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  • Unified Classification of Molecular, Network, and Endocrine Features of Hypothalamic Neurons
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Roman A. Romanov, Alán Alpár, Tomas Hökfelt, Tibor Harkany

    Peripheral endocrine output relies on either direct or feed-forward multi-order command from the hypothalamus. Efficient coding of endocrine responses is made possible by the many neuronal cell types that coexist in intercalated hypothalamic nuclei and communicate through extensive synaptic connectivity. Although general anatomical and neurochemical features of hypothalamic neurons were described during the past decades, they have yet to be reconciled with recently discovered molecular classifiers and neurogenetic function determination. By interrogating magnocellular as well as parvocellular dopamine, GABA, glutamate, and phenotypically mixed neurons, we integrate available information at the molecular, cellular, network, and endocrine output levels to propose a framework for the comprehensive classification of hypothalamic neurons. Simultaneously, we single out putative neuronal subclasses for which future research can fill in existing gaps of knowledge to rationalize cellular diversity through function-determinant molecular marks in the hypothalamus.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • A Motor Theory of Sleep-Wake Control: Arousal-Action Circuit
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Danqian Liu, Yang Dan

    Wakefulness, rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, and non–rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep are characterized by distinct electroencephalogram (EEG), electromyogram (EMG), and autonomic profiles. The circuit mechanism coordinating these changes during sleep-wake transitions remains poorly understood. The past few years have witnessed rapid progress in the identification of REM and NREM sleep neurons, which constitute highly distributed networks spanning the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. Here we propose an arousal-action circuit for sleep-wake control in which wakefulness is supported by separate arousal and action neurons, while REM and NREM sleep neurons are part of the central somatic and autonomic motor circuits. This model is well supported by the currently known sleep and wake neurons. It can also account for the EEG, EMG, and autonomic profiles of wake, REM, and NREM states and several key features of their transitions. The intimate association between the sleep and autonomic/somatic motor control circuits suggests that a primary function of sleep is to suppress motor activity.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neuronal Development of Hearing and Language: Cochlear Implants and Critical Periods
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Andrej Kral, Michael F. Dorman, Blake S. Wilson

    The modern cochlear implant (CI) is the most successful neural prosthesis developed to date. CIs provide hearing to the profoundly hearing impaired and allow the acquisition of spoken language in children born deaf. Results from studies enabled by the CI have provided new insights into (a) minimal representations at the periphery for speech reception, (b) brain mechanisms for decoding speech presented in quiet and in acoustically adverse conditions, (c) the developmental neuroscience of language and hearing, and (d) the mechanisms and time courses of intramodal and cross-modal plasticity. Additionally, the results have underscored the interconnectedness of brain functions and the importance of top-down processes in perception and learning. The findings are described in this review with emphasis on the developing brain and the acquisition of hearing and spoken language.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Genes Involved in the Development and Physiology of Both the Peripheral and Central Auditory Systems
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Nicolas Michalski, Christine Petit

    The genetic approach, based on the study of inherited forms of deafness, has proven to be particularly effective for deciphering the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of the peripheral auditory system, the cochlea and its afferent auditory neurons, and how this system extracts the physical parameters of sound. Although this genetic dissection has provided little information about the central auditory system, scattered data suggest that some genes may have a critical role in both the peripheral and central auditory systems. Here, we review the genes controlling the development and function of the peripheral and central auditory systems, focusing on those with demonstrated intrinsic roles in both systems and highlighting the current underappreciation of these genes. Their encoded products are diverse, from transcription factors to ion channels, as are their roles in the central auditory system, mostly evaluated in brainstem nuclei. We examine the ontogenetic and evolutionary mechanisms that may underlie their expression at different sites.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Sodium Channels in Human Pain Disorders: Genetics and Pharmacogenomics
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Sulayman D. Dib-Hajj, Stephen G. Waxman

    Acute pain is adaptive, but chronic pain is a global challenge. Many chronic pain syndromes are peripheral in origin and reflect hyperactivity of peripheral pain-signaling neurons. Current treatments are ineffective or only partially effective and in some cases can be addictive, underscoring the need for better therapies. Molecular genetic studies have now linked multiple human pain disorders to voltage-gated sodium channels, including disorders characterized by insensitivity or reduced sensitivity to pain and others characterized by exaggerated pain in response to normally innocuous stimuli. Here, we review recent developments that have enhanced our understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms in human pain and advances in targeting sodium channels in peripheral neurons for the treatment of pain using novel and existing sodium channel blockers.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neuron-Glia Signaling in Synapse Elimination
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Daniel K. Wilton, Lasse Dissing-Olesen, Beth Stevens

    Maturation of neuronal circuits requires selective elimination of synaptic connections. Although neuron-intrinsic mechanisms are important in this process, it is increasingly recognized that glial cells also play a critical role. Without proper functioning of these cells, the number, morphology, and function of synaptic contacts are profoundly altered, resulting in abnormal connectivity and behavioral abnormalities. In addition to their role in synaptic refinement, glial cells have also been implicated in pathological synapse loss and dysfunction following injury or nervous system degeneration in adults. Although mechanisms regulating glia-mediated synaptic elimination are still being uncovered, it is clear this complex process involves many cues that promote and inhibit the removal of specific synaptic connections. Gaining a greater understanding of these signals and the contribution of different cell types will not only provide insight into this critical biological event but also be instrumental in advancing knowledge of brain development and neural disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Acoustic Pattern Recognition and Courtship Songs: Insights from Insects
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Christa A. Baker, Jan Clemens, Mala Murthy

    Across the animal kingdom, social interactions rely on sound production and perception. From simple cricket chirps to more elaborate bird songs, animals go to great lengths to communicate information critical for reproduction and survival via acoustic signals. Insects produce a wide array of songs to attract a mate, and the intended receivers must differentiate these calls from competing sounds, analyze the quality of the sender from spectrotemporal signal properties, and then determine how to react. Insects use numerically simple nervous systems to analyze and respond to courtship songs, making them ideal model systems for uncovering the neural mechanisms underlying acoustic pattern recognition. We highlight here how the combination of behavioral studies and neural recordings in three groups of insects—crickets, grasshoppers, and fruit flies—reveals common strategies for extracting ethologically relevant information from acoustic patterns and how these findings might translate to other systems.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Glia-Neuron Interactions in Caenorhabditis elegans
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Aakanksha Singhvi, Shai Shaham

    Glia are abundant components of animal nervous systems. Recognized 170 years ago, concerted attempts to understand these cells began only recently. From these investigations glia, once considered passive filler material in the brain, have emerged as active players in neuron development and activity. Glia are essential for nervous system function, and their disruption leads to disease. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans possesses glial types similar to vertebrate glia, based on molecular, morphological, and functional criteria, and has become a powerful model in which to study glia and their neuronal interactions. Facile genetic and transgenic methods in this animal allow the discovery of genes required for glial functions, and effects of glia at single synapses can be monitored by tracking neuron shape, physiology, or animal behavior. Here, we review recent progress in understanding glia-neuron interactions in C. elegans. We highlight similarities with glia in other animals, and suggest conserved emerging principles of glial function.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Probing Computation in the Primate Visual System at Single-Cone Resolution
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    A. Kling, G.D. Field, D.H. Brainard, E.J. Chichilnisky

    Daylight vision begins when light activates cone photoreceptors in the retina, creating spatial patterns of neural activity. These cone signals are then combined and processed in downstream neural circuits, ultimately producing visual perception. Recent technical advances have made it possible to deliver visual stimuli to the retina that probe this processing by the visual system at its elementary resolution of individual cones. Physiological recordings from nonhuman primate retinas reveal the spatial organization of cone signals in retinal ganglion cells, including how signals from cones of different types are combined to support both spatial and color vision. Psychophysical experiments with human subjects characterize the visual sensations evoked by stimulating a single cone, including the perception of color. Future combined physiological and psychophysical experiments focusing on probing the elementary visual inputs are likely to clarify how neural processing generates our perception of the visual world.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Emerging Nature of Astrocyte Diversity
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Baljit S. Khakh, Benjamin Deneen

    Astrocytes are morphologically complex, ubiquitous cells that are viewed as a homogeneous population tiling the entire central nervous system (CNS). However, this view has been challenged in the last few years with the availability of RNA sequencing, immunohistochemistry, electron microscopy, morphological reconstruction, and imaging data. These studies suggest that astrocytes represent a diverse population of cells and that they display brain area– and disease–specific properties and functions. In this review, we summarize these observations, emphasize areas where clear conclusions can be made, and discuss potential unifying themes. We also identify knowledge gaps that need to be addressed in order to exploit astrocyte diversity as a biological phenomenon of physiological relevance in the CNS. We thus provide a summary and a perspective on astrocyte diversity in the vertebrate CNS.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Neurite Development and Repair in Worms and Flies
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Claire E. Richardson, Kang Shen

    How the nervous system is wired has been a central question of neuroscience since the inception of the field, and many of the foundational discoveries and conceptual advances have been made through the study of invertebrate experimental organisms, including Caenorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster. Although many guidance molecules and receptors have been identified, recent experiments have shed light on the many modes of action for these pathways. Here, we summarize the recent progress in determining how the physical and temporal constraints of the surrounding environment provide instructive regulations in nervous system wiring. We use Netrin and its receptors as an example to analyze the complexity of how they guide neurite outgrowth. In neurite repair, conserved injury detection and response-signaling pathways regulate gene expression and cytoskeletal dynamics. We also describe recent developments in the research on molecular mechanisms of neurite regeneration in worms and flies.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Repeat-Associated Non-ATG Translation: Molecular Mechanisms and Contribution to Neurological Disease
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Lien Nguyen, John Douglas Cleary, Laura P.W. Ranum

    Microsatellite mutations involving the expansion of tri-, tetra-, penta-, or hexanucleotide repeats cause more than 40 different neurological disorders. Although, traditionally, the position of the repeat within or outside of an open reading frame has been used to focus research on disease mechanisms involving protein loss of function, protein gain of function, or RNA gain of function, the discoveries of bidirectional transcription and repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) have blurred these distinctions. Here we review what is known about RAN proteins in disease, the mechanisms by which they are produced, and the novel therapeutic opportunities they provide.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Pathophysiology and Mechanisms of Zika Virus Infection in the Nervous System
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Kimberly M. Christian, Hongjun Song, Guo-li Ming

    In 2015, public awareness of Zika virus (ZIKV) rose in response to alarming statistics of infants with microcephaly being born to women who were infected with the virus during pregnancy, triggering global concern over these potentially devastating consequences. Although we have discovered a great deal about the genome and pathogenesis of this reemergent flavivirus since this recent outbreak, we still have much more to learn, including the nature of the virus-host interactions and mechanisms that determine its tropism and pathogenicity in the nervous system, which are in turn shaped by the continual evolution of the virus. Inevitably, we will find out more about the potential long-term effects of ZIKV exposure on the nervous system from ongoing longitudinal studies. Integrating clinical and epidemiological data with a wider range of animal and human cell culture models will be critical to understanding the pathogenetic mechanisms and developing more specific antiviral compounds and vaccines.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Magnetic Strategies for Nervous System Control
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Michael G. Christiansen, Alexander W. Senko, Polina Anikeeva

    Magnetic fields pass through tissue undiminished and without producing harmful effects, motivating their use as a wireless, minimally invasive means to control neural activity. Here, we review mechanisms and techniques coupling magnetic fields to changes in electrochemical potentials across neuronal membranes. Biological magnetoreception, although incompletely understood, is discussed as a potential source of inspiration. The emergence of magnetic properties in materials is reviewed to clarify the distinction between biomolecules containing transition metals and ferrite nanoparticles that exhibit significant net moments. We describe recent developments in the use of magnetic nanomaterials as transducers converting magnetic stimuli to forms readily perceived by neurons and discuss opportunities for multiplexed and bidirectional control as well as the challenges posed by delivery to the brain. The variety of magnetic field conditions and mechanisms by which they can be coupled to neuronal signaling cascades highlights the desirability of continued interchange between magnetism physics and neurobiology.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Light-Sheet Microscopy in Neuroscience
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Elizabeth M.C. Hillman, Venkatakaushik Voleti, Wenze Li, Hang Yu

    Light-sheet microscopy is an imaging approach that offers unique advantages for a diverse range of neuroscience applications. Unlike point-scanning techniques such as confocal and two-photon microscopy, light-sheet microscopes illuminate an entire plane of tissue, while imaging this plane onto a camera. Although early implementations of light sheet were optimized for longitudinal imaging of embryonic development in small specimens, emerging implementations are capable of capturing light-sheet images in freely moving, unconstrained specimens and even the intact in vivo mammalian brain. Meanwhile, the unique photobleaching and signal-to-noise benefits afforded by light-sheet microscopy's parallelized detection deliver the ability to perform volumetric imaging at much higher speeds than can be achieved using point scanning. This review describes the basic principles and evolution of light-sheet microscopy, followed by perspectives on emerging applications and opportunities for both imaging large, cleared, and expanded neural tissues and high-speed, functional imaging in vivo.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Dexterous Hand Movements and Their Recovery After Central Nervous System Injury
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Tadashi Isa

    Hand dexterity has uniquely developed in higher primates and is thought to rely on the direct corticomotoneuronal (CM) pathway. Recent studies have shown that rodents and carnivores lack the direct CM pathway but can control certain levels of dexterous hand movements through various indirect CM pathways. Some homologous pathways also exist in higher primates, and among them, propriospinal (PrS) neurons in the mid-cervical segments (C3-C4) are significantly involved in hand dexterity. When the direct CM pathway was lesioned caudal to the PrS and transmission of cortical commands to hand motoneurons via the PrS neurons remained intact, dexterous hand movements could be significantly recovered. This recovery model was intensively studied, and it was found that, in addition to the compensation by the PrS neurons, a large-scale reorganization in the bilateral cortical motor-related areas and mesolimbic structures contributed to recovery. Future therapeutic strategies should target these multihierarchical areas.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • The Theory and Neuroscience of Cerebellar Cognition
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Jeremy D. Schmahmann, Xavier Guell, Catherine J. Stoodley, Mark A. Halko

    Cerebellar neuroscience has undergone a paradigm shift. The theories of the universal cerebellar transform and dysmetria of thought and the principles of organization of cerebral cortical connections, together with neuroanatomical, brain imaging, and clinical observations, have recontextualized the cerebellum as a critical node in the distributed neural circuits subserving behavior. The framework for cerebellar cognition stems from the identification of three cognitive representations in the posterior lobe, which are interconnected with cerebral association areas and distinct from the primary and secondary cerebellar sensorimotor representations linked with the spinal cord and cerebral motor areas. Lesions of the anterior lobe primary sensorimotor representations produce dysmetria of movement, the cerebellar motor syndrome. Lesions of the posterior lobe cognitive-emotional cerebellum produce dysmetria of thought and emotion, the cerebellar cognitive affective/Schmahmann syndrome. The notion that the cerebellum modulates thought and emotion in the same way that it modulates motor control advances the understanding of the mechanisms of cognition and opens new therapeutic opportunities in behavioral neurology and neuropsychiatry.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Lessons from Worm Dendritic Patterning
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Sharon Inberg, Anna Meledin, Veronika Kravtsov, Yael Iosilevskii, Meital Oren-Suissa, Benjamin Podbilewicz

    The structural and functional properties of neurons have intrigued scientists since the pioneering work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal. Since then, emerging cutting-edge technologies, including light and electron microscopy, electrophysiology, biochemistry, optogenetics, and molecular biology, have dramatically increased our understanding of dendritic properties. This advancement was also facilitated by the establishment of different animal model organisms, from flies to mammals. Here we describe the emerging model system of a Caenorhabditis elegans polymodal neuron named PVD, whose dendritic tree follows a stereotypical structure characterized by repeating candelabra-like structural units. In the past decade, progress has been made in understanding PVD's functions, morphogenesis, regeneration, and aging, yet many questions still remain.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Antisense Oligonucleotide Therapies for Neurodegenerative Diseases
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    C. Frank Bennett, Adrian R. Krainer, Don W. Cleveland

    Antisense oligonucleotides represent a novel therapeutic platform for the discovery of medicines that have the potential to treat most neurodegenerative diseases. Antisense drugs are currently in development for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and Alzheimer's disease, and multiple research programs are underway for additional neurodegenerative diseases. One antisense drug, nusinersen, has been approved for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy. Importantly, nusinersen improves disease symptoms when administered to symptomatic patients rather than just slowing the progression of the disease. In addition to the benefit to spinal muscular atrophy patients, there are discoveries from nusinersen that can be applied to other neurological diseases, including method of delivery, doses, tolerability of intrathecally delivered antisense drugs, and the biodistribution of intrathecal dosed antisense drugs. Based in part on the early success of nusinersen, antisense drugs hold great promise as a therapeutic platform for the treatment of neurological diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Peeling the Onion of Brain Representations
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Nikolaus Kriegeskorte, Jörn Diedrichsen

    The brain's function is to enable adaptive behavior in the world. To this end, the brain processes information about the world. The concept of representation links the information processed by the brain back to the world and enables us to understand what the brain does at a functional level. The appeal of making the connection between brain activity and what it represents has been irresistible to neuroscience, despite the fact that representational interpretations pose several challenges: We must define which aspects of brain activity matter, how the code works, and how it supports computations that contribute to adaptive behavior. It has been suggested that we might drop representational language altogether and seek to understand the brain, more simply, as a dynamical system. In this review, we argue that the concept of representation provides a useful link between dynamics and computational function and ask which aspects of brain activity should be analyzed to achieve a representational understanding. We peel the onion of brain representations in search of the layers (the aspects of brain activity) that matter to computation. The article provides an introduction to the motivation and mathematics of representational models, a critical discussion of their assumptions and limitations, and a preview of future directions in this area.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Early Binaural Hearing: The Comparison of Temporal Differences at the Two Ears
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Philip X. Joris, Marcel van der Heijden

    Many mammals, including humans, are exquisitely sensitive to tiny time differences between sounds at the two ears. These interaural time differences are an important source of information for sound detection, for sound localization in space, and for environmental awareness. Two brainstem circuits are involved in the initial temporal comparisons between the ears, centered on the medial and lateral superior olive. Cells in these nuclei, as well as their afferents, display a large number of striking physiological and anatomical specializations to enable submillisecond sensitivity. As such, they provide an important model system to study temporal processing in the central nervous system. We review the progress that has been made in characterizing these primary binaural circuits as well as the variety of mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie their function.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • What, If, and When to Move: Basal Ganglia Circuits and Self-Paced Action Initiation
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Andreas Klaus, Joaquim Alves da Silva, Rui M. Costa

    Deciding what to do and when to move is vital to our survival. Clinical and fundamental studies have identified basal ganglia circuits as critical for this process. The main input nucleus of the basal ganglia, the striatum, receives inputs from frontal, sensory, and motor cortices and interconnected thalamic areas that provide information about potential goals, context, and actions and directly or indirectly modulates basal ganglia outputs. The striatum also receives dopaminergic inputs that can signal reward prediction errors and also behavioral transitions and movement initiation. Here we review studies and models of how direct and indirect pathways can modulate basal ganglia outputs to facilitate movement initiation, and we discuss the role of cortical and dopaminergic inputs to the striatum in determining what to do and if and when to do it. Complex but exciting scenarios emerge that shed new light on how basal ganglia circuits modulate self-paced movement initiation.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Brainstem Circuits Controlling Action Diversification
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-08
    Ludwig Ruder, Silvia Arber

    Neuronal circuits that regulate movement are distributed throughout the nervous system. The brainstem is an important interface between upper motor centers involved in action planning and circuits in the spinal cord ultimately leading to execution of body movements. Here we focus on recent work using genetic and viral entry points to reveal the identity of functionally dedicated and frequently spatially intermingled brainstem populations essential for action diversification, a general principle conserved throughout evolution. Brainstem circuits with distinct organization and function control skilled forelimb behavior, orofacial movements, and locomotion. They convey regulatory parameters to motor output structures and collaborate in the construction of complex natural motor behaviors. Functionally tuned brainstem neurons for different actions serve as important integrators of synaptic inputs from upstream centers, including the basal ganglia and cortex, to regulate and modulate behavioral function in different contexts.

    更新日期:2019-11-18
  • Balancing structure and function at hippocampal dendritic spines.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2008-02-21
    Jennifer N Bourne,Kristen M Harris

    Dendritic spines are the primary recipients of excitatory input in the central nervous system. They provide biochemical compartments that locally control the signaling mechanisms at individual synapses. Hippocampal spines show structural plasticity as the basis for the physiological changes in synaptic efficacy that underlie learning and memory. Spine structure is regulated by molecular mechanisms that are fine-tuned and adjusted according to developmental age, level and direction of synaptic activity, specific brain region, and exact behavioral or experimental conditions. Reciprocal changes between the structure and function of spines impact both local and global integration of signals within dendrites. Advances in imaging and computing technologies may provide the resources needed to reconstruct entire neural circuits. Key to this endeavor is having sufficient resolution to determine the extrinsic factors (such as perisynaptic astroglia) and the intrinsic factors (such as core subcellular organelles) that are required to build and maintain synapses.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interneuron Types as Attractors and Controllers.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2019-07-13
    Gord Fishell,Adam Kepecs

    Cortical interneurons display striking differences in shape, physiology, and other attributes, challenging us to appropriately classify them. We previously suggested that interneuron types should be defined by their role in cortical processing. Here, we revisit the question of how to codify their diversity based upon their division of labor and function as controllers of cortical information flow. We suggest that developmental trajectories provide a guide for appreciating interneuron diversity and argue that subtype identity is generated using a configurational code of transcription factors that produce attractor states in the underlying gene regulatory network. We present our updated three-stage model for interneuron specification: an initial cardinal step, allocating interneurons into a few major classes, followed by definitive refinement, creating subclasses upon settling within the cortex, and lastly, state determination, reflecting the incorporation of interneurons into functional circuit ensembles. We close by discussing findings indicating that major interneuron classes are both evolutionarily ancient and conserved. We propose that the complexity of cortical circuits is generated by phylogenetically old interneuron types, complemented by an evolutionary increase in principal neuron diversity. This suggests that a natural neurobiological definition of interneuron types might be derived from a match between their developmental origin and computational function. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Neuroscience Volume 43 is July 8, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuropeptides and the integration of motor responses to dehydration.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2001-04-03
    A G Watts

    Drinking and eating are critically important motivated behaviors whose expression is usually tightly linked; under conditions of spontaneous intake, disruption of one usually disturbs the other. This characteristic is exemplified by dehydration-induced anorexia in which increasing plasma osmolality leads to a centrally generated reduction in food intake, which is then rapidly reversed as water is again made available. This review discusses, at a systems level, how the brain is organized to generate these behaviors and how dehydration affects the expression of neuropeptides in sets of anatomically defined forebrain circuits that contribute to the integration of motor outputs. These findings are then used to consider how altered neuropeptidergic signaling operates within motor drive networks and how these changes may impact the way neuroendocrine, autonomic, and behavioral motor systems respond to this fundamental homeostatic challenge.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • New Perspectives on Genomic Imprinting, an Essential and Multifaceted Mode of Epigenetic Control in the Developing and Adult Brain.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2016-05-06
    Julio D Perez,Nimrod D Rubinstein,Catherine Dulac

    Mammalian evolution entailed multiple innovations in gene regulation, including the emergence of genomic imprinting, an epigenetic regulation leading to the preferential expression of a gene from its maternal or paternal allele. Genomic imprinting is highly prevalent in the brain, yet, until recently, its central roles in neural processes have not been fully appreciated. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of adult and developmental brain functions influenced by imprinted genes, from neural development and wiring to synaptic function and plasticity, energy balance, social behaviors, emotions, and cognition. We further review the widespread identification of parental biases alongside monoallelic expression in brain tissues, discuss their potential roles in dosage regulation of key neural pathways, and suggest possible mechanisms underlying the dynamic regulation of imprinting in the brain. This review should help provide a better understanding of the significance of genomic imprinting in the normal and pathological brain of mammals including humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Basal ganglia circuits for reward value-guided behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2014-07-18
    Okihide Hikosaka,Hyoung F Kim,Masaharu Yasuda,Shinya Yamamoto

    The basal ganglia are equipped with inhibitory and disinhibitory mechanisms that enable a subject to choose valuable objects and actions. Notably, a value can be determined flexibly by recent experience or stably by prolonged experience. Recent studies have revealed that the head and tail of the caudate nucleus selectively and differentially process flexible and stable values of visual objects. These signals are sent to the superior colliculus through different parts of the substantia nigra so that the animal looks preferentially at high-valued objects, but in different manners. Thus, relying on short-term value memories, the caudate head circuit allows the subject's gaze to move expectantly to recently valued objects. Relying on long-term value memories, the caudate tail circuit allows the subject's gaze to move automatically to previously valued objects. The basal ganglia also contain an equivalent parallel mechanism for action values. Such flexible-stable parallel mechanisms for object and action values create a highly adaptable system for decision making.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Muscarinic signaling in the brain.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2013-07-12
    Alexander Thiele

    Muscarinic signaling affects attention, action selection, learning, and memory through multiple signaling cascades, which act at different timescales and which alter ion channels in cell type-specific manners. The effects of muscarinic signaling differ between cortical layers and between brain areas. Muscarinic signaling adds flexibility to the processing mode of neuronal networks, thereby supporting processing according to task demands. This review outlines possible scenarios to describe how it contributes to cellular mechanisms of attention and how it affects channeling of information in different neuronal circuits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transient receptor potential channels and mechanosensation.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2013-06-12
    Niels Eijkelkamp,Kathryn Quick,John N Wood

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels act as sensors for a range of stimuli as diverse as light, sound, touch, pheromones, and tissue damage. Their role in mechanosensation in the animal kingdom, identified by gene ablation studies, has raised questions about whether they are directly mechanically gated, whether they act alone or in concert with other channels to transduce mechanical stimuli, and their relative importance in various functions and disease states in humans. The ability of these channels to form heteromultimers and interact with other ion channels underlies a range of cell-specific functions in different cell types. Here we overview recent advances in this rapidly expanding field, focusing on somatosensation, hearing, the cardiovascular system, and interactions between TRP channels and other proteins involved in mechanoelectrical signaling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Superior colliculus and visual spatial attention.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2013-05-21
    Richard J Krauzlis,Lee P Lovejoy,Alexandre Zénon

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Primary visual cortex: awareness and blindsight.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2012-06-22
    David A Leopold

    The primary visual cortex (V1) is the principal telencephalic recipient of visual input in humans and monkeys. It is unique among cortical areas in that its destruction results in chronic blindness. However, certain patients with V1 damage, though lacking visual awareness, exhibit visually guided behavior: blindsight. This phenomenon, together with evidence from electrophysiological, neuroimaging, and psychophysical experiments, has led to speculation that V1 activity has a special or direct role in generating conscious perception. To explore this issue, this article reviews experiments that have used two powerful paradigms--stimulus-induced perceptual suppression and chronic V1 ablation--each of which disrupts the ability to perceive salient visual stimuli. Focus is placed on recent neurophysiological, behavioral, and functional imaging studies from the nonhuman primate that shed light on V1's role in conscious awareness. In addition, anatomical pathways that relay visual information to the cortex during normal vision and in blindsight are reviewed. Although the critical role of V1 in primate vision follows naturally from its position as a bottleneck of visual signals, little evidence supports its direct contribution to visual awareness.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolution of synapse complexity and diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2012-06-22
    Richard D Emes,Seth G N Grant

    Proteomic studies of the composition of mammalian synapses have revealed a high degree of complexity. The postsynaptic and presynaptic terminals are molecular systems with highly organized protein networks producing emergent physiological and behavioral properties. The major classes of synapse proteins and their respective functions in intercellular communication and adaptive responses evolved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes prior to the origins of neurons in metazoa. In eukaryotes, the organization of individual proteins into multiprotein complexes comprising scaffold proteins, receptors, and signaling enzymes formed the precursor to the core adaptive machinery of the metazoan postsynaptic terminal. Multiplicative increases in the complexity of this protosynapse machinery secondary to genome duplications drove synaptic, neuronal, and behavioral novelty in vertebrates. Natural selection has constrained diversification in mammalian postsynaptic mechanisms and the repertoire of adaptive and innate behaviors. The evolution and organization of synapse proteomes underlie the origins and complexity of nervous systems and behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cellular pathways of hereditary spastic paraplegia.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2012-05-01
    Craig Blackstone

    Human voluntary movement is controlled by the pyramidal motor system, a long CNS pathway comprising corticospinal and lower motor neurons. Hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSPs) are a large, genetically diverse group of inherited neurologic disorders characterized by a length-dependent distal axonopathy of the corticospinal tracts, resulting in lower limb spasticity and weakness. A range of studies are converging on alterations in the shaping of organelles, particularly the endoplasmic reticulum, as well as intracellular membrane trafficking and distribution as primary defects underlying the HSPs, with clear relevance for other long axonopathies affecting peripheral nerves and lower motor neurons.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multiple functions of endocannabinoid signaling in the brain.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2012-04-25
    István Katona,Tamás F Freund

    Despite being regarded as a hippie science for decades, cannabinoid research has finally found its well-deserved position in mainstream neuroscience. A series of groundbreaking discoveries revealed that endocannabinoid molecules are as widespread and important as conventional neurotransmitters such as glutamate or GABA, yet they act in profoundly unconventional ways. We aim to illustrate how uncovering the molecular, anatomical, and physiological characteristics of endocannabinoid signaling has revealed new mechanistic insights into several fundamental phenomena in synaptic physiology. First, we summarize unexpected advances in the molecular complexity of biogenesis and inactivation of the two endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol. Then, we show how these new metabolic routes are integrated into well-known intracellular signaling pathways. These endocannabinoid-producing signalosomes operate in phasic and tonic modes, thereby differentially governing homeostatic, short-term, and long-term synaptic plasticity throughout the brain. Finally, we discuss how cell type- and synapse-specific refinement of endocannabinoid signaling may explain the characteristic behavioral effects of cannabinoids.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Modulation of striatal projection systems by dopamine.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2011-04-08
    Charles R Gerfen,D James Surmeier

    The basal ganglia are a chain of subcortical nuclei that facilitate action selection. Two striatal projection systems--so-called direct and indirect pathways--form the functional backbone of the basal ganglia circuit. Twenty years ago, investigators proposed that the striatum's ability to use dopamine (DA) rise and fall to control action selection was due to the segregation of D(1) and D(2) DA receptors in direct- and indirect-pathway spiny projection neurons. Although this hypothesis sparked a debate, the evidence that has accumulated since then clearly supports this model. Recent advances in the means of marking neural circuits with optical or molecular reporters have revealed a clear-cut dichotomy between these two cell types at the molecular, anatomical, and physiological levels. The contrast provided by these studies has provided new insights into how the striatum responds to fluctuations in DA signaling and how diseases that alter this signaling change striatal function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The genomic, biochemical, and cellular responses of the retina in inherited photoreceptor degenerations and prospects for the treatment of these disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2010-06-25
    Alexa N Bramall,Alan F Wright,Samuel G Jacobson,Roderick R McInnes

    The association of more than 140 genes with human photoreceptor degenerations, together with studies of animal models of these monogenic diseases, has provided great insight into their pathogenesis. Here we review the responses of the retina to photoreceptor mutations, including mechanisms of photoreceptor death. We discuss the roles of oxidative metabolism, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, metabolic stress, protein misfolding, and defects in ciliary proteins, as well as the responses of Müller glia, microglia, and the retinal vasculature. Finally, we report on potential pharmacologic and biologic therapies, the critical role of histopathology as a prerequisite to treatment, and the exciting promise of gene therapy in animal models and in phase 1 trials in humans.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neurological channelopathies.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2010-03-25
    Dimitri M Kullmann

    Inherited ion channel mutations can affect the entire nervous system. Many cause paroxysmal disturbances of brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerve or skeletal muscle function, with normal neurological development and function in between attacks. To fully understand how mutations of ion channel genes cause disease, we need to know the normal location and function of the channel subunit, consequences of the mutation for biogenesis and biophysical properties, and possible compensatory changes in other channels that contribute to cell or circuit excitability. Animal models of monogenic channelopathies increasingly help our understanding. An important challenge for the future is to determine how more subtle derangements of ion channel function, which arise from the interaction of genetic and environmental influences, contribute to common paroxysmal disorders, including idiopathic epilepsy and migraine, that share features with rare monogenic channelopathies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The neuropsychopharmacology of fronto-executive function: monoaminergic modulation.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2009-06-27
    T W Robbins,A F T Arnsten

    We review the modulatory effects of the catecholamine neurotransmitters noradrenaline and dopamine on prefrontal cortical function. The effects of pharmacologic manipulations of these systems, sometimes in comparison with the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT), on performance on a variety of tasks that tap working memory, attentional-set formation and shifting, reversal learning, and response inhibition are compared in rodents, nonhuman primates, and humans using, in a behavioral context, several techniques ranging from microiontophoresis and single-cell electrophysiological recording to pharmacologic functional magnetic resonance imaging. Dissociable effects of drugs and neurotoxins affecting these monoamine systems suggest new ways of conceptualizing state-dependent fronto-executive functions, with implications for understanding the molecular genetic basis of mental illness and its treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Kurt J De Vos,Andrew J Grierson,Steven Ackerley,Christopher C J Miller

    Many major human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), display axonal pathologies including abnormal accumulations of proteins and organelles. Such pathologies highlight damage to the axon as part of the pathogenic process and, in particular, damage to transport of cargoes through axons. Indeed, we now know that disruption of axonal transport is an early and perhaps causative event in many of these diseases. Here, we review the role of axonal transport in neurodegenerative disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Multiple dopamine functions at different time courses.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2007-06-30
    Wolfram Schultz

    Many lesion studies report an amazing variety of deficits in behavioral functions that cannot possibly be encoded in great detail by the relatively small number of midbrain dopamine neurons. Although hoping to unravel a single dopamine function underlying these phenomena, electrophysiological and neurochemical studies still give a confusing, mutually exclusive, and partly contradictory account of dopamine's role in behavior. However, the speed of observed phasic dopamine changes varies several thousand fold, which offers a means to differentiate the behavioral relationships according to their time courses. Thus dopamine is involved in mediating the reactivity of the organism to the environment at different time scales, from fast impulse responses related to reward via slower changes with uncertainty, punishment, and possibly movement to the tonic enabling of postsynaptic motor, cognitive, and motivational systems deficient in Parkinson's disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Brain circuits for the internal monitoring of movements.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2008-06-19
    Marc A Sommer,Robert H Wurtz

    Each movement we make activates our own sensory receptors, thus causing a problem for the brain: the spurious, movement-related sensations must be discriminated from the sensory inputs that really matter, those representing our environment. Here we consider circuits for solving this problem in the primate brain. Such circuits convey a copy of each motor command, known as a corollary discharge (CD), to brain regions that use sensory input. In the visual system, CD signals may help to produce a stable visual percept from the jumpy images resulting from our rapid eye movements. A candidate pathway for providing CD for vision ascends from the superior colliculus to the frontal cortex in the primate brain. This circuit conveys warning signals about impending eye movements that are used for planning subsequent movements and analyzing the visual world. Identifying this circuit has provided a model for studying CD in other primate sensory systems and may lead to a better understanding of motor and mental disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The development and application of optogenetics.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2011-06-23
    Lief Fenno,Ofer Yizhar,Karl Deisseroth

    Genetically encoded, single-component optogenetic tools have made a significant impact on neuroscience, enabling specific modulation of selected cells within complex neural tissues. As the optogenetic toolbox contents grow and diversify, the opportunities for neuroscience continue to grow. In this review, we outline the development of currently available single-component optogenetic tools and summarize the application of various optogenetic tools in diverse model organisms.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The molecular basis of self-avoidance.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2013-07-12
    S Lawrence Zipursky,Wesley B Grueber

    Self-avoidance, the tendency of neurites of the same cell to selectively avoid each other, is a property of both vertebrate and invertebrate neurons. In Drosophila, self-avoidance is mediated by a large family of cell recognition molecules of the immunoglobulin superfamily encoded, via alternative splicing, by the Dscam1 locus. Dscam1 promotes self-avoidance in dendrites, axons, and prospective postsynaptic elements. Expression analysis suggests that each neuron expresses a unique combination of isoforms. Identical isoforms on sister neurites exhibit isoform-specific homophilic recognition and elicit repulsion between processes, thereby promoting self-avoidance. Although any isoform can promote self-avoidance, thousands are necessary to ensure that neurites readily discriminate between self and nonself. Recent studies indicate that a large family of cadherins in the mouse, i.e., the clustered protocadherins, functions in an analogous fashion to promote self-avoidance. These studies argue for the evolution of a common molecular strategy for self-avoidance.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Monoamine oxidase: from genes to behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 1999-04-15
    J C Shih,K Chen,M J Ridd

    Cloning of MAO (monoamine oxidase) A and B has demonstrated unequivocally that these enzymes are made up of different polypeptides, and our understanding of MAO structure, regulation, and function has been significantly advanced by studies using their cDNA. MAO A and B genes are located on the X-chromosome (Xp11.23) and comprise 15 exons with identical intron-exon organization, which suggests that they are derived from the same ancestral gene. MAO A and B knock-out mice exhibit distinct differences in neurotransmitter metabolism and behavior. MAO A knock-out mice have elevated brain levels of serotonin, norephinephrine, and dopamine and manifest aggressive behavior similar to human males with a deletion of MAO A. In contrast, MAO B knock-out mice do not exhibit aggression and only levels of phenylethylamine are increased. Mice lacking MAO B are resistant to the Parkinsongenic neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetra-hydropyridine. Both MAO A and B knock-out mice show increased reactivity to stress. These knock-out mice are valuable models for investigating the role of monoamines in psychoses and neurodegenerative and stress-related disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular pathophysiology of Parkinson's disease.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2005-07-19
    Darren J Moore,Andrew B West,Valina L Dawson,Ted M Dawson

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder that results primarily from the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Although the etiology of PD is incompletely understood, the recent discovery of genes associated with rare monogenic forms of the disease, together with earlier studies and new experimental animal models, has provided important and novel insight into the molecular pathways involved in disease pathogenesis. Increasing evidence indicates that deficits in mitochondrial function, oxidative and nitrosative stress, the accumulation of aberrant or misfolded proteins, and ubiquitin-proteasome system dysfunction may represent the principal molecular pathways or events that commonly underlie the pathogenesis of sporadic and familial forms of PD .

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maps of the Auditory Cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2016-05-06
    Alyssa A Brewer,Brian Barton

    One of the fundamental properties of the mammalian brain is that sensory regions of cortex are formed of multiple, functionally specialized cortical field maps (CFMs). Each CFM comprises two orthogonal topographical representations, reflecting two essential aspects of sensory space. In auditory cortex, auditory field maps (AFMs) are defined by the combination of tonotopic gradients, representing the spectral aspects of sound (i.e., tones), with orthogonal periodotopic gradients, representing the temporal aspects of sound (i.e., period or temporal envelope). Converging evidence from cytoarchitectural and neuroimaging measurements underlies the definition of 11 AFMs across core and belt regions of human auditory cortex, with likely homology to those of macaque. On a macrostructural level, AFMs are grouped into cloverleaf clusters, an organizational structure also seen in visual cortex. Future research can now use these AFMs to investigate specific stages of auditory processing, key for understanding behaviors such as speech perception and multimodal sensory integration.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An integrative model of the maturation of cognitive control.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2015-07-15
    Beatriz Luna,Scott Marek,Bart Larsen,Brenden Tervo-Clemmens,Rajpreet Chahal

    Brains systems undergo unique and specific dynamic changes at the cellular, circuit, and systems level that underlie the transition to adult-level cognitive control. We integrate literature from these different levels of analyses to propose a novel model of the brain basis of the development of cognitive control. The ability to consistently exert cognitive control improves into adulthood as the flexible integration of component processes, including inhibitory control, performance monitoring, and working memory, increases. Unique maturational changes in brain structure, supported by interactions between dopaminergic and GABAergic systems, contribute to enhanced network synchronization and an improved signal-to-noise ratio. In turn, these factors facilitate the specialization and strengthening of connectivity in networks supporting the transition to adult levels of cognitive control. This model provides a novel understanding of the adolescent period as an adaptive period of heightened experience-seeking necessary for the specialization of brain systems supporting cognitive control.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Face Processing Systems: From Neurons to Real-World Social Perception.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2016-07-22
    Winrich Freiwald,Bradley Duchaine,Galit Yovel

    Primate face processing depends on a distributed network of interlinked face-selective areas composed of face-selective neurons. In both humans and macaques, the network is divided into a ventral stream and a dorsal stream, and the functional similarities of the areas in humans and macaques indicate they are homologous. Neural correlates for face detection, holistic processing, face space, and other key properties of human face processing have been identified at the single neuron level, and studies providing causal evidence have established firmly that face-selective brain areas are central to face processing. These mechanisms give rise to our highly accurate familiar face recognition but also to our error-prone performance with unfamiliar faces. This limitation of the face system has important implications for consequential situations such as eyewitness identification and policing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Neuron-glial interactions in blood-brain barrier formation.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2007-05-18
    Swati Banerjee,Manzoor A Bhat

    The blood brain barrier (BBB) evolved to preserve the microenvironment of the highly excitable neuronal cells to allow for action potential generation and propagation. Intricate molecular interactions between two main cell types, the neurons and the glial cells, form the underlying basis of the critical functioning of the nervous system across species. In invertebrates, interactions between neurons and glial cells are central in establishing a functional BBB. However, in vertebrates, the BBB formation and function is coordinated by interactions between neurons, glial cells, and endothelial cells. Here we review the neuron-glial interaction-based blood barriers in invertebrates and vertebrates and provide an evolutionary perspective as to how a glial-barrier system in invertebrates evolved into an endothelial barrier system. We also summarize the clinical relevance of the BBB as this protective barrier becomes disadvantageous in the pharmacological treatment of various neurological disorders.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Unraveling the mechanisms involved in motor neuron degeneration in ALS.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Lucie I Bruijn,Timothy M Miller,Don W Cleveland

    Although Charcot described amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) more than 130 years ago, the mechanism underlying the characteristic selective degeneration and death of motor neurons in this common adult motor neuron disease has remained a mystery. There is no effective remedy for this progressive, fatal disorder. Modern genetics has now identified mutations in one gene [Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1)] as a primary cause and implicated others [encoding neurofilaments, cytoplasmic dynein and its processivity factor dynactin, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)] as contributors to, or causes of, motor neuron diseases. These insights have enabled development of model systems to test hypotheses of disease mechanism and potential therapies. Along with errors in the handling of synaptic glutamate and the potential excitotoxic response this provokes, these model systems highlight the involvement of nonneuronal cells in disease progression and provide new therapeutic strategies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How the brain processes social information: searching for the social brain.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Thomas R Insel,Russell D Fernald

    Because information about gender, kin, and social status are essential for reproduction and survival, it seems likely that specialized neural mechanisms have evolved to process social information. This review describes recent studies of four aspects of social information processing: (a) perception of social signals via the vomeronasal system, (b) formation of social memory via long-term filial imprinting and short-term recognition, (c) motivation for parental behavior and pair bonding, and (d) the neural consequences of social experience. Results from these studies and some recent functional imaging studies in human subjects begin to define the circuitry of a "social brain." Such neurodevelopmental disorders as autism and schizophrenia are characterized by abnormal social cognition and corresponding deficits in social behavior; thus social neuroscience offers an important opportunity for translational research with an impact on public health.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Visual motor computations in insects.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Mandyam V Srinivasan,Shaowu Zhang

    With their relatively simple nervous systems and purpose-designed behaviors and reflexes, insects are an excellent organism in which to investigate how visual information is acquired and processed to guide locomotion and navigation. Flies maintain a straight course and monitor their motion through the environment by sensing the patterns of optic flow induced in the eyes. Bees negotiate narrow gaps by balancing the speeds of the images in their two eyes, and they control flight speed by holding constant the average image velocity as seen with their two eyes. Bees achieve a smooth landing on a horizontal surface by holding the image velocity of the surface constant during approach, thus ensuring that flight speed is automatically close to zero at touchdown. Foraging bees estimate the distance that they have traveled to reach a food source by integrating the optic flow experienced en route; this integration gives them a visually driven "odometer." Insects have also evolved sophisticated visuomotor mechanisms for pursuing prey or mates and possibly for concealing their own motion while shadowing objects of interest.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The human visual cortex.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Kalanit Grill-Spector,Rafael Malach

    The discovery and analysis of cortical visual areas is a major accomplishment of visual neuroscience. In the past decade the use of noninvasive functional imaging, particularly functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), has dramatically increased our detailed knowledge of the functional organization of the human visual cortex and its relation to visual perception. The fMRI method offers a major advantage over other techniques applied in neuroscience by providing a large-scale neuroanatomical perspective that stems from its ability to image the entire brain essentially at once. This bird's eye view has the potential to reveal large-scale principles within the very complex plethora of visual areas. Thus, it could arrange the entire constellation of human visual areas in a unified functional organizational framework. Here we review recent findings and methods employed to uncover the functional properties of the human visual cortex focusing on two themes: functional specialization and hierarchical processing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Attentional modulation of visual processing.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    John H Reynolds,Leonardo Chelazzi

    Single-unit recording studies in the macaque have carefully documented the modulatory effects of attention on the response properties of visual cortical neurons. Attention produces qualitatively different effects on firing rate, depending on whether a stimulus appears alone or accompanied by distracters. Studies of contrast gain control in anesthetized mammals have found parallel patterns of results when the luminance contrast of a stimulus increases. This finding suggests that attention has co-opted the circuits that mediate contrast gain control and that it operates by increasing the effective contrast of the attended stimulus. Consistent with this idea, microstimulation of the frontal eye fields, one of several areas that control the allocation of spatial attention, induces spatially local increases in sensitivity both at the behavioral level and among neurons in area V4, where endogenously generated attention increases contrast sensitivity. Studies in the slice have begun to explain how modulatory signals might cause such increases in sensitivity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cerebellum-dependent learning: the role of multiple plasticity mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Edward S Boyden,Akira Katoh,Jennifer L Raymond

    The cerebellum is an evolutionarily conserved structure critical for motor learning in vertebrates. The model that has influenced much of the work in the field for the past 30 years suggests that motor learning is mediated by a single plasticity mechanism in the cerebellum: long-term depression (LTD) of parallel fiber synapses onto Purkinje cells. However, recent studies of simple behaviors such as the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) indicate that multiple plasticity mechanisms contribute to cerebellum-dependent learning. Multiple plasticity mechanisms may provide the flexibility required to store memories over different timescales, regulate the dynamics of movement, and allow bidirectional changes in movement amplitude. These plasticity mechanisms must act in combination with appropriate information-coding strategies to equip motor-learning systems with the ability to express learning in correct contexts. Studies of the patterns of generalization of motor learning in the VOR provide insight about the coding of information in neurons at sites of plasticity. These principles emerging from studies of the VOR are consistent with results concerning more complex behaviors and thus may reflect general principles of cerebellar function.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Critical period regulation.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Takao K Hensch

    Neuronal circuits are shaped by experience during critical periods of early postnatal life. The ability to control the timing, duration, and closure of these heightened levels of brain plasticity has recently become experimentally accessible, especially in the developing visual system. This review summarizes our current understanding of known critical periods across several systems and species. It delineates a number of emerging principles: functional competition between inputs, role for electrical activity, structural consolidation, regulation by experience (not simply age), special role for inhibition in the CNS, potent influence of attention and motivation, unique timing and duration, as well as use of distinct molecular mechanisms across brain regions and the potential for reactivation in adulthood. A deeper understanding of critical periods will open new avenues to "nurture the brain"-from international efforts to link brain science and education to improving recovery from injury and devising new strategies for therapy and lifelong learning.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The synaptic vesicle cycle.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Thomas C Sudhof

    Neurotransmitter release is mediated by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles at the presynaptic active zone of nerve terminals. To support rapid and repeated rounds of release, synaptic vesicles undergo a trafficking cycle. The focal point of the vesicle cycle is Ca2+-triggered exocytosis that is followed by different routes of endocytosis and recycling. Recycling then leads to the docking and priming of the vesicles for another round of exo- and endocytosis. Recent studies have led to a better definition than previously available of how Ca2+ triggers exocytosis and how vesicles recycle. In particular, insight into how Munc18-1 collaborates with SNARE proteins in fusion, how the vesicular Ca2+ sensor synaptotagmin 1 triggers fast release, and how the vesicular Rab3 protein regulates release by binding to the active zone proteins RIM1 alpha and RIM2 alpha has advanced our understanding of neurotransmitter release. The present review attempts to relate these molecular data with physiological results in an emerging view of nerve terminals as macromolecular machines.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cortical neural prosthetics.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Andrew B Schwartz

    Control of prostheses using cortical signals is based on three elements: chronic microelectrode arrays, extraction algorithms, and prosthetic effectors. Arrays of microelectrodes are permanently implanted in cerebral cortex. These arrays must record populations of single- and multiunit activity indefinitely. Information containing position and velocity correlates of animate movement needs to be extracted continuously in real time from the recorded activity. Prosthetic arms, the current effectors used in this work, need to have the agility and configuration of natural arms. Demonstrations using closed-loop control show that subjects change their neural activity to improve performance with these devices. Adaptive-learning algorithms that capitalize on these improvements show that this technology has the capability of restoring much of the arm movement lost with immobilizing deficits.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The neurobiology of the ascidian tadpole larva: recent developments in an ancient chordate.
    Annu. Rev. Neurosci. (IF 12.043) Pub Date : 2004-06-26
    Ian A Meinertzhagen,Patrick Lemaire,Yasushi Okamura

    With little more than 330 cells, two thirds within the sensory vesicle, the CNS of the tadpole larva of the ascidian Ciona intestinalis provides us with a chordate nervous system in miniature. Neurulation, neurogenesis and its genetic bases, as well as the gene expression territories of this tiny constituency of cells all follow a chordate plan, giving rise in some cases to frank structural homologies with the vertebrate brain. Recent advances are fueled by the release of the genome and EST expression databases and by the development of methods to transfect embryos by electroporation. Immediate prospects to test the function of neural genes are based on the isolation of mutants by classical genetics and insertional mutagenesis, as well as by the disruption of gene function by morpholino antisense oligo-nucleotides. Coupled with high-speed video analysis of larval swimming, optophysiological methods offer the prospect to analyze at single-cell level the function of a CNS built on a vertebrate plan.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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