's native machinery for representing the world and provide rich variability for testing hypotheses.

  • White Matter Microstructure across the Psychosis Spectrum.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Katherine H Karlsgodt

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a neuroimaging technique that has allowed us an unprecedented look at the role that white matter microstructure may play in mental illnesses, such as psychosis. Psychosis-related illnesses, including schizophrenia, are increasingly viewed as existing along a spectrum; spectrums may be defined based on factors such as stage of illness, symptom severity, or genetic

  • Contextual Codes in the Hippocampus.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Maya Geva-Sagiv,Charan Ranganath

    The hippocampus is thought to support memory and decisions by binding relevant aspects of experiences within a context. A recent paper by Gulli et al. studies how activity in the macaque hippocampus varies according to different contextual requirements in the same space. This study demonstrates how a hippocampal cognitive map can flexibly reflect both spatial and nonspatial task demands.

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Central Nervous System.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Fernanda G De Felice,Fernanda Tovar-Moll,Jorge Moll,Douglas P Munoz,Sergio T Ferreira

    Emerging evidence indicates that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can cause neurological complications. We provide a brief overview of these recent observations and discuss some of their possible implications. In particular, given the global dimension of the current pandemic, we highlight the need to consider the

  • Noisy Synaptic Conductance: Bug or a Feature?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Dmitri A Rusakov,Leonid P Savtchenko,Peter E Latham

    More often than not, action potentials fail to trigger neurotransmitter release. And even when neurotransmitter is released, the resulting change in synaptic conductance is highly variable. Given the energetic cost of generating and propagating action potentials, and the importance of information transmission across synapses, this seems both wasteful and inefficient. However, synaptic noise arising

  • Microglia versus Monocytes: Distinct Roles in Degenerative Diseases of the Retina.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Chen Yu,Christophe Roubeix,Florian Sennlaub,Daniel R Saban

    Unlike in the healthy mammalian retina, macrophages in retinal degenerative states are not solely comprised of microglia but may include monocyte-derived recruits. Recent studies have applied transgenics, lineage-tracing, and transcriptomics to help decipher the distinct roles of these two cell types in the disease settings of inherited retinal degenerations and age-related macular degeneration. Literature

  • Post-translational Modifications of Opioid Receptors.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Mariana Lemos Duarte,Lakshmi A Devi

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key events in signal transduction since they affect protein function by regulating their abundance and/or activity. PTMs involve the covalent attachment of functional groups to specific amino acids. Since they tend to be generally reversible, PTMs serve as regulators of signal transduction pathways. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are major signaling

  • Impacts of Sleep Loss versus Waking Experience on Brain Plasticity: Parallel or Orthogonal?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Robbert Havekes,Sara J Aton

    Recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on synaptic plasticity have yielded discrepant results. Sleep deprivation studies using novelty exposure as a means to keep animals awake suggests that sleep (compared with wake) leads to widespread reductions in net synaptic strength. By contrast, sleep deprivation studies using approaches avoiding novelty-induced arousal (i.e., gentle handling) suggest

  • Glucocorticoids as Mediators of Adverse Outcomes of Prenatal Stress.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Anthi C Krontira,Cristiana Cruceanu,Elisabeth B Binder

    A number of prenatal experiences are associated with adverse outcomes after birth, ranging from cardiovascular problems to psychiatric disease. Prenatal stress is associated with neurodevelopmental alterations that persist after birth and manifest at the behavioral level, for example, increased fearfulness, and at the physiological one, that is, brain structural and functional changes. Understanding

  • Prenatal Origins of ASD: The When, What, and How of ASD Development.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Eric Courchesne,Vahid H Gazestani,Nathan E Lewis

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a largely heritable, multistage prenatal disorder that impacts a child's ability to perceive and react to social information. Most ASD risk genes are expressed prenatally in many ASD-relevant brain regions and fall into two categories: broadly expressed regulatory genes that are expressed in the brain and other organs, and brain-specific genes. In trimesters one to

  • Proteome Homeostasis Dysfunction: A Unifying Principle in ALS Pathogenesis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Justin J Yerbury,Natalie E Farrawell,Luke McAlary

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease but currently has no effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that proteome homeostasis underlies ALS pathogenesis. Protein production, trafficking, and degradation all shape the proteome. We present a hypothesis that proposes all genetic lesions associated with ALS (including in mRNA-binding proteins) cause widespread

  • Where is Cingulate Cortex? A Cross-Species View.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Sabrina van Heukelum,Rogier B Mars,Martin Guthrie,Jan K Buitelaar,Christian F Beckmann,Paul H E Tiesinga,Brent A Vogt,Jeffrey C Glennon,Martha N Havenith

    To compare findings across species, neuroscience relies on cross-species homologies, particularly in terms of brain areas. For cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in behavioural adaptation and control, a homologous definition across mammals is available - but currently not employed by most rodent researchers. The standard partitioning of rodent cingulate cortex is inconsistent with that in any

  • Imaging Brain Metabolism Using Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Lydia M Le Page,Caroline Guglielmetti,Celine Taglang,Myriam M Chaumeil

    Aberrant metabolism is a key factor in many neurological disorders. The ability to measure such metabolic impairment could lead to improved detection of disease progression, and development and monitoring of new therapeutic approaches. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a developing imaging technique that enables non-invasive measurement of enzymatic activity in real time in

  • Getting in Touch with Mechanical Pain Mechanisms.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Rose Z Hill,Diana M Bautista

    The peripheral somatosensory system bestows mammals with a diverse repertoire of sensory modalities: gentle touch, mechanical pain, itch, thermosensation, and proprioception. The cells and molecules that transduce many of these stimuli have already been characterized. But how somatosensory neurons transduce acutely painful mechanical forces is largely unknown and remains one of the 'final frontiers'

  • Neuronal Maturation: Challenges and Opportunities in a Nascent Field.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Frank Bradke,Simone Di Giovanni,James Fawcett

    After its initial development, the nervous system matures to connect and shape the neuronal circuitry and to keep it functional in humans for decades. Here we conceptualize neuronal maturation as a research field that will have, we would argue, a strong impact on understanding the healthy and diseased nervous system. Identifying the key mechanisms underlying neuronal maturation has the potential to

  • Spikes to Pixels: Camera Chips for Large-scale Electrophysiology.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Roy Lycke,Liuyang Sun,Lan Luan,Chong Xie

    Implanted neural probes are among the most important techniques in both fundamental and clinical neuroscience. Despite great successes and promise, neural electrodes are technically limited by their scalability. A recent study by Obaid et al. demonstrated an innovative way to greatly scale up the channel count and density of neural electrode arrays.

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