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  • The Genetic Control of Stoichiometry Underlying Autism.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Robert B Darnell

    Autism is a common and complex neurologic disorder whose scientific underpinnings have begun to be established in the past decade. The essence of this breakthrough has been a focus on families, where genetic analyses are strongest, versus large-scale, case-control studies. Autism genetics has progressed in parallel with technology, from analyses of copy number variation to whole-exome sequencing (WES)

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Basal Ganglia Circuits for Action Specification.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Junchol Park,Luke T Coddington,Joshua T Dudman

    Behavior is readily classified into patterns of movements with inferred common goals—actions. Goals may be discrete; movements are continuous. Through the careful study of isolated movements in laboratory settings, or via introspection, it has become clear that animals can exhibit exquisite graded specification to their movements. Moreover, graded control can be as fundamental to success as the selection

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • The Drosophila Mushroom Body: From Architecture to Algorithm in a Learning Circuit.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Mehrab N Modi,Yichun Shuai,Glenn C Turner

    The Drosophila brain contains a relatively simple circuit for forming Pavlovian associations, yet it achieves many operations common across memory systems. Recent advances have established a clear framework for Drosophila learning and revealed the following key operations: a) pattern separation, whereby dense combinatorial representations of odors are preprocessed to generate highly specific, nonoverlapping

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Toward Community-Driven Big Open Brain Science: Open Big Data and Tools for Structure, Function, and Genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Adam S Charles,Benjamin Falk,Nicholas Turner,Talmo D Pereira,Daniel Tward,Benjamin D Pedigo,Jaewon Chung,Randal Burns,Satrajit S Ghosh,Justus M Kebschull,William Silversmith,Joshua T Vogelstein

    As acquiring bigger data becomes easier in experimental brain science, computational and statistical brain science must achieve similar advances to fully capitalize on these data. Tackling these problems will benefit from a more explicit and concerted effort to work together. Specifically, brain science can be further democratized by harnessing the power of community-driven tools, which both are built

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • The Neural Basis of Escape Behavior in Vertebrates.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Tiago Branco,Peter Redgrave

    Escape is one of the most studied animal behaviors, and there is a rich normative theory that links threat properties to evasive actions and their timing. The behavioral principles of escape are evolutionarily conserved and rely on elementary computational steps such as classifying sensory stimuli and executing appropriate movements. These are common building blocks of general adaptive behaviors. Here

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Neuromodulation of Brain State and Behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    David A McCormick,Dennis B Nestvogel,Biyu J He

    Neural activity and behavior are both notoriously variable, with responses differing widely between repeated presentation of identical stimuli or trials. Recent results in humans and animals reveal that these variations are not random in their nature, but may in fact be due in large part to rapid shifts in neural, cognitive, and behavioral states. Here we review recent advances in the understanding

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • 3D Brain Organoids: Studying Brain Development and Disease Outside the Embryo.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Silvia Velasco,Bruna Paulsen,Paola Arlotta

    Scientists have been fascinated by the human brain for centuries, yet knowledge of the cellular and molecular events that build the human brain during embryogenesis and of how abnormalities in this process lead to neurological disease remains very superficial. In particular, the lack of experimental models for a process that largely occurs during human in utero development, and is therefore poorly

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Endogenous Opioids at the Intersection of Opioid Addiction, Pain, and Depression: The Search for a Precision Medicine Approach.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Michael A Emery,Huda Akil

    Opioid addiction and overdose are at record levels in the United States. This is driven, in part, by their widespread prescription for the treatment of pain, which also increased opportunity for diversion by sensation-seeking users. Despite considerable research on the neurobiology of addiction, treatment options for opioid abuse remain limited. Mood disorders, particularly depression, are often comorbid

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Neuropod Cells: The Emerging Biology of Gut-Brain Sensory Transduction.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Melanie Maya Kaelberer,Laura E Rupprecht,Winston W Liu,Peter Weng,Diego V Bohórquez

    Guided by sight, scent, texture, and taste, animals ingest food. Once ingested, it is up to the gut to make sense of the food's nutritional value. Classic sensory systems rely on neuroepithelial circuits to convert stimuli into signals that guide behavior. However, sensation of the gut milieu was thought to be mediated only by the passive release of hormones until the discovery of synapses in enteroendocrine

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Suckling, Feeding, and Swallowing: Behaviors, Circuits, and Targets for Neurodevelopmental Pathology.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Thomas M Maynard,Irene E Zohn,Sally A Moody,Anthony-S LaMantia

    All mammals must suckle and swallow at birth, and subsequently chew and swallow solid foods, for optimal growth and health. These initially innate behaviors depend critically upon coordinated development of the mouth, tongue, pharynx, and larynx as well as the cranial nerves that control these structures. Disrupted suckling, feeding, and swallowing from birth onward—perinatal dysphagia—is often associated

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Impairments to Consolidation, Reconsolidation, and Long-Term Memory Maintenance Lead to Memory Erasure.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Josué Haubrich,Matteo Bernabo,Andrew G Baker,Karim Nader

    An enduring problem in neuroscience is determining whether cases of amnesia result from eradication of the memory trace (storage impairment) or if the trace is present but inaccessible (retrieval impairment). The most direct approach to resolving this question is to quantify changes in the brain mechanisms of long-term memory (BM-LTM). This approach argues that if the amnesia is due to a retrieval

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Finding the Brain in the Nose.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    David H Brann,Sandeep Robert Datta

    Olfaction is fundamentally distinct from other sensory modalities. Natural odor stimuli are complex mixtures of volatile chemicals that interact in the nose with a receptor array that, in rodents, is built from more than 1,000 unique receptors. These interactions dictate a peripheral olfactory code, which in the brain is transformed and reformatted as it is broadcast across a set of highly interconnected

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Computation Through Neural Population Dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Saurabh Vyas,Matthew D Golub,David Sussillo,Krishna V Shenoy

    Significant experimental, computational, and theoretical work has identified rich structure within the coordinated activity of interconnected neural populations. An emerging challenge now is to uncover the nature of the associated computations, how they are implemented, and what role they play in driving behavior. We term this computation through neural population dynamics. If successful, this framework

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • The Anatomy and Physiology of Claustrum-Cortex Interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Jesse Jackson,Jared B Smith,Albert K Lee

    The claustrum is one of the most widely connected regions of the forebrain, yet its function has remained obscure, largely due to the experimentally challenging nature of targeting this small, thin, and elongated brain area. However, recent advances in molecular techniques have enabled the anatomy and physiology of the claustrum to be studied with the spatiotemporal and cell type–specific precision

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Mechanosensitive Ion Channels: Structural Features Relevant to Mechanotransduction Mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Peng Jin,Lily Yeh Jan,Yuh-Nung Jan

    Activation of mechanosensitive ion channels underlies a variety of fundamental physiological processes that require sensation of mechanical force. Different mechanosensitive channels adapt distinctive structures and mechanotransduction mechanisms to fit their biological roles. How mechanosensitive channels work, especially in animals, has been extensively studied in the past decade. Here we review

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Neural Mechanisms of Itch.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Mark Lay,Xinzhong Dong

    Itch is a unique sensation that helps organisms scratch away external threats; scratching itself induces an immune response that can contribute to more itchiness. Itch is induced chemically in the peripheral nervous system via a wide array of receptors. Given the superficial localization of itch neuron terminals, cells that dwell close to the skin contribute significantly to itch. Certain mechanical

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Calcium Signaling in the Oligodendrocyte Lineage: Regulators and Consequences.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Pablo M Paez,David A Lyons

    Cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage express a wide range of Ca2+ channels and receptors that regulate oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) and oligodendrocyte formation and function. Here we define those key channels and receptors that regulate Ca2+ signaling and OPC development and myelination. We then discuss how the regulation of intracellular Ca2+ in turn affects OPC and oligodendrocyte biology

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Reward Contributions to Serotonergic Functions.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Zhixiang Liu,Rui Lin,Minmin Luo

    The brain serotonin systems participate in numerous aspects of reward processing, although it remains elusive how exactly serotonin signals regulate neural computation and reward-related behavior. The application of optogenetics and imaging techniques during the last decade has provided many insights. Here, we review recent progress on the organization and physiology of the dorsal raphe serotonin neurons

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • The Glial Perspective on Sleep and Circadian Rhythms.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Gregory Artiushin,Amita Sehgal

    While neurons and circuits are almost unequivocally considered to be the computational units and actuators of behavior, a complete understanding of the nervous system must incorporate glial cells. Far beyond a copious but passive substrate, glial influence is inextricable from neuronal physiology, whether during developmental guidance and synaptic shaping or through the trophic support, neurotransmitter

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Synaptic Plasticity Forms and Functions.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Jeffrey C Magee,Christine Grienberger

    Synaptic plasticity, the activity-dependent change in neuronal connection strength, has long been considered an important component of learning and memory. Computational and engineering work corroborate the power of learning through the directed adjustment of connection weights. Here we review the fundamental elements of four broadly categorized forms of synaptic plasticity and discuss their functional

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Navigating Through Time: A Spatial Navigation Perspective on How the Brain May Encode Time.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    John B Issa,Gilad Tocker,Michael E Hasselmo,James G Heys,Daniel A Dombeck

    Interval timing, which operates on timescales of seconds to minutes, is distributed across multiple brain regions and may use distinct circuit mechanisms as compared to millisecond timing and circadian rhythms. However, its study has proven difficult, as timing on this scale is deeply entangled with other behaviors. Several circuit and cellular mechanisms could generate sequential or ramping activity

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • CA2: A Highly Connected Intrahippocampal Relay.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Steven J Middleton,Thomas J McHugh

    Although Lorente de No’ recognized the anatomical distinction of the hippocampal Cornu Ammonis (CA) 2 region, it had, until recently, been assigned no unique function. Its location between the key players of the circuit, CA3 and CA1, which along with the entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus compose the classic trisynaptic circuit, further distracted research interest. However, the connectivity of CA2

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Mechanisms Underlying the Neural Computation of Head Direction.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Brad K Hulse,Vivek Jayaraman

    Many animals use an internal sense of direction to guide their movements through the world. Neurons selective to head direction are thought to support this directional sense and have been found in a diverse range of species, from insects to primates, highlighting their evolutionary importance. Across species, most head-direction networks share four key properties: a unique representation of direction

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Interneuron Types as Attractors and Controllers.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Gord Fishell,Adam Kepecs

    Cortical interneurons display striking differences in shape, physiology, and other attributes, challenging us to appropriately classify them. We previously suggested that interneuron types should be defined by their role in cortical processing. Here, we revisit the question of how to codify their diversity based upon their division of labor and function as controllers of cortical information flow.

    更新日期:2020-07-09
  • Brainstem Circuits Controlling Action Diversification.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Ludwig Ruder,Silvia Arber

    Neuronal circuits that regulate movement are distributed throughout the nervous system. The brainstem is an important interface between upper motor centers involved in action planning and circuits in the spinal cord ultimately leading to execution of body movements. Here we focus on recent work using genetic and viral entry points to reveal the identity of functionally dedicated and frequently spatially

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • What, If, and When to Move: Basal Ganglia Circuits and Self-Paced Action Initiation.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Andreas Klaus,Joaquim Alves da Silva,Rui M Costa

    Deciding what to do and when to move is vital to our survival. Clinical and fundamental studies have identified basal ganglia circuits as critical for this process. The main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, the striatum, receives inputs from frontal, sensory, and motor cortices and interconnected thalamic areas that provide information about potential goals, context, and actions and directly or

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Early Binaural Hearing: The Comparison of Temporal Differences at the Two Ears.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Philip X Joris,Marcel van der Heijden

    Many mammals, including humans, are exquisitely sensitive to tiny time differences between sounds at the two ears. These interaural time differences are an important source of information for sound detection, for sound localization in space, and for environmental awareness. Two brainstem circuits are involved in the initial temporal comparisons between the ears, centered on the medial and lateral superior

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Peeling the Onion of Brain Representations.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte,Jörn Diedrichsen

    The brain's function is to enable adaptive behavior in the world. To this end, the brain processes information about the world. The concept of representation links the information processed by the brain back to the world and enables us to understand what the brain does at a functional level. The appeal of making the connection between brain activity and what it represents has been irresistible to neuroscience

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    C Frank Bennett,Adrian R Krainer,Don W Cleveland

    Antisense oligonucleotides represent a novel therapeutic platform for the discovery of medicines that have the potential to treat most neurodegenerative diseases. Antisense drugs are currently in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, and multiple research programs are underway for additional neurodegenerative diseases. One antisense

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Lessons from Worm Dendritic Patterning.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Sharon Inberg,Anna Meledin,Veronika Kravtsov,Yael Iosilevskii,Meital Oren-Suissa,Benjamin Podbilewicz

    The structural and functional properties of neurons have intrigued scientists since the pioneering work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, emerging cutting-edge technologies, including light and electron microscopy, electrophysiology, biochemistry, optogenetics, and molecular biology, have dramatically increased our understanding of dendritic properties. This advancement was also facilitated by

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Theory and Neuroscience of Cerebellar Cognition.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Jeremy D Schmahmann,Xavier Guell,Catherine J Stoodley,Mark A Halko

    Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with neuroanatomical, brain imaging, and clinical observations, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The framework for

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Dexterous Hand Movements and Their Recovery After Central Nervous System Injury.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Tadashi Isa

    Hand dexterity has uniquely developed in higher primates and is thought to rely on the direct corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway. Recent studies have shown that rodents and carnivores lack the direct CM pathway but can control certain levels of dexterous hand movements through various indirect CM pathways. Some homologous pathways also exist in higher primates, and among them, propriospinal (PrS) neurons

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Light-Sheet Microscopy in Neuroscience.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Elizabeth M C Hillman,Venkatakaushik Voleti,Wenze Li,Hang Yu

    Light-sheet microscopy is an imaging approach that offers unique advantages for a diverse range of neuroscience applications. Unlike point-scanning techniques such as confocal and two-photon microscopy, light-sheet microscopes illuminate an entire plane of tissue, while imaging this plane onto a camera. Although early implementations of light sheet were optimized for longitudinal imaging of embryonic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Michael G Christiansen,Alexander W Senko,Polina Anikeeva

    Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection in the Nervous System.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Kimberly M Christian,Hongjun Song,Guo-Li Ming

    In 2015, public awareness of Zika virus (ZIKV) rose in response to alarming statistics of infants with microcephaly being born to women who were infected with the virus during pregnancy, triggering global concern over these potentially devastating consequences. Although we have discovered a great deal about the genome and pathogenesis of this reemergent flavivirus since this recent outbreak, we still

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Repeat-Associated Non-ATG Translation: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Neurological Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Lien Nguyen,John Douglas Cleary,Laura P W Ranum

    Microsatellite mutations involving the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexanucleotide repeats cause more than 40 different neurological disorders. Although, traditionally, the position of the repeat within or outside of an open reading frame has been used to focus research on disease mechanisms involving protein loss of function, protein gain of function, or RNA gain of function, the discoveries

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Neurite Development and Repair in Worms and Flies.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-03-18
    Claire E Richardson,Kang Shen

    How the nervous system is wired has been a central question of neuroscience since the inception of the field, and many of the foundational discoveries and conceptual advances have been made through the study of invertebrate experimental organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although many guidance molecules and receptors have been identified, recent experiments have

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Emerging Nature of Astrocyte Diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Baljit S Khakh,Benjamin Deneen

    Astrocytes are morphologically complex, ubiquitous cells that are viewed as a homogeneous population tiling the entire central nervous system (CNS). However, this view has been challenged in the last few years with the availability of RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, morphological reconstruction, and imaging data. These studies suggest that astrocytes represent a diverse population

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Probing Computation in the Primate Visual System at Single-Cone Resolution.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-03-11
    A Kling,G D Field,D H Brainard,E J Chichilnisky

    Daylight vision begins when light activates cone photoreceptors in the retina, creating spatial patterns of neural activity. These cone signals are then combined and processed in downstream neural circuits, ultimately producing visual perception. Recent technical advances have made it possible to deliver visual stimuli to the retina that probe this processing by the visual system at its elementary

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Glia-Neuron Interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-03-18
    Aakanksha Singhvi,Shai Shaham

    Glia are abundant components of animal nervous systems. Recognized 170 years ago, concerted attempts to understand these cells began only recently. From these investigations glia, once considered passive filler material in the brain, have emerged as active players in neuron development and activity. Glia are essential for nervous system function, and their disruption leads to disease. The nematode

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Acoustic Pattern Recognition and Courtship Songs: Insights from Insects.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-02-20
    Christa A Baker,Jan Clemens,Mala Murthy

    Across the animal kingdom, social interactions rely on sound production and perception. From simple cricket chirps to more elaborate bird songs, animals go to great lengths to communicate information critical for reproduction and survival via acoustic signals. Insects produce a wide array of songs to attract a mate, and the intended receivers must differentiate these calls from competing sounds, analyze

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Neuron-Glia Signaling in Synapse Elimination.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Daniel K Wilton,Lasse Dissing-Olesen,Beth Stevens

    Maturation of neuronal circuits requires selective elimination of synaptic connections. Although neuron-intrinsic mechanisms are important in this process, it is increasingly recognized that glial cells also play a critical role. Without proper functioning of these cells, the number, morphology, and function of synaptic contacts are profoundly altered, resulting in abnormal connectivity and behavioral

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Sodium Channels in Human Pain Disorders: Genetics and Pharmacogenomics.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-01-31
    Sulayman D Dib-Hajj,Stephen G Waxman

    Acute pain is adaptive, but chronic pain is a global challenge. Many chronic pain syndromes are peripheral in origin and reflect hyperactivity of peripheral pain-signaling neurons. Current treatments are ineffective or only partially effective and in some cases can be addictive, underscoring the need for better therapies. Molecular genetic studies have now linked multiple human pain disorders to voltage-gated

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genes Involved in the Development and Physiology of Both the Peripheral and Central Auditory Systems.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Nicolas Michalski,Christine Petit

    The genetic approach, based on the study of inherited forms of deafness, has proven to be particularly effective for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the peripheral auditory system, the cochlea and its afferent auditory neurons, and how this system extracts the physical parameters of sound. Although this genetic dissection has provided little information about the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Neuronal Development of Hearing and Language: Cochlear Implants and Critical Periods.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Andrej Kral,Michael F Dorman,Blake S Wilson

    The modern cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis developed to date. CIs provide hearing to the profoundly hearing impaired and allow the acquisition of spoken language in children born deaf. Results from studies enabled by the CI have provided new insights into (a) minimal representations at the periphery for speech reception, (b) brain mechanisms for decoding speech presented

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • A Motor Theory of Sleep-Wake Control: Arousal-Action Circuit.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Danqian Liu,Yang Dan

    Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Unified Classification of Molecular, Network, and Endocrine Features of Hypothalamic Neurons.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2019-02-08
    Roman A Romanov,Alán Alpár,Tomas Hökfelt,Tibor Harkany

    Peripheral endocrine output relies on either direct or feed-forward multi-order command from the hypothalamus. Efficient coding of endocrine responses is made possible by the many neuronal cell types that coexist in intercalated hypothalamic nuclei and communicate through extensive synaptic connectivity. Although general anatomical and neurochemical features of hypothalamic neurons were described during

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multiscale Patterning from Competing Interactions and Length Scales.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2020-04-17
    A R Bishop

    We live in a research era marked by impressive new tools powering the scientific method to accelerate the discovery, prediction, and control of increasingly complex systems. In common with many disciplines and societal challenges and opportunities, materials and condensed matter sciences are beneficiaries. The volume and fidelity of experimental, computational, and visualization data available, and

    更新日期:2020-04-17
  • Signaling mechanisms linking neuronal activity to gene expression and plasticity of the nervous system.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Steven W Flavell,Michael E Greenberg

    Sensory experience and the resulting synaptic activity within the brain are critical for the proper development of neural circuits. Experience-driven synaptic activity causes membrane depolarization and calcium influx into select neurons within a neural circuit, which in turn trigger a wide variety of cellular changes that alter the synaptic connectivity within the neural circuit. One way in which

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Axon-glial signaling and the glial support of axon function.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Klaus-Armin Nave,Bruce D Trapp

    Oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells are highly specialized glial cells that wrap axons with a multilayered myelin membrane for rapid impulse conduction. Investigators have recently identified axonal signals that recruit myelin-forming Schwann cells from an alternate fate of simple axonal engulfment. This is the evolutionary oldest form of axon-glia interaction, and its function is unknown. Recent observations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms underlying development of visual maps and receptive fields.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Andrew D Huberman,Marla B Feller,Barbara Chapman

    Patterns of synaptic connections in the visual system are remarkably precise. These connections dictate the receptive field properties of individual visual neurons and ultimately determine the quality of visual perception. Spontaneous neural activity is necessary for the development of various receptive field properties and visual feature maps. In recent years, attention has shifted to understanding

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neural substrates of language acquisition.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Patricia Kuhl,Maritza Rivera-Gaxiola

    Infants learn language(s) with apparent ease, and the tools of modern neuroscience are providing valuable information about the mechanisms that underlie this capacity. Noninvasive, safe brain technologies have now been proven feasible for use with children starting at birth. The past decade has produced an explosion in neuroscience research examining young children's processing of language at the phonetic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The prion's elusive reason for being.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Adriano Aguzzi,Frank Baumann,Juliane Bremer

    The protein-only hypothesis posits that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies consists of protein and lacks any informational nucleic acids. This agent, termed prion by Stanley Prusiner, is thought to consist partly of PrP(Sc), a conformational isoform of a normal cellular protein termed PrP(C). Scientists and lay persons have been fascinated by the prion concept, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of face perception.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Doris Y Tsao,Margaret S Livingstone

    Faces are among the most informative stimuli we ever perceive: Even a split-second glimpse of a person's face tells us his identity, sex, mood, age, race, and direction of attention. The specialness of face processing is acknowledged in the artificial vision community, where contests for face-recognition algorithms abound. Neurological evidence strongly implicates a dedicated machinery for face processing

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanisms of self-motion perception.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Kenneth H Britten

    Guiding effective movement through the environment is one of the visual system's most important functions. The pattern of motion that we see allows us to estimate our heading accurately in a variety of environments, despite the added difficulty imposed by our own eye and head movements. The cortical substrates for heading perception include the medial superior temporal area (MST) and the ventral intraparietal

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Habits, rituals, and the evaluative brain.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Ann M Graybiel

    Scientists in many different fields have been attracted to the study of habits because of the power habits have over behavior and because they invoke a dichotomy between the conscious, voluntary control over behavior, considered the essence of higher-order deliberative behavioral control, and lower-order behavioral control that is scarcely available to consciousness. A broad spectrum of behavioral

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Wnt signaling in neural circuit assembly.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Patricia C Salinas,Yimin Zou

    The Wnt family of secreted proteins plays a crucial role in nervous system wiring. Wnts regulate neuronal positioning, polarization, axon and dendrite development, and synaptogenesis. These diverse roles of Wnt proteins are due not only to the large numbers of Wnt ligands and receptors but also to their ability to signal through distinct signaling pathways in different cell types and developmental

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Retinal axon growth at the optic chiasm: to cross or not to cross.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Timothy J Petros,Alexandra Rebsam,Carol A Mason

    At the optic chiasm, retinal ganglion cell axons from each eye converge and segregate into crossed and uncrossed projections, a pattern critical for binocular vision. Here, we review recent findings on optic chiasm development, highlighting the specific transcription factors and guidance cues that implement retinal axon divergence into crossed and uncrossed pathways. Although mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multifunctional pattern-generating circuits.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    K L Briggman,W B Kristan

    The ability of distinct anatomical circuits to generate multiple behavioral patterns is widespread among vertebrate and invertebrate species. These multifunctional neuronal circuits are the result of multistable neural dynamics and modular organization. The evidence suggests multifunctional circuits can be classified by distinct architectures, yet the activity patterns of individual neurons involved

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multiple sclerosis: an immune or neurodegenerative disorder?
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.547) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Bruce D Trapp,Klaus-Armin Nave

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory-mediated demyelinating disease of the human central nervous system. The clinical disease course is variable, usually starts with reversible episodes of neurological disability in the third or fourth decade of life, and transforms into a disease of continuous and irreversible neurological decline by the sixth or seventh decade. We review data that support neurodegeneration

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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