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  • Drosophila Mechanosensory Transduction
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Philip Hehlert; Wei Zhang; Martin C. Göpfert

    Mechanosensation in Drosophila relies on sensory neurons transducing mechanical stimuli into ionic currents. The molecular mechanisms of this transduction are in the process of being revealed. Transduction relies on mechanogated ion channels that are activated by membrane stretch or the tension of force-conveying tethers. NOMPC (no-mechanoreceptor potential C) and DmPiezo were put forward as bona fide

  • Parallel Pathways for Mnemonic Processing
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Azahara Oliva

    In a recent study, Chen et al. showed that divergent subcortical-hippocampal projections are necessary for mnemonic processing. With a combination of elegant experiments, the authors revealed that, whereas a projection from the supramammillary nucleus (SuM) to dentate gyrus (DG) is needed for contextual memory, social memory requires the SuM–CA2 pathway.

  • Is COVID-19 a Perfect Storm for Parkinson’s Disease?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Patrik Brundin; Avindra Nath; J. David Beckham

    Three recent case reports (by Méndez-Guerrero et al., Cohen et al., and Faber et al.) describe the development of acute parkinsonism following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We discuss possible underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms, and whether COVID-19 might be associated with elevated long-term risk of Parkinson’s disease (PD).

  • This Is Your Brain on (Low) Glucose.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Patrick Miller-Rhodes,Harris A Gelbard,Niccolò Terrando

    Brain functioning and high-order cognitive functions critically rely on glucose as a metabolic substrate. In a recent study, Kealy et al. investigated the impact of glucose availability on sickness behavior and delirium in mice and humans. They identified disrupted brain carbohydrate metabolism as a key mechanistic driver of these behaviors.

  • PET Imaging as a Tool for Assessing COVID-19 Brain Changes
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Igor C. Fontana; Salvatore Bongarzone; Antony Gee; Diogo O. Souza; Eduardo R. Zimmer

    A substantial fraction of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients experience neurological manifestations. Nevertheless, brain changes caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) remain largely unknown. Here, we provide a brief overview of positron emission tomography (PET) applications that could advance current understanding of CNS pathophysiological alterations associated

  • Transforming the Concept of Memory Reactivation
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Serra E. Favila; Hongmi Lee; Brice A. Kuhl

    Reactivation refers to the phenomenon wherein patterns of neural activity expressed during perceptual experience are re-expressed at a later time, a putative neural marker of memory. Reactivation of perceptual content has been observed across many cortical areas and correlates with objective and subjective expressions of memory in humans. However, because reactivation emphasizes similarities between

  • Alternative Frameworks for Advancing the Study of Eating Disorders
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-31
    Sarah A. Stern; Cynthia M. Bulik

    Eating disorders are life-interrupting psychiatric conditions with high morbidity and mortality, yet the basic mechanisms underlying these conditions are understudied compared with other psychiatric disorders. In this opinion, we suggest that recent knowledge gleaned from genomic and neuroimaging investigations of eating disorders in humans presents a rich opportunity to sharpen animal models of eating

  • Neuroethical and Societal Challenges of 21st Century Epidemics
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Nicole Minielly; Chris Feehan; Alissa Wong; Judy Illes

    Neurologic and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are affecting a growing number of people worldwide. We provide a brief overview of these manifestations, contrasting them with those of other 21st century viral epidemics, as well as mitigation strategies, and societal and moral considerations related to the pandemic. We highlight unique concerns relating to COVID-19 given the scale of infection

  • Microglial Phagocytosis: A Disease-Associated Process Emerging from Alzheimer’s Disease Genetics
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Anna Podleśny-Drabiniok; Edoardo Marcora; Alison M. Goate

    Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a debilitating, chronic neurodegenerative disease. Genetic studies involving genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and meta-analysis have discovered numerous genomic loci associated with AD; however, the causal genes and variants remain unidentified in most loci. Integration of GWAS signals with epigenomic annotations has demonstrated that AD risk variants are enriched

  • Distributional Reinforcement Learning in the Brain
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Adam S. Lowet; Qiao Zheng; Sara Matias; Jan Drugowitsch; Naoshige Uchida

    Learning about rewards and punishments is critical for survival. Classical studies have demonstrated an impressive correspondence between the firing of dopamine neurons in the mammalian midbrain and the reward prediction errors of reinforcement learning algorithms, which express the difference between actual reward and predicted mean reward. However, it may be advantageous to learn not only the mean

  • How Bacteria Impact Host Nervous System and Behaviors: Lessons from Flies and Worms
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Ambra Masuzzo; Martina Montanari; Léopold Kurz; Julien Royet

    Behavior is the neuronally controlled, voluntary or involuntary response of an organism to its environment. An increasing body of evidence indicates that microbes, which live closely associated with animals or in their immediate surroundings, significantly influence animals’ behavior. The extreme complexity of the nervous system of animals, combined with the extraordinary microbial diversity, are two

  • RNA N6-Methyladenosine and the Regulation of RNA Localization and Function in the Brain
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Sachithrani U. Madugalle; Kate Meyer; Dan Ohtan Wang; Timothy W. Bredy

    A major challenge in neurobiology in the 21st century is to understand how the brain adapts with experience. Activity-dependent gene expression is integral to the synaptic plasticity underlying learning and memory; however, this process cannot be explained by a simple linear trajectory of transcription to translation within a specific neuronal population. Many other regulatory mechanisms can influence

  • Autophagy Pathways in CNS Myeloid Cell Immune Functions
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Christian W. Keller; Christian Münz; Jan D. Lünemann

    The CNS accommodates a diverse myeloid immune cell compartment that maintains CNS homeostasis in the steady state while contributing to tissue injury during infectious, autoimmune, and neurodegenerative disease conditions. Autophagy and autophagy proteins play fundamental roles in myeloid cell–related immune functions. Many of these processes do not necessarily involve the canonical formation of a

  • Prefrontal Cortex Development in Health and Disease: Lessons from Rodents and Humans
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-24
    Mattia Chini; Ileana L. Hanganu-Opatz

    The role of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) takes center stage among unanswered questions in modern neuroscience. The PFC has a Janus-faced nature: it enables sophisticated cognitive and social abilities that reach their maximum expression in humans, yet it underlies some of the devastating symptoms of psychiatric disorders. Accordingly, appropriate prefrontal development is crucial for many high-order

  • The Tail of the Striatum: From Anatomy to Connectivity and Function
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Emmanuel Valjent; Giuseppe Gangarossa

    The dorsal striatum, the largest subcortical structure of the basal ganglia, is critical in controlling motor, procedural, and reinforcement-based behaviors. Although in mammals the striatum extends widely along the rostro-caudal axis, current knowledge and derived theories about its anatomo-functional organization largely rely on results obtained from studies of its rostral sectors, leading to potentially

  • Extracellular Vesicle-Mediated Bilateral Communication between Glioblastoma and Astrocytes
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Lisa Nieland; Liza M. Morsett; Marike L.D. Broekman; Xandra O. Breakefield; Erik R. Abels

    Glioblastoma the most aggressive form of brain cancer, comprises a complex mixture of tumor cells and nonmalignant stromal cells, including neurons, astrocytes, microglia, infiltrating monocytes/macrophages, lymphocytes, and other cell types. All nonmalignant cells within and surrounding the tumor are affected by the presence of glioblastoma. Astrocytes use multiple modes of communication to interact

  • Regulation of GABAARs by Transmembrane Accessory Proteins
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-21
    Wenyan Han; Ryan D. Shepard; Wei Lu

    The vast majority of fast inhibitory transmission in the brain is mediated by GABA acting on GABAA receptors (GABAARs), which provides inhibitory balance to excitatory drive and controls neuronal output. GABAARs are also effectively targeted by clinically important drugs for treatment in a number of neurological disorders. It has long been hypothesized that function and pharmacology of GABAARs are

  • Peripheral Innervation in the Regulation of Glucose Homeostasis
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Eugene E. Lin; Emily Scott-Solomon; Rejji Kuruvilla

    Precise regulation of circulating glucose is crucial for human health and ensures a sufficient supply to the brain, which relies almost exclusively on glucose for metabolic energy. Glucose homeostasis is coordinated by hormone-secreting endocrine cells in the pancreas, as well as glucose utilization and production in peripheral metabolic tissues including the liver, muscle, and adipose tissue. Glucose-regulatory

  • Leveraging Zebrafish To Study Bona Fide Astrocytes
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-16
    Carmen Muñoz-Ballester; Robyn A. Umans; Stefanie Robel

    In a recent study, Chen and colleagues demonstrated that zebrafish spinal cord radial glia differentiate into cells that are similar to mammalian astrocytes. This study highlights the validity of the zebrafish model for discovering molecular mechanisms governing astrocyte function.

  • Mechanical Forces Orchestrate Brain Development
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-14
    Míriam Javier-Torrent; Geraldine Zimmer-Bensch; Laurent Nguyen

    During brain development, progenitors generate successive waves of neurons that populate distinct cerebral regions, where they settle and differentiate within layers or nuclei. While migrating and differentiating, neurons are subjected to mechanical forces arising from the extracellular matrix, and their interaction with neighboring cells. Changes in brain biomechanical properties, during its formation

  • Neuroprotective versus Neuroinflammatory Roles of Complement: From Development to Disease
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-12
    Marlene Kanmogne; Robyn S. Klein

    Complement proteins are ancient components of innate immunity that have emerged as crucial regulators of neural networks. We discuss these roles in the context of the CNS development, acute CNS viral infections, and post-infectious and noninfectious CNS disorders, with an emphasis on microglia-mediated loss of synapses. Despite extensive examples that implicate classical complement proteins and their

  • Signaling by cGAS–STING in Neurodegeneration, Neuroinflammation, and Aging
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-10
    Bindu D. Paul; Solomon H. Snyder; Vilhelm A. Bohr

    Recognition of foreign or misplaced nucleic acids is one of the principal modes by which the immune system detects pathogenic entities. When cytosolic DNA is sensed, a signal is relayed via the cGAS–STING pathway: this involves the activation of cyclic GMP-AMP (cGMP-AMP) synthase (cGAS) and generation of the cyclic dinucleotide cGAMP, followed by the induction of stimulator of interferon genes (STING)

  • A Circuit-Based Information Approach to Substance Abuse Research
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    David M. Lovinger; Christina M. Gremel

    Recent animal research on substance-use disorders (SUDs) has emphasized learning models and the identification of ‘addiction-prone’ animals. Meanwhile, basic neuroscientific research has elucidated molecular, cellular, and circuit functions with increasing sophistication. However, SUD-related research is hampered by continued arguments over which animal models are more ‘addiction like’, as well as

  • Mitochondria and Calcium in Alzheimer’s Disease: From Cell Signaling to Neuronal Cell Death
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Maria Calvo-Rodriguez; Brian J. Bacskai

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of almost all neurological diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Historically, a primary focus in this context has been the link between mitochondrial dynamics and amyloid β toxicity. Recent evidence suggests that dysregulation of mitochondrial calcium homeostasis is also related to tau and other risk factors in AD, although

  • Vasopressin Neurons: Master Integrators of Time and Homeostasis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    Ivana L Bussi,Raymond E A Sanchez,Horacio O de la Iglesia

    A recent article by Gizowski and Bourque shows that vasopressinergic (VP) neurons within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) master circadian clock have the ability of encoding afferent input from osmosensors and generating appropriate homeostatic responses, suggesting that SCN neurons can integrate internal circadian time and acute changes in homeostatic markers.

  • Protecting Connections from Synapse Elimination.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Gabrielle L Sell,A Kimberley McAllister

    A recent paper by Cong et al. provides exciting evidence that neurons contain proteins that protect synapses from complement-mediated synapse elimination. SRPX2 binds C1q and blocks microglial synapse engulfment. The findings point at SRPX2, and potentially other related sushi domain proteins, as possible targets for therapies for neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorders.

  • Immunometabolism in the Brain: How Metabolism Shapes Microglial Function.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Louis-Philippe Bernier,Elisa M York,Brian A MacVicar

    Immune cells react to their environment by flexibly reprogramming intracellular metabolic pathways that subsequently alter immune function, in a process called immunometabolism. However, in the CNS, the impact of metabolic reprogramming on microglia, neuroinflammation, and subsequently on brain function is poorly understood. As brain-resident macrophages, microglia are the CNS immune effectors and

  • VPS10P Domain Receptors: Sorting Out Brain Health and Disease.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Anna R Malik,Thomas E Willnow

    VPS10P (vacuolar protein sorting 10 protein) domain receptors are neuronal sorting receptors that direct cargo proteins to their destined location in subcellular compartments of the soma, dendrites, and the axon. Protein sorting by receptors such as SORLA, sortilin, and SorCS2 controls functional integrity and viability of neurons, whereas sorting receptor dysfunctions are linked to acute, psychiatric

  • 16p11.2 Copy Number Variations and Neurodevelopmental Disorders
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Benjamin Rein; Zhen Yan

    Copy number variations (CNVs) of the human 16p11.2 genetic locus are associated with a range of neurodevelopmental disorders, including autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. In this review, we delineate genetic information and diverse phenotypes in individuals with 16p11.2 CNVs, and synthesize preclinical findings from transgenic mouse models of 16p11.2 CNVs. Mice with 16p11

  • Circuit-Based Biomarkers for Mood and Anxiety Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Frances Xia,Mazen A Kheirbek

    Mood and anxiety disorders are complex heterogeneous syndromes that manifest in dysfunctions across multiple brain regions, cell types, and circuits. Biomarkers using brain-wide activity patterns in humans have proven useful in distinguishing between disorder subtypes and identifying effective treatments. In order to improve biomarker identification, it is crucial to understand the basic circuitry

  • Walking with Salamanders: From Molecules to Biorobotics
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Dimitri Ryczko; András Simon; Auke Jan Ijspeert

    How do four-legged animals adapt their locomotion to the environment? How do central and peripheral mechanisms interact within the spinal cord to produce adaptive locomotion and how is locomotion recovered when spinal circuits are perturbed? Salamanders are the only tetrapods that regenerate voluntary locomotion after full spinal transection. Given their evolutionary position, they provide a unique

  • The Jekyll and Hyde of TREM2.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Javier Rueda-Carrasco,Soyon Hong

    In a recent paper, Gratuze et al. demonstrated a putative neuroprotective role of a key Alzheimer risk variant, TREM2R47H, against tau-mediated neurodegeneration in a mouse model of tauopathy. This study highlights the context-dependent response of microglia, and proposes antagonistic roles of TREM2 in Aβ- versus tau-mediated pathology.

  • Atomic Structures of Amyloid-β Oligomers Illuminate a Neurotoxic Mechanism.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    April L Darling,James Shorter

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in the brain is a cardinal event in Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but the structural basis of Aβ-elicited neurotoxicity is unknown. In a recent paper, Ciudad et al. elucidate the first atomic structures of Aβ oligomers, which reveal how they form lipid-stabilized pores that might disrupt neuronal membranes and ion homeostasis.

  • Neurodevelopmental Optimization after Early-Life Adversity: Cross-Species Studies to Elucidate Sensitive Periods and Brain Mechanisms to Inform Early Intervention.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Joan L Luby,Tallie Z Baram,Cynthia E Rogers,Deanna M Barch

    Human brain development is influenced by early-life experiences, particularly during sensitive periods, with impact on cognitive and emotional outcomes. Understanding how the timing and nature of such experiences (including adversity, trauma, and enrichment) govern their influence on brain organization is crucial for harnessing key environmental factors early in life to enhance brain development. Here

  • Circular RNAs: The Brain Transcriptome Comes Full Circle.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Akira Gokool,Clement T Loy,Glenda M Halliday,Irina Voineagu

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of RNA molecules with a covalently closed loop structure formed by back-splicing of exon–exon junctions. The detection of circRNAs across many eukaryotic species, often with cell-type– and tissue-type–specific expression, has catalyzed a growing interest in understanding circRNA biogenesis and their potential functions. circRNAs are enriched in the brain, and accumulate

  • Autophagy in Neuronal Development and Plasticity.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Angeleen Fleming,David C Rubinsztein

    Autophagy is a highly conserved intracellular clearance pathway in which cytoplasmic contents are trafficked to the lysosome for degradation. Within neurons, it helps to remove damaged organelles and misfolded or aggregated proteins and has therefore been the subject of intense research in relation to neurodegenerative disease. However, far less is understood about the role of autophagy in other aspects

  • The Distributed Nociceptive System: A Framework for Understanding Pain.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Robert C Coghill

    Chronic pain remains challenging to both diagnose and treat. These challenges, in part, arise from limited systems-level understanding of the basic mechanisms that process nociceptive information and ultimately instantiate a subjectively available experience of pain. Here, I provide a framework, the distributed nociceptive system, for understanding nociceptive mechanisms at a systems level by integrating

  • How Outcome Uncertainty Mediates Attention, Learning, and Decision-Making.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Ilya E Monosov

    Animals and humans evolved sophisticated nervous systems that endowed them with the ability to form internal-models or beliefs and make predictions about the future to survive and flourish in a world in which future outcomes are often uncertain. Crucial to this capacity is the ability to adjust behavioral and learning policies in response to the level of uncertainty. Until recently, the neuronal mechanisms

  • The Effects of Age-Related Hearing Loss on the Brain and Cognitive Function.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-19
    Kate Slade,Christopher J Plack,Helen E Nuttall

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) is a common problem for older adults, leading to communication difficulties, isolation, and cognitive decline. Recently, hearing loss has been identified as potentially the most modifiable risk factor for dementia. Listening in challenging situations, or when the auditory system is damaged, strains cortical resources, and this may change how the brain responds to cognitively

  • How Do Sensory Neurons Sense Danger Signals?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Christopher R Donnelly,Ouyang Chen,Ru-Rong Ji

    Sensory neurons are activated by physical and chemical stimuli, eliciting sensations such as temperature, touch, pain, and itch. From an evolutionary perspective, sensing danger is essential for organismal survival. Upon infection and injury, immune cells respond to pathogen/damage-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs/DAMPs) through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs)

  • A Multi-Brain Framework for Social Interaction.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Lyle Kingsbury,Weizhe Hong

    Social interaction can be seen as a dynamic feedback loop that couples action, reaction, and internal cognitive processes across individual agents. A fuller understanding of the social brain requires a description of how the neural dynamics across coupled brains are linked and how they coevolve over time. We elaborate a multi-brain framework that considers social interaction as an integrated network

  • Tapping into Multi-Faceted Human Behavior and Psychopathology Using fMRI Brain Dynamics.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Thomas A W Bolton,Elenor Morgenroth,Maria Giulia Preti,Dimitri Van De Ville

    Human behavior comprises many aspects that stand out by their dynamic nature. To quantify its neural underpinnings, time-resolved fMRI methods have blossomed over the past decade. In this review we conceptually organize a broad repertoire of dynamic analytical pipelines and extract general observations on their application to the study of behavior and brain disorders. We aim to provide an extensive

  • Hypothalamic Interactions with Large-Scale Neural Circuits Underlying Reinforcement Learning and Motivated Behavior.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Bruno B Averbeck,Elisabeth A Murray

    Biological agents adapt behavior to support the survival needs of the individual and the species. In this review we outline the anatomical, physiological, and computational processes that support reinforcement learning (RL). We describe two circuits in the primate brain that are linked to specific aspects of learning and goal-directed behavior. The ventral circuit, that includes the amygdala, ventral

  • The Paradox of HIV Blood-Brain Barrier Penetrance and Antiretroviral Drug Delivery Deficiencies.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Olivia Osborne,Nadia Peyravian,Madhavan Nair,Sylvia Daunert,Michal Toborek

    HIV attacks the body’s immune cells, frequently compromises the integrity of the blood–brain barrier (BBB), and infects the CNS in the early stages of infection. Dysfunction of the BBB further potentiates viral replication within the CNS, which can lead to HIV-associated neuropathology. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) significantly improves HIV patient outcomes and reduces mortality rates. However, there

  • Harmony Lost: Cell-Cell Communication at the Neuromuscular Junction in Motor Neuron Disease.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Anastasia Gromova,Albert R La Spada

    The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a specialized synapse that is the point of connection between motor neurons and skeletal muscle. Although developmental studies have established the importance of cell–cell communication at the NMJ for the integrity and full functionality of this synapse, the contribution of this structure as a primary driver in motor neuron disease pathogenesis remains uncertain

  • Principles of Corticocortical Communication: Proposed Schemes and Design Considerations.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Adam Kohn,Anna I Jasper,João D Semedo,Evren Gokcen,Christian K Machens,Byron M Yu

    Nearly all brain functions involve routing neural activity among a distributed network of areas. Understanding this routing requires more than a description of interareal anatomical connectivity: it requires understanding what controls the flow of signals through interareal circuitry and how this communication might be modulated to allow flexible behavior. Here we review proposals of how communication

  • Basal Progenitor Morphology and Neocortex Evolution.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Nereo Kalebic,Wieland B Huttner

    The evolutionary expansion of the mammalian neocortex is widely considered to be a basis of increased cognitive abilities. This expansion is a consequence of the enhanced production of neurons during the fetal/embryonic development of the neocortex, which in turn reflects an increased proliferative capacity of neural progenitor cells; in particular basal progenitors (BPs). The remarkable heterogeneity

  • Do Nicotinic Receptors Modulate High-Order Cognitive Processing?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Fani Koukouli,Jean-Pierre Changeux

    Recent studies provided strong evidence that deficits in cholinergic signaling cause disorders of cognition and affect conscious processing. Technical advances that combine molecular approaches, in vivo recordings in awake behaving animals, human brain imaging, and genetics have strengthened our understanding of the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the modulation of cognitive

  • Shedding Light on Chandelier Cell Development, Connectivity, and Contribution to Neural Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Nicholas B Gallo,Anirban Paul,Linda Van Aelst

    Chandelier cells (ChCs) are a unique type of GABAergic interneuron that selectively innervate the axon initial segment (AIS) of excitatory pyramidal neurons; the subcellular domain where action potentials are initiated. The proper genesis and maturation of ChCs is critical for regulating neural ensemble firing in the neocortex throughout development and adulthood. Recently, genetic and molecular studies

  • Movement-Related Signals in Sensory Areas: Roles in Natural Behavior.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Philip R L Parker,Morgan A Brown,Matthew C Smear,Cristopher M Niell

    Recent studies have demonstrated prominent and widespread movement-related signals in the brain of head-fixed mice, even in primary sensory areas. However, it is still unknown what role these signals play in sensory processing. Why are these sensory areas ‘contaminated’ by movement signals? During natural behavior, animals actively acquire sensory information as they move through the environment and

  • The Role of Astrocytes in Remyelination.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Khalil S Rawji,Ginez A Gonzalez Martinez,Amar Sharma,Robin J M Franklin

    Remyelination is the regeneration of myelin sheaths following demyelination. This regenerative process is critical for the re-establishment of axonal conduction velocity and metabolic support to the axons. Successful remyelination in the CNS generally depends on the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, other cell types play critical roles

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genetics to Functional Pathways.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Ilaria Parenti,Luis G Rabaneda,Hanna Schoen,Gaia Novarino

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of mutational events

  • The Gut-CNS Axis in Multiple Sclerosis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Atsushi Kadowaki,Francisco J Quintana

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the CNS driven by the inflammatory activity of peripheral immune cells recruited to the CNS and by CNS-resident glial cells. MS pathogenesis has been linked to both genetic and environmental factors. In addition, the commensal flora have been shown to modulate immune processes relevant to MS pathogenesis. We discuss the effects of the

  • An Emerging Role for Prolactin in Female-Selective Pain.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yanxia Chen,Edita Navratilova,David W Dodick,Frank Porreca

    Women experience many pain conditions more frequently when compared with men, but the biological mechanisms underlying sex differences in pain remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about possible sex differences in peripheral nociceptors, the fundamental building blocks of pain transmission. Emerging evidence reveals that prolactin (PRL) signaling at its cognate prolactin receptor

  • From Complexity to Consciousness.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Tim Bayne,Anil K Seth,Marcello Massimini

  • Islands of Awareness or Cortical Complexity?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Benedetta Cecconi,Steven Laureys,Jitka Annen

  • Anterior to Posterior Whole-Brain Gradient for Different Types of Memories?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Irene Navarro-Lobato,Lisa Genzel

    Memories are consolidated from hippocampus to cortex, and recent evidence points to an anterior–posterior/ventral–dorsal gradient (in humans/rodents, respectively) across the brain that may be specialized for different types of memories. In a recent article, Cowan et al. provided evidence for this functional difference and gradient, which is also associated with sleep spindles.

  • Network Dynamics Governed by Lyapunov Functions: From Memory to Classification.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Merav Stern,Eric Shea-Brown

    In 1982, John Hopfield published a neural network model for memory retrieval, a model that became a cornerstone in theoretical neuroscience. In a recent paper, Krotov and Hopfield built on these early studies and showed how a network that incorporates a biologically plausible learning rule governed by a Lyapunov function can effectively perform classification tasks.

  • Remyelination-Promoting Inflammation: Novel Role for MyD88 Signaling in Microglia/Macrophages.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Gopal Murugaiyan,Mai Fujiwara,Lucien P Garo

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been linked to demyelination and remyelination. Using zebrafish and mouse models of demyelination and remyelination, Cunha et al. now describe a novel role for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling in supporting remyelination by promoting myeloid cell-mediated inflammatory responses via TNF-α, which are essential for phagocytic myelin

  • The Brain's Glymphatic System: Current Controversies.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Humberto Mestre,Yuki Mori,Maiken Nedergaard

    The glymphatic concept along with the discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels have, in recent years, highlighted that fluid is directionally transported within the central nervous system (CNS). Imaging studies, as well as manipulations of fluid transport, point to a key role of the glymphatic–lymphatic system in clearance of amyloid-β and other proteins. As such, the glymphatic–lymphatic system represents

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Springer 纳米技术权威期刊征稿