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  • Primary Atopic Disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Joshua D Milner

    Primary atopic disorders describes a series of monogenic diseases that have allergy- or atopic effector-related symptoms as a substantial feature. The underlying pathogenic genetic lesions help illustrate fundamental pathways in atopy, opening up diagnostic and therapeutic options for further study in those patients, but ultimately for common allergic diseases as well. Key pathways affected in these

    更新日期:2020-03-03
  • Immunology in the Era of Single-Cell Technologies.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Mirjana Efremova,Roser Vento-Tormo,Jong-Eun Park,Sarah A Teichmann,Kylie R James

    Immune cells are characterized by diversity, specificity, plasticity, and adaptability-properties that enable them to contribute to homeostasis and respond specifically and dynamically to the many threats encountered by the body. Single-cell technologies, including the assessment of transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics at the level of individual cells, are ideally suited to studying these properties

    更新日期:2020-02-19
  • T Cell Epitope Predictions.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Bjoern Peters,Morten Nielsen,Alessandro Sette

    Throughout the body, T cells monitor MHC-bound ligands expressed on the surface of essentially all cell types. MHC ligands that trigger a T cell immune response are referred to as T cell epitopes. Identifying such epitopes enables tracking, phenotyping, and stimulating T cells involved in immune responses in infectious disease, allergy, autoimmunity, transplantation, and cancer. The specific T cell

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • Cruel to Be Kind: Epithelial, Microbial, and Immune Cell Interactions in Gastrointestinal Cancers.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Shabnam Shalapour,Michael Karin

    A plethora of experimental and epidemiological evidence supports a critical role for inflammation and adaptive immunity in the onset of cancer and in shaping its response to therapy. These data are particularly robust for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, such as those affecting the GI tract, liver, and pancreas, on which this review is focused. We propose a unifying hypothesis according to which intestinal

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Vitiligo: Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Treatment.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Michael L Frisoli,Kingsley Essien,John E Harris

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that targets pigment-producing melanocytes and results in patches of depigmentation that are visible as white spots. Recent research studies have yielded a strong mechanistic understanding of this disease. Autoreactive cytotoxic CD8+ T cells engage melanocytes and promote disease progression through the local production of IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced chemokines

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Caspases in Cell Death, Inflammation, and Gasdermin-Induced Pyroptosis.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Sannula Kesavardhana,R K Subbarao Malireddi,Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    Caspases are a family of conserved cysteine proteases that play key roles in programmed cell death and inflammation. In multicellular organisms, caspases are activated via macromolecular signaling complexes that bring inactive procaspases together and promote their proximity-induced autoactivation and proteolytic processing. Activation of caspases ultimately results in programmed execution of cell

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • The Innate Biologies of Adaptive Antigen Receptors.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Adrian C Hayday,Pierre Vantourout

    Nonclonal innate immune responses mediated by germ line-encoded receptors, such as Toll-like receptors or natural killer receptors, are commonly contrasted with diverse, clonotypic adaptive responses of lymphocyte antigen receptors generated by somatic recombination. However, the Variable (V) regions of antigen receptors include germ line-encoded motifs unaltered by somatic recombination, and theoretically

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Regulatory T Cells and Human Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Shimon Sakaguchi,Norihisa Mikami,James B Wing,Atsushi Tanaka,Kenji Ichiyama,Naganari Ohkura

    Naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells, which specifically express the transcription factor FoxP3 in the nucleus and CD25 and CTLA-4 on the cell surface, are a functionally distinct T cell subpopulation actively engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Recent studies have facilitated our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of their generation

    更新日期:2020-02-04
  • Knocking 'em Dead: Pore-Forming Proteins in Immune Defense.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Xing Liu,Judy Lieberman

    Immune cells use a variety of membrane-disrupting proteins [complement, perforin, perforin-2, granulysin, gasdermins, mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL)] to induce different kinds of death of microbes and host cells, some of which cause inflammation. After activation by proteolytic cleavage or phosphorylation, these proteins oligomerize, bind to membrane lipids, and disrupt membrane

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Chromatin-Modifying Enzymes in T Cell Development.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Michael J Shapiro,Virginia Smith Shapiro

    T cell development involves stepwise progression through defined stages that give rise to multiple T cell subtypes, and this is accompanied by the establishment of stage-specific gene expression. Changes in chromatin accessibility and chromatin modifications accompany changes in gene expression during T cell development. Chromatin-modifying enzymes that add or reverse covalent modifications to DNA

    更新日期:2020-01-28
  • Regulatory T Cell Development.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Peter A Savage,David E J Klawon,Christine H Miller

    Foxp3-expressing CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play key roles in the prevention of autoimmunity and the maintenance of immune homeostasis and represent a major barrier to the induction of robust antitumor immune responses. Thus, a clear understanding of the mechanisms coordinating Treg cell differentiation is crucial for understanding numerous facets of health and disease and for developing approaches

    更新日期:2020-01-28
  • Siglecs as Immune Cell Checkpoints in Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Shiteng Duan,James C Paulson

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs) are expressed on the majority of white blood cells of the immune system and play critical roles in immune cell signaling. Through recognition of sialic acid-containing glycans as ligands, they help the immune system distinguish between self and nonself. Because of their restricted cell type expression and roles as checkpoints in immune cell

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • MAIT Cells in Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Nicholas M Provine,Paul Klenerman

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been attracting increasing attention over the last few years as a potent unconventional T cell subset. Three factors largely account for this emerging interest. Firstly, these cells are abundant in humans, both in circulation and especially in some tissues such as the liver. Secondly is the discovery of a ligand that has uncovered their microbial targets

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Krebs Cycle Reborn in Macrophage Immunometabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Dylan G Ryan,Luke A J O'Neill

    A striking change has happened in the field of immunology whereby specific metabolic processes have been shown to be a critical determinant of immune cell activation. Multiple immune receptor types rewire metabolic pathways as a key part of how they promote effector functions. Perhaps surprisingly for immunologists, the Krebs cycle has emerged as the central immunometabolic hub of the macrophage. During

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Age-Associated B Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Michael P Cancro

    The age-associated B cell subset has been the focus of increasing interest over the last decade. These cells have a unique cell surface phenotype and transcriptional signature, and they rely on TLR7 or TLR9 signals in the context of Th1 cytokines for their formation and activation. Most are antigen-experienced memory B cells that arise during responses to microbial infections and are key to pathogen

    更新日期:2020-01-27
  • Hypoxia and Innate Immunity: Keeping Up with the HIFsters.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Sean P Colgan,Glenn T Furuta,Cormac T Taylor

    Recent years have witnessed an emergence of interest in understanding metabolic changes associated with immune responses, termed immunometabolism. As oxygen is central to all aerobic metabolism, hypoxia is now recognized to contribute fundamentally to inflammatory and immune responses. Studies from a number of groups have implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in innate immunity

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Neonatal T Cells: A Reinterpretation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Brian D Rudd

    Neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have historically been characterized as immature or defective. However, recent studies prompt a reinterpretation of the functions of neonatal T cells. Rather than a population of cells always falling short of expectations set by their adult counterparts, neonatal T cells are gaining recognition as a distinct population of lymphocytes well suited for the rapidly changing

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Development of secondary lymphoid organs.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Troy D Randall,Damian M Carragher,Javier Rangel-Moreno

    Secondary lymphoid organs develop during embryogenesis or in the first few weeks after birth according to a highly coordinated series of interactions between newly emerging hematopoietic cells and immature mesenchymal or stromal cells. These interactions are orchestrated by homeostatic chemokines, cytokines, and growth factors that attract hematopoietic cells to sites of future lymphoid organ development

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The master switch: the role of mast cells in autoimmunity and tolerance.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Blayne A Sayed,Alison Christy,Mary R Quirion,Melissa A Brown

    There are many parallels between allergic and autoimmune responses. Both are considered hypersensitivity responses: pathologies that are elicited by an exuberant reaction to antigens that do not pose any inherent danger to the organism. Although mast cells have long been recognized as central players in allergy, only recently has their role in autoimmunity become apparent. Because of the commonalities

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mechanism and regulation of class switch recombination.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Janet Stavnezer,Jeroen E J Guikema,Carol E Schrader

    Antibody class switching occurs in mature B cells in response to antigen stimulation and costimulatory signals. It occurs by a unique type of intrachromosomal deletional recombination within special G-rich tandem repeated DNA sequences [called switch, or S, regions located upstream of each of the heavy chain constant (C(H)) region genes, except Cdelta]. The recombination is initiated by the B cell-specific

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Anti-inflammatory actions of intravenous immunoglobulin.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Falk Nimmerjahn,Jeffrey V Ravetch

    The remarkable success story of the therapeutic application of pooled immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations from thousands of donors, the so-called intravenous IgG (IVIG) therapy, to patients with a variety of hematological and immunological disorders began more than half a century ago. Since then, the use of this primary blood product has increased constantly, resulting in the serious danger of shortages

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation and functions of Blimp-1 in T and B lymphocytes.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-03-29
    Gislâine Martins,Kathryn Calame

    B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1), discovered 16 years ago as a transcriptional repressor of the IFNbeta promoter, plays fundamentally important roles in many cell lineages and in early development. This review focuses on Blimp-1 in lymphocytes. In the B cell lineage, Blimp-1 is required for development of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and for maintenance of long-lived plasma cells

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionarily conserved amino acids that control TCR-MHC interaction.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Philippa Marrack,James P Scott-Browne,Shaodong Dai,Laurent Gapin,John W Kappler

    The rules for the conserved reaction of alphabeta T cell receptors (TCRs) with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) proteins plus peptides are poorly understood, probably because thymocytes bearing TCRs with the strongest MHC reactivity are lost by negative selection. Thus, only TCRs with an attenuated ability to react with MHC appear on mature T cells. Also, the interaction sites between TCRs and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The actin cytoskeleton in T cell activation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Janis K Burkhardt,Esteban Carrizosa,Meredith H Shaffer

    T cell cytoarchitecture differs dramatically depending on whether the cell is circulating within the bloodstream, migrating through tissues, or interacting with antigen-presenting cells. The transition between these states requires important signaling-dependent changes in actin cytoskeletal dynamics. Recently, analysis of actin-regulatory proteins associated with T cell activation has provided new

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Death by a thousand cuts: granzyme pathways of programmed cell death.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Dipanjan Chowdhury,Judy Lieberman

    The granzymes are cell death-inducing enzymes, stored in the cytotoxic granules of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and natural killer cells, that are released during granule exocytosis when a specific virus-infected or transformed target cell is marked for elimination. Recent work suggests that this homologous family of serine esterases can activate at least three distinct pathways of cell death. This redundancy

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases: an innate defensive network opposing exogenous retroviruses and endogenous retroelements.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Ya-Lin Chiu,Warner C Greene

    All retroviruses, including HIV-1, display species-specific patterns of infection. The impaired growth of these retroviruses in foreign and sometimes even in their natural hosts often stems from the action of potent host-encoded "viral restriction factors" that form important protective components of the innate immune system. The discovery of APOBEC3G and related cytidine deaminases as one class of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • T cell trafficking in allergic asthma: the ins and outs.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Benjamin D Medoff,Seddon Y Thomas,Andrew D Luster

    T cells are critical mediators of the allergic airway inflammation seen in asthma. Pathogenic allergen-specific T cells are generated in regional lymph nodes and are then recruited into the airway by chemoattractants produced by the asthmatic lung. These recruited effector T cells and their products then mediate the cardinal features of asthma: airway eosinophilia, mucus hypersecretion, and airway

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The biochemistry of somatic hypermutation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Jonathan U Peled,Fei Li Kuang,Maria D Iglesias-Ussel,Sergio Roa,Susan L Kalis,Myron F Goodman,Matthew D Scharff

    Affinity maturation of the humoral response is mediated by somatic hypermutation of the immunoglobulin (Ig) genes and selection of higher-affinity B cell clones. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) is the first of a complex series of proteins that introduce these point mutations into variable regions of the Ig genes. AID deaminates deoxycytidine residues in single-stranded DNA to deoxyuridines

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Thymus organogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Hans-Reimer Rodewald

    The epithelial architecture of the thymus fosters growth, differentiation, and T cell receptor repertoire selection of large numbers of immature T cells that continuously feed the mature peripheral T cell pool. Failure to build or to maintain a proper thymus structure can lead to defects ranging from immunodeficiency to autoimmunity. There has been long-standing interest in unraveling the cellular

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The IRF family transcription factors in immunity and oncogenesis.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Tomohiko Tamura,Hideyuki Yanai,David Savitsky,Tadatsugu Taniguchi

    The interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family, consisting of nine members in mammals, was identified in the late 1980s in the context of research into the type I interferon system. Subsequent studies over the past two decades have revealed the versatile and critical functions performed by this transcription factor family. Indeed, many IRF members play central roles in the cellular differentiation of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Monocyte-mediated defense against microbial pathogens.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Natalya V Serbina,Ting Jia,Tobias M Hohl,Eric G Pamer

    Circulating blood monocytes supply peripheral tissues with macrophage and dendritic cell (DC) precursors and, in the setting of infection, also contribute directly to immune defense against microbial pathogens. In humans and mice, monocytes are divided into two major subsets that either specifically traffic into inflamed tissues or, in the absence of overt inflammation, constitutively maintain tissue

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Protein tyrosine phosphatases in autoimmunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Torkel Vang,Ana V Miletic,Yutaka Arimura,Lutz Tautz,Robert C Rickert,Tomas Mustelin

    Protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) are important regulators of many cellular functions and a growing number of PTPs have been implicated in human disease conditions, such as developmental defects, neoplastic disorders, and immunodeficiency. Here, we review the involvement of PTPs in human autoimmunity. The leading examples include the allelic variant of the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • PD-1 and its ligands in tolerance and immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-05
    Mary E Keir,Manish J Butte,Gordon J Freeman,Arlene H Sharpe

    Programmed death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, deliver inhibitory signals that regulate the balance between T cell activation, tolerance, and immunopathology. Immune responses to foreign and self-antigens require specific and balanced responses to clear pathogens and tumors and yet maintain tolerance. Induction and maintenance of T cell tolerance requires PD-1, and its ligand PD-L1 on

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • T follicular helper (TFH) cells in normal and dysregulated immune responses.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-05
    Cecile King,Stuart G Tangye,Charles R Mackay

    T cell help for antibody production is a fundamental aspect of immune responses. Only recently has a better understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms for T cell help emerged. A subset of T cells, termed T follicular helper cells (T(FH) cells), provides a helper function to B cells and represents one of the most numerous and important subsets of effector T cells in lymphoid tissues. T(FH)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Immunity to citrullinated proteins in rheumatoid arthritis.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-05
    Lars Klareskog,Johan Rönnelid,Karin Lundberg,Leonid Padyukov,Lars Alfredsson

    Antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA), i.e., to peptides posttranslationally modified by the conversion of arginine to citrulline, are specific serological markers for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies on anticitrulline immunity, summarized in this review, demonstrate that the criterion-based syndrome RA should be subdivided into at least two distinct subsets (ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Choreography of cell motility and interaction dynamics imaged by two-photon microscopy in lymphoid organs.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2008-01-05
    Michael D Cahalan,Ian Parker

    The immune system is the most diffuse cellular system in the body. Accordingly, long-range migration of cells and short-range communication by local chemical signaling and by cell-cell contacts are vital to the control of an immune response. Cellular homing and migration within lymphoid organs, antigen recognition, and cell signaling and activation are clearly vital during an immune response, but these

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The biology of interleukin-2.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-12-08
    Thomas R Malek

    Much data support an essential role for interleukin (IL)-2 in immune tolerance. This idea is much different from the early paradigm in which IL-2 is central for protective immune responses. This change in thinking occurred when a T regulatory cell defect was shown to be responsible for the lethal autoimmunity associated with IL-2/IL-2R deficiency. This realization allowed investigators to explore immune

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Migration of dendritic cell subsets and their precursors.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-11-30
    Gwendalyn J Randolph,Jordi Ochando,Santiago Partida-Sánchez

    The ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to initiate and orchestrate immune responses is a consequence of their localization within tissues and their specialized capacity for mobilization. The migration of a given DC subset is typified by a restricted capacity for recirculation, contrasting markedly with T cells. Routes of DC migration into lymph nodes differ notably for distinct DC subsets. Here, we compare

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interleukin-21: basic biology and implications for cancer and autoimmunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-10-24
    Rosanne Spolski,Warren J Leonard

    Interleukin-21 (IL-21), a potent immunomodulatory four-alpha-helical-bundle type I cytokine, is produced by NKT and CD4(+) T cells and has pleiotropic effects on both innate and adaptive immune responses. These actions include positive effects such as enhanced proliferation of lymphoid cells, increased cytotoxicity of CD8(+) T cells and natural killer (NK) cells, and differentiation of B cells into

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Forward genetic dissection of immunity to infection in the mouse.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-10-24
    S M Vidal,D Malo,J-F Marquis,P Gros

    Forward genetics is an experimental approach in which gene mapping and positional cloning are used to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying phenotypic differences between two individuals for a given trait. This strategy has been highly successful for the study of inbred mouse strains that show differences in innate susceptibility to bacterial, parasitic, fungal, and viral infections. Over the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Doing what I like.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-09-20
    K Frank Austen

    I have spent my entire professional life at Harvard Medical School, beginning as a medical student. I have enjoyed each day of a diverse career in four medical subspecialties while following the same triad of preclinical areas of investigation-cysteinyl leukotrienes, mast cells, and complement-with occasional translational opportunities. I did not envision a career with a predominant preclinical component

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cellular responses to viral infection in humans: lessons from Epstein-Barr virus.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-03-24
    Andrew D Hislop,Graham S Taylor,Delphine Sauce,Alan B Rickinson

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) provides a useful model to study cellular immunity to a genetically stable, persistent human virus. Different sets of proteins expressed during EBV's lytic and cell transforming infections induce qualitatively different cellular immune responses. The factors governing immunodominance hierarchies and the biological effectiveness of these different responses are now being revealed

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Immunologically active autoantigens: the role of toll-like receptors in the development of chronic inflammatory disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-03-24
    Ann Marshak-Rothstein,Ian R Rifkin

    Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), expressed on cells of both the innate and adaptive immune systems, serve as sentinels, waiting to alert the host to the first signs of microbial infection and to activate the initial line of immune defense. Research has increasingly demonstrated that many of the same PRRs also recognize self-epitopes that either are released from dying or damaged cells or are present

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mucosal dendritic cells.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-03-24
    Akiko Iwasaki

    The internal surfaces of the human body are covered by distinct types of epithelial cells and mucus-secreting cells. The mucosal surfaces serve many vital functions, such as respiration (nasal passage and lung), absorption (gastrointestinal tract), excretion (lung, urinary tract, large intestine), and reproduction (reproductive tract). In performing these functions, the host is inevitably exposed to

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • T cells as a self-referential, sensory organ.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Mark M Davis,Michelle Krogsgaard,Morgan Huse,Johannes Huppa,Bjoern F Lillemeier,Qi-jing Li

    In light of recent data showing that both helper and cytotoxic T cells can detect even a single molecule of an agonist peptide-MHC, alphabeta T cells are clearly a type of sensory cell, comparable to any in the nervous system. In addition, endogenous (self) peptides bound to MHCs are not just important for thymic selection, but also play an integral role in T cell activation in the response to foreign

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nonreceptor protein-tyrosine phosphatases in immune cell signaling.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Lily I Pao,Karen Badour,Katherine A Siminovitch,Benjamin G Neel

    Tyrosyl phosphorylation plays a critical role in multiple signaling pathways regulating innate and acquired immunity. Although tyrosyl phosphorylation is a reversible process, we know much more about the functions of protein-tyrosine kinases (PTKs) than about protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs). Genome sequencing efforts have revealed a large and diverse superfamily of PTPs, which can be subdivided

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chemokine: receptor structure, interactions, and antagonism.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Samantha J Allen,Susan E Crown,Tracy M Handel

    Chemokines are critical mediators of cell migration during routine immune surveillance, inflammation, and development. Chemokines bind to G protein-coupled receptors and cause conformational changes that trigger intracellular signaling pathways involved in cell movement and activation. Although chemokines evolved to benefit the host, inappropriate regulation or utilization of these proteins can contribute

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Zoned out: functional mapping of stromal signaling microenvironments in the thymus.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Howard T Petrie,Juan Carlos Zúñiga-Pflücker

    All hematopoietic cells, including T lymphocytes, originate from stem cells that reside in the bone marrow. Most hematopoietic lineages also mature in the bone marrow, but in this respect, T lymphocytes differ. Under normal circumstances, most T lymphocytes are produced in the thymus from marrow-derived progenitors that circulate in the blood. Cells that home to the thymus from the marrow possess the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Discovery and biology of IL-23 and IL-27: related but functionally distinct regulators of inflammation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-02-13
    Robert A Kastelein,Christopher A Hunter,Daniel J Cua

    Long-term resistance to many infections depends on the innate ability of the immune system to coordinate the development of antigen-specific adaptive responses. Deficiencies in these events can result in increased susceptibility to pathogens, whereas an inability to regulate an appropriate response can lead to devastating pathological conditions. For over a decade, interleukin (IL)-12 has been recognized

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Immunobiology of SARS*.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-25
    Jun Chen,Kanta Subbarao

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) presented as an atypical pneumonia that progressed to acute respiratory distress syndrome in approximately 20% of cases and was associated with a mortality of about 10%. The etiological agent was a novel coronavirus (CoV). Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 is the functional receptor for SARS-CoV; DC-SIGN and CD209L (L-SIGN) can enhance viral entry. Although the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Structural basis of integrin regulation and signaling.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Bing-Hao Luo,Christopher V Carman,Timothy A Springer

    Integrins are cell adhesion molecules that mediate cell-cell, cell-extracellular matrix, and cell-pathogen interactions. They play critical roles for the immune system in leukocyte trafficking and migration, immunological synapse formation, costimulation, and phagocytosis. Integrin adhesiveness can be dynamically regulated through a process termed inside-out signaling. In addition, ligand binding transduces

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of cellular and humoral immune responses by the SLAM and SAP families of molecules.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Cindy S Ma,Kim E Nichols,Stuart G Tangye

    SAP (SLAM-associated protein) was identified in 1998 as an adaptor molecule involved in the intracellular signaling pathways elicited through the cell surface receptor SLAM and as the protein defective in the human immunodeficiency X-linked lymphoproliferative disease (XLP). During the past eight years, it has been established that the SLAM family of cell surface receptors (SLAM, 2B4, NTB-A, Ly9, CD84)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Fc receptor-like molecules.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Randall S Davis

    Discovery of a large family of Fc receptor-like (FCRL) molecules, homologous to the well-known receptors for the Fc portion of immunoglobulin (FCR), has uncovered an impressive abundance of immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) genes in the human 1q21-23 chromosomal region and revealed significant diversity for these genes between humans and mice. The observation that FCRL representatives are members of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The host defense of Drosophila melanogaster.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Bruno Lemaitre,Jules Hoffmann

    To combat infection, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster relies on multiple innate defense reactions, many of which are shared with higher organisms. These reactions include the use of physical barriers together with local and systemic immune responses. First, epithelia, such as those beneath the cuticle, in the alimentary tract, and in tracheae, act both as a physical barrier and local defense against

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The death domain superfamily in intracellular signaling of apoptosis and inflammation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Hyun Ho Park,Yu-Chih Lo,Su-Chang Lin,Liwei Wang,Jin Kuk Yang,Hao Wu

    The death domain (DD) superfamily comprising the death domain (DD) subfamily, the death effector domain (DED) subfamily, the caspase recruitment domain (CARD) subfamily, and the pyrin domain (PYD) subfamily is one of the largest domain superfamilies. By mediating homotypic interactions within each domain subfamily, these proteins play important roles in the assembly and activation of apoptotic and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Ontogeny of the hematopoietic system.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Ana Cumano,Isabelle Godin

    Blood cells are constantly produced in the bone marrow (BM) of adult mammals. This constant turnover ultimately depends on a rare population of progenitors that displays self-renewal and multilineage differentiation potential, the hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). It is generally accepted that HSCs are generated during embryonic development and sequentially colonize the fetal liver, the spleen, and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • IL-17 family cytokines and the expanding diversity of effector T cell lineages.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2007-01-05
    Casey T Weaver,Robin D Hatton,Paul R Mangan,Laurie E Harrington

    Since its conception two decades ago, the Th1-Th2 paradigm has provided a framework for understanding T cell biology and the interplay of innate and adaptive immunity. Naive T cells differentiate into effector T cells with enhanced functional potential for orchestrating pathogen clearance largely under the guidance of cytokines produced by cells of the innate immune system that have been activated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The biology of NKT cells.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2006-12-08
    Albert Bendelac,Paul B Savage,Luc Teyton

    Recognized more than a decade ago, NKT cells differentiate from mainstream thymic precursors through instructive signals emanating during TCR engagement by CD1d-expressing cortical thymocytes. Their semi-invariant alphabeta TCRs recognize isoglobotrihexosylceramide, a mammalian glycosphingolipid, as well as microbial alpha-glycuronylceramides found in the cell wall of Gram-negative, lipopolysaccharide-negative

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Immunosuppressive strategies that are mediated by tumor cells.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2006-12-01
    Gabriel A Rabinovich,Dmitry Gabrilovich,Eduardo M Sotomayor

    Despite major advances in understanding the mechanisms leading to tumor immunity, a number of obstacles hinder the successful translation of mechanistic insights into effective tumor immunotherapy. Such obstacles include the ability of tumors to foster a tolerant microenvironment and the activation of a plethora of immunosuppressive mechanisms, which may act in concert to counteract effective immune

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effector and memory CTL differentiation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 21.429) Pub Date : 2006-11-30
    Matthew A Williams,Michael J Bevan

    Technological advances in recent years have allowed for an ever-expanding ability to analyze and quantify in vivo immune responses. MHC tetramers, intracellular cytokine staining, an increasing repertoire of transgenic and "knockout" mice, and the detailed characterization of a variety of infectious models have all facilitated more precise and definitive analyses of the generation and function of cytotoxic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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