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  • Structural basis of SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV–antibody interactions
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-17
    Edem Gavor; Yeu Khai Choong; Shi Yin Er; Hariharan Sivaraman; J. Sivaraman

    The 2019 coronavirus pandemic is still a major public health concern. Neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) represent a cutting-edge antiviral strategy. Here, we focus on SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV and discuss the current antibody research progress against rampant SARS-CoV-2 infections. We provide a perspective on the mechanisms of SARS-CoV-2-derived nAbs, comparing these with existing SARS-CoV-derived antibodies

    更新日期:2020-09-18
  • Tissue-Specific Features of Innate Lymphoid Cells
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Isabel Meininger; Anna Carrasco; Anna Rao; Tea Soini; Efthymia Kokkinou; Jenny Mjösberg

    Although the function of the circulating immune cell compartment has been studied in detail for decades, limitations in terms of access and cell yields from peripheral tissues have restricted our understanding of tissue-based immunity, particularly in humans. Recent advances in high-throughput protein analyses, transcriptional profiling, and epigenetics have partially overcome these obstacles. Innate

    更新日期:2020-09-09
  • Teaching Old Dogs New Tricks? The Plasticity of Lung Alveolar Macrophage Subsets
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Justina Kulikauskaite; Andreas Wack

    Alveolar macrophages (AMs) are highly abundant lung cells with important roles in homeostasis and immunity. Their function influences the outcome of lung infections, lung cancer, and chronic inflammatory disease. Recent findings reveal functional heterogeneity of AMs. Following lung insult, resident AMs can either remain unchanged, acquire new functionality, or be replaced by monocyte-derived AMs.

    更新日期:2020-09-05
  • Protein Arginine Methyltransferase 5 in T Lymphocyte Biology.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Shouvonik Sengupta,Austin Kennemer,Kristin Patrick,Philip Tsichlis,Mireia Guerau-de-Arellano

    Protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) is the major methyltransferase (MT) catalyzing symmetric dimethylation (SDM). PRMT5 regulates developmental, homeostatic and disease processes in vertebrates and invertebrates, and a carcinogenic role has been observed in mammals. Recently, tools generated for PRMT5 loss of function have allowed researchers to demonstrate essential roles for PRMT5 in mouse

    更新日期:2020-09-02
  • miRNA-Based Therapies in B Cell Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Teresa Fuertes,Almudena R Ramiro,Virginia G de Yebenes

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) is a diverse class of hematological cancers, many of which arise from germinal center (GC)-experienced B cells. Thus GCs, the sites of antibody affinity maturation triggered during immune responses, also provide an environment that facilitates B cell oncogenic transformation. miRNAs provide attractive and mechanistically different strategies to treat these malignancies based

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • 更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Microglia and Astrocyte Crosstalk in Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Catarina Sacristán

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Location, Location, Location: Transcriptional Control of Astrocyte Heterogeneity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Marci F Rosenberg,Anna V Molofsky

    Huang et al. have found that deletion of astrocyte lineage-specifying transcription factor NFIA from mature astrocytes alters astrocyte morphology, molecular identity, and synaptic-support capacity in a region-specific manner. We discuss the implications of these findings in light of emerging roles for astrocytes in immune cell crosstalk.

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • A Gut Feeling about C9ORF72.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Magdalini Polymenidou

    C9ORF72 mutations are the most common genetic cause of ALS and FTD, leading to neurodegeneration via complex mechanisms. Mutations also lead to loss of C9ORF72 function and inflammatory diseases in patients and knockout mice. Burberry et al. now show that C9orf72-associated inflammation and premature death in mice are directly modified by the gut microbiome.

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Astrocyte Reactivity: Subtypes, States, and Functions in CNS Innate Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Michael V Sofroniew

    Astrocytes are neural parenchymal cells that ubiquitously tile the central nervous system (CNS). In addition to playing essential roles in healthy tissue, astrocytes exhibit an evolutionarily ancient response to all CNS insults, referred to as astrocyte reactivity. Long regarded as passive and homogeneous, astrocyte reactivity is being revealed as a heterogeneous and functionally powerful component

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • To Kill a Microglia: A Case for CSF1R Inhibitors.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Kim N Green,Joshua D Crapser,Lindsay A Hohsfield

    Microglia, the brain’s immune sentinels, have garnered much attention in recent years. Researchers have begun to identify the manifold roles that these cells play in the central nervous system (CNS), and this work has been greatly facilitated by microglial depletion paradigms. The varying degrees of spatiotemporal manipulation afforded by such techniques allow microglial ablation before, during, and/or

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Investigating Microglia in Health and Disease: Challenges and Opportunities.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Veronique E Miron,Josef Priller

    Microglia are tissue-resident macrophages implicated in central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, and response to injury. Recent advances in transcriptomics, multiplex protein expression analysis, and experimental depletion of microglia have cemented their importance. However, it is still unclear which models are best suited to investigate microglia and explore their function in human

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Immunological Features of Non-neuronal Brain Cells: Implications for Alzheimer's Disease Immunotherapy.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Giulia Castellani,Michal Schwartz

    An interaction network exists among cells within the brain, maintaining brain homeostasis and ensuring its functional plasticity. In addition to neurons, participating cells include astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglia. Peripheral immune cells, such as monocytes and lymphocytes, have also been found to play an important role in supporting the brain in health and assisting in its repair. Here

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • The Role of Astrocytes in CNS Inflammation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Federico Giovannoni,Francisco J Quintana

    Astrocytes are the most abundant cell type in the central nervous system (CNS), performing complex functions in health and disease. It is now clear that multiple astrocyte subsets or activation states (plastic phenotypes driven by intrinsic and extrinsic cues) can be identified, associated to specific genomic programs and functions. The characterization of these subsets and the mechanisms that control

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Microglia and Astrocytes in Disease: Dynamic Duo or Partners in Crime?
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-17
    Shane A Liddelow,Samuel E Marsh,Beth Stevens

    Microglia–astrocyte interactions represent a delicate balance affecting neural cell functions in health and disease. Tightly controlled to maintain homeostasis during physiological conditions, rapid and prolonged departures during disease, infection, and following trauma drive multiple outcomes: both beneficial and detrimental. Recent sequencing studies at the bulk and single-cell level in humans and

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • The Role of TGFβ Signaling in Microglia Maturation and Activation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-30
    Björn Spittau,Nikolaos Dokalis,Marco Prinz

    The pleiotropic cytokine transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGFβ1) plays pivotal roles in different cell types, including immune cells such as T cells, monocytes/macrophages, and microglia. Microglia are essential during physiological and pathological events. Maturation of postnatal microglia, as well as the regulation of the complex functional repertoire of microglia, needs to be carefully orchestrated

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Cell Cycle Regulation Meets Tumor Immunosuppression.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Jinyang Li,Ben Z Stanger

    Reciprocal interactions between tumor cells and immune cells shape the tumor microenvironment. Recent studies indicate that enhanced cell cycle activity in cancer cells suppresses antitumor immunity. Herein we discuss potential mechanisms by which cell cycle programs intrinsic to tumor cells are coupled to immune behavior, with consequences for immunotherapy.

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • Is Immunological Memory a Burden in Times of COVID-19?
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Enrique Ortega

    更新日期:2020-08-12
  • Modeling Potential Autophagy Pathways in COVID-19 and Sarcoidosis
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Alain Calender; Dominique Israel-Biet; Dominique Valeyre; Yves Pacheco

    COVID-19 is a disease caused by coronavirus SARS-CoV2, mainly affecting the lungs. Sarcoidosis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by the diffusion of granulomas in lung and other organs. Here, we discuss how the two diseases might involve some common mechanistic cellular pathways around the regulation of autophagy.

    更新日期:2020-08-10
  • Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Induce Antibody Production in Gastric Tissue.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Jennifer K Bando,Marco Colonna

    A recent article published in Immunity by Naoko Satoh-Takayama et al. examines interactions between group 2 innate lymphocytes and gastric microbes that enhance IgA production.

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Redefining Memory T Cell Subsets.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Rod A Rahimi,Andrew D Luster

    It has become increasingly clear that the terms used to define memory T cell subsets no longer accurately reflect our understanding of memory T cell biology. Here, we discuss the limitations of our current terminology and propose a new approach for defining memory T cell subsets.

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Flipping the Switch from Inflammation to Cell Death.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Hayley I Muendlein,Alexander Poltorak

    Multiple research groups have demonstrated that caspase-8 (CASP8)-mediated gasdermin D (GSDMD) cleavage drives pyroptotic cell death. Here, we discuss a novel role for the enzymatically inactive homolog of CASP8, the long isoform of cellular FLICE-like inhibitory protein (cFLIPL), in the regulation of this process. Specifically, cFLIP-deficiency provides a model in which to study the mechanisms regulating

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Organoid Models of Tumor Immunology.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-09
    Kanako Yuki,Ning Cheng,Michitaka Nakano,Calvin J Kuo

    Cellular interactions in the tumor microenvironment (TME) significantly govern cancer progression and drug response. The efficacy of clinical immunotherapies has fostered an exponential interest in the tumor immune microenvironment, which in turn has engendered a pressing need for robust experimental systems modeling patient-specific tumor–immune interactions. Traditional 2D in vitro tumor immunotherapy

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Rewriting History: Epigenetic Reprogramming of CD8+ T Cell Differentiation to Enhance Immunotherapy.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Caitlin C Zebley,Stephen Gottschalk,Ben Youngblood

    The full potential of T cell-based immunotherapies remains limited by a variety of T cell extrinsic and intrinsic immunosuppressive mechanisms that can become imprinted to stably reduce the antitumor ability of T cells. Here, we discuss recent insights into memory CD8+ T cell differentiation and exhaustion and the association of these differentiation states with clinical outcomes during immune checkpoint

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • The Contribution of Epigenetics to Cancer Immunotherapy.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Lorea Villanueva,Damiana Álvarez-Errico,Manel Esteller

    Effective anticancer immunotherapy treatments constitute a qualitative leap in cancer management. Nonetheless, not all patients benefit from such therapies because they fail to achieve complete responses, suffer frequent relapses, or develop potentially life-threatening toxicities. Epigenomic signatures in immune and cancer cells appear to be accurate and promising predictors of patient outcomes with

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Genetic Screening for Novel Regulators of Immune Checkpoint Molecules.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-27
    Ramon Arens,Ferenc A Scheeren

    Inhibitory and stimulatory immune checkpoint molecules play important roles in regulating immune responses. An increasing number of these immune regulators are currently being evaluated as targets in putative anti-cancer therapies. Recently, sophisticated genetic screens have been performed to increase our understanding of immune checkpoint pathways and their immunomodulatory regulators. Here, we summarize

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Understanding Normal and Malignant Human Hematopoiesis Using Next-Generation Humanized Mice.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Yoriko Saito,Leonard D Shultz,Fumihiko Ishikawa

    Rodent models for human diseases contribute significantly to understanding human physiology and pathophysiology. However, given the accelerating pace of drug development, there is a crucial need for in vivo preclinical models of human biology and pathology. The humanized mouse is one tool to bridge the gap between traditional animal models and the clinic. The development of immunodeficient mouse strains

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Activation and Suppression of Group 3 Innate Lymphoid Cells in the Gut.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Wenqing Zhou,Gregory F Sonnenberg

    Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) have emerged as master regulators of intestinal health and tissue homeostasis in mammals. Through a diverse array of cytokines and cellular interactions, ILC3s crucially orchestrate lymphoid organogenesis, promote tissue protection or regeneration, facilitate antimicrobial responses, and directly regulate adaptive immunity. Further, translational studies have found

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • Cardiac Mast Cells: Underappreciated Immune Cells in Cardiovascular Homeostasis and Disease.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-28
    Gilda Varricchi,Gianni Marone,Petri T Kovanen

    Mast cells are multifarious immune cells with complex roles in tissue homeostasis and disease. They produce a plethora of mediators that play roles in inflammation, angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. Recent insights into the heterogeneity of cardiac mast cell (CMC) subpopulations have renewed interest in their functional diversity in homeostasis and disease. They are located within

    更新日期:2020-07-30
  • CRAC Channels and Calcium Signaling in T Cell-Mediated Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Martin Vaeth,Sascha Kahlfuss,Stefan Feske

    Calcium (Ca2+) signals play fundamental roles in immune cell function. The main sources of Ca2+ influx in mammalian lymphocytes following antigen receptor stimulation are Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. These are formed by ORAI proteins in the plasma membrane and are activated by stromal interaction molecules (STIM) located in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Human loss-of-function (LOF)

    更新日期:2020-07-23
  • Using Serology with Models to Clarify the Trajectory of the SARS-CoV-2 Emerging Outbreak.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    C Jessica E Metcalf,Cecile Viboud,David J Spiro,Bryan T Grenfell

    更新日期:2020-06-29
  • Instructing Memory in CD8+ Thymocytes.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-06
    Katherine Maude Ashby,Kristin Ann Hogquist

    T cells can sometimes acquire properties of a memory cell without encountering foreign antigen. Miller et al. now show that development of such ‘memory phenotype’ (MP) CD8+ T cells starts with recognition of self-ligands in the thymus, and finishes in peripheral tissues. These cells respond rapidly during infection, and infiltrate tumors, where they express high amounts of PD-1.

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Where There's Smoke, There's Fire: Inflammation Drives MDS.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Gandhar K Datar,Margaret A Goodell

    Chronic inflammation has been implicated in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS); however, its role in disease progression is unclear. In a new study by Muto et al., MDS stem cells sparked with TRAF6-activated innate immune signaling were found to outcompete normal counterparts only when fueled by environmental inflammatory stimuli. Non-canonical NF-κB signaling is implicated in inflammatory synergy and

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Origins of the RAG Transposome and the MHC.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Louis Tsakou-Ngouafo,Julien Paganini,Jim Kaufman,Pierre Pontarotti

    How innate immunity gave rise to adaptive immunity in vertebrates remains unknown. We propose an evolutionary scenario beginning with pathogen-associated molecular pattern(s) (PAMPs) being presented by molecule(s) on one cell to specific receptor(s) on other cells, much like MHC molecules and T cell receptors (TCRs). In this model, mutations in MHC-like molecule(s) that bound new PAMP(s) would not

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • The Speckled Protein (SP) Family: Immunity's Chromatin Readers.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Isabella Fraschilla,Kate L Jeffrey

    Chromatin ‘readers’ are central interpreters of the epigenome that facilitate cell-specific transcriptional programs and are therapeutic targets in cancer and inflammation. The Speckled Protein (SP) family of chromatin ‘readers’ in humans consists of SP100, SP110, SP140, and SP140L. SPs possess functional domains (SAND, PHD, bromodomain) that dock to DNA or post-translationally modified histones and

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • AID in Antibody Diversification: There and Back Again.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Yuqing Feng,Noé Seija,Javier M D I Noia,Alberto Martin

    Activation-Induced cytidine Deaminase (AID) initiates affinity maturation and isotype switching by deaminating deoxycytidines within immunoglobulin genes, leading to somatic hypermutation (SHM) and class switch recombination (CSR). AID thus potentiates the humoral response to clear pathogens. Marking the 20th anniversary of the discovery of AID, we review the current understanding of AID function.

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • Transcriptional Control of Mature B Cell Fates.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-20
    Hongsheng Wang,Herbert C Morse,Silvia Bolland

    The mature naïve B cell repertoire consists of three well-defined populations: B1, B2 (follicular B, FOB), and marginal zone B (MZB) cells. FOB cells are the dominant mature B cell population in the secondary lymphoid organs and blood of both humans and mice. The driving forces behind mature B lineage selection have been linked to B cell receptor (BCR) signaling strength and environmental cues, but

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • A Synchronous IRF4-Dependent Gene Regulatory Network in B and Helper T Cells Orchestrating the Antibody Response.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Sarah L Cook,Marissa C Franke,Evelyn P Sievert,Roger Sciammas

    Control of diverse pathogens requires an adaptive antibody response, dependent on cellular division of labor to allocate antigen-dependent B- and CD4+ T-cell fates that collaborate to control the quantity and quality of antibody. This is orchestrated by the dynamic action of key transcriptional regulators mediating gene expression programs in response to pathogen-specific environmental inputs. We describe

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • It Takes Three Receptors to Raise a B Cell.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Kaitlin C McLean,Malay Mandal

    As the unique source of diverse immunoglobulin repertoires, B lymphocytes are an indispensable part of humoral immunity. B cell progenitors progress through sequential and mutually exclusive states of proliferation and recombination, coordinated by cytokines and chemokines. Mutations affecting the crucial pre-B cell checkpoint result in immunodeficiency, autoimmunity, and leukemia. This checkpoint

    更新日期:2020-06-25
  • A Future Outlook on Molecular Mechanisms of Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Amy S Weinmann,Ben A Youngblood,Stephen T Smale,Robert Brink,David G Schatz,Michael McHeyzer-Williams

    更新日期:2020-06-02
  • Moving Pieces in Molecular Immunology.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-13
    Catarina Sacristán

    更新日期:2020-05-13
  • 'Rinse and Replace': Boosting T Cell Turnover To Reduce HIV-1 Reservoirs.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-12
    Zvi Grossman,Nevil J Singh,Francesco R Simonetti,Michael M Lederman,Daniel C Douek,Steven G Deeks,

    Latent HIV-1 persists indefinitely during antiretroviral therapy (ART) as an integrated silent genome in long-lived memory CD4+ T cells. In untreated infections, immune activation increases the turnover of intrinsically long-lived provirus-containing CD4+ T cells. Those are 'washed out' as a result of their activation, which when coupled to viral protein expression can facilitate local inflammation

    更新日期:2020-05-12
  • Resident Memory T Cells Escape 'Home Quarantine'.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-06
    Marco Künzli,Carolyn G King

    T resident memory (Trm) cells provide a first line of defense in non-lymphoid tissues. A new report in Nature Immunology by Fonseca et al. reveals that CD8+ Trm cells can give rise to circulating effector and memory T cells, but remain predisposed to migrate back into their tissue of origin.

    更新日期:2020-05-06
  • Opportunities for Small Molecules in Cancer Immunotherapy.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-05-04
    Sabina Y van der Zanden,Jolien J Luimstra,Jacques Neefjes,Jannie Borst,Huib Ovaa

    Cancer immunotherapy has proven remarkably successful through instigation of systemic antitumor T cell responses. Despite this achievement, further advancements are needed to expand the scope of susceptible cancer types and overcome variation in treatment outcomes between patients. Small-molecule drugs targeting defined pathways and/or cells capable of immune modulation are expected to substantially

    更新日期:2020-05-04
  • Inflammation and Skeletal Muscle Regeneration: Leave It to the Macrophages!
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    Bénédicte Chazaud

    Inflammation is usually considered as harmful; however, it is also necessary for tissue recovery after injury. Macrophages exert immune and nonimmune functions throughout this process. During skeletal muscle regeneration, they mount an inflammatory response while exerting trophic roles on muscle and mesenchymal stem cells. Proinflammatory macrophages shift to being anti-inflammatory, triggering the

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Circadian Influences of Diet on the Microbiome and Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Danping Zheng,Karina Ratiner,Eran Elinav

    Host circadian rhythmicity and the timing of feeding are increasingly recognized to cross-regulate and entrain each other, and may play crucial roles in regulating multiple physiological functions including host immunity and metabolic health. Of relevance, these circadian diet-immune interactions may be modulated by the gut microbiota. We review current knowledge linking the circadian clock and dietary

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • 更新日期:2020-04-24
  • ILC3s: Rhythmic Keepers of Gut Integrity at Mealtime.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Linda Quatrini,Lorenzo Moretta,Maria Cristina Mingari

    Cyclically, during the day, increased permeability of the intestinal epithelial barrier, allowing nutrient uptake, must be compensated for, to achieve increased protection against potentially harmful components. Seillet et al. demonstrate that, upon food intake, enteric neuron-derived VIP promotes anticipatory mucosal immunity by inducing ILC3s to produce protective IL-22.

    更新日期:2020-04-16
  • An Antiviral DNA Response without the STING?
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Katheryn Meek

    Higher eukaryotes have evolved elegant and redundant pathways to protect their genomes from both genotoxic stressors and foreign DNA from invading pathogens. Emerging data from Burleigh et al. suggest that these distinct pathways may share factors to enhance the functional redundancy of both.

    更新日期:2020-04-15
  • How Neutrophils Meet Their End.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Shelley M Lawrence,Ross Corriden,Victor Nizet

    Neutrophil death can transpire via diverse pathways and is regulated by interactions with commensal and pathogenic microorganisms, environmental exposures, and cell age. At steady state, neutrophil turnover and replenishment are continually maintained via a delicate balance between host-mediated responses and microbial forces. Disruptions in this equilibrium directly impact neutrophil numbers in circulation

    更新日期:2020-04-14
  • Remnant Epitopes Generating Autoimmunity: From Model to Useful Paradigm.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-13
    Ghislain Opdenakker,Ahmed Abu El-Asrar,Jo Van Damme

    Autoimmune diseases are defined as pathologies of adaptive immunity by the presence of autoantibodies or MHC-restricted autoantigen-reactive T cells. Because autoreactivity is a normal process based on mechanisms producing repertoires of antibodies and T cell receptors, crucial questions about disease mechanisms and key steps for interference have been outstanding. We defined 25 years ago the 'remnant

    更新日期:2020-04-13
  • 更新日期:2020-04-11
  • Improving Vaccine-Induced Immunity: Can Baseline Predict Outcome?
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    John S Tsang,Carlota Dobaño,Pierre VanDamme,Gemma Moncunill,Arnaud Marchant,Rym Ben Othman,Manish Sadarangani,Wayne C Koff,Tobias R Kollmann

    Immune signatures measured at baseline and immediately prior to vaccination may predict the immune response to vaccination. Such pre-vaccine assessment might allow not only population-based, but also more personalized vaccination strategies ('precision vaccination'). If baseline immune signatures are predictive, the underlying mechanism they reflect may also determine vaccination outcome. Thus, baseline

    更新日期:2020-04-08
  • Noncanonical Functions of Antibodies.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-06
    Jordan D Dimitrov,Sébastien Lacroix-Desmazes

    The typical functions of antibodies are based on linking the process of antigen recognition with initiation of innate immune reactions. With the introduction of modern research technologies and the use of sophisticated model systems, recent years have witnessed the discovery of a number of noncanonical functions of antibodies. These functions encompass either untypical strategies for neutralization

    更新日期:2020-04-06
  • Breadth of Antibody Responses during Influenza Virus Infection and Vaccination.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-04
    Masato Kubo,Kosuke Miyauchi

    Influenza viruses are a major public health problem, causing severe respiratory diseases. Vaccines offer the effective protective strategy against influenza virus infection. However, the systemic and adaptive immune responses to infection and vaccination are quite different. Inactivated vaccines are the best available countermeasure to induce effective antibodies against the emerged virus, but the

    更新日期:2020-04-04
  • Neutralizing Antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and Other Human Coronaviruses.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Shibo Jiang,Christopher Hillyer,Lanying Du

    Coronavirus (CoV) disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-CoV-2 (also known as 2019-nCoV) is threatening global public health, social stability, and economic development. To meet this challenge, this article discusses advances in the research and development of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) for the prevention and treatment of infection by SARS-CoV-2 and other human

    更新日期:2020-04-02
  • 'Nervous' Immunity: Walking the Tightrope.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Subhash Kulkarni,Sravya Kurapati,Milena Bogunovic

    There is a major gap in our understanding of how the intestinal immune and nervous systems are integrated to regulate protective adaptations to enteric infections while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Three recent complementary reports published in Cell (2020) provide new mechanistic insights into how this enteric neuro-immune crosstalk may occur.

    更新日期:2020-04-02
  • A20 and Cell Death-driven Inflammation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Dario Priem,Geert van Loo,Mathieu J M Bertrand

    A20 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, and mutations in TNFAIP3, the gene encoding A20, are associated with a wide panel of inflammatory pathologies, both in human and mouse. The anti-inflammatory properties of A20 are commonly attributed to its ability to suppress inflammatory NF-κB signaling by functioning as a ubiquitin-editing enzyme. However, A20 also protects cells from death, independently

    更新日期:2020-03-30
  • Immunotherapeutic Potential of TGF-β Inhibition and Oncolytic Viruses.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Christianne Groeneveldt,Thorbald van Hall,Sjoerd H van der Burg,Peter Ten Dijke,Nadine van Montfoort

    In cancer immunotherapy, a patient's own immune system is harnessed against cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors release the brakes on tumor-reactive T cells and, therefore, are particularly effective in treating certain immune-infiltrated solid tumors. By contrast, solid tumors with immune-silent profiles show limited efficacy of checkpoint blockers due to several barriers. Recent discoveries highlight

    更新日期:2020-03-27
  • Helper-like Innate Lymphoid Cells in Humans and Mice.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.422) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Sophie Guia,Emilie Narni-Mancinelli

    The innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family consists of natural killer (NK) cells, helper-like lymphoid cells (ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s), and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Helper-like ILCs are considered the innate counterpart of T-helper cells because of similarities in their cytokine output and expression of key transcription factors. ILCs provide and regulate innate immune functions before the development

    更新日期:2020-03-26
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