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  • A20 and Cell Death-driven Inflammation
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Dario Priem; Geert van Loo; Mathieu J.M. Bertrand

    A20 is a potent anti-inflammatory molecule, and mutations in TNFAIP3, the gene encoding A20, are associated with a wide panel of inflammatory pathologies, both in human and mouse. The anti-inflammatory properties of A20 are commonly attributed to its ability to suppress inflammatory NF-κB signaling by functioning as a ubiquitin-editing enzyme. However, A20 also protects cells from death, independently

  • Immunotherapeutic Potential of TGF-β Inhibition and Oncolytic Viruses
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-27
    Christianne Groeneveldt; Thorbald van Hall; Sjoerd H. van der Burg; Peter ten Dijke; Nadine van Montfoort

    In cancer immunotherapy, a patient’s own immune system is harnessed against cancer. Immune checkpoint inhibitors release the brakes on tumor-reactive T cells and, therefore, are particularly effective in treating certain immune-infiltrated solid tumors. By contrast, solid tumors with immune-silent profiles show limited efficacy of checkpoint blockers due to several barriers. Recent discoveries highlight

  • Helper-like Innate Lymphoid Cells in Humans and Mice
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Sophie Guia; Emilie Narni-Mancinelli

    The innate lymphoid cell (ILC) family consists of natural killer (NK) cells, helper-like lymphoid cells (ILC1s, ILC2s, and ILC3s), and lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells. Helper-like ILCs are considered the innate counterpart of T-helper cells because of similarities in their cytokine output and expression of key transcription factors. ILCs provide and regulate innate immune functions before the development

  • SARS Coronavirus Redux
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-12
    Enya Qing; Tom Gallagher

    As an atypical pneumonia began to appear in December 2019, Zhou et al. worked with remarkable speed to identify the associated virus, determine its relationship to animal viruses, and evaluate factors conferring infection susceptibility and resistance. These foundational results are being advanced to control the current worldwide human coronavirus epidemic.

  • Are You There? Genetic Variation Impacts Long-Distance Connections in Diabetes
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Hannah C. Walter; Amy S. Weinmann

    A new study by Fasolino et al. defines how genetic variation in a mouse model of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) affects long-distance genomic interactions. The research has widespread implications for understanding how genetic diversity impacts disease susceptibility, and raises important concepts about mechanisms that can be influenced by genetic diversity between individuals.

  • Type IIA Secreted Phospholipase A2 in Host Defense against Bacterial Infections
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-06
    Vincent P. van Hensbergen; Yongzheng Wu; Nina M. van Sorge; Lhousseine Touqui

    The enzyme type IIA secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2-IIA) is crucial for mammalian innate host defense against bacterial pathogens. Most studies have investigated the role of sPLA2-IIA in systemic bacterial infections, identifying molecular pathways of bacterial resistance against sPLA2-IIA-mediated killing, and providing insight into sPLA2-IIA mechanisms of action. Sensitization of (antibiotic-resistant)

  • Next-Generation Neuroimmunology: New Technologies to Understand Central Nervous System Autoimmunity
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Gerd Meyer zu Hörste; Catharina C. Gross; Luisa Klotz; Nicholas Schwab; Heinz Wiendl

    Understanding neuroimmunological disorders is essential for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Rodent models have provided valuable insights, but are sometimes equated with their human counterparts. Here, we summarize how novel technologies may enable an improved human-focused view of immune mechanisms. Recent studies have applied these new technologies to the brain parenchyma, its

  • Neuroimmune Connections in Aging and Neurodegenerative Diseases
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-05
    Hannah Scheiblich; Melanie Trombly; Alfredo Ramirez; Michael T. Heneka

    In recent years, the inter-relationship between the innate immune system and the central nervous system (CNS) has moved to the forefront of biomedical research, with the discovery that these two physiological systems modulate each other by a steady mutual interaction. During normal brain aging, but also under certain pathological conditions, this crosstalk can go beyond physiological control, resulting

  • Sialoglycans and Siglecs Can Shape the Tumor Immune Microenvironment
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Stephanie van de Wall; Kim C.M. Santegoets; Eline J.H. van Houtum; Christian Büll; Gosse J. Adema

    Sialic acid sugar-carrying glycans, sialoglycans, are aberrantly expressed on many tumor cells and have emerged as potent regulatory molecules involved in creating a tumor-supportive microenvironment. Sialoglycans can be recognized by sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectins (Siglecs), a family of immunomodulatory receptors. Most mammalian Siglecs transmit inhibitory signals comparable with

  • Deubiquitinases: Pro-oncogenic Activity and Therapeutic Targeting in Blood Malignancies
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Blanca T. Gutierrez-Diaz; Wei Gu; Panagiotis Ntziachristos

    Deubiquitinases are enzymes that remove ubiquitin moieties from the vast majority of cellular proteins, controlling their stability, interactions, and localization. The expression and activity of deubiquitinases are critical for physiology and can go awry in various diseases, including cancer. Based on recent findings in human blood cancers, we discuss the functions of selected deubiquitinases in acute

  • The Fetal-Maternal Immune Interface in Uterus Transplantation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-03-01
    Jasper Iske,Abdallah Elkhal,Stefan G Tullius

    Uterus transplants (UTxs) have been performed worldwide. Overall frequencies have been low, but globally initiated UTx programs are expected to increase clinical implementation. The uterus constitutes a unique immunological environment with specific features of tissue renewal and a receptive endometrium. Decidual immune cells facilitate embryo implantation and placenta development. Although UTx adds

  • Sarcoidosis and the mTOR, Rac1, and Autophagy Triad.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-28
    Yves Pacheco,Clarice X Lim,Thomas Weichhart,Dominique Valeyre,Abderrazzak Bentaher,Alain Calender

    Sarcoidosis is an enigmatic multisystem disease characterized by the development and accumulation of granulomas: a compact collection of macrophages that have differentiated into epithelioid cells and which are associated with T helper (Th)1 and Th17 cells. Although no single causative factor has been shown to underlie sarcoidosis in humans, its etiology has been related to microbial, environmental

  • CD38: Modulating Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 Activity in SLE.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Paramita Chakraborty,Shikhar Mehrotra

    To keep autoreactive T cells under control in SLE patients, immunosuppressive regimens are used, which can increase susceptibility to bacterial and viral infections. Recently, Katsuyama et al., demonstrated that the CD38/NAD/Sirtuin1/EZH2 axis reduces cytolytic CD8+ T cell function and might be targeted to overcome incidence of infections.

  • Maternal Leukocytes and Infant Immune Programming during Breastfeeding.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Amale Laouar

    The fetal immune system develops in a rather sterile environment relative to the outside world and, therefore, lacks antigenic education. Soon after birth, the newborn is exposed to the hostile environment of pathogens. Recently, animal- and limited human-based studies have indicated that help from the mother, upon transfer of leukocytes and their products via breast milk feeding, greatly assists the

  • Taking Insect Immunity to the Single-Cell Level.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Sarah Hélène Merkling,Louis Lambrechts

    For decades, insect immunology has contributed groundbreaking discoveries on the intricacies of innate immunity. These discoveries have profoundly impacted our understanding of innate immunology in mammalian systems and improved human therapeutic interventions, from the composition of vaccines to cell-based immune therapies. Current knowledge of insect immunity mainly encompasses detailed molecular

  • Arid5a, an RNA-Binding Protein in Immune Regulation: RNA Stability, Inflammation, and Autoimmunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Kishan Kumar Nyati,Mohammad Mahabub-Uz Zaman,Praveen Sharma,Tadamitsu Kishimoto

    AT-rich interactive domain 5A (ARID5A/Arid5a) is a known cofactor of transcription factors (TFs) that contributes to cell growth and differentiation. It has recently been recognized for its unique function in the stabilization of mRNA, which is associated with inflammatory autoimmune diseases. Studies have revolutionized our understanding of the post-transcriptional regulation of inflammatory genes

  • T Cell Co-stimulation and Functional Modulation by Innate Signals.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-02-05
    Takayuki Imanishi,Takashi Saito

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs), NOD-like receptors (NLRs), and RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs), play a pivotal role in the initiation of innate immune responses. Certain PRRs are also expressed by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, where they function to provide co-stimulatory signals for their activation and differentiation. Recently, stimulator of interferon genes (STING)

  • Dynamic Post-Transcriptional Events Governing CD8+ T Cell Homeostasis and Effector Function.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-29
    Fiamma Salerno,Martin Turner,Monika C Wolkers

    Effective T cell responses against infections and tumors require a swift and ample production of cytokines, chemokines, and cytotoxic molecules. The production of these effector molecules relies on rapid changes of gene expression, determined by cell-intrinsic signals and environmental cues. Here, we review our current understanding of gene-specific regulatory networks that define the magnitude and

  • Nuclear Receptors in Cancer Inflammation and Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-22
    Linjie Zhao,Hongbo Hu,Jan-Åke Gustafsson,Shengtao Zhou

    Members of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily orchestrate cellular processes that can impact on numerous cancer hallmarks. NR activity plays important roles in the tumor microenvironment by controlling inflammation and immune responses. We summarize recent insights into the diverse mechanisms by which NR activity can control tumor inflammation, the roles of different NRs in modulating tumor immunity

  • Metabolic Adaptations to Infections at the Organismal Level.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Katia Troha,Janelle S Ayres

    Metabolic processes occurring during host-microbiota-pathogen interactions can favorably or negatively influence host survival during infection. Defining the metabolic needs of the three players, the mechanisms through which they acquire nutrients, and whether each participant cooperates or competes with each other to meet their own metabolic demands during infection has the potential to reveal new

  • Key Roles of MiT Transcription Factors in Innate Immunity and Inflammation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Javier E Irazoqui

    Microphthalmia/TFE (MiT) transcription factors (TFs), such as transcription factor EB (TFEB) and transcription factor E3 (TFE3), are emerging as key regulators of innate immunity and inflammation. Rapid progress in the field requires a focused update on the latest advances. Recent studies show that TFEB and TFE3 function in innate immune cells to regulate antibacterial and antiviral responses downstream

  • Skin-Resident Innate Lymphoid Cells - Cutaneous Innate Guardians and Regulators.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Tetsuro Kobayashi,Roberto R Ricardo-Gonzalez,Kazuyo Moro

    Skin is the largest barrier organ and an important interface between the body and the outside environment. Immune surveillance and homeostatic regulation of skin function are governed by complex interactions between resident lymphoid and myeloid cells and their communications with the surrounding parenchyma. Recent studies have provided exciting insights about the unique characteristics of skin-resident

  • ACLY-matizing Macrophages to Histone Modification during Immunometabolic Reprogramming.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Niamh C Williams,Luke A O'Neill

    Metabolic reprogramming in macrophages supports effector functions and differs depending on the activating stimulus. Lauterbach et al. now show that early metabolic alterations in macrophages driven by LPS signaling serve to increase the acetyl-CoA pool via citrate metabolism by the ATP-citrate lyase (ACLY), leading to histone acetylation and regulation of TLR-driven gene expression.

  • Mitochondrial and Purinergic Dysregulation Promote Abnormal Behavior in Mice.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ping Fang,Elaine Y Hsiao

    Increasing evidence implicates immune dysregulation in the development of neurological disorders. Recent research by Fan and colleagues deepens our understanding of how physical stress alters the immune system to promote anxiety-like behavior.

  • Control of Stimulus-Dependent Responses in Macrophages by SWI/SNF Chromatin Remodeling Complexes.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Jovylyn Gatchalian,Jingwen Liao,Matthew B Maxwell,Diana C Hargreaves

    Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in controlling the activation, timing, and resolution of innate immune responses in macrophages. Previously, SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling was found to define the kinetics and selectivity of gene activation in response to microbial ligands; however, these studies do not reflect a comprehensive understanding of SWI/SNF complex regulation. In 2018, a new variant

  • Human Secretory IgM: An Elusive Player in Mucosal Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Eva Michaud,Carmelo Mastrandrea,Nicolas Rochereau,Stéphane Paul

    Secretory IgMs (SIgMs) were amongst the first identified immunoglobulins. However, their importance was not fully understood and recent advances have shown they play a key role in establishing and promoting commensal gut tolerance in mice and humans. The true interactions between SIgMs and the microbiota remain controversial and we aim to consolidate current knowledge in this review. Through comprehensive

  • Stressed-Out T Cells Fragment the Mind.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Evan A Bordt,Staci D Bilbo

    The immune system is increasingly recognized to play an integral role in regulating stress responses. In a recent article in Cell, Fan et al. demonstrate a novel mechanism through which stress drives mitochondrial fragmentation-induced xanthine accumulation in mouse CD4+ T cells, subsequently acting on oligodendrocytes to induce anxiety-like behaviors.

  • From Loops to Looks: Transcription Factors and Chromatin Organization Shaping Terminal B Cell Differentiation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Alba Azagra,Ester Marina-Zárate,Almudena R Ramiro,Biola M Javierre,Maribel Parra

    B lymphopoiesis is tightly regulated at the level of gene transcription. In recent years, investigators have shed light on the transcription factor networks and the epigenetic machinery involved at all differentiation steps of mammalian B cell development. During terminal differentiation, B cells undergo dramatic changes in gene transcriptional programs to generate germinal center B cells, plasma cells

  • T Cell Antifungal Immunity and the Role of C-Type Lectin Receptors.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Emily A Speakman,Ivy M Dambuza,Fabián Salazar,Gordon D Brown

    Fungi can cause disease in humans, from mucocutaneous to life-threatening systemic infections. Initiation of antifungal immunity involves fungal recognition by pattern recognition receptors such as C-type lectin receptors (CLRs). These germline-encoded receptors trigger a multitude of innate responses including phagocytosis, fungal killing, and antigen presentation which can also shape the development

  • Detrimental Role of Neutrophil Extracellular Traps during Dengue Virus Infection.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Claudia Schulz,Gülsah Gabriel,Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede

    A recent article by Sung et al. identified the CLEC2 platelet receptor as an important factor of lethal dengue virus infection. Formation of neutrophil extracellular traps via crosstalk with CLEC5A and TLR2 neutrophils were ascribed a causative role in DENV infection. This provides new insights for the development of candidate broad-spectrum therapies against hemorrhagic virus infections.

  • Epigenetic Regulation of T Cell Memory: Recalling Therapeutic Implications.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    David F Tough,Inma Rioja,Louise K Modis,Rab K Prinjha

    Memory T cells possess functional differences from naïve T cells that powerfully contribute to the efficiency of secondary immune responses. These abilities are imprinted during the primary response, linked to the acquisition of novel patterns of gene expression. Underlying this are alterations at the chromatin level (epigenetic modifications) that regulate constitutive and inducible gene transcription

  • Stem, Effector, and Hybrid States of Memory CD8+ T Cells.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Enrico Lugli,Giovanni Galletti,Shannon K Boi,Benjamin A Youngblood

    CD8+ T cell immunological memory of past antigen exposure can confer long-lived protection against infections or tumors. The fact that CD8+ memory T cells can have features of both naïve and effector cells has forced the field to struggle with several conceptual questions about the developmental origin of the cell and, consequently, the mechanism(s) that contribute to memory development. Here, we discuss

  • Genetic Variation Shapes Murine Gut Microbiota via Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Emily R Davenport

    Host genetics influence gut microbiome composition. However, determining the specific physiological mechanisms and microbes affected has been difficult due to 'cage' and 'legacy' effects in model systems. Recently, Khan et al. cleverly colonized ex-germ-free mice to demonstrate that immune genes regulate select bacterial lineages in the mouse gut.

  • Distinct Regulatory and Effector T Cell Metabolic Demands during Graft-Versus-Host Disease.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-30
    Keli L Hippen,Ethan G Aguilar,Stephanie Y Rhee,Sara Bolivar-Wagers,Bruce R Blazar

    Despite graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylactic agents, the success and wider utilization of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is limited by GVHD. Increasing donor graft regulatory T cell (Treg):effector T cell (Teff) ratios can substantially reduce GVHD in cancer patients, but pre-HSCT conditioning regimens and GVHD create a challenging inflammatory environment for

  • ILC2s in High Definition: Decoding the Logic of Tissue-Based Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Do-Hyun Kim,Steven J Van Dyken

    Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) mediate allergic immunity but have also recently come into focus as key sentinels of tissue health and homeostasis. Clues as to how these rare immune cells coordinate tissue-wide responses to perturbation have emerged from deciphering the communication between ILC2s and an ever-expanding list of diverse nonhematopoietic cells. High-resolution tracking and profiling

  • Impact of Historic Migrations and Evolutionary Processes on Human Immunity
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Mihai G. Netea

    The evolution of mankind has constantly been influenced by the pathogens encountered. The various populations of modern humans that ventured out of Africa adapted to different environments and faced a large variety of infectious agents, resulting in local adaptations of the immune system for these populations. The functional variation of immune genes as a result of evolution is relevant in the responses

  • Emerging Role of Mitochondrial DNA as a Major Driver of Inflammation and Disease Progression
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-16
    Fei Zhong, Shuang Liang, Zhenyu Zhong

    Inflammation benefits the host by promoting the elimination of invading pathogens and clearance of cellular debris after tissue injury. Inflammation also stimulates tissue repair and regeneration to restore homeostasis and organismal health. Emerging evidence suggests that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), the only form of non-nuclear DNA in eukaryotic cells, is a major activator of inflammation when leaked

  • Stimulation of Innate Immunity by Host and Viral RNAs
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Felix Streicher, Nolwenn Jouvenet

    The interferon (IFN) response, a major vertebrate defense mechanism against viral infections, is initiated by RIG-I-like receptor (RLR)-mediated recognition of viral replicative intermediates in the cytosol. RLR purification methods coupled to RNA sequencing have recently led to the characterization of viral nucleic acid features recognized by RLRs in infected cells. This work revealed that some cellular

  • Targeting Apoptosis Inhibition to Activate Antitumor Immunity.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Sannula Kesavardhana,Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    A recent study by Rodriguez-Ruiz et al. suggests that inhibition of apoptotic caspases can augment radiation-induced antitumor immunity, independent of type I IFN. Their findings also highlight caspase-independent cytotoxicity in radiation therapy-induced antitumor immunity, proposing SLC7A2 as a new putative prognostic marker for breast cancer.

  • Kupffer Cells Mediate Systemic Antifungal Immunity
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Carolina Coelho, Rebecca A. Drummond

    Patients with liver dysfunction have increased susceptibility to fungal infections. A recently published article (Sun et al.) describes the potential mechanism underlying this association, which maps to the antifungal activity of liver-resident Kupffer cells. This research highlights the importance of understanding tissue-specific immune responses in disease pathogenesis.

  • Control of Lymphocyte Fate, Infection, and Tumor Immunity by TCF-1
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Dinesh Raghu, Hai-Hui Xue, Lisa A. Mielke

    T cell factor-1 (TCF-1), encoded by Tcf7, is a transcription factor and histone deacetylase (HDAC) essential for commitment to both the T cell and the innate lymphoid cell (ILC) lineages in mammals. In this review, we discuss the multifunctional role of TCF-1 in establishing these lineages and the requirement for TCF-1 throughout lineage differentiation and maintenance of lineage stability. We highlight

  • Exhausted-like Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells in Chronic Allergic Inflammation
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Takashi Ebihara, Ichiro Taniuchi

    Mammalian group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are responsible for the early production of type 2 cytokines at mucosal barriers upon exposure to allergen. Inflammatory tissue environmental cues can influence ILC2 activity, and this cellular population can be further categorized into subtypes with additional or alternative functions. Subtypes can include trained (or ‘memory-like’) ILC2s, which recall

  • Hidden Aspects of Valency in Immune System Regulation.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-13
    Parimal Samir,Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    Valency can be defined as the number of discrete interactions a biomolecule can engage in. Valency can be critical for function, such as determining whether a molecule acts as a scaffold for assembling large supramolecular complexes or forms a functional dimer. Here, we highlight the importance of the role of valency in regulating immune responses, with a focus on innate immunity. We discuss some of

  • Foam Cells: One Size Doesn't Fit All.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Valentina Guerrini,Maria Laura Gennaro

    Chronic inflammation in many infectious and metabolic diseases, and some cancers, is accompanied by the presence of foam cells. These cells form when the intracellular lipid content of macrophages exceeds their capacity to maintain lipid homeostasis. Concurrently, critical macrophage immune functions are diminished. Current paradigms of foam cell formation derive from studies of atherosclerosis. However

  • Inhibition-Resistant CARs for NK Cell Cancer Immunotherapy
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Xiaoxuan Zhuang, Eric O. Long

    The promise of natural killer (NK) cells as effectors in cancer cellular therapy is limited by their expression of dominant inhibitory receptors for human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Here, we discuss how chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) engineered to override inhibitory signaling might boost NK cell antitumor responses, independently of blockade of NK cell inhibitory receptors.

  • TCR Ligand Discovery via T-Scan
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Zhe Wang, Genhong Cheng, Guideng Li

    T cell receptor (TCR) ligand discovery is crucial to monitoring T cell responses to antigen and to identifying antigens reactive against orphan TCRs of interest. In a recent article, Elledge and colleagues describe a functional T cell ligand screening platform for unbiased TCR ligand discovery.

  • Immune Networks and Therapeutic Targeting of iNKT Cells in Cancer
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Shin-Ichiro Fujii, Kanako Shimizu

    One of the primary goals in tumor immunotherapy is to reset the immune system from tolerogenic to immunogenic – a process in which invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are implicated. iNKT cells develop in the thymus and perform immunosurveillance against tumor cells peripherally. When optimally stimulated, iNKT cells differentiate and display more efficient immune functions. Some cells survive

  • piRNA-Guided CRISPR-like Immunity in Eukaryotes
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Youdiil Ophinni, Umberto Palatini, Yoshitake Hayashi, Nicholas F. Parrish

    Eukaryotic genomes contain virus-derived sequences called endogenous virus elements (EVEs). The majority of EVEs are related to retroviruses, which integrate into the host genome in order to replicate. Some retroviral EVEs encode a function; for example, some produce proteins that block infection by related viruses. EVEs derived from nonretroviral viruses – also recently found in many eukaryotic genomes

  • Mucosal Bioengineering: Gut in a Dish.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-07-08
    Ivaylo I Ivanov

    Studying the interactions between commensal microbes and host intestinal tissue networks is challenging due to the complexity and inaccessibility of the system. A recent study reports a novel organ culture system that will enhance our ability to dissect these interactions.

  • Re-evaluating Strategies to Define the Immunoregulatory Roles of miRNAs.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-07-02
    Adriana Forero,Lomon So,Ram Savan

    miRNAs play an important role in fine-tuning host immune homeostasis and responses through the regulation of mRNA stability and translation. Studies have demonstrated that miRNA-mediated regulation of gene expression has a profound impact on immune cell development, function, and response to invading pathogens. As we continue to examine the mechanisms by which miRNAs maintain the balance between robust

  • Molecular Dissection of CD8+ T-Cell Dysfunction.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-07-01
    Chao Wang,Meromit Singer,Ana C Anderson

    Chronic viral infections and cancer often lead to the emergence of dysfunctional or 'exhausted' CD8+ T cells, and the restoration of their functions is currently the focus of therapeutic interventions. In this review, we detail recent advances in the annotation of the gene modules and the epigenetic landscape associated with T-cell dysfunction. Together with analysis of single-cell transcriptomes,

  • Integrating Next-Generation Dendritic Cell Vaccines into the Current Cancer Immunotherapy Landscape.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-15
    Abhishek D Garg,Pierre G Coulie,Benoit J Van den Eynde,Patrizia Agostinis

    Cancer immunotherapy is experiencing a renaissance spearheaded by immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs). This has spurred interest in 'upgrading' existing immunotherapies that previously experienced only sporadic success, such as dendritic cells (DCs) vaccines. In this review, we discuss the major molecular, immunological, and clinical determinants of existing first- and second-generation DC vaccines

  • Heavy Metal to Rock the Immune Infiltrate.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-13
    Lorenzo Galluzzi,Takahiro Yamazaki,Sandra Demaria

    Two resource articles recently published in Cell demonstrate that the elevated phenotypic complexity of the immune infiltrate in human lung adenocarcinomas and renal cell carcinomas can be reliably dissected with mass cytometry. These findings may pave the way to a new era of precision cancer immunotherapy.

  • Brain Autoimmunity and Intestinal Microbiota: 100 Trillion Game Changers.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-12
    Hartmut Wekerle

    T cells play a critical role in autoimmune diseases in the brain, particularly in multiple sclerosis (MS). Since T cells are normally prevented from crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB), autoimmunity requires prior activation of naturally occurring autoreactive T cells in peripheral tissue. Recently, a critical role for the microbiota in this activation process has emerged. Here, we review the role

  • Type I Interferon in Chronic Virus Infection and Cancer.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-06
    Laura M Snell,Tracy L McGaha,David G Brooks

    Type I interferons (IFN-Is) are emerging as key drivers of inflammation and immunosuppression in chronic infection. Control of these infections requires IFN-I signaling; however, prolonged IFN-I signaling can lead to immune dysfunction. IFN-Is are also emerging as double-edged swords in cancer, providing necessary inflammatory signals, while initiating feedback suppression in both immune and cancer

  • Immunological Functions of the Omentum.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-06
    Selene Meza-Perez,Troy D Randall

    The omentum is a visceral adipose tissue with unique immune functions. Although it is primarily an adipose tissue, the omentum also contains lymphoid aggregates, called milky spots (MSs), that contribute to peritoneal immunity by collecting antigens, particulates, and pathogens from the peritoneal cavity and, depending on the stimuli, promoting a variety of immune responses, including inflammation

  • T Cell Immunity and Zika Virus Vaccine Development.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-06
    Noemia S Lima,Morgane Rolland,Kayvon Modjarrad,Lydie Trautmann

    The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic has created an urgent need for a safe and effective vaccine. There is still a dearth of knowledge about ZIKV immunity, but years of investigation into the immunobiology of other flaviviruses has helped to accelerate the development of a ZIKV vaccine. Although the humoral immune response generates the primary correlate of protection from disease, robust T cell responses

  • Novel Approaches to Analyze Immunoglobulin Repertoires.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-02
    Hedda Wardemann,Christian E Busse

    Analysis of immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoires aims to comprehend Ig diversity with the goal of predicting humoral immune responses in the context of infection, vaccination, autoimmunity, and malignancies. The first next-generation sequencing (NGS) analyses of bulk B cell populations dramatically advanced sampling depth over previous low-throughput single-cell-based protocols, albeit at the expense of

  • Leukocyte Breaching of Endothelial Barriers: The Actin Link.
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-06-01
    Ronen Alon,Jaap D van Buul

    Leukocyte transendothelial migration (TEM) takes place across micron-wide gaps in specific post-capillary venules generated by the transmigrating leukocyte. Because endothelial cells contain a dense cytoskeletal network, transmigrating leukocytes must overcome these mechanical barriers as they squeeze their nuclei through endothelial gaps and pores. Recent findings suggest that endothelial cells are

  • The Enigmatic Role of Viruses in Multiple Sclerosis: Molecular Mimicry or Disturbed Immune Surveillance?
    Trends Immunol. (IF 13.000) Pub Date : 2017-05-28
    Jens Geginat,Moira Paroni,Massimiliano Pagani,Daniela Galimberti,Raffaele De Francesco,Elio Scarpini,Sergio Abrignani

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a T cell driven autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS). Despite its association with Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV), how viral infections promote MS remains unclear. However, there is increasing evidence that the CNS is continuously surveyed by virus-specific T cells, which protect against reactivating neurotropic viruses. Here, we discuss how viral infections could

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全球疫情及响应:BMC Medicine专题征稿