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  • An Emerging Role for Prolactin in Female-Selective Pain
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Yanxia Chen; Edita Navratilova; David W. Dodick; Frank Porreca

    Women experience many pain conditions more frequently when compared with men, but the biological mechanisms underlying sex differences in pain remain poorly understood. In particular, little is known about possible sex differences in peripheral nociceptors, the fundamental building blocks of pain transmission. Emerging evidence reveals that prolactin (PRL) signaling at its cognate prolactin receptor

  • The Role of Astrocytes in Remyelination
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Khalil S. Rawji; Ginez A. Gonzalez Martinez; Amar Sharma; Robin J.M. Franklin

    Remyelination is the regeneration of myelin sheaths following demyelination. This regenerative process is critical for the re-establishment of axonal conduction velocity and metabolic support to the axons. Successful remyelination in the CNS generally depends on the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs). However, other cell types play critical roles

  • Anterior to Posterior Whole-Brain Gradient for Different Types of Memories?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Irene Navarro-Lobato,Lisa Genzel

    Memories are consolidated from hippocampus to cortex, and recent evidence points to an anterior–posterior/ventral–dorsal gradient (in humans/rodents, respectively) across the brain that may be specialized for different types of memories. In a recent article, Cowan et al. provided evidence for this functional difference and gradient, which is also associated with sleep spindles.

  • Network Dynamics Governed by Lyapunov Functions: From Memory to Classification.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Merav Stern,Eric Shea-Brown

    In 1982, John Hopfield published a neural network model for memory retrieval, a model that became a cornerstone in theoretical neuroscience. In a recent paper, Krotov and Hopfield built on these early studies and showed how a network that incorporates a biologically plausible learning rule governed by a Lyapunov function can effectively perform classification tasks.

  • Remyelination-Promoting Inflammation: Novel Role for MyD88 Signaling in Microglia/Macrophages.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Gopal Murugaiyan,Mai Fujiwara,Lucien P Garo

    Inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS) has been linked to demyelination and remyelination. Using zebrafish and mouse models of demyelination and remyelination, Cunha et al. now describe a novel role for myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) signaling in supporting remyelination by promoting myeloid cell-mediated inflammatory responses via TNF-α, which are essential for phagocytic myelin

  • The Brain's Glymphatic System: Current Controversies.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Humberto Mestre,Yuki Mori,Maiken Nedergaard

    The glymphatic concept along with the discovery of meningeal lymphatic vessels have, in recent years, highlighted that fluid is directionally transported within the central nervous system (CNS). Imaging studies, as well as manipulations of fluid transport, point to a key role of the glymphatic–lymphatic system in clearance of amyloid-β and other proteins. As such, the glymphatic–lymphatic system represents

  • Transitions in Brain Evolution: Space, Time and Entropy.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Kate J Jeffery,Carlo Rovelli

    How did brains evolve to become so complex, and what is their future? Brains pose an explanatory challenge because entropy, which inexorably increases over time, is commonly associated with disorder and simplicity. Recently we showed how evolution is an entropic process, building structures – organisms – which themselves facilitate entropy growth. Here we suggest that key transitional points in evolution

  • The Evolution-Driven Signature of Parkinson's Disease.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Nico J Diederich,Toshiki Uchihara,Sten Grillner,Christopher G Goetz

    In this review, we approach Parkinson’s disease (PD) in the context of an evolutionary mismatch of central nervous system functions. The neurons at risk have hyperbranched axons, extensive transmitter release sites, display spontaneous spiking, and elevated mitochondrial stress. They function in networks largely unchanged throughout vertebrate evolution, but now connecting to the expanded human cortex

  • Resurrecting the Mysteries of Big Tau.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-17
    Itzhak Fischer,Peter W Baas

    Tau, a microtubule-associated protein that modifies the dynamic properties and organization of microtubules in neurons and affects axonal transport, shows remarkable heterogeneity, with multiple isoforms (45–65 kDa) generated by alternative splicing. A high-molecular-weight (HMW) isoform (110 kDa) that contains an additional large exon termed 4a was discovered more than 25 years ago. This isoform,

  • Kalirin and Trio: RhoGEFs in Synaptic Transmission, Plasticity, and Complex Brain Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Jeremiah D Paskus,Bruce E Herring,Katherine W Roche

    Changes in the actin cytoskeleton are a primary mechanism mediating the morphological and functional plasticity that underlies learning and memory. The synaptic Ras homologous (Rho) guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) Kalirin and Trio have emerged as central regulators of actin dynamics at the synapse. The increased attention surrounding Kalirin and Trio stems from the growing evidence for their

  • Closing in on Mechanisms of Open Neural Tube Defects.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Sangmoon Lee,Joseph G Gleeson

    Neural tube defects (NTDs) represent a failure of the neural plate to complete the developmental transition to a neural tube. NTDs are the most common birth anomaly of the CNS. Following mandatory folic acid fortification of dietary grains, a dramatic reduction in the incidence of NTDs was observed in areas where the policy was implemented, yet the genetic drivers of NTDs in humans, and the mechanisms

  • Effects of Exercise on Brain and Cognition Across Age Groups and Health States.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-11
    Chelsea M Stillman,Irene Esteban-Cornejo,Belinda Brown,Catherine M Bender,Kirk I Erickson

    Exercise has been shown to benefit brain structure and function, particularly in aging populations. However, the mechanisms by which exercise exerts its effects, especially in humans, are not fully understood. This review argues that one reason for this knowledge gap is that exercise likely operates through multiple levels of mechanisms. Furthermore, the mechanisms of exercise may vary depending on

  • Do Nicotinic Receptors Modulate High-Order Cognitive Processing?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Fani Koukouli; Jean-Pierre Changeux

    Recent studies provided strong evidence that deficits in cholinergic signaling cause disorders of cognition and affect conscious processing. Technical advances that combine molecular approaches, in vivo recordings in awake behaving animals, human brain imaging, and genetics have strengthened our understanding of the roles of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the modulation of cognitive

  • Movement-Related Signals in Sensory Areas: Roles in Natural Behavior
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Philip R.L. Parker; Morgan A. Brown; Matthew C. Smear; Cristopher M. Niell

    Recent studies have demonstrated prominent and widespread movement-related signals in the brain of head-fixed mice, even in primary sensory areas. However, it is still unknown what role these signals play in sensory processing. Why are these sensory areas ‘contaminated’ by movement signals? During natural behavior, animals actively acquire sensory information as they move through the environment and

  • Shedding Light on Chandelier Cell Development, Connectivity, and Contribution to Neural Disorders.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Nicholas B Gallo,Anirban Paul,Linda Van Aelst

    Chandelier cells (ChCs) are a unique type of GABAergic interneuron that selectively innervate the axon initial segment (AIS) of excitatory pyramidal neurons; the subcellular domain where action potentials are initiated. The proper genesis and maturation of ChCs is critical for regulating neural ensemble firing in the neocortex throughout development and adulthood. Recently, genetic and molecular studies

  • Local Sourcing of Secretory Proteins in Faraway Places.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Ryan J Farrell,Timothy A Ryan

    A recent paper by Carter et al. identifies a novel organelle, the ribosome-associated vesicle (RAV), that might serve as a portable, local factory for producing proteins destined for the secretory pathway. The appearance of RAVs in dendrites suggests they may serve to generate membrane and secreted proteins in distal processes.

  • Neurodevelopmental Disorders: From Genetics to Functional Pathways.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Ilaria Parenti,Luis G Rabaneda,Hanna Schoen,Gaia Novarino

    Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) are a class of disorders affecting brain development and function and are characterized by wide genetic and clinical variability. In this review, we discuss the multiple factors that influence the clinical presentation of NDDs, with particular attention to gene vulnerability, mutational load, and the two-hit model. Despite the complex architecture of mutational events

  • Connecting Pathological Cellular Mechanisms to Large-Scale Seizure Structures.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-03
    Quynh-Anh Nguyen,Prannath Moolchand,Ivan Soltesz

    Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures, where abnormal electrical activity begins in a local brain area and propagates before terminating. In a recent study, Liou and colleagues used multiscale computational modeling to gain mechanistic insights into clinical seizure dynamics based on cellular-level biophysical properties.

  • Social Cognition in the Age of Human-Robot Interaction.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Anna Henschel,Ruud Hortensius,Emily S Cross

    Artificial intelligence advances have led to robots endowed with increasingly sophisticated social abilities. These machines speak to our innate desire to perceive social cues in the environment, as well as the promise of robots enhancing our daily lives. However, a strong mismatch still exists between our expectations and the reality of social robots. We argue that careful delineation of the neurocognitive

  • Narratives for Neuroscience.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Roel M Willems,Samuel A Nastase,Branka Milivojevic

    People organize and convey their thoughts according to narratives. However, neuroscientists are often reluctant to incorporate narrative stimuli into their experiments. We argue that narratives deserve wider adoption in human neuroscience because they tap into the brain's native machinery for representing the world and provide rich variability for testing hypotheses.

  • White Matter Microstructure across the Psychosis Spectrum.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Katherine H Karlsgodt

    Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) is a neuroimaging technique that has allowed us an unprecedented look at the role that white matter microstructure may play in mental illnesses, such as psychosis. Psychosis-related illnesses, including schizophrenia, are increasingly viewed as existing along a spectrum; spectrums may be defined based on factors such as stage of illness, symptom severity, or genetic

  • Contextual Codes in the Hippocampus.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Maya Geva-Sagiv,Charan Ranganath

    The hippocampus is thought to support memory and decisions by binding relevant aspects of experiences within a context. A recent paper by Gulli et al. studies how activity in the macaque hippocampus varies according to different contextual requirements in the same space. This study demonstrates how a hippocampal cognitive map can flexibly reflect both spatial and nonspatial task demands.

  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the Central Nervous System.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Fernanda G De Felice,Fernanda Tovar-Moll,Jorge Moll,Douglas P Munoz,Sergio T Ferreira

    Emerging evidence indicates that severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the etiologic agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), can cause neurological complications. We provide a brief overview of these recent observations and discuss some of their possible implications. In particular, given the global dimension of the current pandemic, we highlight the need to consider the

  • Noisy Synaptic Conductance: Bug or a Feature?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Dmitri A Rusakov,Leonid P Savtchenko,Peter E Latham

    More often than not, action potentials fail to trigger neurotransmitter release. And even when neurotransmitter is released, the resulting change in synaptic conductance is highly variable. Given the energetic cost of generating and propagating action potentials, and the importance of information transmission across synapses, this seems both wasteful and inefficient. However, synaptic noise arising

  • Microglia versus Monocytes: Distinct Roles in Degenerative Diseases of the Retina.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    Chen Yu,Christophe Roubeix,Florian Sennlaub,Daniel R Saban

    Unlike in the healthy mammalian retina, macrophages in retinal degenerative states are not solely comprised of microglia but may include monocyte-derived recruits. Recent studies have applied transgenics, lineage-tracing, and transcriptomics to help decipher the distinct roles of these two cell types in the disease settings of inherited retinal degenerations and age-related macular degeneration. Literature

  • Post-translational Modifications of Opioid Receptors.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Mariana Lemos Duarte,Lakshmi A Devi

    Post-translational modifications (PTMs) are key events in signal transduction since they affect protein function by regulating their abundance and/or activity. PTMs involve the covalent attachment of functional groups to specific amino acids. Since they tend to be generally reversible, PTMs serve as regulators of signal transduction pathways. G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are major signaling

  • Impacts of Sleep Loss versus Waking Experience on Brain Plasticity: Parallel or Orthogonal?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Robbert Havekes,Sara J Aton

    Recent studies on the effects of sleep deprivation on synaptic plasticity have yielded discrepant results. Sleep deprivation studies using novelty exposure as a means to keep animals awake suggests that sleep (compared with wake) leads to widespread reductions in net synaptic strength. By contrast, sleep deprivation studies using approaches avoiding novelty-induced arousal (i.e., gentle handling) suggest

  • Glucocorticoids as Mediators of Adverse Outcomes of Prenatal Stress.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Anthi C Krontira,Cristiana Cruceanu,Elisabeth B Binder

    A number of prenatal experiences are associated with adverse outcomes after birth, ranging from cardiovascular problems to psychiatric disease. Prenatal stress is associated with neurodevelopmental alterations that persist after birth and manifest at the behavioral level, for example, increased fearfulness, and at the physiological one, that is, brain structural and functional changes. Understanding

  • Prenatal Origins of ASD: The When, What, and How of ASD Development.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Eric Courchesne,Vahid H Gazestani,Nathan E Lewis

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a largely heritable, multistage prenatal disorder that impacts a child's ability to perceive and react to social information. Most ASD risk genes are expressed prenatally in many ASD-relevant brain regions and fall into two categories: broadly expressed regulatory genes that are expressed in the brain and other organs, and brain-specific genes. In trimesters one to

  • Proteome Homeostasis Dysfunction: A Unifying Principle in ALS Pathogenesis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Justin J Yerbury,Natalie E Farrawell,Luke McAlary

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common motor neuron disease but currently has no effective treatment. Growing evidence suggests that proteome homeostasis underlies ALS pathogenesis. Protein production, trafficking, and degradation all shape the proteome. We present a hypothesis that proposes all genetic lesions associated with ALS (including in mRNA-binding proteins) cause widespread

  • Where is Cingulate Cortex? A Cross-Species View.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Sabrina van Heukelum,Rogier B Mars,Martin Guthrie,Jan K Buitelaar,Christian F Beckmann,Paul H E Tiesinga,Brent A Vogt,Jeffrey C Glennon,Martha N Havenith

    To compare findings across species, neuroscience relies on cross-species homologies, particularly in terms of brain areas. For cingulate cortex, a structure implicated in behavioural adaptation and control, a homologous definition across mammals is available - but currently not employed by most rodent researchers. The standard partitioning of rodent cingulate cortex is inconsistent with that in any

  • Imaging Brain Metabolism Using Hyperpolarized 13C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Lydia M Le Page,Caroline Guglielmetti,Celine Taglang,Myriam M Chaumeil

    Aberrant metabolism is a key factor in many neurological disorders. The ability to measure such metabolic impairment could lead to improved detection of disease progression, and development and monitoring of new therapeutic approaches. Hyperpolarized 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a developing imaging technique that enables non-invasive measurement of enzymatic activity in real time in

  • Getting in Touch with Mechanical Pain Mechanisms.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Rose Z Hill,Diana M Bautista

    The peripheral somatosensory system bestows mammals with a diverse repertoire of sensory modalities: gentle touch, mechanical pain, itch, thermosensation, and proprioception. The cells and molecules that transduce many of these stimuli have already been characterized. But how somatosensory neurons transduce acutely painful mechanical forces is largely unknown and remains one of the 'final frontiers'

  • Neuronal Maturation: Challenges and Opportunities in a Nascent Field.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Frank Bradke,Simone Di Giovanni,James Fawcett

    After its initial development, the nervous system matures to connect and shape the neuronal circuitry and to keep it functional in humans for decades. Here we conceptualize neuronal maturation as a research field that will have, we would argue, a strong impact on understanding the healthy and diseased nervous system. Identifying the key mechanisms underlying neuronal maturation has the potential to

  • Spikes to Pixels: Camera Chips for Large-scale Electrophysiology.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Roy Lycke,Liuyang Sun,Lan Luan,Chong Xie

    Implanted neural probes are among the most important techniques in both fundamental and clinical neuroscience. Despite great successes and promise, neural electrodes are technically limited by their scalability. A recent study by Obaid et al. demonstrated an innovative way to greatly scale up the channel count and density of neural electrode arrays.

  • Synthesizing Views to Understand Sex Differences in Response to Early Life Adversity.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-16
    Kevin G Bath

    Sex as a biological variable (SABV) is critical for understanding the broad range of physiological, neurobiological, and behavioral consequences of early life adversity(ELA). The study of the interaction of SABV and ELA ties into several current debates, including the importance of taking into account SABV in research, differing strategies employed by males and females in response to adversity, and

  • Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Prenatal Preeclampsia Exposure.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Serena B Gumusoglu,Akanksha S S Chilukuri,Donna A Santillan,Mark K Santillan,Hanna E Stevens

    Preeclampsia is a dangerous hypertensive disorder of pregnancy with known links to negative child health outcomes. Here, we review epidemiological and basic neuroscience work from the past several decades linking prenatal preeclampsia to altered neurodevelopment. This work demonstrates increased rates of neuropsychiatric disorders [e.g., increased autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity

  • How Early Life Adversity Influences Defensive Circuitry
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Sahana Murthy; Elizabeth Gould

    Childhood maltreatment increases the likelihood of developing anxiety disorders in humans. Early life adversity (ELA) paradigms in rodents produce lasting increases in avoidant and inhibitory responses to both immediate and nonspecific threats, collectively referred to as defensive behaviors. This approach provides an opportunity to thoroughly investigate the underlying mechanisms, an effort that is

  • Quiescent Neural Stem Cells for Brain Repair and Regeneration: Lessons from Model Systems
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-03-04
    Leo Otsuki; Andrea H. Brand

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are multipotent progenitors that are responsible for producing all of the neurons and macroglia in the nervous system. In adult mammals, NSCs reside predominantly in a mitotically dormant, quiescent state, but they can proliferate in response to environmental inputs such as feeding or exercise. It is hoped that quiescent NSCs could be activated therapeutically to contribute

  • Resolving the Synaptic versus Developmental Dichotomy of Autism Risk Genes.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-22
    Whitney E Heavner,Stephen E P Smith

    Genes that are mutated in Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) can be classified broadly as either synaptic or developmental. But what if this is a false distinction? A recent spate of publications has provided evidence for developmental mechanisms that rely on neural activity for proper cortical development. Conversely, a growing body of evidence indicates a role for developmental mechanisms, particularly

  • Asymmetry Between Pre- and Postsynaptic Transient Nanodomains Shapes Neuronal Communication.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-13
    Martin Heine,David Holcman

    Synaptic transmission and plasticity are shaped by the dynamic reorganization of signaling molecules within pre- and postsynaptic compartments. The nanoscale organization of key effector molecules has been revealed by single-particle trajectory (SPT) methods. Interestingly, this nanoscale organization is highly heterogeneous. For example, presynaptic voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and postsynaptic

  • Early Adversity and Critical Periods: Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Violating the Expectable Environment.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Charles A Nelson,Laurel J Gabard-Durnam

    It is now widely recognized that children exposed to adverse life events in the first years of life are at increased risk for a variety of neural, behavioral, and psychological sequelae. As we discuss in this paper, adverse events represent a violation of the expectable environment. If such violations occur during a critical period of brain development, the detrimental effects of early adversity are

  • The Age-Dependent Neural Substrates of Blindsight
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Dylan M. Fox; Melvyn A. Goodale; James A. Bourne

    Some patients who are considered cortically blind due to the loss of their primary visual cortex (V1) show a remarkable ability to act upon or discriminate between visual stimuli presented to their blind field, without any awareness of those stimuli. This phenomenon is often referred to as blindsight. Despite the range of spared visual abilities, the identification of the pathways mediating blindsight

  • Calming Neurons with a Microglial Touch
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-15
    Kaushik Sharma; Long-Jun Wu; Ukpong B. Eyo

    In vivo two-photon imaging of microglia in the intact brain has revealed that microglia constantly survey neuronal soma. Research over the past decade and a recent paper by Cserép et al. published in Science are now uncovering the nature, mechanisms, and consequences of these interactions in health and injury.

  • Classification of Midbrain Dopamine Neurons Using Single-Cell Gene Expression Profiling Approaches.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Jean-Francois Poulin,Zachary Gaertner,Oscar Andrés Moreno-Ramos,Rajeshwar Awatramani

    Dysfunctional dopamine (DA) signaling has been associated with a broad spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders, prompting investigations into how midbrain DA neuron heterogeneity may underpin this variety of behavioral symptoms. Emerging literature indeed points to functional heterogeneity even within anatomically defined DA clusters. Recognizing the need for a systematic classification scheme, several

  • Astrocytes and Microglia: In Sickness and in Health.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Ilia D Vainchtein,Anna V Molofsky

    Healthy central nervous system (CNS) development and function require an intricate and balanced bidirectional communication between neurons and glia cells. In this review, we discuss the complementary roles of astrocytes and microglia in building the brain, including in the formation and refinement of synapses. We discuss recent evidence demonstrating how these interactions are coordinated in the transition

  • Nociceptor-Mast Cell Sensory Clusters as Regulators of Skin Homeostasis.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    James Meixiong,Lilian Basso,Xinzhong Dong,Nicolas Gaudenzio

    Recent studies revealed the existence of unique functional links between mast cells and nociceptors in the skin. Here, we propose that mast cells and nociceptors form a single regulatory unit in both physiology and disease. In this model, MrgprB2/X2 signaling is a primary mechanism by which mast cells functionally interact with nociceptors to form specialized neuroimmune clusters that regulate pain

  • Epithelial-Neuronal Communication in the Colon: Implications for Visceral Pain.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Sarah A Najjar,Brian M Davis,Kathryn M Albers

    Visceral hypersensitivity and pain result, at least in part, from increased excitability of primary afferents that innervate the colon. In addition to intrinsic changes in these neurons, emerging evidence indicates that changes in lining epithelial cells may also contribute to increased excitability. Here we review recent studies on how colon epithelial cells communicate directly with colon afferents

  • Ion Channel Functions in Early Brain Development.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Richard S Smith,Christopher A Walsh

    During prenatal brain development, ion channels are ubiquitous across several cell types, including progenitor cells and migrating neurons but their function has not been clear. In the past, ion channel dysfunction has been primarily studied in the context of postnatal, differentiated neurons that fire action potentials - notably ion channels mutated in the epilepsies - yet data now support a surprising

  • A Hierarchy of Autonomous Systems for Vocal Production.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Yisi S Zhang,Asif A Ghazanfar

    Vocal production is hierarchical in the time domain. These hierarchies build upon biomechanical and neural dynamics across various timescales. We review studies in marmoset monkeys, songbirds, and other vertebrates. To organize these data in an accessible and across-species framework, we interpret the different timescales of vocal production as belonging to different levels of an autonomous systems

  • Evolutionary Expansion of Human Cerebellar Germinal Zones.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Matthew G Keefe,Tomasz J Nowakowski

    Haldipur et al. explored the developmental origins of the human cerebellum, which has gained growing appreciation for its involvement in human cognition. The authors discovered human-unique expansion and maintenance of cerebellar germinal zones, reminiscent of processes in the developing human cerebral cortex necessary for generating expanded neuronal populations.

  • Diverse Mechanisms of Sound Frequency Discrimination in the Vertebrate Cochlea.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Robert Fettiplace

    Discrimination of different sound frequencies is pivotal to recognizing and localizing friend and foe. Here, I review the various hair cell-tuning mechanisms used among vertebrates. Electrical resonance, filtering of the receptor potential by voltage-dependent ion channels, is ubiquitous in all non-mammals, but has an upper limit of ~1 kHz. The frequency range is extended by mechanical resonance of

  • The Sigma-1 Receptor at the Crossroad of Proteostasis, Neurodegeneration, and Autophagy.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Maximilian G Christ,Albrecht M Clement,Christian Behl

    Neurodegenerative diseases are linked to dysfunctional proteostasis and disturbed autophagy. Here, we discuss how the sigma-1 receptor (Sig-1R) may act at the intersection of this interaction, as loss-of-function mutations of this unique chaperone are associated with defective autophagy and its pharmacological activation induces autophagic activity.

  • Is Ca2+ Essential for Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Natali L Chanaday,Ege T Kavalali

    Synaptic vesicle fusion is coupled to swift retrieval of vesicle components from the synaptic plasma membrane. Ca2+ has been assumed to be a key mediator of this coupling. In a recent study, Orlando et al. unequivocally demonstrate that Ca2+ is not essential for synaptic vesicle retrieval.

  • Zona Incerta: An Integrative Node for Global Behavioral Modulation.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Xiyue Wang,Xiao-Lin Chou,Li I Zhang,Huizhong Whit Tao

    Zona incerta (ZI) is a largely inhibitory subthalamic region connecting with many brain areas. Early studies have suggested involvement of ZI in various functions such as visceral activities, arousal, attention, and locomotion, but the specific roles of different ZI subdomains or cell types have not been well examined. Recent studies combining optogenetics, behavioral assays, neural tracing, and neural

  • Reinventing Neuroaging Research in the Digital Age.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Matt J Huentelman,Joshua S Talboom,Candace R Lewis,Zhao Chen,Carol A Barnes

    The worldwide average human lifespan has increased over the past century. These changing demographics demand a reinvention of experimental approaches to study the brain and aging, with the aim of better matching cognitive healthspan with human lifespan. Past studies of cognitive aging included sample sizes that tended to be underpowered, were not sufficiently representative of national population characteristics

  • Fiery Cell Death: Pyroptosis in the Central Nervous System.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Brienne A McKenzie,Vishva M Dixit,Christopher Power

    Pyroptosis ('fiery death') is an inflammatory type of regulated cell death (RCD), which occurs downstream of inflammasome activation. Pyroptosis is mediated directly by the recently identified family of pore-forming proteins known as gasdermins, the best characterized of which is gasdermin D (GSDMD). Recent investigations implicate pyroptosis in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological diseases. In

  • Are There Islands of Awareness?
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Tim Bayne,Anil K Seth,Marcello Massimini

    Ordinary human experience is embedded in a web of causal relations that link the brain to the body and the wider environment. However, there might be conditions in which brain activity supports consciousness even when that activity is fully causally isolated from the body and its environment. Such cases would involve what we call islands of awareness: conscious states that are neither shaped by sensory

  • Gamma Entrainment: Impact on Neurocircuits, Glia, and Therapeutic Opportunities.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Chinnakkaruppan Adaikkan,Li-Huei Tsai

    Studies have shown that gamma oscillations (30-100 Hz) are relevant for neurocircuit function, behavior, and memory. To examine a possible causal contribution of gamma oscillations to cognitive function, recent studies have employed various types of brain stimulation to induce gamma oscillations. Techniques such as optogenetics or sensory stimulation appear to engage canonical neurocircuits that encompass

  • Glucose-Sensing Neurons Reciprocally Regulate Insulin and Glucagon.
    Trends Neurosci. (IF 12.891) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Zepeng Yao,Kristin Scott

    A recent paper by Oh et al. identified a single pair of neurons in the fruit fly brain that directly senses 'blood' glucose levels and reciprocally regulates the secretion of insulin and glucagon. This study provides insight into how the brain regulates the circulation and storage of glucose.

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