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  • Biosecurity dogs detect live insects after training with odour-proxy training aids: Scent extract and dead specimens
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Moser A, Brown W, Bizo L, et al.

    Detector dogs could be trained to find invasive insect pests at borders before they establish in new areas. However, without access to the live insects themselves, odour training aids are needed to condition dogs to their scent. This proof-of-concept study assessed two potential training aids for insect detection: a scent extract and dead specimens of the target species. Using Musgraveiasulciventris (Hemiptera: Tessaratomidae) as an experimental model, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analyses were carried out to compare the chemical headspaces that make up the odours of live specimens and these two training aids. This was then followed by canine scent-detection testing to investigate biosecurity detector dogs’ (n = 4) responses to training in an ecologically valid context. Both the scent extract and the dead specimens shared the majority of their volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with live insects. Of the dogs trained with scent extract (n = 2), both were able to detect the live insects accurately, and of those trained with dead specimens (n = 2), one detected the live insects accurately. These findings lend support for these training aids as odour-proxies for live insects - particularly scent extract, which is a relatively novel product with the potential for broad application to facilitate and improve insect-detection training.

    更新日期:2020-01-10
  • Relationship between olfactory disturbance after acute ischemic stroke and latent thalamic hypoperfusion
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-12-24
    Okamoto K, Shiga H, Nakamura H, et al.

    Odor detection, recognition and identification were assessed in 19 acute ischemic stroke patients who had no MRI-detectable thalamic lesions but in whom technetium–99m ethyl cysteinate dimer single photon emission tomography revealed thalamic hypoperfusion. Although these patients were unaware of reduced olfactory function, they exhibited significantly lower scores in tests for odor identification and recognition threshold as compared to 9 ischemic stroke controls that had normal thalamic hypoperfusion. However, absolute odor detection thresholds were similar in the two groups. These results demonstrate the usefulness of cerebral perfusion scintigraphy in assessing sensory loss after ischemic stroke and provide further evidence for the role of the thalamus in olfaction.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Genetic Increases in Olfactory Bulb BDNF Do Not Enhance Survival of Adult-Born Granule Cells
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-09-28
    McDole B, Berger R, Guthrie K.

    Adult-born neurons produced in the dentate gyrus subgranular zone (SGZ) develop as excitatory hippocampal granule cells (GCs), while those from the subventricular zone (SVZ) migrate to the olfactory bulb (OB), where most develop as GABAergic olfactory GCs. Both types of neurons express TrkB as they mature. Normally ~50% of new olfactory GCs survive, but survival declines if sensory drive is reduced. Increases in endogenous brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in hippocampus, particularly with wheel running, enhance dentate GC survival. Whether survival of new olfactory GCs is impacted by augmenting BDNF in the OB, where they mature and integrate, is not known. Here, we determined if increasing OB BDNF expression enhances survival of new GCs, and if it counters their loss under conditions of reduced sensory activity. Neurogenesis was assessed under normal conditions, and following unilateral naris occlusion, in mice overexpressing BDNF in the granule cell layer (GCL). OB BDNF levels were significantly higher in transgenic mice compared to controls, and this was maintained following sensory deprivation. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) cell birth dating showed that at 12–14 days post-BrdU, numbers of new GCs did not differ between genotypes, indicating normal recruitment to the OB. At later intervals, transgenic and control mice showed levels of GC loss in deprived and nondeprived animals that were indistinguishable, as was the incidence of apoptotic cells in the GCL. These results demonstrate that, in contrast to new dentate GCs, elevations in endogenous BDNF do not enhance survival of adult-born olfactory GCs.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • A Neural Mechanism of Cue-Outcome Expectancy Generated by the Interaction Between Orbitofrontal Cortex and Amygdala
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Takei K, Fujita K, Kashimori Y.

    Taste perception is important for animals to take adequate nutrients and avoid toxins for their survival. Appetitive and aversive behaviors are produced by value evaluation of taste and taste expectation caused by other sensations. The value evaluation, coupled with a cue presentation, produces outcome expectation and guides flexible behaviors when the environment is changed. Experimental studies demonstrated distinct functional roles of basolateral amygdala (ABL) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in value evaluation and adaptive behavior. ABL is involved in generating a cue–outcome association, whereas OFC makes a contribution of generating a cue-triggered expectation to guide adaptive behavior. However, it remains unclear how ABL and OFC form their functional roles, with the learning of adaptive behavior. To address this issue, we focus on an odor discrimination task of rats and develop a computational model that consists of OFC and ABL, interacting with reward and decision systems. We present the neural mechanisms underlying the rapid formation of cue–outcome association in ABL and late behavioral adaptation mediated by OFC. Moreover, we offer 2 functions of cue-selective neurons in OFC: one is that the activation of cue-selective neurons transmits value information to decision area to guide behavior and another is that persistent activity of cue-selective neurons evokes a weak activity of taste-sensitive OFC neurons, leading to cue-outcome expectation. Our model further accounts for ABL and OFC responses caused by lesions of these areas. The results provide a computational framework of how ABL and OFC are functionally linked through their interactions with the reward and decision systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Multisensory interactions underlying flavor consumption in rats: the role of experience and unisensory component liking
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Elliott V, Maier J.

    The mechanisms by which taste and odor are combined in determining food choice behavior are poorly understood. Previous work in human subjects has yielded mixed results, potentially due to differences in task context across studies, and a lack of control over flavor experience. Here, we used rats as a model system to systematically investigate the role of experience and unisensory component liking in the multisensory interactions underlying consumption behavior. We demonstrate that taste–smell mixture consumption is best explained by a linear average of component liking. The observed pattern of results was not dependent on prior experience with specific taste–smell combinations, and unique for multisensory as opposed to unisensory mixture consumption. The results are discussed with respect to existing models of flavor integration, and a maximum-likelihood integration model previously described for multisensory judgments in other systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Probing the Impact of Gender-Affirming Hormone Treatment on Odor Perception
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Kranz G, Kaufmann U, Lanzenberger R.

    Evidence suggests that women outperform men in core aspects of odor perception, and sex hormones may play a significant role in moderating this effect. The gender-affirming treatment (GAT) of transgender persons constitutes a powerful natural experiment to study the psychological and behavioral effects of high dosages of cross-sex hormone applications. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effects of GAT on odor perception in a sample of 131 participants including female and male controls, as well as transmen and transwomen over their first 4 months of gender transition. The Sniffin’ Sticks test battery was used to measure odor detection, discrimination, and identification at baseline, as well as 1 and 4 months after the start of GAT. Plasma levels of estradiol, testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin were analyzed for each assessment point. Results revealed no significant change of olfactory performance in the two transgender groups compared with female and male controls. There was no significant difference between groups at baseline or any other time point. Neither biological sex, nor gender identity had an influence on odor perception. Moreover, there was no significant correlation between sex hormones and odor perception and between GAT-induced changes in sex hormones and changes in odor perception. Our results indicate that the effects of sex hormones on olfactory performance are subtle, if present at all. However, our results do not preclude hormonal effects on odors not included in the Sniffin’ Sticks test battery, such as body odors or odors associated with sex.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Editor-in-Chief’s Note—Thank you to Reviewers
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-12-19

    The Editors would like to thank those listed below who have given their valuable help over the last year, between 1 October 2018 and 30 September 2019, in the review of manuscripts submitted to Chemical Senses.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Metal-containing Particulate Matter and Associated Reduced Olfactory Identification Ability in Children from an Area of High Atmospheric Exposure in Mexico City
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Guarneros M, López-Rivera C, Gonsebatt M, et al.

    Air pollution has been linked to poor olfactory function in human adults. Among pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is especially relevant, as it may contain toxic metal ions that can reach the brain via olfactory pathways. Our purpose was to investigate the relation between atmospheric PM and olfactory identification performance in children. Using a validated method, we tested the olfactory identification performance of 120 children, 6–12 years old, from two locations in Mexico City: a focal group (n = 60) from a region with high PM levels and a control group of equal size and similar socioeconomic level from a region with markedly lower PM concentrations. Groups were matched for age and sex. Concentrations of manganese and lead in the hair of participants were determined as biomarkers of exposure. Daily outdoor PM levels were obtained from official records, and indoor PM levels were measured in the children’s classrooms. Official records confirmed higher levels of outdoor PM in the focal region during the days of testing. We also found higher classroom PM concentrations at the focal site. Children from the focal site had on average significantly lower olfactory identification scores than controls, and hair analysis showed significantly higher levels of manganese for the focal children but no difference in lead. Children appear to be vulnerable to the effects of air pollution on olfactory identification performance, and metal-containing particles likely play a role in this. Olfactory tests provide a sensitive, noninvasive means to assess central nervous function in populations facing poor air quality.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Individuals With Autism Spectrum Disorder Show Altered Event-Related Potentials in the Late Stages of Olfactory Processing
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Okumura T, Kumazaki H, Singh A, et al.

    Atypical sensory reactivities are pervasive among people with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). With respect to olfaction, most previous studies have used psychophysical or questionnaire-based methodologies; thus, the neural basis of olfactory processing in ASD remains unclear. This study aimed to determine the stages of olfactory processing that are altered in ASD. Fourteen young adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age, 21 years; 3 females) were compared with 19 age-matched typically developing (TD) controls (mean age, 21 years; 4 females). Olfactory event-related potentials (OERPs) for 2-phenylethyl alcohol—a rose-like odor—were measured with 64 scalp electrodes while participants performed a simple odor detection task. Significant group differences in OERPs were found in 3 time windows 542 ms after the stimulus onset. The cortical source activities in these time windows, estimated using standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography, were significantly higher in ASD than in TD in and around the posterior cingulate cortex, which is known to play a crucial role in modality-general cognitive processing. Supplemental Bayesian analysis provided substantial evidence for an alteration in the later stages of olfactory processing, whereas conclusive evidence was not provided for the earlier stages. These results suggest that olfactory processing in ASD is altered at least at the later, modality-general processing stage.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Cyclophosphamide has Long-Term Effects on Proliferation in Olfactory Epithelia
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Awadallah N, Proctor K, Joseph K, et al.

    Chemotherapy patients often experience chemosensory changes during and after drug therapy. The chemotherapy drug, cyclophosphamide (CYP), has known cytotoxic effects on sensory and proliferating cells of the taste system. Like the taste system, cells in the olfactory epithelia undergo continuous renewal. Therefore, we asked if a single injection of 75 mg/kg CYP would affect cell proliferation in the anterior dorsomedial region of the main olfactory epithelium (MOE) and the vomeronasal organ (VNO) from 0-125 days after injection. Both epithelia showed a decrease in Ki67 labeled cells compared to controls at day 1 and no Ki67+ cells at day 2 post injection. In the sensory layer of the MOE, cell proliferation began to recover four days after CYP injection and by six days, the rate of proliferation was significantly greater than controls. Ki67+ cells peaked 30 days post injection, then declined to control levels at day 45. Similar temporal sequences of initial CYP-induced suppression of cell proliferation followed by elevated rates peaking 30-45 days post injection were seen in the sustentacular layer of the MOE and all three areas (sensory, sustentacular, marginal) of the VNO. CYP affected proliferation in the sensory layer of the MOE more than the sustentacular layer and all three areas of the VNO. These findings suggest that chemotherapy involving CYP is capable of affecting cell renewal of the olfactory system and likely contributes to clinical loss of function during and after chemotherapy.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Parametric characterization of a taste phenotype in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-11-23
    Dess N, Chapman C.

    Taste signals food quality and reflects energy status and associated processes. Occidental High- and Low-Saccharin Consuming Rats (HiS, LoS) have been selectively bred for nearly sixty generations on intake of 0.1% saccharin in a 23-h two-bottle test, as a tool for studying individual differences in taste and its correlates in the domains of feeding, defensive, and social behavior. The saccharin phenotype itself has not been well characterized until now. The present series of parametric studies examined suprathreshold saccharin concentration-intake functions (Experiment 1), saccharin preference threshold (Experiments 2A-2B), and intra- and inter-sweetener carry-forward effects (Experiments 2B, 3A-3D). Results indicate high stability in line differences in behavior toward saccharin and also line-specific mutability of intake of saccharin and certain other sweeteners. Methodological and conceptual implications are discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-26
  • Type III Cells in Anterior Taste Fields Are More Immunohistochemically Diverse Than Those of Posterior Taste Fields in Mice.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2017-10-03
    Courtney E Wilson,Thomas E Finger,Sue C Kinnamon

    Activation of Type III cells in mammalian taste buds is implicated in the transduction of acids (sour) and salty stimuli. Several lines of evidence suggest that function of Type III cells in the anterior taste fields may differ from that of Type III cells in posterior taste fields. Underlying anatomy to support this observation is, however, scant. Most existing immunohistochemical data characterizing this cell type focus on circumvallate taste buds in the posterior tongue. Equivalent data from anterior taste fields-fungiform papillae and soft palate-are lacking. Here, we compare Type III cells in four taste fields: fungiform, soft palate, circumvallate, and foliate in terms of reactivity to four canonical markers of Type III cells: polycystic kidney disease 2-like 1 (PKD2L1), synaptosomal associated protein 25 (SNAP25), serotonin (5-HT), and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD67). Our findings indicate that while PKD2L1, 5-HT, and SNAP25 are highly coincident in posterior taste fields, they diverge in anterior taste fields. In particular, a subset of taste cells expresses PKD2L1 without the synaptic markers, and a subset of SNAP25 cells lacks expression of PKD2L1. In posterior taste fields, GAD67-positive cells are a subset of PKD2L1 expressing taste cells, but anterior taste fields also contain a significant population of GAD67-only expressing cells. These differences in expression patterns may underlie the observed functional differences between anterior and posterior taste fields.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interspecific variation of olfactory preferences in flies, mice, and humans.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-11-18
    Diogo Manoel,Melanie Makhlouf,Antonio Scialdone,Luis R Saraiva

    Aiming to unravel interspecific differences in olfactory preferences, we performed comparative studies of odor valence in flies, mice, and humans. Our analysis suggests a model where flies and mice share similar olfactory preferences, but neither species share odor preferences with humans. This model contrasts with a previous study by Mandairon et al., which suggested that the olfactory preferences of mice and humans are similar. A probabilistic examination revealed that underpowered studies can result in spurious significant correlations, which can account for the differences between both studies. Future analyses aimed at dissecting the olfactory preferences across species need to test large numbers of odorants to stress-test the model proposed here and identify robust associations.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Brain Responses to Anticipation and Consumption of Beer with and without Alcohol.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-11-14
    Paul A M Smeets,Cees de Graaf

    Beer is a popular alcoholic beverage worldwide. Nonalcoholic beer (NA-beer) is increasingly marketed. Brain responses to beer and NA-beer have not been compared. It could be that the flavor of beer constitutes a conditioned stimulus associated with alcohol reward. Therefore, we investigated whether oral exposure to NA-beer with or without alcohol elicits similar brain responses in reward-related areas in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. Healthy men (n = 21) who were regular beer drinkers were scanned using functional MRI. Participants were exposed to word cues signaling delivery of a 10-mL sip of chilled beer or carbonated water (control) and subsequent sips of NA-beer with or without alcohol or water (control). Beer alcohol content was not signaled. The beer cue elicited less activation than the control cue in the primary visual cortex, supplementary motor area (reward-related region) and bilateral inferior frontal gyrus/frontal operculum. During tasting, there were no significant differences between the 2 beers. Taste activation after swallowing was significantly greater for alcoholic than for NA-beer in the inferior frontal gyrus/anterior insula and dorsal prefrontal cortex (superior frontal gyrus). This appears to be due to sensory stimulation by ethanol rather than reward processing. In conclusion, we found no differences in acute brain reward upon consumption of NA-beer with and without alcohol, when presented in a context where regular alcoholic beer is expected. This suggests that in regular consumers, beer flavor rather than the presence of alcohol is the main driver of the consumption experience.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selective Effects of Temperature on the Sensory Irritation but not Taste of NaCl and Citric Acid.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-11-13
    Danielle Nachtigal,Kendra Andrew,Barry G Green

    This study investigated the effect of temperature on taste and chemesthetic sensations produced by the prototypical salty and sour stimuli NaCl and citric acid. Experiment 1 measured the perceived intensity of irritation (burning, stinging) and taste (saltiness, sourness) produced on the tongue tip by brief (3 s) exposures to suprathreshold concentrations of NaCl and citric acid at 3 different temperatures (12, 34, and 42 °C). No significant effects of temperature were found on the taste or sensory irritation of either stimulus. Experiment 2 investigated the potential effects of temperature on sensory irritation at peri-threshold concentrations and its sensitization over time. Measurements were again made on the tongue tip at the same 3 temperatures. Heating was found to enhance the perception of irritation at peri-threshold concentrations for both stimuli, whereas cooling suppressed sensitization of irritation for NaCl but not for citric acid. These results (i) confirm prior evidence that perception of suprathreshold salty and sour tastes are independent of temperature; (ii) demonstrate that heat has only weak effects on sensory irritation produced by brief exposures to NaCl and citric acid; and (iii) suggest that sensitization of the irritation produced by NaCl and citric acid occur via different peripheral mechanisms that have different thermal sensitivities. Overall, the results are consistent with involvement of the heat-sensitive channel TRPV1 in the sensory irritation of both stimuli together with one or more additional channels (e.g., acid-sensing channel, epithelial sodium channel, TRPA1) that are insensitive to heat and may possibly be sensitive to cooling.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Experience-Dependent c-Fos Expression in the Mediodorsal Thalamus Varies With Chemosensory Modality.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-11-06
    Kelly E Fredericksen,Kelsey A McQueen,Chad L Samuelsen

    The mediodorsal thalamus is a higher order thalamic nucleus critical for many cognitive behaviors. Defined by its reciprocal connections with the prefrontal cortex, the mediodorsal thalamus receives strong projections from chemosensory cortical areas for taste and smell, gustatory cortex and piriform cortex. Recent studies indicate the mediodorsal thalamus is involved in experience-dependent chemosensory processes, including olfactory attention and discrimination and the hedonic perception of odor-taste mixtures. How novel and familiar chemosensory stimuli are represented within this structure remains unclear. Here, we compared the expression of c-Fos in the mediodorsal thalami of rats familiar with an odor, a taste, or an odor-taste mixture with those that sampled the stimuli for the first time. We found that familiar tastes or odor-taste mixtures induced significantly greater c-Fos expression in the mediodorsal thalamus than novel tastes or odor-taste mixtures, whereas novel odors induced greater c-Fos expression than familiar odors. These experience-dependent and modality-specific differences in c-Fos expression may relate to the behavioral relevance of the chemosensory stimulus, including odor neophobia. In a two-bottle brief-access preference task, rats preferred water to isoamyl acetate-odorized water over multiple days. However, after experience with isoamyl acetate mixed with sucrose (odor-taste mixture), the preference for water was eliminated. These findings demonstrate that experience with chemosensory stimuli modulates responses in the mediodorsal thalamus, suggesting this structure plays an integral role in communicating behaviorally relevant chemosensory information to higher order areas to guide food-related behaviors.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Machine Learning in Human Olfactory Research.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Jörn Lötsch,Dario Kringel,Thomas Hummel

    The complexity of the human sense of smell is increasingly reflected in complex and high-dimensional data, which opens opportunities for data-driven approaches that complement hypothesis-driven research. Contemporary developments in computational and data science, with its currently most popular implementation as machine learning, facilitate complex data-driven research approaches. The use of machine learning in human olfactory research included major approaches comprising 1) the study of the physiology of pattern-based odor detection and recognition processes, 2) pattern recognition in olfactory phenotypes, 3) the development of complex disease biomarkers including olfactory features, 4) odor prediction from physico-chemical properties of volatile molecules, and 5) knowledge discovery in publicly available big databases. A limited set of unsupervised and supervised machine-learned methods has been used in these projects, however, the increasing use of contemporary methods of computational science is reflected in a growing number of reports employing machine learning for human olfactory research. This review provides key concepts of machine learning and summarizes current applications on human olfactory data.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Tissue-Dependent Expression of Bitter Receptor TAS2R38 mRNA.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Jennifer E Douglas,Cailu Lin,Corrine J Mansfield,Charles J Arayata,Beverly J Cowart,Andrew I Spielman,Nithin D Adappa,James N Palmer,Noam A Cohen,Danielle R Reed

    TAS2R38 is a human bitter receptor gene with a common but inactive allele; people homozygous for the inactive form cannot perceive low concentrations of certain bitter compounds. The frequency of the inactive and active forms of this receptor is nearly equal in many human populations, and heterozygotes with 1 copy of the active form and 1 copy of the inactive form have the most common diplotype. However, even though they have the same genotype, heterozygotes differ markedly in their perception of bitterness, perhaps in part because of differences in TAS2R38 mRNA expression. Other tissues express this receptor too, including the nasal sinuses, where it contributes to pathogen defense. We, therefore, wondered whether heterozygous people had a similar wide range of TAS2R38 mRNA in sinonasal tissue and whether those with higher TAS2R38 mRNA expression in taste tissue were similarly high expressers in nasal tissue. To that end, we measured gene expression by quantitative PCR in taste and sinonasal tissue and found that expression abundance in one tissue was not related to the other. We confirmed the independence of expression in other tissue pairs expressing TAS2R38 mRNA, such as pancreas and small intestine, using autopsy data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project (although people with high expression of TAS2R38 mRNA in colon also tended to have higher expression in the small intestine). Thus, taste tissue TAS2R38 mRNA expression among heterozygotes is unlikely to predict expression in other tissues, perhaps reflecting tissue-dependent function, and hence regulation, of this protein.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Massive Expansion of Bitter Taste Receptors in Blind Cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Vladimir Shiriagin,Sigrun I Korsching

    A sensory deficit both at the individual and at the species level can be compensated by increased acuity in other senses. The loss of vision in blind cavefish, Astyanax mexicanus, appears to be partially counterbalanced by enhanced chemosensory perception. Whether such improvement also involves adaptive changes in chemosensory receptor repertoires was unknown. The typical bitter taste receptor repertoire of teleost fish is reported as 3-5 genes, much smaller than that of many terrestrial species. Interestingly, several fish species, for example, mudskipper, have evolved a terrestrial lifestyle, but again it was unknown, whether this change in habitat is reflected in the size of gustatory receptor repertoires. We have searched the genomes of 15 fish species and performed a thorough phylogenetic analysis to delineate their bitter taste receptor repertoires. We report no adaptation for 4 mudskipper species, which exhibit 3-4 bitter taste receptor genes, and thus a typical teleost repertoire, shaped by few gene losses and minor gene duplications from an ancestral repertoire of 4 genes. However, and in sharp contrast to all other teleost fish species analyzed, blind cavefish possess more than 20 intact bitter taste receptors and several pseudogenes, rivaling the complexity of the human bitter taste receptor repertoire. The gene duplications giving rise to the current cavefish bitter taste receptor repertoire appear to have occurred well before the loss of vision, consistent with this increase in repertoire size constituting a preadaptive trait that conceivably could compensate to some extent for the lack of visual cues.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Effect of Exposure to Fear-Related Body Odorants on Anxiety and Interpersonal Trust Toward a Virtual Character.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Pamela Quintana,Kévin Nolet,Oliver Baus,Stéphane Bouchard

    A growing body of literature documents how exposure to another person's fear-related body odorants can increase one's own anxiety and interfere with processing of social information, such as facial expression and impression formation. Building on these results, we aimed to 1) test the hypothesis that exposure to fear-related odorant would affect impression formation through fear contagion and 2) verify whether these effects can be observed in an ecologically valid (i.e., virtual) environment. We proposed that exposure to fear-related odorant would cause receivers to feel more anxious, which in turn would lead them to report less trust toward an unknown virtual character. This study had 2 distinct phases. First, we collected perspiration odorants from the armpits of 12 male senders (i.e., the source of the odorant) during the viewing of either fear or joy inducing film clips. In the second phase, 53 women receivers were exposed to either a fear, joy, or neutral odorant (i.e., between-subjects design) by breathing through a gauze attached to a disposable respirator mask while immersed in a virtual bar. As expected, receivers exposed to fear odorants felt significantly more stressed. Mediation analysis also revealed an indirect effect of exposure on trust through anxiety. More specifically, the more anxious the receiver felt, the less she trusted the virtual character. Our results show for the first time that the impact of exposure to fear-related body odorants on negative interpersonal impression formation is mediated by the anxiety induced in the receiver.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Detected Objects, Perceived Properties.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Andreas Keller

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Perceived Properties Are Not Free-Floating.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-10
    Bernd Lindemann

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Taste Receptor Cells in Mice Express Receptors for the Hormone Adiponectin.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-28
    Sean M Crosson,Andrew Marques,Peter Dib,Cedrick D Dotson,Steven D Munger,Sergei Zolotukhin

    The metabolic hormone adiponectin is secreted into the circulation by adipocytes and mediates key biological functions, including insulin sensitivity, adipocyte development, and fatty acid oxidation. Adiponectin is also abundant in saliva, where its functions are poorly understood. Here we report that murine taste receptor cells (TRCs) express specific adiponectin receptors and may be a target for salivary adiponectin. This is supported by the presence of all three known adiponectin receptors in transcriptomic data obtained by RNA-seq analysis of purified circumvallate (CV) taste buds. As well, immunohistochemical analysis of murine CV papillae showed that two adiponectin receptors, ADIPOR1 and T-cadherin, are localized to subsets of TRCs. Immunofluorescence for T-cadherin was primarily co-localized with the Type 2 TRC marker phospholipase C β2, suggesting that adiponectin signaling could impact sweet, bitter, or umami taste signaling. However, adiponectin null mice showed no differences in behavioral lick responsiveness compared with wild-type controls in brief-access lick testing. AAV-mediated overexpression of adiponectin in the salivary glands of adiponectin null mice did result in a small but significant increase in behavioral lick responsiveness to the fat emulsion Intralipid. Together, these results suggest that salivary adiponectin can affect TRC function, although its impact on taste responsiveness and peripheral taste coding remains unclear.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Global Study of Social Odor Awareness.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-06-30
    Agnieszka Sorokowska,Agata Groyecka,Maciej Karwowski,Tomasz Frackowiak,Jennifer E Lansford,Khodabakhsh Ahmadi,Ahmad M Alghraibeh,Richmond Aryeetey,Anna Bertoni,Karim Bettache,Sheyla Blumen,Marta Blazejewska,Tiago Bortolini,Marina Butovskaya,Katarzyna Cantarero,Felipe Nalon Castro,Hakan Cetinkaya,Lei Chang,Bin-Bin Chen,Diana Cunha,Daniel David,Oana A David,Fahd A Dileym,Alejandra Del Carmen Domínguez Espinosa,Silvia Donato,Daria Dronova,Seda Dural,Jitka Fialová,Maryanne Fisher,Evrim Gulbetekin,Aslihan Hamamcioglu Akkaya,Peter Hilpert,Ivana Hromatko,Raffaella Iafrate,Mariana Iesyp,Bawo James,Jelena Jaranovic,Feng Jiang,Charles Obadiah Kimamo,Grete Kjelvik,Firat Koç,Amos Laar,Fívia de Araújo Lopes,Guillermo Macbeth,Nicole M Marcano,Rocio Martinez,Norbert Mesko,Natalya Molodovskaya,Khadijeh Moradi Qezeli,Zahrasadat Motahari,Alexandra Mühlhauser,Jean Carlos Natividade,Joseph Ntayi,Elisabeth Oberzaucher,Oluyinka Ojedokun,Mohd Sofian Bin Omar-Fauzee,Ike E Onyishi,Anna Paluszak,John D Pierce,Urmila Pillay,Alda Portugal,Eugenia Razumiejczyk,Anu Realo,Ana Paula Relvas,Maria Rivas,Muhammad Rizwan,Svjetlana Salkicevic,Ivan Sarmány-Schuller,Susanne Schmehl,Oksana Senyk,Charlotte Sinding,Emma Sorbring,Eftychia Stamkou,Stanislava Stoyanova,Denisa Šukolová,Nina Sutresna,Meri Tadinac,Sombat Tapanya,Andero Teras,Edna Lúcia Tinoco Ponciano,Ritu Tripathi,Nachiketa Tripathi,Mamta Tripathi,Olja Uhryn,Maria Emília Yamamoto,Gyesook Yoo,Piotr Sorokowski

    Olfaction plays an important role in human social communication, including multiple domains in which people often rely on their sense of smell in the social context. The importance of the sense of smell and its role can however vary inter-individually and culturally. Despite the growing body of literature on differences in olfactory performance or hedonic preferences across the globe, the aspects of a given culture as well as culturally universal individual differences affecting odor awareness in human social life remain unknown. Here, we conducted a large-scale analysis of data collected from 10 794 participants from 52 study sites from 44 countries all over the world. The aim of our research was to explore the potential individual and country-level correlates of odor awareness in the social context. The results show that the individual characteristics were more strongly related than country-level factors to self-reported odor awareness in different social contexts. A model including individual-level predictors (gender, age, material situation, education, and preferred social distance) provided a relatively good fit to the data, but adding country-level predictors (Human Development Index, population density, and average temperature) did not improve model parameters. Although there were some cross-cultural differences in social odor awareness, the main differentiating role was played by the individual differences. This suggests that people living in different cultures and different climate conditions may still share some similar patterns of odor awareness if they share other individual-level characteristics.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Corrigendum.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2017-04-14

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Conserved Residues Control the T1R3-Specific Allosteric Signaling Pathway of the Mammalian Sweet-Taste Receptor.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-03-21
    Jean-Baptiste Chéron,Amanda Soohoo,Yi Wang,Jérôme Golebiowski,Serge Antonczak,Peihua Jiang,Sébastien Fiorucci

    Mammalian sensory systems detect sweet taste through the activation of a single heteromeric T1R2/T1R3 receptor belonging to class C G-protein-coupled receptors. Allosteric ligands are known to interact within the transmembrane domain, yet a complete view of receptor activation remains elusive. By combining site-directed mutagenesis with computational modeling, we investigate the structure and dynamics of the allosteric binding pocket of the T1R3 sweet-taste receptor in its apo form, and in the presence of an allosteric ligand, cyclamate. A novel positively charged residue at the extracellular loop 2 is shown to interact with the ligand. Molecular dynamics simulations capture significant differences in the behavior of a network of conserved residues with and without cyclamate, although they do not directly interact with the allosteric ligand. Structural models show that they adopt alternate conformations, associated with a conformational change in the transmembrane region. Site-directed mutagenesis confirms that these residues are unequivocally involved in the receptor function and the allosteric signaling mechanism of the sweet-taste receptor. Similar to a large portion of the transmembrane domain, they are highly conserved among mammals, suggesting an activation mechanism that is evolutionarily conserved. This work provides a structural basis for describing the dynamics of the receptor, and for the rational design of new sweet-taste modulators.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bitter-Induced Salivary Proteins Increase Detection Threshold of Quinine, But Not Sucrose.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-06
    Laura E Martin,Kristen E Kay,Ann-Marie Torregrossa

    Exposures to dietary tannic acid (TA, 3%) and quinine (0.375%) upregulate partially overlapping sets of salivary proteins which are concurrent with changes in taste-driven behaviors, such as rate of feeding and brief access licking to quinine. In addition, the presence of salivary proteins reduces chorda tympani responding to quinine. Together these data suggest that salivary proteins play a role in bitter taste. We hypothesized that salivary proteins altered orosensory feedback to bitter by decreasing sensitivity to the stimulus. To that end, we used diet exposure to alter salivary proteins, then assessed an animal's ability to detect quinine, using a 2-response operant task. Rats were asked to discriminate descending concentrations of quinine from water in a modified forced-choice paradigm, before and after exposure to diets that alter salivary protein expression in a similar way (0.375% quinine or 3% TA), or 1 of 2 control diets. Control animals received either a bitter diet that does not upregulate salivary proteins (4% sucrose octaacetate), or a nonbitter diet. The rats exposed to salivary protein-inducing diets significantly decreased their performance (had higher detection thresholds) after diet exposure, whereas rats in the control conditions did not alter performance after diet exposure. A fifth group of animals were trained to detect sucrose before and after they were maintained on the 3% TA diet. There was no significant difference in performance, suggesting that these shifts in threshold are stimulus specific rather than task specific. Taken together, these results suggest that salivary proteins reduce sensitivity to quinine.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Proceedings from the 2018 Association for Chemoreception Annual Meeting Symposium: Bariatric Surgery and Its Effects on Taste and Food Selection.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-12-06
    Alan C Spector,Natasha Kapoor,Ruth K Price,M Yanina Pepino,M Barbara E Livingstone,Carel W Le Roux

    This article provides a summary of the topics discussed at the symposium titled "Bariatric Surgery and Its Effects on Taste and Food Selection," which was held at the Fortieth Annual Meeting of the Association for Chemoreception Sciences. Bariatric surgery such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is currently one of the most effective treatments available for weight loss and Type 2 diabetes. For this reason, it is of great interest to clinicians as well as to basic scientists studying the controls of feeding and energy balance. Despite the commonly held view by clinicians that RYGB patients change their food preferences away from fats and sugars in favor of less energy dense alternatives such as vegetables, the empirical support for this claim is equivocal. It is currently thought that the taste and palatability of fats and sugars are affected by the surgery. Some key preclinical and clinical findings addressing these issues were evaluated in this symposium.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Short-Term Exposure to a Calorically Dense Diet Alters Taste-Evoked Responses in the Chorda Tympani Nerve, But Not Unconditioned Lick Responses to Sucrose.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-06-04
    Yada Treesukosol,Chizuko Inui-Yamamoto,Haruno Mizuta,Takashi Yamamoto,Timothy H Moran

    Upon presentation of a calorically dense diet, rats display hyperphagia driven by increased meal size. The increased meal size and hyperphagia are most robust across the first several days of diet exposure before changes in body weight are evident, thus it is plausible that one of the factors that drives the hyperphagia may be enhanced orosensory responsivity. Here, electrophysiological responses to an array of taste stimuli were recorded from the chorda tympani nerve, a branch of the facial nerve that innervates taste receptors in the anterior tongue, of rats presented a high-energy (45% fat and 17% sucrose) diet for 3 days. Responses in the high-energy diet group were significantly higher for 0.01, 0.03, 0.06 and 0.3 M sucrose; 0.05 M Na-saccharin; and 0.01 M quinine compared with those of chow-fed controls. Another cohort of animals was tested in 30-min brief-access taste sessions (10-s trials) to a sucrose concentration series across the first 6 days of high-energy diet presentation. Both groups responded in a concentration-dependent manner. No significant group differences in unconditioned licking or trials initiated were revealed. Results from a third cohort of rats showed that responses to sucrose in a brief-access taste test also remained largely unchanged as a function of 3-day access to a sucrose solution. Taken together, these findings suggest that 3 days of high-energy diet exposure results in alterations to peripheral gustatory signaling yet these changes do not necessarily generalize to changes in responsiveness to sucrose, as least as measured in this procedure.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Postnatal Exposure to Ethanol Increases Its Oral Acceptability to Adolescent Rats.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-09-01
    Joyce Tang,Steven L Youngentob,John I Glendinning

    The aversive flavor of ethanol limits intake by many consumers. We asked whether intermittent consumption of ethanol increases its oral acceptability, using rats as a model system. We focused on adolescent rats because they (like their human counterparts) have a higher risk for alcohol overconsumption than do adult rats following experience with the drug. We measured the impact of ethanol exposure on 1) the oral acceptability of ethanol and surrogates for its bitter (quinine) and sweet (sucrose) flavor components in brief-access lick tests and 2) responses of the glossopharyngeal (GL) taste nerve to oral stimulation with the same chemical stimuli. During the exposure period, the experimental rats had access to chow, water and 10% ethanol every other day for 16 days; the control rats had access to chow and water over the same time period. The experimental rats consumed 7-14 g/day of 10% ethanol across the exposure period. This ethanol consumption significantly increased the oral acceptability of 3%, 6% and 10% ethanol, but had no impact on the oral acceptability of quinine, sucrose or NaCl. The ethanol exposure also diminished responses of the GL nerve to oral stimulation with ethanol, but not quinine, sucrose or NaCl. Taken together, these findings indicate that ethanol consumption increases the oral acceptability of ethanol in adolescent rats and that this increased oral acceptability is mediated, at least in part, by an exposure-induced reduction in responsiveness of the peripheral taste system to ethanol per se, rather than its bitter and sweet flavor components.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Self-reported Smoking Status, TAS2R38 Variants, and Propylthiouracil Phenotype: An Exploratory Crowdsourced Cohort Study.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-08-24
    Allison N Baker,Anjelica M Miranda,Nicole L Garneau,John E Hayes

    TAS2R38 gene variants, which confer sensitivity to specific bitter tastants (e.g., 6-n-propylthiouracil), have been repeatedly associated with lower alcohol use via greater bitterness perception, but research exploring TAS2R38 variation in relation to smoking shows mixed results. In both, the working hypothesis is that 1 or more copies of the functional allele increases bitterness and may provide a barrier to early use. Such a barrier to initiation may, conceivably, manifest as differential rates of current use across diplotypes. Here, an age-diverse convenience sample (n = 886) of Denver Museum of Nature and Science guests was used to explore cross-sectional relationships between TAS2R38 diplotype, self-reported tobacco use (current, former, never smokers), and a rapid measure of 6-n-propylthiouracil phenotype (bitterness of filter paper discs). TAS2R38 diplotypes were determined by Sanger sequencing. After excluding rare diplotypes, data from 814 participants were analyzed. A mix of current (~10%), former (25%), and never smokers (65%) were included. As expected, there was a relationship between TAS2R38 diplotype and 6-n-propylthiouracil bitterness. However, contrary to our hypothesis, there was no evidence of a relationship between diplotype and smoker status among participants with common TAS2R38 diplotypes. Notably, we observed a relationship between of 6-n-propylthiouracil bitterness and smoking status, but the effect was opposite of what was expected: current smokers perceived higher (not lower) bitterness than never smokers. When all the various factors (diplotype, age, sex, and smoking status) were included in ANOVA, all remained predictive of 6-n-propylthiouracil bitterness. Reasons for greater phenotypic bitterness among current smokers are unknown and merit further study.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Automated analysis of breathing waveforms using BreathMetrics: a respiratory signal processing toolbox.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-07-10
    Torben Noto,Guangyu Zhou,Stephan Schuele,Jessica Templer,Christina Zelano

    Nasal inhalation is the basis of olfactory perception and drives neural activity in olfactory and limbic brain regions. Therefore, our ability to investigate the neural underpinnings of olfaction and respiration can only be as good as our ability to characterize features of respiratory behavior. However, recordings of natural breathing are inherently nonstationary, nonsinusoidal, and idiosyncratic making feature extraction difficult to automate. The absence of a freely available computational tool for characterizing respiratory behavior is a hindrance to many facets of olfactory and respiratory neuroscience. To solve this problem, we developed BreathMetrics, an open-source tool that automatically extracts the full set of features embedded in human nasal airflow recordings. Here, we rigorously validate BreathMetrics' feature estimation accuracy on multiple nasal airflow datasets, intracranial electrophysiological recordings of human olfactory cortex, and computational simulations of breathing signals. We hope this tool will allow researchers to ask new questions about how respiration relates to body, brain, and behavior.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Differential Expression of Mucins in Murine Olfactory Versus Respiratory Epithelium.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-07-14
    Christopher Kennel,Elizabeth A Gould,Eric D Larson,Ernesto Salcedo,Thad Vickery,Diego Restrepo,Vijay R Ramakrishnan

    Mucins are a key component of the surface mucus overlying airway epithelium. Given the different functions of the olfactory and respiratory epithelia, we hypothesized that mucins would be differentially expressed between these 2 areas. Secondarily, we evaluated for potential changes in mucin expression with radiation exposure, given the clinical observations of nasal dryness, altered mucus rheology, and smell loss in radiated patients. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to evaluate expression of mucins 1, 2, 5AC, and 5B in nasal respiratory and olfactory epithelia of control mice and 1 week after exposure to 8 Gy of radiation. Mucins 1, 5AC, and 5B exhibited differential expression patterns between olfactory and respiratory epithelium (RE) while mucin 2 showed no difference. In the olfactory epithelium (OE), mucin 1 was located in a lattice-like pattern around gaps corresponding to dendritic knobs of olfactory sensory neurons, whereas in RE it was intermittently expressed by surface goblet cells. Mucin 5AC was expressed by subepithelial glands in both epithelial types but to a higher degree in the OE. Mucin 5B was expressed by submucosal glands in OE and by surface epithelial cells in RE. At 1-week after exposure to single-dose 8 Gy of radiation, no qualitative effects were seen on mucin expression. Our findings demonstrate that murine OE and RE express mucins differently, and characteristic patterns of mucins 1, 5AC, and 5B can be used to define the underlying epithelium. Radiation (8 Gy) does not appear to affect mucin expression at 1 week. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE N/A (Basic Science Research).IACUC-approved study [Protocol 200065].

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Expression of Bitter Taste Receptors and Solitary Chemosensory Cell Markers in the Human Sinonasal Cavity.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-25
    Jingguo Chen,Eric D Larson,Catherine B Anderson,Pratima Agarwal,Daniel N Frank,Sue C Kinnamon,Vijay R Ramakrishnan

    Some bitter taste receptors (TAS2R gene products) are expressed in the human sinonasal cavity and may function to detect airborne irritants. The expression of all 25 human bitter taste receptors and their location within the upper airway is not yet clear. The aim of this study is to characterize the presence and distribution of TAS2R transcripts and solitary chemosensory cells (SCCs) in different locations of the human sinonasal cavity. Biopsies were obtained from human subjects at up to 4 different sinonasal anatomic sites. PCR, microarray, and qRT-PCR were used to examine gene transcript expression. The 25 human bitter taste receptors as well as the sweet/umami receptor subunit, TAS1R3, and canonical taste signaling effectors are expressed in sinonasal tissue. All 25 human bitter taste receptors are expressed in the human upper airway, and expression of these gene products was higher in the ethmoid sinus than nasal cavity locations. Fluorescent in situ hybridization demonstrates that epithelial TRPM5 and TAS2R38 are expressed in a rare cell population compared with multiciliated cells, and at times, consistent with SCC morphology. Secondary analysis of published human sinus single-cell RNAseq data did not uncover TAS2R or canonical taste transduction transcripts in multiciliated cells. These findings indicate that the sinus has higher expression of SCC markers than the nasal cavity in chronic rhinosinusitis patients, comprising a rare cell type. Biopsies obtained from the ethmoid sinus may serve as the best location for study of human upper airway taste receptors and SCCs.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Enhancement of the Olfactory Response by Lipocalin Cp-Lip1 in Newt Olfactory Receptor Cells: An Electrophysiological Study.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-07-28
    Tadashi Nakamura,Yoshihiro Noumi,Hiroyuki Yamakawa,Atsushi Nakamura,Durige Wen,Xing Li,Xiong Geng,Ken Sawada,Tatsuo Iwasa

    Previously, we have detected the expression of 2 lipocalin genes (lp1 and lp2) in the olfactory epithelium of the Japanese newt Cynops pyrrhogaster. Recombinant proteins of these genes (Cp-Lip1 and Cp-Lip2, respectively) exhibited high affinities to various odorants, suggesting that they work like the odorant-binding proteins (OBPs). However, the physiological functions of OBP generally remain inconclusive. Here, we examined the effect of Cp-Lip1 on the electrophysiological responses of newt olfactory receptor cells. We observed that the electro-olfactogram induced by the vapor of an odorant with high affinity to Cp-Lip1 appeared to increase in amplitude when a tiny drop of Cp-Lip1 solution was dispersed over the olfactory epithelium. However, the analysis was difficult because of possible interference by intrinsic components in the nasal mucus. We subsequently adopted a mucus-free condition by using suction electrode recordings from isolated olfactory cells, in which impulses were generated by puffs of odorant solution. When various concentration (0-5 µM) of Cp-Lip1 was mixed with the stimulus solution of odorants highly affinitive to Cp-Lip1, the impulse frequency increased in a concentration-dependent manner. The increase by Cp-Lip1 was seen more evidently at lower concentration ranges of stimulus odorants. These results strongly suggest that Cp-Lip1 broadens the sensitivity of the olfactory cells toward the lower concentration of odorants, by which animals can detect very low concentration of odorants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Effect of Calcium Buffering and Calcium Sensor Type on the Sensitivity of an Array-Based Bitter Receptor Screening Assay.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-07-07
    Margriet Roelse,Ron Wehrens,Maurice Gl Henquet,Renger F Witkamp,Robert D Hall,Maarten A Jongsma

    The genetically encoded calcium sensor protein Cameleon YC3.6 has previously been applied for functional G protein-coupled receptor screening using receptor cell arrays. However, different types of sensors are available, with a wide range in [Ca2+] sensitivity, Hill coefficients, calcium binding domains, and fluorophores, which could potentially improve the performance of the assay. Here, we compared the responses of 3 structurally different calcium sensor proteins (Cameleon YC3.6, Nano140, and Twitch2B) simultaneously, on a single chip, at different cytosolic expression levels and in combination with 2 different bitter receptors, TAS2R8 and TAS2R14. Sensor concentrations were modified by varying the amount of calcium sensor DNA that was printed on the DNA arrays prior to reverse transfection. We found that ~2-fold lower concentrations of calcium sensor protein, by transfecting 4 times less sensor-coding DNA, resulted in more sensitive bitter responses. The best results were obtained with Twitch2B, where, relative to YC3.6 at the default DNA concentration, a 4-fold lower DNA concentration increased sensitivity 60-fold and signal strength 5- to 10-fold. Next, we compared the performance of YC3.6 and Twitch2B against an array with 11 different bitter taste receptors. We observed a 2- to 8-fold increase in sensitivity using Twitch2B compared with YC3.6. The bitter receptor arrays contained 300 spots and could be exposed to a series of 18 injections within 1 h resulting in 5400 measurements. These optimized sensor conditions provide a basis for enhancing receptomics calcium assays for receptors with poor Ca2+ signaling and will benefit future high-throughput receptomics experiments.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cerebellar Gray Matter and Olfactory Performance.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Albert Wabnegger,Anne Schienle

    The role of the cerebellum in the chemical senses is still poorly understood. This voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigated associations between gray matter volume (GMV) in subregions of the cerebellum and olfactory performance. VBM data from 48 men were analyzed. The participants were tested with a standardized olfactory test that measured olfactory threshold, discrimination, and identification ability. The investigated sample covered a wide range of olfactory performance, including individuals with a reduced sense of smell (anosmia and hyposmia) and normosmia. The computed regression analyses revealed a positive association between olfactory identification performance and GMV in lobule VI. This cerebellar subregion is involved in higher-order cognitive functions (language and memory), which are necessary prerequisites for correct odor labeling. Odor detection and discrimination were unrelated to cerebellar GMV.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Metabolism of Odorant Molecules in Human Nasal/Oral Cavity Affects the Odorant Perception.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-30
    Chiori Ijichi,Hidehiko Wakabayashi,Shingo Sugiyama,Yusuke Ihara,Yasuko Nogi,Ayumi Nagashima,Sayoko Ihara,Yoshihito Niimura,Yuya Shimizu,Kenji Kondo,Kazushige Touhara

    In this study, we examined the mode of metabolism of food odorant molecules in the human nasal/oral cavity in vitro and in vivo. We selected 4 odorants, 2-furfurylthiol (2-FT), hexanal, benzyl acetate, and methyl raspberry ketone, which are potentially important for designing food flavors. In vitro metabolic assays of odorants with saliva/nasal mucus analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry revealed that human saliva and nasal mucus exhibit the following 3 enzymatic activities: (i) methylation of 2-FT into furfuryl methylsulfide (FMS); (ii) reduction of hexanal into hexanol; and (iii) hydrolysis of benzyl acetate into benzyl alcohol. However, (iv) demethylation of methyl raspberry ketone was not observed. Real-time in vivo analysis using proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometry demonstrated that the application of 2-FT and hexanal through 3 different pathways via the nostril or through the mouth generated the metabolites FMS and hexanol within a few seconds. The concentration of FMS and hexanol in the exhaled air was above the perception threshold. A cross-adaptation study based on the activation pattern of human odorant receptors suggested that this metabolism affects odor perception. These results suggest that some odorants in food are metabolized in the human nasal mucus/saliva, and the resulting metabolites are perceived as part of the odor quality of the substrates. Our results help improve the understanding of the mechanism of food odor perception and may enable improved design and development of foods in relation to odor.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Chemosensory Pleasure Scale: A New Assessment for Measuring Hedonic Smell and Taste Capacities.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-16
    Jiu-Bo Zhao,Yi-Le Wang,Qian-Wen Ma,Jing-Bo Zhao,Xiao-Yuan Zhang,Lai-Quan Zou

    Anhedonia, or the inability to experience pleasure, is a key clinical feature of many mental disorders such as depression and schizophrenia. Although various valid measurements of anhedonia and pleasure experience exist, no scales exist that quantify smell and taste pleasure experiences. The Chemosensory Pleasure Scale (CPS) was therefore designed to assess the hedonic capacity for smell and taste pleasure. We examined the reliability and validity of the CPS in our study. First, we conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to identify and examine the structure of the CPS. Second, the CPS's validity and test-retest stability were investigated. The CPS was correlated with other measurements of anhedonia and pleasure experience. Furthermore, the empirical validity of CPS was also examined in our study. The results indicated that the CPS is a reliable and valid measure for assessing an individual's hedonic capacity for smell and taste pleasure in nonclinical samples. Further application of the CPS for various populations is also discussed herein, especially for patients with mental disorders such as depression, schizophrenia, and autism.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Automated Canine Scent-Detection Apparatus: Technical Description and Training Outcomes.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-13
    Timothy L Edwards

    To date, laboratory scent-detection work with dogs has been a manual process whereby some or all aspects of the procedures are mediated by researchers. Automation of this process would eliminate issues associated with cuing, subjectivity in data collection, and reinforcement delivery. Herein, I describe an automated apparatus that can accommodate almost any type of sample that can be brought into the laboratory. The apparatus consists of a 17-segment carousel that rotates behind a panel. Dogs can access a single sample at a time through a port in the panel. Infrared beams are used to detect sample observations and indications, and a dog-activated switch is used to advance the carousel to the next sample. Correct indications are reinforced with an automated feeder. After screening 12 dogs, 5 dogs were selected and trained to use the apparatus to classify samples containing amyl acetate. All dogs achieved hit rates and correct rejection rates at or near 100% in fewer than 25 half-days of training (mean: 19.6, range: 12-24). These data suggest that the apparatus can be used to obtain accurate sample classification without excessive training requirements. Future improvements to the apparatus and training protocols may reduce the training requirements further.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Taste Perception and Cerebral Activity in the Human Gustatory Cortex Induced by Glucose, Fructose, and Sucrose Solutions.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-07
    Thomas Mouillot,Sophie Barthet,Lucie Janin,Camille Creteau,Hervé Devilliers,Marie-Claude Brindisi,Luc Penicaud,Corinne Leloup,Laurent Brondel,Agnès Jacquin-Piques

    Glucose, fructose, and sucrose are important carbohydrates in Western diets with particular sweetness intensity and metabolisms. No study has compared their cerebral detection and their taste perception. Gustatory evoked potentials (GEPs), taste detection thresholds, intensity perception, and pleasantness were compared in response to glucose, fructose, and sucrose solutions at similar sweetness intensities and at identical molar concentrations. Twenty-three healthy subjects were randomly stimulated with 3 solutions of similar sweetness intensity (0.75 M of glucose, 0.47 M of fructose and 0.29 M of sucrose - sit. A), and with an identical molar concentration (0.29 M - sit. B). GEPs were recorded at gustatory cortex areas. Intensity perception and hedonic values of each solution were evaluated as were gustatory thresholds of the solutions. No significant difference was observed concerning the GEP characteristics of the solutions according to their sweetness intensities (sit. A) or their molar concentration (sit. B). In sit. A, the 3 solutions were perceived to have similar intensities and induced similar hedonic sensations. In sit. B, the glucose solution was perceived to be less intense and pleasant than the fructose and the sucrose solutions (P < 0.001) and the fructose solution was perceived to be less intense and pleasant than the sucrose (P < 0.001). Since GEP recordings were similar for glucose, fructose, and sucrose solutions whatever the concentrations, activation of same taste receptor induces similar cortical activation, even when the solutions were perceived differently. Sweet taste perception seems to be encoded by a complex chemical cerebral neuronal network.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nasal Cavity of Green Sea Turtles Contains 3 Independent Sensory Epithelia.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-06-04
    Daisuke Kondoh,Chiyo Kitayama,Yohei Yamaguchi,Masashi Yanagawa,Yusuke K Kawai,Chihiro Suzuki,Raito Itakura,Atsuru Fujimoto,Tadatoshi Satow,Satomi Kondo,Takayuki Sato

    The morphological and histological features of the nasal cavity are diverse among animal species, and the nasal cavities of terrestrial and semiaquatic turtles possess 2 regions lined with each different type of sensory epithelium. Sea turtles can inhale both of volatile and water-soluble odorants with high sensitivity, but details of the architectural features and the distribution of the sensory epithelia within the sea turtle nasal cavity remain uncertain. The present study analyzed the nasal cavity of green sea turtles using morphological, computed tomographic, and histological methods. We found that the middle region of the sea turtle nasal cavity is divided into anterodorsal, anteroventral, and posterodorsal diverticula and a posteroventral excavation by connective tissue containing cartilages. The posterodorsal diverticulum was lined with a thin sensory epithelium, and the anterodorsal and anteroventral diverticula were occupied by a single thick sensory epithelium. In addition, a relatively small area on the posteroventral excavation was covered by independent sensory epithelium that differed from other 2 types of epithelia, and a single thin bundle derived from the posteroventral excavation comprised the most medial nerve that joins the anterior end of the olfactory nerve tract. These findings suggested that the posteroventral excavation identified herein transfers stimuli through an independent circuit and plays different roles when odorants arise from other nasal regions.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Characterizing Dysgeusia in Hemodialysis Patients.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Ciara Fitzgerald,Gretchen Wiese,Ranjani N Moorthi,Sharon M Moe,Kathleen Hill Gallant,Cordelia A Running

    Dysgeusia (abnormal taste) is common in those with chronic kidney disease and contributes to poor nutritional intake. Previous sensory work has shown that taste improves after dialysis sessions. The goal of this pilot study was to characterize altered taste perceptions in patients on dialysis compared with healthy adults, and to evaluate relationships between serum parameters with taste perceptions. We hypothesized that patients undergoing dialysis would experience blunted taste intensities compared with controls, and that serum levels of potential tastants would be inversely related to taste perception of compounds. Using a cross-sectional design, we carried out suprathreshold sensory assessments (flavor intensity and liking) of tastants/flavors potentially influenced by kidney disease and/or the dialysis procedure. These included sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride, sodium phosphate, phosphoric acid, urea, ferrous sulfate, and monosodium glutamate. Individuals on maintenance hemodialysis (n= 17, 10 males, range 23-87 years) were compared with controls with normal gustatory function (n=29, 13 males, range 21-61 years). Unadjusted values for intensity and liking for the solutions showed minimal differences. However, when values were adjusted for participants' perceptions of water (as a control for taste abnormalities), intensity of monosodium glutamate, sodium chloride, and sodium phosphate solutions were more intense for patients on dialysis compared with controls. Some significant correlations were also observed between serum parameters, particularly potassium, for dialysis patients and sensory ratings. These results suggest altered taste perception in patients during dialysis warrants further study.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Flavor Alterations Associated with Miracle Fruit and Gymnema sylvestre.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-06-16
    Sonia D Hudson,Charles A Sims,Asli Z Odabasi,Thomas A Colquhoun,Derek J Snyder,Jennifer J Stamps,Shawn C Dotson,Lorenzo Puentes,Linda M Bartoshuk

    Taste and flavor (retronasal olfaction) interact in the brain. The rules of that interaction are not well understood. This study uses 2 taste modifiers that alter sweet to examine the effects on flavors. Subjects used the Global Sensory Intensity Scale to assess the aroma, sweetness, sourness, and flavor of 10 foods. As previous work had shown, miracle fruit added sweetness to acids, which secondarily reduced sourness (mixture suppression) and Gymnema sylvestre reduced sweetness in sweet foods as well as the sweetness induced by miracle fruit. In this study, multiple regression showed that both sweet and sour contribute to flavor. Gymnema sylvestre reduced the perceived sweet of predominantly sweet foods (chocolate and maple syrup) as expected; reducing the sweet, reduced the flavor. The effects of miracle fruit were complicated by its dual action: intensification of sweet and reduction of sour. Predominantly sour foods (vinegar, lemon, mustard, pickle) were sweetened by miracle fruit but any flavor enhancement associated with the added sweet appears to have been countered by the flavor reduction associated with reduced sourness. Moderately sour foods that are also sweet (tomatoes, strawberries) were sweetened by miracle fruit and thus flavor was enhanced; flavor loss through sour reduction was apparently not sufficient to counter the flavor enhancement due to increased sweet so the net result was that tomato and strawberry flavors were enhanced. The flavors of control foods (not predominantly sweet or sour [sausage, peanuts]) showed only small changes.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Taste Perception of Antidesma bunius Fruit and Its Relationships to Bitter Taste Receptor Gene Haplotypes.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-06-08
    Davide Risso,Eduardo Sainz,Gabriella Morini,Sergio Tofanelli,Dennis Drayna

    It was shown more than 40 years ago that the ability to perceive the bitterness of the fruit of the Antidesma bunius tree is inversely correlated with the ability to perceive the well-studied bitter tastant phenylthiocarbamide (PTC). To determine if variants of the TAS2R38 gene, which encodes the PTC taste receptor, or variants in any of the other TAS2R bitter or TAS1R sweet receptor genes account for Antidesma taste perception, we recruited an independent subject sample and examined associations between these taste receptor gene haplotypes and Antidesma perception. Consistent with previous findings, almost none of our subjects who reported Antidesma juice as bitter was a PTC "responder" by previous definitions (i.e. a PTC taster). In our study, of the 132 individuals who perceived PTC as bitter, 15 perceived Antidesma as bitter, although these 15 subjects had very weak bitterness perception scores. Examination of TAS2R38 gene haplotypes showed that, of the subjects who perceive Antidesma as bitter, all carried at least one copy of the TAS2R38 AVI (PTC non-taster) haplotype. However, 86 subjects carried at least one AVI haplotype and failed to perceive Antidesma as bitter. No other TAS2R or TAS1R gene variants showed an association with Antidesma bitter, sweet, or sour perception. Our results show that TAS2R38 haplotypes are associated with differential perception of Antidesma berry juice bitterness, and that all those who perceive this bitterness carry at least one AVI haplotype. This indicates that the AVI haplotype is necessary for this perception, but that additional variable factors are involved.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • G protein-coupled receptors in human fat taste perception.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2011-08-27
    Maria Mercedes Galindo,Nadine Voigt,Julia Stein,Jessica van Lengerich,Jan-Dirk Raguse,Thomas Hofmann,Wolfgang Meyerhof,Maik Behrens

    In contrast to carbohydrates and proteins, which are detected by specialized taste receptors in the forms of their respective building blocks, sugars, and L-amino acids, the third macronutrient, lipids, has until now not been associated with gustatory receptors. Instead, the recognition of fat stimuli was believed to rely mostly on textural, olfactory, and postingestive cues. During the recent years, however, research done mainly in rodent models revealed an additional gustatory component for the detection of long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs), the main taste-activating component of lipids. Concomitantly, a number of candidate fat taste receptors were proposed to be involved in rodent's gustatory fatty acid perception. Compared with rodent models, much less is known about human fat taste. In order to investigate the ability of the human gustatory system to respond to fat components, we performed sensory experiments with fatty acids of different chain lengths and derivatives thereof. We found that our panelists discriminated a "fatty" and an irritant "scratchy" taste component, with the "fatty" percept restricted to LCFAs. Using functional calcium-imaging experiments with the human orthologs of mouse candidate fat receptors belonging to the G protein-coupled receptor family, we correlated human sensory data with receptor properties characterized in vitro. We demonstrated that the pharmacological activation profile of human GPR40 and GPR120, 2 LCFA-specific receptors associated with gustatory fat perception in rodents, is inconsistent with the "scratchy" sensation of human subjects and more consistent with the percept described as "fatty." Expression analysis of GPR40 and GPR120 in human gustatory tissues revealed that, while the GPR40 gene is not expressed, GPR120 is detected in gustatory and nongustatory epithelia. On a cellular level, we found GPR120 mRNA and protein in taste buds as well as in the surrounding epithelial cells. We conclude that GPR120 may indeed participate in human gustatory fatty acid perception.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Sensory Integration: Cross-Modal Communication Between the Olfactory and Visual Systems in Zebrafish.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Lei Li

    Cross-modal sensory communication is an innate biological process that refers to the combination and/or interpretation of different types of sensory input in the brain. Often, this process conjugates with neural modulation, by which the neural signals that convey sensory information are adjusted, such as intensity, frequency, complexity, and/or novelty. Although the anatomic pathways involved in cross-modal sensory integration have been previously described, the course of development and the physiological roles of multisensory signaling integration in brain functions remain to be elucidated. In this article, I review some of the recent findings in sensory integration from research using the zebrafish models. In zebrafish, cross-modal sensory integration occurs between the olfactory and visual systems. It is mediated by the olfacto-retinal centrifugal (ORC) pathway, which originates from the terminalis nerve (TN) in the olfactory bulb and terminates in the neural retina. In the retina, the TNs synapse with the inner nuclear layer dopaminergic interplexiform cells (DA-IPCs). Through the ORC pathway, stimulation of the olfactory neurons alters the cellular activity of TNs and DA-IPCs, which in turn modulates retinal neural function and increases behavioral visual sensitivity.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Method for Controlled Odor Delivery in Olfactory Field-Testing.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-23
    Alison G Simon,Lauryn E DeGreeff,Kelvin Frank,Kimberly Peranich,Howard Holness,Kenneth G Furton

    A widely recognized limitation in mammalian olfactory research is the lack of current methods for measuring odor availability (i.e., the quantifiable amount of odor presented and thus available for olfaction) of training or testing materials during behavioral or operational testing. This research utilized an existing technology known as Controlled Odor Mimic Permeation Systems (COMPS) to produce a reproducible, field-appropriate odor delivery method that can be analytically validated and quantified, akin to laboratory-based research methods, such as permeation devices that deliver a stable concentration of a specific chemical vapor for instrumental testing purposes. COMPS were created for 12 compounds across a range of carbon chain lengths and functional groups in such a way to produce similar permeation rates for all compounds. Using detection canines as a model, field-testing was performed to assess the efficacy of the method. Additionally headspace concentrations over time were measured as confirmation of odor availability using either externally sampled internal standard-solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (ESIS-SPME-GC-MS) or collection onto a programmable temperature vaporizing (PTV) GC inlet with MS detection. Finally, lifetime usage was considered. An efficient method for producing and measuring reliable odor availabilities across various chemical functional groups was developed, addressing a noted gap in existing literature that will advance canine and other nonhuman mammal research testing.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Long-Term Test-Retest Reliability of the UPSIT in Cognitively Intact Older Adults.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-22
    Davangere P Devanand,Xinhua Liu,Hannah Cohen,John Budrow,Nicole Schupf,Jennifer Manly,Seonjoo Lee

    The objective of this study was to determine the long-term test-retest reliability of the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT), and its individual items, in cognitively intact older adults. A community sample of older adults received a neuropsychological test battery, including the 12-item, 6-trial Selective Reminding Test (SRT). The UPSIT was administered at baseline and follow-up that occurred between 1 and 4 years after baseline. UPSIT scores of participants who were cognitively intact and did not decline cognitively were examined for test-retest reliability. In 92 older adults with mean age 77.6 years followed for 2.79 (standard deviation [SD] 0.69) years, mean UPSIT score declined from 30.29 (SD 5.83) to 27.80 (SD 5.50). In linear mixed models that adjusted for time, age, sex, and education, intraclass correlation coefficients for UPSIT were 0.65, SRT delayed recall 0.59, and SRT total immediate recall 0.49. Among 4 possible response combinations, the largest proportion of participants had correct responses at both visits for 35 out of 40 items. Consistency of item responses ranged from 50% to 90% across the 2 time points. The long-term test-retest reliability of the UPSIT was moderately strong without practice effects over long periods of time in older adults. These results provide indirect support to prior findings on odor identification impairment predicting cognitive decline and dementia, and suggest potential use of olfactory testing as a biomarker in prevention and treatment trials of cognitive enhancers.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Behavioral and Neural Responses to Vitamin C Solution in Vitamin C-deficient Osteogenic Disorder Shionogi/Shi Jcl-od/od Rats.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Toshiaki Yasuo,Takeshi Suwabe,Noritaka Sako

    To investigate the appetite for vitamin C (VC), we conducted behavioral and neural experiments using osteogenic disorder Shionogi/Shi Jcl-od/od (od/od) rats, which lack the ability to synthesize VC, and their wild-type controls osteogenic disorder Shionogi/Shi Jcl- +/+ (+/+) rats. In the behavioral study, rats were deprived of VC for 25 days and then received two-bottle preference tests with a choice between water and 10 mM VC. The preference for 10 mM VC solution of od/od rats was significantly greater than that of +/+ rats. In the neural study, the relative magnitudes of the whole chorda tympani nerve (CTN) responses to 100-1000 mM VC, 3-10 mM HCl, 100-1000 mM NaCl, and 20 mM quinine▪HCl in the VC-deficient rats were significantly smaller than those in the nondeficient ones. Further, we conducted additional behavioral experiments to investigate the appetite for sour and salty taste solutions of VC-deficient od/od rats. Preference scores for 3 mM citric acid increased in od/od rats after VC removal, compared with before, whereas preference scores for 100 and 150 mM NaCl were decreased in VC-deficient od/od rats. The preference for 300 mM NaCl was not changed. Hence, our results suggest that the reduction of the aversive taste of VC during VC deficiency may have involved the reduction of CTN responses to acids. Overall, our results indicate that VC-deficient rats ingest sufficient VC to relieve their deficiency and that VC deficiency causes changes in peripheral sensitivity to acids, but nongustatory factors may also affect VC intake and choice.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Clinical Usefulness of Self-Rated Olfactory Performance-A Data Science-Based Assessment of 6000 Patients.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-12
    Jörn Lötsch,Thomas Hummel

    In clinical practice, with its time constraints, a frequent conclusion is that asking about the ability to smell may suffice to detect olfactory problems. To address this question systematically, 6049 subjects were asked about how well they can perceive odors, with 5 possible responses. Participants presented at a University Department of Otorhinolaryngology, where olfactory testing was part of the routine investigation performed in patients receiving surgery at the clinic (for various reasons). According to an odor identification test, 1227 subjects had functional anosmia and 3113 were labeled with normosmia. Measures of laboratory test performance were used to assess the success of self-estimates to capture the olfactory diagnosis. Ratings of the olfactory function as absent or impaired provided the diagnosis of anosmia at a balanced accuracy of 79%, whereas ratings of good or excellent indicated normosmia at a balanced accuracy of 64.6%. The number of incorrect judgments of anosmia increased with age, whereas false negative self-estimates of normosmia became rarer with increasing age. The subject's sex was irrelevant in this context. Thus, when asking the question "How well can you smell odors?" and querying standardized responses, fairly accurate information can be obtained about whether or not the subject can smell. However, this has to be completed with the almost 30% (355 subjects) of anosmic patients who judged their ability to smell as at least "average." Thus, olfactory testing using reliable and validated tests appears indispensable.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quality of Life in Patients With Olfactory Loss Is Better Predicted by Flavor Identification Than by Orthonasal Olfactory Function.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2019-05-03
    Anna Oleszkiewicz,Dahae Park,Katarzyna Resler,Julia Draf,Anja Schulze,Yunpeng Zang,Antje Hähner,Thomas Hummel

    To date, most studies on the relationship between chemosensory performance and quality of life have focused on orthonasal measures of olfactory function. In the current investigation, we examined the predictive value of orthonasal and flavor identification indices of olfactory function on a wide spectrum of health and sociopsychological factors, including quality of life, life satisfaction, overall health, and depressive symptoms. Participants were 178 ENT patients (Mage = 58 ± 1), representing various causes of olfactory loss: idiopathic smell loss (n = 51; Mage = 63 ± 2), sinunasal disease (n = 27; Mage = 56 ± 3), head trauma (n = 33; Mage = 51 ± 2), and infections of the upper respiratory tract (n = 67; Mage = 59 ± 2). They completed self-report questionnaires and underwent olfactory testing using Sniffin' Sticks (orthonasal olfactory testing) and "Taste Powder" (intraorally applied flavors for retronasal olfactory testing, additionally inducing taste sensation). Data were analyzed with hierarchical regression models wherein the first step included subjects' sex, age, and orthonasal olfaction score. In the second step, we included the "Taste Powder" score. Tested models revealed that the first step was not significantly predicting variables of interest; however, there was an improvement of the model's predictive value when the "Taste Powder" score was added. Results of this study suggest that flavor identification significantly improves predictions of health and sociopsychological functioning of ENT patients with various etiologies.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • A Near-Complete Spatial Map of Olfactory Receptors in the Mouse Main Olfactory Epithelium.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-05-26
    Longzhi Tan,Xiaoliang Sunney Xie

    Different regions of the mammalian nose smell different odors. In the mouse olfactory system, spatially regulated expression of >1000 olfactory receptors (ORs) along the dorsomedial-ventrolateral (DV) axis forms a topological map in the main olfactory epithelium (MOE). However, the locations of most ORs along the DV axis are currently unknown. By sequencing mRNA of 12 isolated MOE pieces, we mapped out the DV locations-as quantified by "zone indices" on a scale of 1-5-of 1033 OR genes with an estimated error of 0.3 zone indices. Our map covered 81% of all intact OR genes and 99.4% of the total OR mRNA abundance. Spatial regulation tended to vary gradually along chromosomes. We further identified putative non-OR genes that may exhibit spatial expression along the DV axis.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cyclophosphamide-Induced Disruptions to Appetitive Qualities and Detection Thresholds of NaCl: Comparison of Single-Dose and Dose Fractionation Effects.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-05-23
    Benjamin C Jewkes,Michael G Gomella,Evan T Lowry,Joy A Benner,Eugene R Delay

    Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments for cancer; however, a side effect is often altered taste. This study examined how cyclophosphamide, a chemotherapy drug, affects salt taste in mice. On the basis of previous findings, it was predicted that cyclophosphamide-induced disruptions in salt taste would be observed near days 2-4, 8-12, and 22-24 posttreatment, and that multiple, smaller doses would cause more severe disruptions to taste. To test these predictions, two experiments were performed, one using brief access testing to measure appetitive qualities, and another using operant conditioning to measure detection thresholds. After a single 100 mg/kg cyclophosphamide injection, peak alterations in brief access lick rates were seen near days 5-8 and 15 posttreatment, whereas peak alterations in detection thresholds were seen days 6, 14, and 20 posttreatment. After five 20 mg/kg injections of cyclophosphamide, brief access lick rates revealed disruptions only on postinjection day 8 whereas thresholds appeared to cycle, gradually increased to and decreased from peak elevations on posttreatment days 4, 10, 15, 20, and 23. Although salt taste functions were disrupted by cyclophosphamide, the patterns of these disruptions were less severe and shorter than expected from cell morphology studies, suggesting a functional adjustment to maintain behavioral accuracy. Fractionation of cyclophosphamide dosing had minimum effect on brief access responses but caused longer, cyclic-like disruptions of detection thresholds compared to single-dose administration.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Detection of Inflammation via Volatile Cues in Human Urine.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-10-16
    Amy R Gordon,Bruce A Kimball,Kimmo Sorjonen,Bianka Karshikoff,John Axelsson,Mats Lekander,Johan N Lundström,Mats J Olsson

    Contagious disease is a major threat to survival, and the cost of relying on the immune system to defeat pathogens is high; therefore, behavioral avoidance of contagious individuals is arguably an adaptive strategy. Animal findings demonstrate the ability to detect and avoid sick individuals by the aid of olfactory cues, and a recent study indicated that human axillary odor also becomes more aversive as a function of immune activation. By injecting healthy human participants with lipopolysaccharide (0.6 ng/kg body weight) to experimentally induce inflammation, this study demonstrates that natural daily rhythms of urine odor-its perceived dimensions and volatile profile-are altered within hours of inflammation onset. Whereas healthy human urine decreases in averseness over the course of a single day, inflammation interrupts this process and results in an increased urine odor averseness and an altered volatile composition. These results support the notion that subtle and early cues of sickness may be detected and avoided, thereby complementing the immune system in its role of keeping us alive and healthy.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Can the Identification of Odorants Within a Mixture Be Trained?
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-09-28
    Daphnée Poupon,Pauline Fernandez,Salomé Archambault Boisvert,Chloé Migneault-Bouchard,Johannes Frasnelli

    Identifying odors within mixtures is a difficult task: humans are able to recognize only up to 4 odors within a mixture. We wanted to test the effects of olfactory training on this ability. We used 7 odorants to create 35 olfactory stimuli of 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 odorants. The task consisted of identifying the odorants present within the mixture. We trained novices on this task for 5 days: they came to the laboratory to perform the task once a day before coming back for the final testing. Then, we compared them to sommeliers, thus olfaction experts, and untrained novices. Results showed that sommeliers outperformed the other groups with mixtures of up to 4 odorants but not with mixtures of 5 odorants. The short olfactory training allowed trained participants to perform as well as sommeliers when it came to identifying single odorants but was not enough to improve their performance when stimuli were mixtures of 2 or more odorants. This study supports the idea that the number of odors we can recognize within a mixture is limited but suggests training can improve the performance: a short olfactory training is enough to enhance the ability to identify single odorants, whereas expertise refines identification ability of mixtures of up to 4 odorants.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Signal Detection and Coding in the Accessory Olfactory System.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Julia Mohrhardt,Maximilian Nagel,David Fleck,Yoram Ben-Shaul,Marc Spehr

    In many mammalian species, the accessory olfactory system plays a central role in guiding behavioral and physiological responses to social and reproductive interactions. Because of its relatively compact structure and its direct access to amygdalar and hypothalamic nuclei, the accessory olfactory pathway provides an ideal system to study sensory control of complex mammalian behavior. During the last several years, many studies employing molecular, behavioral, and physiological approaches have significantly expanded and enhanced our understanding of this system. The purpose of the current review is to integrate older and newer studies to present an updated and comprehensive picture of vomeronasal signaling and coding with an emphasis on early accessory olfactory system processing stages. These include vomeronasal sensory neurons in the vomeronasal organ, and the circuitry of the accessory olfactory bulb. Because the overwhelming majority of studies on accessory olfactory system function employ rodents, this review is largely focused on this phylogenetic order, and on mice in particular. Taken together, the emerging view from both older literature and more recent studies is that the molecular, cellular, and circuit properties of chemosensory signaling along the accessory olfactory pathway are in many ways unique. Yet, it has also become evident that, like the main olfactory system, the accessory olfactory system also has the capacity for adaptive learning, experience, and state-dependent plasticity. In addition to describing what is currently known about accessory olfactory system function and physiology, we highlight what we believe are important gaps in our knowledge, which thus define exciting directions for future investigation.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Impaired Odor Perception in Autism Spectrum Disorder Is Associated with Decreased Activity in Olfactory Cortex.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-09-17
    L Koehler,A Fournel,K Albertowski,V Roessner,J Gerber,C Hummel,T Hummel,M Bensafi

    Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs) are characterized by atypical sensory functioning in the visual, tactile, and auditory systems. Although less explored, olfactory changes have been reported in ASD patients. To explore these changes on a neural level, 18 adults with ASD and 18 healthy neurotypical controls were examined in a 2-phase study. Participants were first tested for odor threshold and odor identification. Then, (i) structural magnetic resonance (MR) images of the olfactory bulb were acquired, and (ii) a functional MR imaging olfaction study was conducted. ASD patients exhibited decreased function for odor thresholds and odor identification; this was accompanied by a relatively decreased activation in the piriform cortex. In conclusion, these findings suggest, that the known alterations in olfaction in ASD are rooted in the primary olfactory cortex.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Individual Variation in PROP Status, Fungiform Papillae Density, and Responsiveness to Taste Stimuli in a Large Population Sample.
    Chem. Senses (IF 2.336) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Caterina Dinnella,Erminio Monteleone,Maria Piochi,Sara Spinelli,John Prescott,Lapo Pierguidi,Flavia Gasperi,Monica Laureati,Ella Pagliarini,Stefano Predieri,Luisa Torri,Sara Barbieri,Enrico Valli,Piergiorgio Bianchi,Ada Braghieri,Alessandra Del Caro,Rossella Di Monaco,Saida Favotto,Elisabetta Moneta

    Despite considerable research investigating the role of 6-n-propylthiouracil bitterness perception and variation of fungiform papillae density in food perception, this relationship remains controversial as well as the association between the 2 phenotypes. Data from 1119 subjects (38.6% male; 18-60 years) enrolled in the Italian Taste project were analyzed. Responsiveness to the bitterness of 6-n-propylthiouracil was assessed on the general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Fungiform papillae density was determined from manual counting on digital images of the tongue. Solutions of tastes, astringent, and pungent sensations were prepared to be moderate/strong on a general Labeled Magnitude Scale. Four foods had tastants added to produce 4 variations in target sensations from weak to strong (pear juice: citric acid, sourness; chocolate pudding: sucrose, sweetness; bean purée: sodium chloride, saltiness; and tomato juice: capsaicin, pungency). Women gave ratings to 6-n-propylthiouracil and showed fungiform papillae density that was significantly higher than men. Both phenotype markers significantly decreased with age. No significant correlations were found between 6-n-propylthiouracil ratings and fungiform papillae density. Fungiform papillae density variation does not affect perceived intensity of solutions. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil positively correlated to perceived intensity of most stimuli in solution. A significant effect of fungiform papillae density on perceived intensity of target sensation in foods was found in a few cases. Responsiveness to 6-n-propylthiouracil positively affected all taste intensities in subjects with low fungiform papillae density whereas there were no significant effects of 6-n-propylthiouracil in those with high fungiform papillae density. These data highlight a complex interplay between 6-n-propylthiouracil status and fungiform papillae density and the need of a critical reconsideration of their role in food perception and acceptability.

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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