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  • Thinking about thinking about time—ERRATUM
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jonathan Redshaw; Adam Bulley; Thomas Suddendorf

    Hoerl & McCormack (H&M) discuss the possible function of meta-representations in temporal cognition but ultimately take an agnostic stance. Here we outline the fundamental role that we believe meta-representations play. Because humans know that their representations of future events are just representations, they are in a position to compensate for the shortcomings of their own foresight and to prepare for multiple contingencies.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • An integrative memory model of recollection and familiarity to understand memory deficits
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-02-05
    Christine Bastin; Gabriel Besson; Jessica Simon; Emma Delhaye; Marie Geurten; Sylvie Willems; Eric Salmon

    Humans can recollect past events in details (recollection) and/or know that an object, person, or place has been encountered before (familiarity). During the last two decades, there has been intense debate about how recollection and familiarity are organized in the brain. Here, we propose an integrative memory model which describes the distributed and interactive neurocognitive architecture of representations and operations underlying recollection and familiarity. In this architecture, the subjective experience of recollection and familiarity arises from the interaction between core systems (storing particular kinds of representations shaped by specific computational mechanisms) and an attribution system. By integrating principles from current theoretical views about memory functioning, we provide a testable framework to refine the prediction of deficient versus preserved mechanisms in memory-impaired populations. The case of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered as an example because it entails progressive lesions starting with limited damage to core systems before invading step-by-step most parts of the model-related network. We suggest a chronological scheme of cognitive impairments along the course of AD, where the inaugurating deficit would relate early neurodegeneration of the perirhinal/anterolateral entorhinal cortex to impaired familiarity for items that need to be discriminated as viewpoint-invariant conjunctive entities. The integrative memory model can guide future neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies aiming to understand how such a network allows humans to remember past events, to project into the future, and possibly also to share experiences.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Refining the bigger picture: On the integrative memory model
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    John P. Aggleton

    The integrative memory model contains multiple subsystems. In this commentary, the processes within these subsystems are questioned. First, the assumption that familiarity largely reflects perceptual fluency is examined. Next, the distinction between “process” and “representational” models of temporal lobe function is challenged. Finally, the “relational representation core system” (or “extended hippocampal system”), which is central to the model, is especially sketchy. Here, I highlight key questions to be addressed in order to understand this system's role in trace formation.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Representational formats in medial temporal lobe and neocortex also determine subjective memory features
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Nikolai Axmacher

    Episodic memories are shaped by the representational format of their contents. These formats are not only determined by medial temporal lobe areas, but essentially also by the neocortical regions which these areas control. The representational formats of medial temporal lobe and neocortex are sufficient to determine both, memory contents and subjective memory qualities, without the further need for an attribution system.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The integrative memory model is detailed, but skimps on false memories and development
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Glen E. Bodner; Daniel M. Bernstein

    The integrative memory model combines five core memory systems with an attributional system. We agree with Bastin et al. that this melding is the most novel aspect of the model. But we await further evidence that the model's substantial complexity informs our understanding of false memories or of the development of recollection and familiarity.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Entities also require relational coding and binding
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Timothy F. Brady; Igor S. Utochkin

    Although Bastin et al. propose a useful model for thinking about the structure of memory and memory deficits, their distinction between entities and relational encoding is incompatible with data showing that even individual objects – prototypical “entities” – are made up of distinct features which require binding. Thus, “entity” and “relational” brain regions may need to solve fundamentally the same problems.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Improving the integrative memory model by integrating the temporal dynamics of memory
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Jonathan Curot; Emmanuel J. Barbeau

    Despite highlighting the role of the attribution system and proposing a coherent large-scale architecture of declarative memory, the integrative memory model would be more “integrative” if the temporal dynamics of the interactions between its components was clarified. This is necessary to make predictions in patients with brain injury and hypothesize dissociations.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • What face familiarity feelings say about the lateralization of specific entities within the core system
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Guido Gainotti

    The target article carefully describes the memory system, centered on the temporal lobe that builds specific memory traces. It does not, however, mention the laterality effects that exist within this system. This commentary briefly surveys evidence showing that clear asymmetries exist within the temporal lobe structures subserving the core system and that the right temporal structures mainly underpin face familiarity feelings.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • How do memory modules differentially contribute to familiarity and recollection?
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Olya Hakobyan; Sen Cheng

    We fully support dissociating the subjective experience from the memory contents in recognition memory, as Bastin et al. posit in the target article. However, having two generic memory modules with qualitatively different functions is not mandatory and is in fact inconsistent with experimental evidence. We propose that quantitative differences in the properties of the memory modules can account for the apparent dissociation of recollection and familiarity along anatomical lines.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Priming recognition memory test cues: No evidence for an attributional basis of recollection
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Carmen F. Ionita; Deborah Talmi; Jason R. Taylor

    We argue that while the proposed memory model by Bastin et al. can explain familiarity-based memory judgements through the interaction of a core representation system and an attribution system, recollection-based memory judgements are not based on non-mnemonic signals being attributed to memory.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The subjective experience of recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer's disease
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Dimitrios Kapogiannis; Mohamad El Haj

    Although the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al. is interesting, particularly for Alzheimer's disease, it may benefit from incorporating the subjective experience of recollection. We therefore offer complementary lines of interpretation to explain how recollection and familiarity in Alzheimer's disease can be dissociated based not only on accounts of their neural correlates but, critically, on the subjective experience of memory in patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Cognitive control constrains memory attributions
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Colleen M. Kelley; Larry L. Jacoby

    Cognitive control constrains retrieval processing and so restricts what comes to mind as input to the attribution system. We review evidence that older adults, patients with Alzheimer's disease, and people with traumatic brain injury exert less cognitive control during retrieval, and so are susceptible to memory misattributions in the form of dramatic levels of false remembering.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • There is more to memory than recollection and familiarity
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    John F. Kihlstrom

    Theoretical models of memory retrieval have focused on processes of recollection and familiarity. Research suggests that there are still other processes involved in memory reconstruction, leading to experiences of knowing and inferring the past. Understanding these experiences, and the cognitive processes that give rise to them, seems likely to further expand our understanding of the neural substrates of memory.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The role of anxiety in the integrative memory model
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Benjamin C. Nephew; Serhiy Chumachenko; Brent P. Forester

    We suggest that the inclusion of anxiety, as one relevant mood factor, could enhance the implementation of the integrative memory model in research and the clinic. The role of anxiety in Alzheimer's disease neuroanatomy, symptomology, and progression is used as an example. Customization of the integrative memory model can establish strong foundations for pathology-specific models of memory deficits, enhancing the development of precision medicine applications.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Two processes are not necessary to understand memory deficits
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Adam F. Osth; John C. Dunn; Andrew Heathcote; Roger Ratcliff

    Bastin et al. propose a dual-process model to understand memory deficits. However, results from state-trace analysis have suggested a single underlying variable in behavioral and neural data. We advocate the usage of unidimensional models that are supported by data and have been successful in understanding memory deficits and in linking to neural data.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Understanding misidentification syndromes using the integrative memory model
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Joel Patchitt; Sukhi S. Shergill

    Misidentification syndromes occur commonly in neuropsychiatric practice and can be explained through aberrant integration of recollection and familiarity, in keeping with a dysfunction at the level of the attributional system in the new integrative memory model. We examine neuroimaging findings associated with Fregoli and Capgras syndromes and compare these with the proposed neural substrate of the integrative memory model supporting the core and attribution functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The role of reference frames in memory recollection
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Giuseppe Riva; Daniele Di Lernia; Andrea Serino; Silvia Serino

    In this commentary on Bastin et al., we suggest that spatial context plays a critical role in the encoding and retrieval of events. Specifically, the translation process between the viewpoint-independent content of a memory and the viewpoint-dependent stimuli activating the retrieval (mental frame syncing) plays a critical role in spatial memory recollection. This perspective also provides an explanatory model for pathological disturbances such as Alzheimer's disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Fluency: A trigger of familiarity for relational representations?
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Talya Sadeh

    According to Bastin et al.’s integrative memory model, familiarity may be attributed to both entity representations and relational representations. However, the model does not specify what triggers familiarity for relational representations. I argue that fluency is a key player in the attribution of familiarity regardless of the type of representation. Two lines of evidence are reviewed in support of my claim.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Dual processes in memory: Evidence from memory of time-of-occurrence of events
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Vishnu Sreekumar; Hyungwook Yim; Kareem A. Zaghloul; Simon J. Dennis

    Bastin et al. present a framework that draws heavily on existing ideas of dual processes in memory in order to make predictions about memory deficits in clinical populations. It has been difficult to find behavioral evidence for multiple memory processes but we offer some evidence for dual processes in a related domain: memory for the time-of-occurrence of events.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Episodic memory is emotionally laden memory, requiring amygdala involvement
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Angelica Staniloiu; Hans J. Markowitsch

    The memory impairment of neurological and psychiatric patients is seen as occurring mainly in the autobiographical-episodic memory domain and this is considered to depend on limbic structures such as the amygdala or the septal nuclei. Especially the amygdala is a hub for giving an emotional flavor to personal memories. Bastin et al. fail to include the amygdala in their integrative memory model.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The other side of the coin: Semantic dementia as a lesion model for understanding recollection and familiarity
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Cherie Strikwerda-Brown; Muireann Irish

    The syndrome of semantic dementia represents the “other side of the coin” to Alzheimer's disease, offering convergent evidence to help refine Bastin et al.’s integrative memory model. By considering the integrative memory model through the lens of semantic dementia, we propose a number of important extensions to the framework, to help clarify the complex neurocognitive mechanisms underlying recollection and familiarity.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The ventral lateral parietal cortex in episodic memory: From content to attribution
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Roni Tibon

    The ventral lateral parietal cortex (VLPC) shows robust activation during episodic retrieval, and is involved in content representation, as well as in the evaluation of memory traces. This suggests that the VLPC has a crucial contribution to the quality of recollection and the subjective experience of remembering, and situates it at the intersection of the core and attribution systems.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Cutting out the middleman: Separating attributional biases from memory deficits
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Wei-Chun Wang

    Bastin and colleagues present an integrative model of how recollection- and familiarity-based memories are represented in the brain. While they emphasize the role of attribution mechanisms in shaping memory retrieval, prior work examining implicit memory suggests that memory deficits may be better understood by separating attributional biases from the underlying memory traces.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Global matching and fluency attribution in familiarity assessment
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Haopei Yang; Stefan Köhler

    In the integrative memory model proposed by Bastin et al., familiarity is thought to arise from attribution of fluency signals. We suggest that, from a computational and anatomical perspective, this conceptualization converges with a global-matching account of familiarity assessment. We also argue that consideration of global matching and evidence accumulation in decision making could help further our understanding of the proposed attribution system.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Interactions with the integrative memory model
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Christine Bastin; Gabriel Besson; Emma Delhaye; Adrien Folville; Marie Geurten; Jessica Simon; Sylvie Willems; Eric Salmon

    The integrative memory model formalizes a new conceptualization of memory in which interactions between representations and cognitive operations within large-scale cerebral networks generate subjective memory feelings. Such interactions allow to explain the complexity of memory expressions, such as the existence of multiples sources for familiarity and recollection feelings and the fact that expectations determine how one recognizes previously encountered information.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • England first, America second: The ecological predictors of life history and innovation—ERRATUM
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Severi Luoto; Markus J. Rantala; Indrikis Krams

    We present data from 122 nations showing that Baumard's argument on the ecological predictors of life history strategies and innovation is incomplete. Our analyses indicate that wealth, parasite stress, and cold climate impose orthogonal effects on life histories, innovation, and industrialization. Baumard also overlooks the historical exploitation of other nations which significantly enlarged the “pooled energy budget” available to England.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Using big data to map the relationship between time perspectives and economic outputs—ERRATUM
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Christopher Y. Olivola; Helen Susannah Moat; Tobias Preis

    Recent studies have shown that population-level time perspectives can be approximated using “big data” on search engine queries, and that these indices, in turn, predict the per-capita Gross Domestic Product of countries. Although these findings seem to support Baumard's suggestion that affluence makes people more future-oriented, they also reveal a more complex relationship between time perspectives and economic outputs.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Thinking in and about time: A dual systems perspective on temporal cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2018-09-25
    Christoph Hoerl; Teresa McCormack

    We outline a dual systems approach to temporal cognition, which distinguishes between two cognitive systems for dealing with how things unfold over time – a temporal updating system and a temporal reasoning system – of which the former is both phylogenetically and ontogenetically more primitive than the latter, and which are at work alongside each other in adult human cognition. We describe the main features of each of the two systems, the types of behavior the more primitive temporal updating system can support, and the respects in which it is more limited than the temporal reasoning system. We then use the distinction between the two systems to interpret findings in comparative and developmental psychology, arguing that animals operate only with a temporal updating system and that children start out doing so too, before gradually becoming capable of thinking and reasoning about time. After this, we turn to adult human cognition and suggest that our account can also shed light on a specific feature of humans’ everyday thinking about time that has been the subject of debate in the philosophy of time, which consists in a tendency to think about the nature of time itself in a way that appears ultimately self-contradictory. We conclude by considering the topic of intertemporal choice, and argue that drawing the distinction between temporal updating and temporal reasoning is also useful in the context of characterizing two distinct mechanisms for delaying gratification.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Are counterfactuals in and about time?
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Sarah Ruth Beck; Eva Rafetseder

    We discuss whether the two systems approach can advance understanding of children's developing counterfactual thinking. We argue that types of counterfactual thinking that are acquired early in development could be handled by the temporal updating system, whereas those that emerge in middle childhood require thinking about specific events in time.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Time, flow, and space
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Craig Callender

    Does a temporal dual process theory explain the illusive flow of time? I point out one shortcoming of such a theory and propose an alternative that does not require either dual cognitive processes or demand such a stark asymmetry between space and time in the brain.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Two challenges for a dual system approach to temporal cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Felipe De Brigard; Kevin O'Neill

    Hoerl & McCormack (H&M) propose a two-system account of temporal cognition. We suggest that, following other classic proposals where cognitive systems are putatively independent, H&M's two-system hypothesis should, at a minimum, involve (1) a difference in the nature of the representations upon which each system operates, and (2) a difference in the computations they carry out. In this comment we offer two challenges aimed at showing that H&M's proposal does not meet the minimal requirements (1) and (2).

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Nonhuman sequence learning findings argue against Hoerl and McCormack's two systems of temporal cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Benjamin J. De Corte; Edward A. Wasserman

    Hoerl & McCormack propose that animals learn sequences through an entrainment-like process, rather than tracking the temporal addresses of each event in a given sequence. However, past research suggests that animals form “temporal maps” of sequential events and also comprehend the concept of ordinal position. These findings suggest that a clarification or qualification of the authors’ hypothesis is needed.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Closing the symbolic reference gap to support flexible reasoning about the passage of time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Danielle DeNigris; Patricia J. Brooks

    This commentary relates Hoerl & McCormack's dual systems perspective to models of cognitive development emphasizing representational redescription and the role of culturally constructed tools, including language, in providing flexible formats for thinking. We describe developmental processes that enable children to construct a mental time line, situate themselves in time, and overcome the primacy of the here and now.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Beings in the moment
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Mark A. Elliott

    Hoerl & McCormack's theory defines temporal behavior from an awareness of time, but lacks one critical element: the impact of “psychological presence” in the “moment now.” Central to experience of temporal non-stationarity: “Nowness” links future with past in the context of time flow. Does this differ between species? Evidence suggests not: Different temporal experiences between species requires greater critical evaluation.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Locating animals with respect to landmarks in space-time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Hunter Gentry; Cameron Buckner

    Landmarks play a crucial role in bootstrapping both spatial and temporal cognition. Given the similarity in the underlying demands of representing spatial and temporal relations, we ask here whether animals can be trained to reason about temporal relations by providing them with temporal landmark cues, proposing a line of future research complementary to those suggested by the authors.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Future-oriented objects
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Brandon W. Goulding; Ori Friedman

    Hoerl & McCormack suggest that saving tools does not require temporal reasoning. However, we identify a class of objects that are only possessed (i.e., saved) in anticipation of future needs. We propose that investigating these future-oriented objects may help identify temporal reasoning in populations where this ability is uncertain.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Timers from birth: Early timing abilities exceed limits of the temporal updating system
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Karina Hamamouche

    Hoerl & McCormack argue that children are incapable of reasoning about time until age 5. However, their dual timing perspective does not address non-symbolic timing, or timing in the absence of symbols/language. Given substantial evidence that infants and children are capable of non-symbolic timing, I argue that infants and children are well-tuned timers prior to age 5.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Temporal updating, behavioral learning, and the phenomenology of time-consciousness
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Genevieve Hayman; Bryce Huebner

    Hoerl & McCormack claim that the temporal updating system only represents the world as present. This generates puzzles regarding the phenomenology of temporal experience. We argue that recent models of reinforcement learning suggest that temporal updating must have a minimal temporal structure; and we suggest that this helps to clarify what it means to experience the world as temporally structured.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Updating the dual systems model of temporal cognition: Reasoning with dynamic systems theory
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Annette Hohenberger

    This commentary construes the relation between the two systems of temporal updating and temporal reasoning as a bifurcation and tracks it across three time scales: phylogeny, ontogeny, and microgeny. In taking a dynamic systems approach, flexibility, as mentioned by Hoerl & McCormack, is revealed as the key characteristic of human temporal cognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Limitations of Hoerl and McCormack's dual systems model of temporal consciousness
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Eve A. Isham; Elijah M. Ziskin; Mary A. Peterson

    Hoerl & McCormack's dual systems framework provides a new avenue toward the scientific investigation of temporal cognition. However, some shortcomings of the model should be considered. These issues include their reliance on a somewhat vague consideration of “systems” rather than specific computational processes. Moreover, the model does not consider the subjective nature of temporal experience or the role of consciousness in temporal cognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Temporal representation and reasoning in non-human animals
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Angelica Kaufmann; Arnon Cahen

    Hoerl & McCormack argue that comparative and developmental psychology teaches us that “neither animals nor infants can think and reason about time.” We argue that the authors neglect to take into account pivotal evidence from ethology that suggests that non-human animals do possess a capacity to represent and reason about time, namely, work done on Sumatran orangutans’ long travel calls.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Updating and reasoning: Different processes, different models, different functions
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Laura Kelly; Janani Prabhakar; Sangeet Khemlani

    Two issues should be addressed to refine and extend the distinction between temporal updating and reasoning advocated by Hoerl & McCormack. First, do the mental representations constructed during updating differ from those used for reasoning? Second, are updating and reasoning the only two processes relevant to temporal thinking? If not, is a dual-systems framework sensible? We address both issues below.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • The “now moment” is believed privileged because “now” is when happening is experienced
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Ben Kenward; Michael Pilling

    Hoerl & McCormack risk misleading people about the cognitive underpinnings of the belief in a privileged “now moment” because they do not explicitly acknowledge that the sense of existing in the now moment is an intrinsically temporally dynamic one. The sense of happening that is exclusive to the now moment is a better candidate for the source of belief in a privileged now.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Let's call a memory a memory, but what kind?
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Nazim Keven

    Hoerl & McCormack argue that animals cannot represent past situations and subsume animals’ memory-like representations within a model of the world. I suggest calling these memory-like representations as what they are without beating around the bush. I refer to them as event memories and explain how they are different from episodic memory and how they can guide action in animal cognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Thinking about time and number: An application of the dual-systems approach to numerical cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Karoline Lohse; Elena Sixtus; Jan Lonnemann

    Based on the notion that time, space, and number are part of a generalized magnitude system, we assume that the dual-systems approach to temporal cognition also applies to numerical cognition. Referring to theoretical models of the development of numerical concepts, we propose that children's early skills in processing numbers can be described analogously to temporal updating and temporal reasoning.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Thinking about the past as the past for the past's sake: Why did temporal reasoning evolve?
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Johannes B. Mahr

    Hoerl & McCormack discuss the benefits of temporal reasoning mainly with respect to future planning and decision making. I point out that, for humans, the ability to represent particular past times has distinct benefits, which are independent from contributing to future-directed cognition. Hence, the evolution of the temporal reasoning system was not necessarily driven primarily by its benefits for future-directed cognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • From temporal updating to temporal reasoning: Developments in young children's temporal representations
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Estelle M. Y. Mayhew; Meng Zhang; Judith A. Hudson

    Evidence from our research on young children's temporal understanding supports Hoerl & McCormack's view that young children rely on a temporal updating system to change representations over time. We propose that the shift from temporal updating to temporal reasoning is enabled by children's expanding representations of event sequences, along with developments in language, memory, and other cognitive competencies.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Problems with the dual-systems approach to temporal cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    David E. Melnikoff; John A. Bargh

    Contrary to Hoerl & McCormack (H&M), we argue that the best account of temporal cognition in humans is one in which a single system becomes capable of representing time. We suggest that H&M's own evidence for dual systems of temporal cognition – simultaneous contradictory beliefs – does not recommend dual systems, and that the single system approach is more plausible.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • On believing that time does not flow, but thinking that it seems to
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Kristie Miller; Alex O. Holcombe; Andrew J. Latham

    Hoerl & McCormack (H&M) posit two systems – the temporal updating system and the temporal reasoning system – and suggest that they explain an inherent contradiction in people's naïve theory of time. We suggest there is no contradiction. Something does, however, require explanation: the tension between certain sophisticated beliefs about time, and certain phenomenological states or beliefs about those phenomenological states. The temporal updating mechanism posited by H&M may contribute to this tension.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • On the human uniqueness of the temporal reasoning system
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Carlos Montemayor

    A central claim by Hoerl & McCormack is that the temporal reasoning system is uniquely human. But why exactly? This commentary evaluates two possible options to justify the thesis that temporal reasoning is uniquely human, one based on considerations regarding agency and the other based on language. The commentary raises problems for both of these options.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A dual-systems perspective on temporal cognition: Implications for the role of emotion
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Filip M. Nuyens; Mark D. Griffiths

    This commentary explores how emotion fits in the dual-systems model of temporal cognition proposed by Hoerl & McCormack. The updating system would be affected by emotion via the attentional/arousal effect according to the attentional gate model. The reasoning system would be disrupted by emotion, especially for traumatic events. Time discrepancies described in the dual-systems model are also explained.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • A theory stuck in evolutionary and historical time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Mathias Osvath; Can Kabadayi

    We argue that the two temporal cognition systems are conceptually too confined to be helpful in understanding the evolution of temporal cognition. In fact, we doubt there are two systems. In relation to this, we question that the authors did not describe the results of our planning study on ravens correctly, as this is of consequence to their theory.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Identity-based motivation and the paradox of the future self: Getting going requires thinking about time (later) in time (now)
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Daphna Oyserman; Andrew Dawson

    People can imagine their future selves without taking future-focused action. Identity-based motivation theory explains why. Hoerl & McCormack outline how. Present-focused action prevails because future “me” feels irrelevant to the choices facing current “me” unless future “me” is experienced as occurring now or as linked to current “me” via if-then simulations. This entails reasoning in time and about time.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • No doing without time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Shen Pan; Peter Carruthers

    Hoerl & McCormack claim that animals don't represent time. Because this makes a mystery of established findings in comparative psychology, there had better be some important payoff. The main one they mention is that it explains a clash of intuition about the reality of time's passage. But any theory that recognizes the representational requirements of agency can do likewise.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Dual systems for all: Higher-order, role-based relational reasoning as a uniquely derived feature of human cognition
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Daniel J. Povinelli; Gabrielle C. Glorioso; Shannon L. Kuznar; Mateja Pavlic

    Hoerl and McCormack demonstrate that although animals possess a sophisticated temporal updating system, there is no evidence that they also possess a temporal reasoning system. This important case study is directly related to the broader claim that although animals are manifestly capable of first-order (perceptually-based) relational reasoning, they lack the capacity for higher-order, role-based relational reasoning. We argue this distinction applies to all domains of cognition.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Locating the contradiction in our understanding of time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Simon Prosser

    I offer some clarification concerning the kind of contradiction that Hoerl & McCormack's account could help explain and the scope of the metaphysical intuitions that could be explained by such a theory. I conclude that we need to know more about the sense in which the temporal reasoning system would represent time as a dimension.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Thinking about thinking about time
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Jonathan Redshaw; Adam Bulley; Thomas Suddendorf

    Hoerl & McCormack (H&M) discuss the possible function of meta-representations in temporal cognition but ultimately take an agnostic stance. Here we outline the fundamental role that we believe meta-representations play. Because humans know that their representations of future events are just representations, they are in a position to compensate for the shortcomings of their own foresight and to prepare for multiple contingencies.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • The dual systems in temporal cognition: A spatial analogy
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Andrea Roselli

    The model presented by the authors can explain an inherent contradiction in people's naïve theory of time. In this commentary I suggest a way in which another paradox of our phenomenal temporality may be addressed along these lines. In the final section, I also discuss some concerns that may arise about the clear-cut distinction between humans and non-human animals.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • What time words teach us about children's acquisition of the temporal reasoning system
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Katharine A. Tillman

    Here I consider the possible role of the temporal updating system in the development of the temporal reasoning system. Using evidence from children's acquisition of time words, I argue that abstract temporal concepts are not built from primitive representations of time. Instead, I propose that language and cultural learning provide the primary sources of the temporal reasoning system.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Neural correlates of temporal updating and reasoning in association with neuropsychiatric disorders
    Behav. Brain. Sci. (IF 17.194) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Natsuki Ueda; Takashi Hanakawa

    Here we argue how Hoerl & McCormack's dual system proposal may change the current view about the neural correlates underlying temporal information processing. We also consider that the concept of the dual system may help characterize various timing disabilities in neuropsychiatric disorders from the new perspective.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
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