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  • From basic research to clinical application of γδ T cells
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-11-27
    Julie Déchanet‐Merville; Immo Prinz

    1 INTRODUCTION Uncovering the mysteries of γδ T cells generates a flourishing enthusiasm that provided major progress in our understanding of their biology during the recent years. It was thus timely to release a new special edition on this topic in Immunological Reviews. This edition on γδ T cells was the initiative of our departed colleague Pr Wendy Havran who deceased suddenly in January 2020. She

  • The distinct MHC‐unrestricted immunobiology of innate‐like and adaptive‐like human γδ T cell subsets—Nature's CAR‐T cells
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Carrie R. Willcox; Fiyaz Mohammed; Benjamin E. Willcox

    Distinct innate‐like and adaptive‐like immunobiological paradigms are emerging for human γδ T cells, supported by a combination of immunophenotypic, T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire, functional, and transcriptomic data. Evidence of the γδ TCR/ligand recognition modalities that respective human subsets utilize is accumulating. Although many questions remain unanswered, one superantigen‐like modality

  • From thymus to periphery: Molecular basis of effector γδ‐T cell differentiation
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-11-15
    Gina J. Fiala; Anita Q. Gomes; Bruno Silva‐Santos

    The contributions of γδ T cells to immune (patho)physiology in many pre‐clinical mouse models have been associated with their rapid and abundant provision of two critical cytokines, interferon‐γ (IFN‐γ) and interleukin‐17A (IL‐17). These are typically produced by distinct effector γδ T cell subsets that can be segregated on the basis of surface expression levels of receptors such as CD27, CD44 or CD45RB

  • Immune recognition of phosphoantigen‐butyrophilin molecular complexes by γδ T cells
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Adam P. Uldrich; Marc Rigau; Dale I. Godfrey

    Gamma‐delta (γδ) T cells are an important component of the immune system. They are often enriched in non‐lymphoid tissues and exhibit diverse functional attributes including rapid activation, cytokine production, proliferation, and acquisition of cytotoxicity following both TCR‐dependent and TCR‐independent stimulation, but poor capacity for immunological memory. They can detect a broad range of antigens

  • Tumor resistance mechanisms and their consequences on γδ T cell activation
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-13
    Daniela Wesch; Dieter Kabelitz; Hans‐Heinrich Oberg

    Human γδ T lymphocytes are predominated by two major subsets, defined by the variable domain of the δ chain. Both, Vδ1 and Vδ2 T cells infiltrate in tumors and have been implicated in cancer immunosurveillance. Since the localization and distribution of tumor‐infiltrating γδ T cell subsets and their impact on survival of cancer patients are not completely defined, this review summarizes the current

  • Innate and adaptive γδ T cells: How, when, and why
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Maria Papadopoulou; Guillem Sanchez Sanchez; David Vermijlen

    γδ T cells comprise the third cell lineage of lymphocytes that use, like αβ T cells and B cells, V(D)J gene rearrangement with the potential to generate a highly diverse T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire. There is no obvious conservation of γδ T cell subsets (based on TCR repertoire and/or function) between mice and human, leading to the notion that human and mouse γδ T cells are highly different. In

  • Beyond CAR T cells: Engineered Vγ9Vδ2 T cells to fight solid tumors.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Chirine Rafia,Christelle Harly,Emmanuel Scotet

    Despite recent significant progress in cancer immunotherapies based on adoptive cell transfer(s)(ACT), the eradication of cancers still represents a major clinical challenge. In particular, the efficacy of current ACT‐based therapies against solid tumors is dramatically reduced by physical barriers that prevent tumor infiltration of adoptively transferred effectors, and the tumor environment that suppress

  • Diversity in recognition and function of human γδ T cells
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-11-02
    Caitlin D. Castro; Christopher T. Boughter; Augusta E. Broughton; Amrita Ramesh; Erin J. Adams

    As interest increases in harnessing the potential power of tissue‐resident cells for human health and disease, γδ T cells have been thrust into the limelight due to their prevalence in peripheral tissues, their sentinel‐like phenotypes, and their unique antigen recognition capabilities. This review focuses primarily on human γδ T cells, highlighting their distinctive characteristics including antigen

  • Interaction between γδTCR signaling and the E protein‐Id axis in γδ T cell development
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-15
    Michele K. Anderson; Johanna S. Selvaratnam

    γδ T cells acquire their functional properties in the thymus, enabling them to exert rapid innate‐like responses. To understand how distinct γδ T cell subsets are generated, we have developed a Two‐Stage model for γδ T cell development. This model is predicated on the finding that γδTCR signal strength impacts E protein activity through graded upregulation of Id3. Our model proposes that cells enter

  • A glance over the fence: Using phylogeny and species comparison for a better understanding of antigen recognition by human γδ T-cells.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-09-27
    Thomas Herrmann,Mohindar Murugesh Karunakaran,Alina Suzann Fichtner

    Both, jawless and jawed vertebrates possess three lymphocyte lineages defined by highly diverse antigen receptors: Two T‐cell‐ and one B‐cell‐like lineage. In both phylogenetic groups, the theoretically possible number of individual antigen receptor specificities can even outnumber that of lymphocytes of a whole organism. Despite fundamental differences in structure and genetics of these antigen receptors

  • Fast‐acting γδ T‐cell subpopulation and protective immunity against infections
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-10
    Ling Shen; Dan Huang; Arwa Qaqish; James Frencher; Rui Yang; Hongbo Shen; Zheng W. Chen

    Unique Vγ2Vδ2 (Vγ9Vδ2) T cells existing only in human and non‐human primates, account for the majority of circulating γδ T cells in human adults. Vγ2Vδ2 T cells are the sole γδ T‐cell subpopulation capable of recognizing the microbial (E)‐4‐hydroxy‐3‐methyl‐but‐2‐enyl pyrophosphate (HMBPP) produced by selected pathogens during infections. Recent seminal studies in non‐human primate models have demonstrated

  • Understanding human γδ T cell biology toward a better management of cytomegalovirus infection
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-22
    Hannah Kaminski; Gabriel Marsères; Anaïs Cosentino; Florent Guerville; Vincent Pitard; Jean‐Jacques Fournié; Pierre Merville; Julie Déchanet‐Merville; Lionel Couzi

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients, namely solid organ and hematopoietic cell transplant recipients, and can induce congenital infection in neonates. There is currently an unmet need for new management and treatment strategies. Establishment of an anti‐CMV immune response is critical in order to control CMV infection

    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-11-27

    In this article,1 there were errors in Figure 1 and caption on page 28. The color keys for Lysine, Arginine, Aspartate, and Glutamate were interchanged and should have been corrected to Lysine (blue), Arginine (gray/blue), Aspartate (red), Glutamate (black/red). In the caption, the sentence “Basic residues are in red, while acidic residues are in blue.” is incorrect and should have been corrected to

  • Regulation of neuroinflammation by B cells and plasma cells
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Angela Wang; Olga Rojas; Dennis Lee; Jennifer L. Gommerman

    The remarkable success of anti‐CD20 B cell depletion therapies in reducing the burden of multiple sclerosis (MS) disease has prompted significant interest in how B cells contribute to neuroinflammation. Most focus has been on identifying pathogenic CD20+ B cells. However, an increasing number of studies have also identified regulatory functions of B lineage cells, particularly the production of IL‐10

  • Cancer immunotherapy harnessing γδ T cells and programmed death-1.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-09-05
    Yoshimasa Tanaka

    Cancer immunotherapy has received increasing attention since the success of CTLA‐4 and programmed death‐1 (PD‐1) immune checkpoint inhibitors and CAR‐T cells. One of the most promising next‐generation cancer treatments is adoptive transfer of immune effector cells. Developing an efficacious adoptive transfer therapy requires growing large numbers of highly purified immune effector cells in a short

  • Intracellular innate immune receptors: Life inside the cell.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti
  • The NLRP1 and CARD8 inflammasomes.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-19
    Cornelius Y Taabazuing,Andrew R Griswold,Daniel A Bachovchin

    Inflammasomes are multiprotein complexes that activate inflammatory cytokines and induce pyroptosis in response to intracellular danger‐associated signals. NLRP1 and CARD8 are related germline‐encoded pattern recognition receptors that form inflammasomes, but their activation mechanisms and biological purposes have not yet been fully established. Both NLRP1 and CARD8 undergo post‐translational autoproteolysis

  • The regulation of the ZBP1-NLRP3 inflammasome and its implications in pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis (PANoptosis).
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Min Zheng,Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    ZBP1 has been characterized as a critical innate immune sensor of not only viral RNA products but also endogenous nucleic acid ligands. ZBP1 sensing of the Z‐RNA produced during influenza virus infection induces cell death in the form of pyroptosis, apoptosis, and necroptosis (PANoptosis). PANoptosis is a coordinated cell death pathway that is driven through a multiprotein complex called the PANoptosome

  • Pyroptotic and non-pyroptotic effector functions of caspase-11.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Arwa Abu Khweek,Amal O Amer

    Innate immune cells, epithelial cells, and many other cell types are capable of detecting infection or tissue injury, thus mounting regulated immune response. Inflammasomes are highly sophisticated and effective orchestrators of innate immunity. These oligomerized multiprotein complexes are at the center of various innate immune pathways, including modulation of the cytoskeleton, production and maturation

  • Reconciling protective and pathogenic roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome in leishmaniasis.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Valerie Harrington,Prajwal Gurung

    Leishmaniasis is a global health problem that affects more than 2 billion people worldwide. Recent advances in research have demonstrated critical roles for cytoplasmic sensors and inflammasomes during Leishmania spp. infection and pathogenesis. Specifically, several studies have focused on the role of nod‐like receptor family, pyrin domain‐containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome and inflammasome‐associated

  • Molecular mechanisms activating the NAIP-NLRC4 inflammasome: Implications in infectious disease, autoinflammation, and cancer.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Callum Kay,Runli Wang,Max Kirkby,Si Ming Man

    Cytosolic innate immune sensing is a cornerstone of innate immunity in mammalian cells and provides a surveillance system for invading pathogens and endogenous danger signals. The NAIP‐NLRC4 inflammasome responds to cytosolic flagellin, and the inner rod and needle proteins of the type 3 secretion system of bacteria. This complex induces caspase‐1‐dependent proteolytic cleavage of the proinflammatory

  • AIM2 in health and disease: Inflammasome and beyond.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-26
    Puja Kumari,Ashley J Russo,Sonia Shivcharan,Vijay A Rathinam

    Nucleic acid sensing is a critical mechanism by which the immune system monitors for pathogen invasion. A set of germline‐encoded innate immune receptors detect microbial DNA in various compartments of the cell, such as endosomes, the cytosol, and the nucleus. Sensing of microbial DNA through these receptors stimulates, in most cases, interferon regulatory factor‐dependent type I IFN synthesis followed

  • The pyrin inflammasome and the Yersinia effector interaction.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Haleema S Malik,James B Bliska

    Pyrin is a cytosolic pattern‐recognition receptor that normally functions as a guard to trigger capase‐1 inflammasome assembly in response to bacterial toxins and effectors that inactivate RhoA. The MEFV gene encoding human pyrin is preferentially expressed in phagocytes. Key domains in pyrin include a pyrin domain (PYD), a linker region, and a B30.2 domain. Binding of ASC to pyrin by a PYD‐PYD interaction

  • Lipids, inflammasomes, metabolism, and disease.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Paras K Anand

    Inflammasomes are multi‐protein complexes that regulate the cleavage of cysteine protease caspase‐1, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, and induction of inflammatory cell death, pyroptosis. Several members of the nod‐like receptor family assemble inflammasome in response to specific ligands. An exception to this is the NLRP3 inflammasome which is activated by structurally diverse entities. Recent

  • Therapeutic modulation of inflammasome pathways.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Dhruv Chauhan,Lieselotte Vande Walle,Mohamed Lamkanfi

    Inflammasomes are macromolecular complexes formed in response to pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and danger‐associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) that drive maturation of the pro‐inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‐1β and IL‐18, and cleave gasdermin D (GSDMD) for induction of pyroptosis. Inflammasomes are highly important in protecting the host from various microbial pathogens and

  • NOD1 and NOD2 in inflammatory and infectious diseases.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Bruno C Trindade,Grace Y Chen

    It has been long recognized that NOD1 and NOD2 are critical players in the host immune response, primarily by their sensing bacterial peptidoglycan‐conserved motifs. Significant advances have been made from efforts that characterize their upstream activators, assembly of signaling complexes, and activation of downstream signaling pathways. Disruption in NOD1 and NOD2 signaling has also been associated

  • Nuclear innate sensors for nucleic acids in immunity and inflammation.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Hongyu Lin,Xuetao Cao

    Innate sensors recognize pathogen‐associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) or damage‐associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) to initiate innate immune response by activating downstream signaling. These evolutionarily conserved innate sensors usually locate in the plasma membrane or cytoplasm. However, the nucleus‐localized innate sensors are recently found to detect pathogenic nucleic acids for initiating

  • Cross talk between intracellular pathogens and cell death.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Benjamin Demarco,Kaiwen W Chen,Petr Broz

    Infections with bacterial pathogens often results in the initiation of programmed cell death as part of the host innate immune defense, or as a bacterial virulence strategy. Induction of host cell death is controlled by an elaborate network of innate immune and cell death signaling pathways and manifests in different morphologically and functionally distinct forms of death, such as apoptosis, necroptosis

  • What came first, the virus or the egg: Innate immunity during viral coinfections.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-06
    Meagan D Rippee-Brooks,Riley N Marcinczyk,Christopher R Lupfer

    Infections with any pathogen can be severe and present with numerous complications caused by the pathogen or the host immune response to the invading microbe. However, coinfections, also called polymicrobial infections or secondary infections, can further exacerbate disease. Coinfections are more common than is often appreciated. In this review, we focus specifically on coinfections between viruses

  • The microbiome and cytosolic innate immune receptors.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Timur Liwinski,Danping Zheng,Eran Elinav

    The discovery of innate immune sensors (pattern recognition receptors, PRRs) has profoundly transformed the notion of innate immunity, in providing a mechanistic basis for host immune interactions with a wealth of environmental signals, leading to a variety of immune‐mediated outcomes including instruction and activation of the adaptive immune arm. As part of this growing understanding of host‐environmental

  • The role of innate immunity in Alzheimer's disease.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Hannah E Ennerfelt,John R Lukens

    The amyloid hypothesis has dominated Alzheimer's disease (AD) research for almost 30 years. This hypothesis hinges on the predominant clinical role of the amyloid beta (Aβ) peptide in propagating neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and eventual cognitive impairment in AD. Recent research in the AD field has identified the brain‐resident macrophages, known as microglia, and their receptors as integral regulators

  • Primary immunodeficiencies in cytosolic pattern-recognition receptor pathways: Toward host-directed treatment strategies.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Caspar I van der Made,Alexander Hoischen,Mihai G Netea,Frank L van de Veerdonk

    In the last decade, the paradigm of primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) as rare recessive familial diseases that lead to broad, severe, and early‐onset immunological defects has shifted toward collectively more common, but sporadic autosomal dominantly inherited isolated defects in the immune response. Patients with PIDs constitute a formidable area of research to study the genetics and the molecular

  • γδ T cells and inflammatory skin diseases.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Mia Hamilton Jee,Veronika Mraz,Carsten Geisler,Charlotte Menné Bonefeld

    Approximately 25% of the population suffers from skin diseases. The most common forms of skin diseases are the inflammatory skin diseases such as allergic contact dermatitis, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis. These diseases are described as T cell–mediated diseases induced by either allergens or autoantigens. Classically, the focus has been on the role of αβ T cells, but it is becoming increasingly

  • γδ T cell migration: Separating trafficking from surveillance behaviors at barrier surfaces.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Matthew A Fischer,Natasha B Golovchenko,Karen L Edelblum

    γδ T cells are found in highest numbers at barrier surfaces throughout the body, including the skin, intestine, lung, gingiva, and uterus. Under homeostatic conditions, γδ T cells provide immune surveillance of the epidermis, intestinal, and oral mucosa, whereas the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in the dermis or lungs elicits a robust γδ17 response to clear the infection. Although T cell migration

  • Gut γδ T cells as guardians, disruptors, and instigators of cancer.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Toshiyasu Suzuki,Liam Hayman,Anna Kilbey,Joanne Edwards,Seth B Coffelt

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with nearly 2 million cases per year. Immune cells and inflammation are a critical component of colorectal cancer progression, and they are used as reliable prognostic indicators of patient outcome. With the growing appreciation for immunology in colorectal cancer, interest is growing on the role γδ T cells have to play, as they represent

  • Two functionally distinct subsets of IL-17 producing γδ T cells.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Rebecca L O'Brien,Willi K Born

    The γδ T cells play an important role in both mice and humans as a source of the cytokine IL‐17, which is key for immune resistance to certain pathogens. In mice, most of these IL‐17 producers, termed γδT‐17 cells, actually comprise two distinct types: those expressing an invariant Vγ6Vδ1+ TCR and those expressing a Vγ4+ TCR. Murine γδT‐17 cells acquire an inherent bias to produce IL‐17 and other “type

  • B and Th cell response to Ag in vivo: Implications for vaccine development and diseases.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-19
    Richard B Kennedy,Irina Grigorova

    While vaccines have been the major medical intervention in human history that fundamentally reshaped our life‐expectancy, the global COVID‐19 pandemic reinforced public awareness about the critical need for further advancement of vaccine development. Multiple groups have published on improved and directed efforts to develop vaccines—efforts that are informed by the most up‐to‐date understanding of

  • Signals 1, 2 and B cell fate or: Where, when and for how long?
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-29
    Jackson S Turner,Zachary L Benet,Irina L Grigorova

    Diverse B cell responses are important for generating antibody‐mediated protection against highly variable pathogens. While some antigens can trigger T‐independent B cell proliferation and short‐term antibody production, development of long‐term humoral immunity requires T‐dependent B cell responses. The “two‐signal” model of B cell activation has long been invoked to explain alternate B cell recruitment

  • T cell help to B cells: Cognate and atypical interactions in peripheral and intestinal lymphoid tissues.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Adi Biram,Ziv Shulman

    Enduring immunity against harmful pathogens depends on the generation of immunological memory. Serum immunoglobulins are constantly secreted by long‐lived antibody‐producing cells, which provide extended protection from recurrent exposures. These cells originate mainly from germinal center structures, wherein B cells introduce mutations to their immunoglobulin genes followed by affinity‐based selection

  • T follicular helper cells in germinal center B cell selection and lymphomagenesis.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    Michelle A Mintz,Jason G Cyster

    Germinal centers (GCs) are confined anatomic regions where rapidly proliferating B cells undergo somatic mutation and selection and eventual differentiation into memory B cells or long‐lived plasma cells. GCs are also the origin of malignancy, namely follicular lymphoma (FL), GC B cell‐diffuse large B cell lymphoma (GCB‐DLBCL), and Burkitt lymphoma (BL). GC B cell lymphomas maintain their GC transcriptional

  • The geography of memory B cell reactivation in vaccine-induced immunity and in autoimmune disease relapses.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Rama Dhenni,Tri Giang Phan

    Memory B cells (Bmem) provide an active second layer of defense against re‐infection by pathogens that have bypassed the passive first layer provided by neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review recent progress in our understanding of Bmem heterogeneity in terms of their origin (germinal center‐dependent vs center‐independent), phenotype (canonical vs atypical vs age‐associated B cells), trafficking

  • How intrinsic and extrinsic regulators of plasma cell survival might intersect for durable humoral immunity.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-26
    Marcus J Robinson,Rosela H Webster,David M Tarlinton

    Plasma cells (PC) are key to protective immunity because they secrete antibodies. Surviving for periods ranging from days to decades in mammals, PC possess varying survival times that cannot be entirely stochastic or extrinsically set, as presumed half‐lives vary with antigenic specificity. Here, we review the signals that impart survival potential to PC. These include signals provided during formation

  • Control of foreign Ag-specific Ab responses by Treg and Tfr.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    James B Wing,Ee Lyn Lim,Shimon Sakaguchi

    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) expressing the transcription factor Foxp3 play a critical role in the control of immune homeostasis including the regulation of humoral immunity. Recently, it has become clear that a specialized subset of Tregs, T‐follicular regulatory cells (Tfr), have a particular role in the control of T‐follicular helper (Tfh) cell‐driven germinal center (GC) responses. Following similar

  • Factors in B cell competition and immunodominance.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-01
    Robert K Abbott,Shane Crotty

    The majority of all vaccines work by inducing protective antibody responses. The mechanisms by which the B cells responsible for producing protective antibodies are elicited to respond are not well understood. Interclonal B cell competition to complex antigens, particularly in germinal centers, has emerged as an important hurdle in designing effective vaccines. This review will focus on recent advances

  • Influenza vaccination strategies targeting the hemagglutinin stem region.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Hidehiro Fukuyama,Ryo Shinnakasu,Tomohiro Kurosaki

    Influenza is one of the best examples of highly mutable viruses that are able to escape immune surveillance. Indeed, in response to influenza seasonal infection or vaccination, the majority of the induced antibodies are strain‐specific. Current vaccine against the seasonal strains with the strategy of surveillance‐prediction‐vaccine does not cover an unmet virus strain leading to pandemic. Recently

  • Age-related factors that affect B cell responses to vaccination in mice and humans.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Daniela Frasca,Bonnie B Blomberg,Denisse Garcia,Spencer R Keilich,Laura Haynes

    Aging significantly changes the ability to respond to vaccinations and infections. In this review, we summarize published results on age‐related changes in response to infection with the influenza virus and on the factors known to increase influenza risk infection leading to organ failure and death. We also summarize how aging affects the response to the influenza vaccine with a special focus on B

  • The 3Ds in virus-like particle based-vaccines: "Design, Delivery and Dynamics".
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-30
    Mona O Mohsen,Gilles Augusto,Martin F Bachmann

    Vaccines need to be rationally designed in order be delivered to the immune system for maximizing induction of dynamic immune responses. Virus‐like particles (VLPs) are ideal platforms for such 3D vaccines, as they allow the display of complex and native antigens in a highly repetitive form on their surface and can easily reach lymphoid organs in intact form for optimal activation of B and T cells

  • Modulation of immune responses using adjuvants to facilitate therapeutic vaccination.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Virgil Schijns,Alberto Fernández-Tejada,Žarko Barjaktarović,Ilias Bouzalas,Jens Brimnes,Sergey Chernysh,Sveinbjorn Gizurarson,Ihsan Gursel,Žiga Jakopin,Maria Lawrenz,Cristina Nativi,Stephane Paul,Gabriel Kristian Pedersen,Camillo Rosano,Ane Ruiz-de-Angulo,Bram Slütter,Aneesh Thakur,Dennis Christensen,Ed C Lavelle

    Therapeutic vaccination offers great promise as an intervention for a diversity of infectious and non‐infectious conditions. Given that most chronic health conditions are thought to have an immune component, vaccination can at least in principle be proposed as a therapeutic strategy. Understanding the nature of protective immunity is of vital importance, and the progress made in recent years in defining

  • Imprinting, immunodominance, and other impediments to generating broad influenza immunity.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Matthew Knight,Siriruk Changrob,Lei Li,Patrick C Wilson

    Natural influenza virus infections and seasonal vaccinations often do not confer broadly neutralizing immunity across diverse influenza strains. In addition, the virus is capable of rapid antigenic drift in order to evade pre‐existing immunity. The surface glycoproteins, hemagglutinin, and neuraminidase can easily mutate their immunodominant epitopes without impacting fitness. Skewing human antibody

  • The role of host genetics in the immune response to SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 susceptibility and severity.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Inna G Ovsyannikova,Iana H Haralambieva,Stephen N Crooke,Gregory A Poland,Richard B Kennedy

    This article provides a review of studies evaluating the role of host (and viral) genetics (including variation in HLA genes) in the immune response to coronaviruses, as well as the clinical outcome of coronavirus‐mediated disease. The initial sections focus on seasonal coronaviruses, SARS‐CoV, and MERS‐CoV. We then examine the state of the knowledge regarding genetic polymorphisms and SARS‐CoV‐2 and

  • Deciphering human γδ T cell response in cancer: Lessons from tumor-infiltrating γδ T cells.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Elena Lo Presti,Francesco Dieli,Jean Jacques Fourniè,Serena Meraviglia

    The finding that γδ T cells are present among tumor‐infiltrating lymphocytes in humans suggests they participate in tumor immune surveillance, but their relevance is unclear because the relative abundance of tumor‐infiltrating γδ T cells correlates with positive or negative, or even do not correlate with prognosis. This likely depends on the fact that tumor‐infiltrating γδ T cells may play substantially

  • Application of a portable instrument for rapid and reliable detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection in any environment.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-04-23
    Federico Martinelli,Anna Perrone,Isabella Della Noce,Lorenzo Colombo,Stefano Lo Priore,Simone Romano

    The ongoing outbreak of the novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) infection is creating serious challenges for health laboratories that seek to identify viral infections as early as possible, optimally at the earliest appearance of symptom. Indeed, there is urgent need to develop and deploy robust diagnostic methodologies not only to use in health laboratory environments but also directly in places where

  • Immunometabolism: From basic mechanisms to translation.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Liza Makowski,Mehdi Chaib,Jeffrey C Rathmell

    Immunometabolism has emerged as a major mechanism central to adaptive and innate immune regulation. From early observations that inflammatory cytokines were induced in obese adipose tissue and that these cytokines contributed to metabolic disease, it was clear that metabolism and the immunological state are inextricably linked. With a second research wave arising from studies in cancer metabolism to

  • Fueling influenza and the immune response: Implications for metabolic reprogramming during influenza infection and immunometabolism.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Azadeh Bahadoran,Lavanya Bezavada,Heather S Smallwood

    Recent studies support the notion that glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation are rheostats in immune cells whose bioenergetics have functional outputs in terms of their biology. Specific intrinsic and extrinsic molecular factors function as molecular potentiometers to adjust and control glycolytic to respiratory power output. In many cases, these potentiometers are used by influenza viruses and

  • Microbiome, bile acids, and obesity: How microbially modified metabolites shape anti-tumor immunity.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-05-01
    Laura M Sipe,Mehdi Chaib,Ajeeth K Pingili,Joseph F Pierre,Liza Makowski

    Bile acids (BAs) are known facilitators of nutrient absorption but recent paradigm shifts now recognize BAs as signaling molecules regulating both innate and adaptive immunity. Bile acids are synthesized from cholesterol in the liver with subsequent microbial modification and fermentation adding complexity to pool composition. Bile acids act on several receptors such as Farnesoid X Receptor and the

  • The role of B cell antigen presentation in the initiation of CD4+ T cell response.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-04-18
    Zhaolin Hua,Baidong Hou

    B cells have been known for their ability to present antigens to T cells for almost 40 years. However, the precise roles of B cell antigen presentation in various immune responses are not completely understood. The term “professional” antigen‐presenting cells (APCs) was proposed to distinguish APCs that are required for initiating the immune responses from those use antigen presentation to enhance

  • Cell-intrinsic metabolic regulation of mononuclear phagocyte activation: Findings from the tip of the iceberg.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-04-03
    Nikki van Teijlingen Bakker,Edward J Pearce

    We have only recently started to appreciate the extent to which immune cell activation involves significant changes in cellular metabolism. We are now beginning to understand how commitment to specific metabolic pathways influences aspects of cellular biology that are the more usual focus of immunological studies, such as activation-induced changes in gene transcription, post-transcriptional regulation

  • Adipose tissue macrophages: Unique polarization and bioenergetics in obesity.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Heather L Caslin,Monica Bhanot,W Reid Bolus,Alyssa H Hasty

    Macrophages comprise a majority of the resident immune cells in adipose tissue (AT) and regulate both tissue homeostasis in the lean state and metabolic dysregulation in obesity. Since the AT environment rapidly changes based upon systemic energy status, AT macrophages (ATMs) must adapt phenotypically and metabolically. There is a distinct dichotomy in the polarization and bioenergetics of in vitro

  • Chemical individuality in T cells: A Garrodian view of immunometabolism.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-03-31
    Peter J McGuire

    Metabolically quiescent T cells circulate throughout the body in search of antigen. Following engagement of their cognate receptors, T cells undergo metabolic reprogramming to support their activation, differentiation, and ultimately function. In the spirit of Sir Archibald Garrod, this metabolic reprogramming actually imparts a chemical individuality which confers advantage, while in others confers

  • mTOR signaling at the crossroads of environmental signals and T-cell fate decisions.
    Immunol. Rev. (IF 13.939) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Hongling Huang,Lingyun Long,Peipei Zhou,Nicole M Chapman,Hongbo Chi

    The evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine kinase mTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) forms the distinct protein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2 and integrates signals from the environment to coordinate downstream signaling events and various cellular processes. T cells rely on mTOR activity for their development and to establish their homeostasis and functional fitness. Here, we review recent progress

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