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  • The enigmatic role of HLA-B*27 in spondyloarthritis pathogenesis
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Fatemeh Navid, Vance Holt, Robert A. Colbert

    Establishing a clear role for HLA-B*27 in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis continues to be challenging. Aberrant properties of the heavy chain as well as a potential role presenting arthritogenic peptides continue to be pursued as plausible mechanisms. Recent studies implicate HLA-B*27 in aberrant bone formation. An unanticipated cell surface interaction between HLA-B*27 and the bone morphogenetic

  • Leaving no one behind: tracing every human thymocyte by single-cell RNA-sequencing
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Yujun Deng, Hong Chen, Yang Zeng, Keyue Wang, Huiyuan Zhang, Hongbo Hu

    The thymus is the primary organ for T-cell development, providing an essential microenvironment consisting of the appropriate cytokine milieu and specialized stromal cells. Thymus-seeding progenitors from circulation immigrate into the thymus and undergo the stepwise T-cell specification, commitment, and selection processes. The transcriptional factors, epigenetic regulators, and signaling pathways

  • Lessons on SpA pathogenesis from animal models
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2021-01-15
    Maxime Breban, Simon Glatigny, Bilade Cherqaoui, Marie Beaufrère, Marc Lauraine, Aurore Rincheval-Arnold, Sébastien Gaumer, Isabelle Guénal, Luiza M. Araujo

    Understanding the complex mechanisms underlying a disorder such as spondyloarthritis (SpA) may benefit from studying animal models. Several suitable models have been developed, in particular to investigate the role of genetic factors predisposing to SpA, including HLA-B27, ERAP1, and genes related to the interleukin (IL)-23/IL-17 axis. One of the best examples of such research is the HLA-B27 transgenic

  • The role of the thymus in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation and the recovery of the peripheral T-cell compartment
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2021-01-08
    Enrico Velardi, Emmanuel Clave, Lucas C. M. Arruda, Francesca Benini, Franco Locatelli, Antoine Toubert

    As the thymus represents the primary site of T-cell development, optimal thymic function is of paramount importance for the successful reconstitution of the adaptive immunity after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Thymus involutes as part of the aging process and several factors, including previous chemotherapy treatments, conditioning regimen used in preparation to the allograft

  • The thymus and the science of self
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2021-01-07
    Vincent Geenen

    The conventional perception asserts that immunology is the science of ‘discrimination’ between self and non-self. This concept is however no longer tenable as effector cells of the adaptive immune system are first conditioned to be tolerant to the body’s own antigens, collectively known as self until now. Only then attain these effectors the responsiveness to non-self. The acquisition of this essential

  • The thymus medulla and its control of αβT cell development
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-12-11
    Emilie J. Cosway, Kieran D. James, Beth Lucas, Graham Anderson, Andrea J. White

    αβT cells are an essential component of effective immune responses. The heterogeneity that lies within them includes subsets that express diverse self-MHC-restricted αβT cell receptors, which can be further subdivided into CD4+ helper, CD8+ cytotoxic, and Foxp3+ regulatory T cells. In addition, αβT cells also include invariant natural killer T cells that are very limited in αβT cell receptor repertoire

  • Inborn errors of thymic stromal cell development and function
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-11-30
    Alexandra Y. Kreins, Stefano Maio, Fatima Dhalla

    As the primary site for T cell development, the thymus is responsible for the production and selection of a functional, yet self-tolerant T cell repertoire. This critically depends on thymic stromal cells, derived from the pharyngeal apparatus during embryogenesis. Thymic epithelial cells, mesenchymal and vascular elements together form the unique and highly specialised microenvironment required to

  • Adrenergic regulation of immune cell function and inflammation
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Drashya Sharma, J. David Farrar

    The sympathetic nervous system integrates the functions of multiple organ systems by regulating their autonomic physiological activities. The immune system is regulated both locally and systemically by the neurotransmitters epinephrine and norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal gland and local sympathetic neurons. Immune cells respond by activation of adrenergic receptors, primarily the β2-adrenergic

  • Control of immunity by glucocorticoids in health and disease
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-11-20
    Akihiro Shimba, Koichi Ikuta

    Animals receive environmental stimuli from neural signals in order to produce hormones that control immune responses. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are a group of steroid hormones produced in the adrenal cortex and well-known mediators for the nervous and immune systems. GC secretion is induced by circadian rhythm and stress, and plasma GC levels are high at the active phase of animals and under stress condition

  • The untwining of immunosenescence and aging
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-11-09
    Weili Xu, Glenn Wong, You Yi Hwang, Anis Larbi

    From a holistic point of view, aging results from the cumulative erosion of the various systems. Among these, the immune system is interconnected to the rest as immune cells are present in all organs and recirculate through bloodstream. Immunosenescence is the term used to define the remodelling of immune changes during aging. Because immune cells—and particularly lymphocytes—can further differentiate

  • Shelter from the cytokine storm: pitfalls and prospects in the development of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines for an elderly population
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-11-06
    Annalisa Ciabattini, Paolo Garagnani, Francesco Santoro, Rino Rappuoli, Claudio Franceschi, Donata Medaglini

    The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic urgently calls for the development of effective preventive tools. COVID-19 hits greatly the elder and more fragile fraction of the population boosting the evergreen issue of the vaccination of older people. The development of a vaccine against SARS-CoV-2 tailored for the elderly population faces the challenge of the poor immune responsiveness of the older population due to immunosenescence

  • The contribution of thymic tolerance to central nervous system autoimmunity
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-10-27
    Piero Alberti, Adam E Handel

    Autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with high levels of morbidity and economic cost. Research efforts have previously focused on the contribution of the peripheral adaptive and innate immune systems to CNS autoimmunity. However, a failure of thymic negative selection is a necessary step in CNS-reactive T cells escaping into the periphery. Even with defective thymic

  • Brain aging and garbage cleaning
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-10-09
    Susanna Gordleeva, Oleg Kanakov, Mikhail Ivanchenko, Alexey Zaikin, Claudio Franceschi

    Brain aging is a complex process involving many functions of our body and described by the interplay of a sleep pattern and changes in the metabolic waste concentration regulated by the microglial function and the glymphatic system. We review the existing modelling approaches to this topic and derive a novel mathematical model to describe the crosstalk between these components within the conceptual

  • Interactions among microbes, the immune system, and the circadian clock
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    John F. Brooks, Lora V. Hooper

    The circadian clock couples physiological processes and behaviors to environmental light cycles. This coupling ensures the synchronization of energetically expensive processes to the time of day at which an organism is most active, thus improving overall fitness. Host immunity is an energetically intensive process that requires the coordination of multiple immune cell types to sense, communicate, and

  • Microbiomes other than the gut: inflammaging and age-related diseases
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Aurelia Santoro, Jiangchao Zhao, Lu Wu, Ciriaco Carru, Elena Biagi, Claudio Franceschi

    During the course of evolution, bacteria have developed an intimate relationship with humans colonizing specific body sites at the interface with the body exterior and invaginations such as nose, mouth, lung, gut, vagina, genito-urinary tract, and skin and thus constituting an integrated meta-organism. The final result has been a mutual adaptation and functional integration which confers significant

  • Involvement of dopaminergic signaling in the cross talk between the renin-angiotensin system and inflammation
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Javier Campos, Rodrigo Pacheco

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a fundamental regulator of blood pressure and has emerged as an important player in the control of inflammatory processes. Accordingly, imbalance on RAS components either systemically or locally might trigger the development of inflammatory disorders by affecting immune cells. At the same time, alterations in the dopaminergic system have been consistently involved

  • Stress reduction strategies in breast cancer: review of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic based strategies.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Rohit Gosain,Elizabeth Gage-Bouchard,Christine Ambrosone,Elizabeth Repasky,Shipra Gandhi

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women. It is associated with multiple symptoms in both patients and caregivers, such as stress, anxiety, depression, sleep disturbance, and fatigue. Stress appears to promote cancer progression via activation of the sympathetic nervous system releasing epinephrine and norepinephrine as well as activation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis releasing

  • Immunosenescence is both functional/adaptive and dysfunctional/maladaptive.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-09-15
    T Fulop,A Larbi,K Hirokawa,A A Cohen,J M Witkowski

    Alterations in the immune system with aging are considered to underlie many age-related diseases. However, many elderly individuals remain healthy until even a very advanced age. There is also an increase in numbers of centenarians and their apparent fitness. We should therefore change our unilaterally detrimental consideration of age-related immune changes. Recent data taking into consideration the

  • Pathogenesis of preterm birth: bidirectional inflammation in mother and fetus.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-09-07
    Ella Shana Green,Petra Clara Arck

    Preterm birth (PTB) complicates 5–18% of pregnancies globally and is a leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Most PTB is spontaneous and idiopathic, with largely undefined causes. To increase understanding of PTB, much research in recent years has focused on using animal models to recapitulate the pathophysiology of PTB. Dysfunctions of maternal immune adaptations have been implicated

  • From structural modalities in perinatal medicine to the frequency of preterm birth.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Philipp Deindl,Anke Diemert

    Preterm birth is a global health problem that affects 11% of all live births: it remains a significant cause of death and an important cause of long-term loss of human potential among survivors all around the world. In the last decade, many developed countries have seen an increase in the rate of infants born preterm. Various theoretical and practical concepts have been discussed that aim to optimize

  • The pregnancy microbiome and preterm birth.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-14
    Erna Bayar,Phillip R Bennett,Denise Chan,Lynne Sykes,David A MacIntyre

    Preterm birth is a global health concern and continues to contribute to substantial neonatal morbidity and mortality despite advances in obstetric and neonatal care. The underlying aetiology is multi-factorial and remains incompletely understood. In this review, the complex interplay between the vaginal microbiome in pregnancy and its association with preterm birth is discussed in depth. Advances in

  • Adipose tissue, immune aging, and cellular senescence.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Daniela Frasca,Bonnie B Blomberg

    Obesity represents a serious health problem as it is rapidly increasing worldwide. Obesity is associated with reduced healthspan and lifespan, decreased responses to infections and vaccination, and increased frequency of inflammatory conditions typical of old age. Obesity is characterized by increased fat mass and remodeling of the adipose tissue (AT). In this review, we summarize published data on

  • Novel pathways of inflammation in human fetal membranes associated with preterm birth and preterm pre-labor rupture of the membranes.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Ramkumar Menon,Faranak Behnia,Jossimara Polettini,Lauren S Richardson

    Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm pre-labor rupture of the membranes (pPROM) are major pregnancy complications. Although PTB and pPROM have common etiologies, they arise from distinct pathophysiologic pathways. Inflammation is a common underlying mechanism in both conditions. Balanced inflammation is required for fetoplacental growth; however, overwhelming inflammation (physiologic at term

  • Foetal therapies and their influence on preterm birth.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Ignacio Valenzuela,Johannes van der Merwe,Luc De Catte,Roland Devlieger,Jan Deprest,Liesbeth Lewi

    Foetal therapy aims to improve perinatal survival or to prevent severe long-term handicap. Foetal medicine opens a new territory by treating the foetus as a patient. The mother has nothing to gain in terms of health benefits, yet she is inherently also undergoing treatment. In utero foetal interventions can be divided into ultrasound-guided minimally invasive procedures, fetoscopic procedures and open

  • The human immunosenescence phenotype: does it exist?
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Graham Pawelec

    “Immunosenescence” has been invoked as the root cause of increased incidence and severity of infectious disease in older adults and their poorer response to vaccination, and is implicated in increased solid cancers and increased autoimmunity with age. But how to define it in the individual and to show that immunosenescence is responsible for these adverse health outcomes? How can we monitor interventions

  • Mitochondria, immunosenescence and inflammaging: a role for mitokines?
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-05
    Maria Conte,Morena Martucci,Antonio Chiariello,Claudio Franceschi,Stefano Salvioli

    A global reshaping of the immune responses occurs with ageing, indicated as immunosenescence, where mitochondria and mitochondrial metabolism play an important role. However, much less is known about the role of mitochondrial stress response in this reshaping and in particular of the molecules induced by such response, collectively indicated as mitokines. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge

  • The interplay between immunosenescence and age-related diseases.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-03
    Florencia Barbé-Tuana,Giselle Funchal,Carine Raquel Richter Schmitz,Rafael Moura Maurmann,Moisés E Bauer

    The aging immune system (immunosenescence) has been implicated with increased morbidity and mortality in the elderly. Of note, T cell aging and low-grade inflammation (inflammaging) are implicated with several age-related conditions. The expansion of late-differentiated T cells (CD28−), regulatory T cells, increased serum levels of autoantibodies, and pro-inflammatory cytokines were implicated with

  • Preterm birth: pathogenesis and clinical consequences revisited.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Anke Diemert,Petra Clara Arck

  • Down syndrome, accelerated aging and immunosenescence.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-07-23
    Noémie Gensous,Maria Giulia Bacalini,Claudio Franceschi,Paolo Garagnani

    Down syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder, associated with moderate to severe intellectual disability. While life expectancy of Down syndrome population has greatly increased over the last decades, mortality rates are still high and subjects are facing prematurely a phenomenon of atypical and accelerated aging. The presence of an immune impairment in Down syndrome subjects is suggested

  • Preterm birth and sustained inflammation: consequences for the neonate.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Alexander Humberg,Ingmar Fortmann,Bastian Siller,Matthias Volkmar Kopp,Egbert Herting,Wolfgang Göpel,Christoph Härtel,

    Almost half of all preterm births are caused or triggered by an inflammatory process at the feto-maternal interface resulting in preterm labor or rupture of membranes with or without chorioamnionitis (“first inflammatory hit”). Preterm babies have highly vulnerable body surfaces and immature organ systems. They are postnatally confronted with a drastically altered antigen exposure including hospital-specific

  • In Memoriam: Peter A. Miescher, 1923-2020.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-08-01
    Shozo Izui,Jürg A Schifferli

  • Role of galectin-glycan circuits in reproduction: from healthy pregnancy to preterm birth (PTB).
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Sandra M Blois,Stefan Verlohren,Gang Wu,Gary Clark,Anne Dell,Stuart M Haslam,Gabriela Barrientos

    Growing evidence suggests that galectins, an evolutionarily conserved family of glycan-binding proteins, fulfill key roles in pregnancy including blastocyst implantation, maternal-fetal immune tolerance, placental development, and maternal vascular expansion, thereby establishing a healthy environment for the growing fetus. In this review, we comprehensively present the function of galectins in shaping

  • Evolving cervical imaging technologies to predict preterm birth.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Stephanie Pizzella,Nicole El Helou,Jessica Chubiz,Lihong V Wang,Methodius G Tuuli,Sarah K England,Molly J Stout

    Preterm birth, defined as delivery at less than 37 weeks’ gestation, increases maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality and places heavy financial and emotional burdens on families and society. Although premature cervical remodeling is a major factor in many preterm deliveries, how and why this occurs is poorly understood. This review describes existing and emerging imaging techniques and their advantages

  • Correction to: Schistosomiasis-from immunopathology to vaccines.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Donald P McManus,Robert Bergquist,Pengfei Cai,Shiwanthi Ranasinghe,Biniam Mathewos Tebeje,Hong You

    The original version of this article inadvertently missed out to display the correct acknowledgement for Fig. 2. The corrected part of legend of Fig. 2 is given below.

  • Immunometabolism: new insights and lessons from antigen-directed cellular immune responses.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Renata Ramalho,Martin Rao,Chao Zhang,Chiara Agrati,Giuseppe Ippolito,Fu-Sheng Wang,Alimuddin Zumla,Markus Maeurer

    Modulation of immune responses by nutrients is an important area of study in cellular biology and clinical sciences in the context of cancer therapies and anti-pathogen-directed immune responses in health and disease. We review metabolic pathways that influence immune cell function and cellular persistence in chronic infections. We also highlight the role of nutrients in altering the tissue microenvironment

  • 更新日期:2020-06-01
  • Correction to: Lung functional development and asthma trajectories.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-04-01
    Fabienne Decrue,Olga Gorlanova,Jakob Usemann,Urs Frey

    The original version of this article unfortunately contained a mistake. The given names and family names of all authors were switched in the original publication.

  • Multiomic immune clockworks of pregnancy.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Laura S Peterson,Ina A Stelzer,Amy S Tsai,Mohammad S Ghaemi,Xiaoyuan Han,Kazuo Ando,Virginia D Winn,Nadine R Martinez,Kevin Contrepois,Mira N Moufarrej,Stephen Quake,David A Relman,Michael P Snyder,Gary M Shaw,David K Stevenson,Ronald J Wong,Petra Arck,Martin S Angst,Nima Aghaeepour,Brice Gaudilliere

    Preterm birth is the leading cause of mortality in children under the age of five worldwide. Despite major efforts, we still lack the ability to accurately predict and effectively prevent preterm birth. While multiple factors contribute to preterm labor, dysregulations of immunological adaptations required for the maintenance of a healthy pregnancy is at its pathophysiological core. Consequently, a

  • 更新日期:2020-04-01
  • Epigenetic lifestyle of Epstein-Barr virus.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-30
    Alexander Buschle,Wolfgang Hammerschmidt

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a model of herpesvirus latency and epigenetic changes. The virus preferentially infects human B-lymphocytes (and also other cell types) but does not turn them straight into virus factories. Instead, it establishes a strictly latent infection in them and concomitantly induces the activation and proliferation of infected B cells. How the virus establishes latency in its target

  • Epigenetic control in Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection and associated disease.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-26
    Jacqueline Fröhlich,Adam Grundhoff

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiologic agent of several malignancies of endothelial and B-cell origin. The fact that latently infected tumor cells in these malignancies do not express classical viral oncogenes suggests that pathogenesis of KSHV-associated disease results from multistep processes that, in addition to constitutive viral gene expression, may require accumulation

  • Implications of asymptomatic infection for the natural history of selected parasitic tropical diseases.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Jorge Alvar,Fabiana Alves,Bruno Bucheton,Louise Burrows,Philippe Büscher,Eugenia Carrillo,Ingrid Felger,Marc P Hübner,Javier Moreno,Maria-Jesus Pinazo,Isabela Ribeiro,Sergio Sosa-Estani,Sabine Specht,Antoine Tarral,Nathalie Strub Wourgaft,Graeme Bilbe

    Progress has been made in the control or elimination of tropical diseases, with a significant reduction of incidence. However, there is a risk of re-emergence if the factors fueling transmission are not dealt with. Although it is essential to understand these underlying factors for each disease, asymptomatic carriers are a common element that may promote resurgence; their impact in terms of proportion

  • Towards new TB vaccines.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-18
    Benedict Brazier,Helen McShane

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis remains the leading cause of death attributed to a single infectious organism. Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG), the standard vaccine against M. tuberculosis, is thought to prevent only 5% of all vaccine-preventable deaths due to tuberculosis, thus an alternative vaccine is required. One of the principal barriers to vaccine development against M. tuberculosis is the complexity

  • Epigenetic modulation in chronic hepatitis B virus infection.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Maura Dandri

    The human hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a small-enveloped DNA virus causing acute and chronic hepatitis. Despite the existence of an effective prophylactic vaccine and the strong capacity of approved antiviral drugs to suppress viral replication, chronic HBV infection (CHB) continues to be a major health burden worldwide. Both the inability of the immune system to resolve CHB and the unique replication

  • Leishmaniasis immunopathology-impact on design and use of vaccines, diagnostics and drugs.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-03-09
    Paul M Kaye,Israel Cruz,Albert Picado,Katrien Van Bocxlaer,Simon L Croft

    Leishmaniasis is a disease complex caused by 20 species of protozoan parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. In humans, it has two main clinical forms, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and cutaneous or tegumentary leishmaniasis (CL), as well as several other cutaneous manifestations in a minority of cases. In the mammalian host Leishmania parasites infect different populations of macrophages where

  • The immunology of other mycobacteria: M. ulcerans, M. leprae.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-25
    Katharina Röltgen,Gerd Pluschke,John Stewart Spencer,Patrick Joseph Brennan,Charlotte Avanzi

    Mycobacterial pathogens can be categorized into three broad groups: Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex causing tuberculosis, M. leprae and M. lepromatosis causing leprosy, and atypical mycobacteria, or non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM), responsible for a wide range of diseases. Among the NTMs, M. ulcerans is responsible for the neglected tropical skin disease Buruli ulcer (BU). Most pathogenic mycobacteria

  • Human unconventional T cells in Plasmodium falciparum infection.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Mathias Schmaler,Nina Orlova-Fink,Tobias Rutishauser,Salim Abdulla,Claudia Daubenberger

    Malaria is an old scourge of humankind and has a large negative impact on the economic development of affected communities. Recent success in malaria control and reduction of mortality seems to have stalled emphasizing that our current intervention tools need to be complemented by malaria vaccines. Different populations of unconventional T cells such as mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells,

  • Schistosomiasis-from immunopathology to vaccines.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Donald P McManus,Robert Bergquist,Pengfei Cai,Shiwanthi Ranasinghe,Biniam Mathewos Tebeje,Hong You

    Schistosomiasis (bilharzia) is a neglected tropical disease caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma. The transmission cycle involves human (or other mammalian) water contact with surface water contaminated by faeces or urine, as well as specific freshwater snails acting as intermediate hosts. The main disease-causing species are S. haematobium, S. mansoni and S. japonicum. According to the

  • Dysbiosis of the gut and lung microbiome has a role in asthma.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-18
    Karin Hufnagl,Isabella Pali-Schöll,Franziska Roth-Walter,Erika Jensen-Jarolim

    Worldwide 300 million children and adults are affected by asthma. The development of asthma is influenced by environmental and other exogenous factors synergizing with genetic predisposition, and shaping the lung microbiome especially during birth and in very early life. The healthy lung microbial composition is characterized by a prevalence of bacteria belonging to the phyla Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria

  • Recent findings in the genetics and epigenetics of asthma and allergy.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-14
    Michael Kabesch,Jörg Tost

    In asthma and allergy genetics, a trend towards a few main topics developed over the last 2 years. First, a number of studies have been published recently which focus on overlapping and/or very specific phenotypes: within the allergy spectrum but also reaching beyond, looking for common genetic traits shared between different diseases or disease entities. Secondly, an urgently needed focus has been

  • Epigenetic crosstalk in chronic infection with HIV-1.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Ulrike C Lange,Roxane Verdikt,Amina Ait-Ammar,Carine Van Lint

    Human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) replicates through the integration of its viral DNA into the genome of human immune target cells. Chronically infected individuals thus carry a genomic burden of virus-derived sequences that persists through antiretroviral therapy. This burden consists of a small fraction of intact, but transcriptionally silenced, i.e. latent, viral genomes and a dominant fraction

  • Revealing eukaryotic histone-modifying mechanisms through bacterial infection.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Wenyang Dong,Melanie Anne Hamon

    In the long co-evolution of host-pathogen interaction, bacteria have developed sophisticated strategies to manipulate host cell mechanisms and reprogram host transcription. Targeting chromatin, mainly through post-translational modification (PTM) of histone proteins, is one strategy that has been revealed over the last decade. Indeed, histone modifications play a crucial role in regulating transcription

  • Modulating local airway immune responses to treat allergic asthma: lessons from experimental models and human studies.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    A L Voskamp,T Groot Kormelink,R Gerth van Wijk,P S Hiemstra,C Taube,E C de Jong,Hermelijn H Smits

    With asthma affecting over 300 million individuals world-wide and estimated to affect 400 million by 2025, developing effective, long-lasting therapeutics is essential. Allergic asthma, where Th2-type immunity plays a central role, represents 90% of child and 50% of adult asthma cases. Research based largely on animal models of allergic disease have led to the generation of a novel class of drugs,

  • Asthma epidemiology and risk factors.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Jessica Stern,Jennifer Pier,Augusto A Litonjua

    Asthma is a clinical syndrome that affects all age groups. Asthma prevalence worldwide has seen a rapid increase in the latter part of the last century. Recent data has shown that asthma prevalence has plateaued and even decreased in some areas of the world, despite continuing to increase in other areas of the world. Many risk factors have been associated with asthma and the differences in distributions

  • Preface.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-02-01
    Bianca Schaub

  • The clever strategies used by intracellular parasites to hijack host gene expression.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Marie Villares,Jérémy Berthelet,Jonathan B Weitzman

    Intracellular pathogens need to develop sophisticated mechanisms to survive and thrive in the hostile environment within host cells. Unicellular, eukaryotic parasites from the Apicomplexa phylum have become masters of manipulating their host cells, exploiting signaling, and metabolic pathways to hijack host gene expression to their own advantage. These intracellular parasites have developed a wide

  • Lung functional development and asthma trajectories.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Fabienne Decrue,Olga Gorlanova,Jakob Usemann,Urs Frey

    Early life environmental risk factors are associated with chronic respiratory morbidity in child- and adulthood. A possible mechanism for this sustained effect is their influence on early life lung functional growth and development, a susceptible phase of rapid lung growth with increased plasticity. We summarize evidence of hereditary and environmental ante-, peri-, and early postnatal factors on lung

  • Role of viruses in asthma.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Tuomas Jartti,Klaus Bønnelykke,Varpu Elenius,Wojciech Feleszko

    Respiratory viral infections are the most important triggers of asthma exacerbations. Rhinovirus (RV), the common cold virus, is clearly the most prevalent pathogen constantly circulating in the community. This virus also stands out from other viral factors due to its large diversity (about 170 genotypes), very effective replication, a tendency to create Th2-biased inflammatory environment and association

  • Omics for the future in asthma.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Mahmoud I Abdel-Aziz,Anne H Neerincx,Susanne J Vijverberg,Aletta D Kraneveld,Anke H Maitland-van der Zee

    Asthma is a common, complex, multifaceted disease. It comprises multiple phenotypes, which might benefit from treatment with different types of innovative targeted therapies. Refining these phenotypes and understanding their underlying biological structure would help to apply precision medicine approaches. Using different omics methods, such as (epi)genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics

  • Epigenetic regulation of human papillomavirus transcription in the productive virus life cycle.
    Semin. Immunopathol.  (IF 7.48) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Megan Burley,Sally Roberts,Joanna L Parish

    Human papillomaviruses (HPV) are a large family of viruses which contain a circular, double-stranded DNA genome of approximately 8000 base pairs. The viral DNA is chromatinized by the recruitment of cellular histones which are subject to host cell–mediated post-translational epigenetic modification recognized as an important mechanism of virus transcription regulation. The HPV life cycle is dependent

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