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  • Finding a Way Out: S1P Signaling and Immune Cell Migration
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Audrey A.L. Baeyens; Susan R. Schwab

    The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays critical roles in an immune response. Drugs targeting S1P signaling have been remarkably successful in treatment of multiple sclerosis, and they have shown promise in clinical trials for colitis and psoriasis. One mechanism of these drugs is to block lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes, where lymphocytes are initially activated, into circulation

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • In Vivo CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Function: Revisiting the Th1/Th2 Paradigm
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Mikel Ruterbusch; Kurt B. Pruner; Laila Shehata; Marion Pepper

    The discovery of CD4+ T cell subset–defining master transcription factors and framing of the Th1/Th2 paradigm ignited the CD4+ T cell field. Advances in in vivo experimental systems, however, have revealed that more complex lineage-defining transcriptional networks direct CD4+ T cell differentiation in the lymphoid organs and tissues. This review focuses on the layers of fate decisions that inform

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Vaccines and Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Prevention
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Kathryn E. Stephenson; Kshitij Wagh; Bette Korber; Dan H. Barouch

    Development of improved approaches for HIV-1 prevention will likely be required for a durable end to the global AIDS pandemic. Recent advances in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials offer renewed promise for immunologic strategies for blocking acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the efficacy of two vaccine candidates and a broadly neutralizing

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Meningeal Immunity and Its Function in Maintenance of the Central Nervous System in Health and Disease
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Kalil Alves de Lima; Justin Rustenhoven; Jonathan Kipnis

    Neuroimmunology, albeit a relatively established discipline, has recently sparked numerous exciting findings on microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). This review addresses meningeal immunity, a less-studied aspect of neuroimmune interactions. The meninges, a triple layer of membranes—the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater—surround the CNS, encompassing the

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Mechanisms of Natural Killer Cell Evasion Through Viral Adaptation
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Mathieu Mancini; Silvia M. Vidal

    The continuous interactions between host and pathogens during their coevolution have shaped both the immune system and the countermeasures used by pathogens. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that are considered central players in the antiviral response. Not only do they express a variety of inhibitory and activating receptors to discriminate and eliminate target cells but they can also

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • 30 Years of Biotherapeutics Development—What Have We Learned?
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Nico Ghilardi; Rajita Pappu; Joseph R. Arron; Andrew C. Chan

    Since the birth of biotechnology, hundreds of biotherapeutics have been developed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human use. These novel medicines not only bring significant benefit to patients but also represent precision tools to interrogate human disease biology. Accordingly, much has been learned from the successes and failures of hundreds of high-quality clinical

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Innate Lymphocyte Mechanisms in Skin Diseases
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Yi-Ling Chen; Clare S. Hardman; Koshika Yadava; Graham Ogg

    Innate lymphocyte populations are emerging as key effectors in tissue homeostasis, microbial defense, and inflammatory skin disease. The cells are evolutionarily ancient and carry conserved principles of function, which can be achieved through shared or unique specific mechanisms. Recent technological and treatment advances have provided insight into heterogeneity within and between individuals and

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Microbiota Metabolites in Health and Disease
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Justin L. McCarville; Grischa Y. Chen; Víctor D. Cuevas; Katia Troha; Janelle S. Ayres

    Metabolism is one of the strongest drivers of interkingdom interactions—including those between microorganisms and their multicellular hosts. Traditionally thought to fuel energy requirements and provide building blocks for biosynthetic pathways, metabolism is now appreciated for its role in providing metabolites, small-molecule intermediates generated from metabolic processes, to perform various regulatory

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • The Emerging Role of B Lymphocytes in Cardiovascular Disease
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Luigi Adamo; Cibele Rocha-Resende; Douglas L. Mann

    B cells are traditionally known for their ability to produce antibodies in the context of adaptive immune responses. However, over the last decade B cells have been increasingly recognized as modulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses, as well as players in an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Here, after briefly summarizing our current understanding of

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Mast Cells in Inflammation and Disease: Recent Progress and Ongoing Concerns
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Stephen J. Galli; Nicolas Gaudenzio; Mindy Tsai

    Mast cells have existed long before the development of adaptive immunity, although they have been given different names. Thus, in the marine urochordate Styela plicata, they have been designated as test cells. However, based on their morphological characteristics (including prominent cytoplasmic granules) and mediator content (including heparin, histamine, and neutral proteases), test cells are thought

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Interaction Between the Microbiota, Epithelia, and Immune Cells in the Intestine
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-27
    Hisako Kayama; Ryu Okumura; Kiyoshi Takeda

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors numerous commensal bacteria, referred to as the microbiota, that benefit host health by digesting dietary components and eliminating pathogens. The intestinal microbiota maintains epithelial barrier integrity and shapes the mucosal immune system, balancing host defense and oral tolerance with microbial metabolites, components, and attachment to host cells. To avoid

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Primary Atopic Disorders.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-03-03
    Joshua D Milner

    Primary atopic disorders describes a series of monogenic diseases that have allergy- or atopic effector-related symptoms as a substantial feature. The underlying pathogenic genetic lesions help illustrate fundamental pathways in atopy, opening up diagnostic and therapeutic options for further study in those patients, but ultimately for common allergic diseases as well. Key pathways affected in these

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Immunology in the Era of Single-Cell Technologies.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-19
    Mirjana Efremova,Roser Vento-Tormo,Jong-Eun Park,Sarah A Teichmann,Kylie R James

    Immune cells are characterized by diversity, specificity, plasticity, and adaptability-properties that enable them to contribute to homeostasis and respond specifically and dynamically to the many threats encountered by the body. Single-cell technologies, including the assessment of transcriptomics, genomics, and proteomics at the level of individual cells, are ideally suited to studying these properties

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • T Cell Epitope Predictions.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Bjoern Peters,Morten Nielsen,Alessandro Sette

    Throughout the body, T cells monitor MHC-bound ligands expressed on the surface of essentially all cell types. MHC ligands that trigger a T cell immune response are referred to as T cell epitopes. Identifying such epitopes enables tracking, phenotyping, and stimulating T cells involved in immune responses in infectious disease, allergy, autoimmunity, transplantation, and cancer. The specific T cell

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Cruel to Be Kind: Epithelial, Microbial, and Immune Cell Interactions in Gastrointestinal Cancers.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Shabnam Shalapour,Michael Karin

    A plethora of experimental and epidemiological evidence supports a critical role for inflammation and adaptive immunity in the onset of cancer and in shaping its response to therapy. These data are particularly robust for gastrointestinal (GI) cancers, such as those affecting the GI tract, liver, and pancreas, on which this review is focused. We propose a unifying hypothesis according to which intestinal

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Vitiligo: Mechanisms of Pathogenesis and Treatment.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Michael L Frisoli,Kingsley Essien,John E Harris

    Vitiligo is an autoimmune disease of the skin that targets pigment-producing melanocytes and results in patches of depigmentation that are visible as white spots. Recent research studies have yielded a strong mechanistic understanding of this disease. Autoreactive cytotoxic CD8+ T cells engage melanocytes and promote disease progression through the local production of IFN-γ, and IFN-γ-induced chemokines

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Caspases in Cell Death, Inflammation, and Pyroptosis.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Sannula Kesavardhana,R K Subbarao Malireddi,Thirumala-Devi Kanneganti

    Caspases are a family of conserved cysteine proteases that play key roles in programmed cell death and inflammation. In multicellular organisms, caspases are activated via macromolecular signaling complexes that bring inactive procaspases together and promote their proximity-induced autoactivation and proteolytic processing. Activation of caspases ultimately results in programmed execution of cell

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • The Innate Biologies of Adaptive Antigen Receptors.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Adrian C Hayday,Pierre Vantourout

    Nonclonal innate immune responses mediated by germ line-encoded receptors, such as Toll-like receptors or natural killer receptors, are commonly contrasted with diverse, clonotypic adaptive responses of lymphocyte antigen receptors generated by somatic recombination. However, the Variable (V) regions of antigen receptors include germ line-encoded motifs unaltered by somatic recombination, and theoretically

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Regulatory T Cells and Human Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-02-04
    Shimon Sakaguchi,Norihisa Mikami,James B Wing,Atsushi Tanaka,Kenji Ichiyama,Naganari Ohkura

    Naturally occurring CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs), which specifically express the transcription factor FoxP3 in the nucleus and CD25 and CTLA-4 on the cell surface, are a functionally distinct T cell subpopulation actively engaged in the maintenance of immunological self-tolerance and homeostasis. Recent studies have facilitated our understanding of the cellular and molecular basis of their generation

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Knocking 'em Dead: Pore-Forming Proteins in Immune Defense.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-31
    Xing Liu,Judy Lieberman

    Immune cells use a variety of membrane-disrupting proteins [complement, perforin, perforin-2, granulysin, gasdermins, mixed lineage kinase domain-like pseudokinase (MLKL)] to induce different kinds of death of microbes and host cells, some of which cause inflammation. After activation by proteolytic cleavage or phosphorylation, these proteins oligomerize, bind to membrane lipids, and disrupt membrane

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Chromatin-Modifying Enzymes in T Cell Development.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Michael J Shapiro,Virginia Smith Shapiro

    T cell development involves stepwise progression through defined stages that give rise to multiple T cell subtypes, and this is accompanied by the establishment of stage-specific gene expression. Changes in chromatin accessibility and chromatin modifications accompany changes in gene expression during T cell development. Chromatin-modifying enzymes that add or reverse covalent modifications to DNA

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Regulatory T Cell Development.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-28
    Peter A Savage,David E J Klawon,Christine H Miller

    Foxp3-expressing CD4+ regulatory T (Treg) cells play key roles in the prevention of autoimmunity and the maintenance of immune homeostasis and represent a major barrier to the induction of robust antitumor immune responses. Thus, a clear understanding of the mechanisms coordinating Treg cell differentiation is crucial for understanding numerous facets of health and disease and for developing approaches

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Siglecs as Immune Cell Checkpoints in Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Shiteng Duan,James C Paulson

    Sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins (Siglecs) are expressed on the majority of white blood cells of the immune system and play critical roles in immune cell signaling. Through recognition of sialic acid-containing glycans as ligands, they help the immune system distinguish between self and nonself. Because of their restricted cell type expression and roles as checkpoints in immune cell

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Krebs Cycle Reborn in Macrophage Immunometabolism.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Dylan G Ryan,Luke A J O'Neill

    A striking change has happened in the field of immunology whereby specific metabolic processes have been shown to be a critical determinant of immune cell activation. Multiple immune receptor types rewire metabolic pathways as a key part of how they promote effector functions. Perhaps surprisingly for immunologists, the Krebs cycle has emerged as the central immunometabolic hub of the macrophage. During

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Age-Associated B Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Michael P Cancro

    The age-associated B cell subset has been the focus of increasing interest over the last decade. These cells have a unique cell surface phenotype and transcriptional signature, and they rely on TLR7 or TLR9 signals in the context of Th1 cytokines for their formation and activation. Most are antigen-experienced memory B cells that arise during responses to microbial infections and are key to pathogen

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Hypoxia and Innate Immunity: Keeping Up with the HIFsters.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-21
    Sean P Colgan,Glenn T Furuta,Cormac T Taylor

    Recent years have witnessed an emergence of interest in understanding metabolic changes associated with immune responses, termed immunometabolism. As oxygen is central to all aerobic metabolism, hypoxia is now recognized to contribute fundamentally to inflammatory and immune responses. Studies from a number of groups have implicated a prominent role for oxygen metabolism and hypoxia in innate immunity

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Neonatal T Cells: A Reinterpretation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Brian D Rudd

    Neonatal CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have historically been characterized as immature or defective. However, recent studies prompt a reinterpretation of the functions of neonatal T cells. Rather than a population of cells always falling short of expectations set by their adult counterparts, neonatal T cells are gaining recognition as a distinct population of lymphocytes well suited for the rapidly changing

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Innate Immune Response to Cytoplasmic DNA: Mechanisms and Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Ming-Ming Hu,Hong-Bing Shu

    DNA has been known to be a potent immune stimulus for more than half a century. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of DNA-triggered immune response have remained elusive until recent years. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a major cytoplasmic DNA sensor in various types of cells that detect either invaded foreign DNA or aberrantly located self-DNA. Upon sensing of DNA, cGAS catalyzes the

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Obsessive-Compulsive Behavior Isn't Necessarily a Bad Thing.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Philippa Marrack

    It is difficult to believe that in about 1960 practically nothing was known about the thymus and some of its products, T cells bearing αβ receptors for antigen. Thus I was lucky to join the field of T cell biology almost at its beginning, when knowledge about the cells was just getting off the ground and there was so much to discover. This article describes findings about these cells made by others

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • MAIT Cells in Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    Nicholas M Provine,Paul Klenerman

    Mucosal-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells have been attracting increasing attention over the last few years as a potent unconventional T cell subset. Three factors largely account for this emerging interest. Firstly, these cells are abundant in humans, both in circulation and especially in some tissues such as the liver. Secondly is the discovery of a ligand that has uncovered their microbial targets

    更新日期:2020-04-27
  • Mast Cells in Inflammation and Disease: Recent Progress and Ongoing Concerns.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Stephen J Galli,Nicolas Gaudenzio,Mindy Tsai

    Mast cells have existed long before the development of adaptive immunity, although they have been given different names. Thus, in the marine urochordate Styela plicata, they have been designated as test cells. However, based on their morphological characteristics (including prominent cytoplasmic granules) and mediator content (including heparin, histamine, and neutral proteases), test cells are thought

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • 30 Years of Biotherapeutics Development-What Have We Learned?
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Nico Ghilardi,Rajita Pappu,Joseph R Arron,Andrew C Chan

    Since the birth of biotechnology, hundreds of biotherapeutics have been developed and approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for human use. These novel medicines not only bring significant benefit to patients but also represent precision tools to interrogate human disease biology. Accordingly, much has been learned from the successes and failures of hundreds of high-quality clinical

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Mechanisms of Natural Killer Cell Evasion Through Viral Adaptation.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Mathieu Mancini,Silvia M Vidal

    The continuous interactions between host and pathogens during their coevolution have shaped both the immune system and the countermeasures used by pathogens. Natural killer (NK) cells are innate lymphocytes that are considered central players in the antiviral response. Not only do they express a variety of inhibitory and activating receptors to discriminate and eliminate target cells but they can also

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Innate Lymphocyte Mechanisms in Skin Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Yi-Ling Chen,Clare S Hardman,Koshika Yadava,Graham Ogg

    Innate lymphocyte populations are emerging as key effectors in tissue homeostasis, microbial defense, and inflammatory skin disease. The cells are evolutionarily ancient and carry conserved principles of function, which can be achieved through shared or unique specific mechanisms. Recent technological and treatment advances have provided insight into heterogeneity within and between individuals and

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Vaccines and Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies for HIV-1 Prevention.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Kathryn E Stephenson,Kshitij Wagh,Bette Korber,Dan H Barouch

    Development of improved approaches for HIV-1 prevention will likely be required for a durable end to the global AIDS pandemic. Recent advances in preclinical studies and early phase clinical trials offer renewed promise for immunologic strategies for blocking acquisition of HIV-1 infection. Clinical trials are currently underway to evaluate the efficacy of two vaccine candidates and a broadly neutralizing

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Meningeal Immunity and Its Function in Maintenance of the Central Nervous System in Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Kalil Alves de Lima,Justin Rustenhoven,Jonathan Kipnis

    Neuroimmunology, albeit a relatively established discipline, has recently sparked numerous exciting findings on microglia, the resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS). This review addresses meningeal immunity, a less-studied aspect of neuroimmune interactions. The meninges, a triple layer of membranes-the pia mater, arachnoid mater, and dura mater-surround the CNS, encompassing the

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • The Emerging Role of B Lymphocytes in Cardiovascular Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Luigi Adamo,Cibele Rocha-Resende,Douglas L Mann

    B cells are traditionally known for their ability to produce antibodies in the context of adaptive immune responses. However, over the last decade B cells have been increasingly recognized as modulators of both adaptive and innate immune responses, as well as players in an important role in the pathogenesis of a variety of human diseases. Here, after briefly summarizing our current understanding of

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Microbiota Metabolites in Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Justin L McCarville,Grischa Y Chen,Víctor D Cuevas,Katia Troha,Janelle S Ayres

    Metabolism is one of the strongest drivers of interkingdom interactions-including those between microorganisms and their multicellular hosts. Traditionally thought to fuel energy requirements and provide building blocks for biosynthetic pathways, metabolism is now appreciated for its role in providing metabolites, small-molecule intermediates generated from metabolic processes, to perform various regulatory

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Finding a Way Out: S1P Signaling and Immune Cell Migration.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Audrey A L Baeyens,Susan R Schwab

    The signaling lipid sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) plays critical roles in an immune response. Drugs targeting S1P signaling have been remarkably successful in treatment of multiple sclerosis, and they have shown promise in clinical trials for colitis and psoriasis. One mechanism of these drugs is to block lymphocyte exit from lymph nodes, where lymphocytes are initially activated, into circulation

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • In Vivo CD4+ T Cell Differentiation and Function: Revisiting the Th1/Th2 Paradigm.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Mikel Ruterbusch,Kurt B Pruner,Laila Shehata,Marion Pepper

    The discovery of CD4+ T cell subset-defining master transcription factors and framing of the Th1/Th2 paradigm ignited the CD4+ T cell field. Advances in in vivo experimental systems, however, have revealed that more complex lineage-defining transcriptional networks direct CD4+ T cell differentiation in the lymphoid organs and tissues. This review focuses on the layers of fate decisions that inform

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Interaction Between the Microbiota, Epithelia, and Immune Cells in the Intestine.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2020-04-26
    Hisako Kayama,Ryu Okumura,Kiyoshi Takeda

    The gastrointestinal tract harbors numerous commensal bacteria, referred to as the microbiota, that benefit host health by digesting dietary components and eliminating pathogens. The intestinal microbiota maintains epithelial barrier integrity and shapes the mucosal immune system, balancing host defense and oral tolerance with microbial metabolites, components, and attachment to host cells. To avoid

    更新日期:2020-04-26
  • Gut Microbiota Regulation of T Cells During Inflammation and Autoimmunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Eric M Brown,Douglas J Kenny,Ramnik J Xavier

    The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in influencing the development of host immunity, and in turn the immune system also acts to regulate the microbiota through intestinal barrier maintenance and immune exclusion. Normally, these interactions are homeostatic, tightly controlled, and organized by both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, a combination of environmental exposures and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • CRISPR-Based Tools in Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Dimitre R Simeonov,Alexander Marson

    CRISPR technology has opened a new era of genome interrogation and genome engineering. Discovered in bacteria, where it protects against bacteriophage by cleaving foreign nucleic acid sequences, the CRISPR system has been repurposed as an adaptable tool for genome editing and multiple other applications. CRISPR's ease of use, precision, and versatility have led to its widespread adoption, accelerating

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Using T Cell Receptor Repertoires to Understand the Principles of Adaptive Immune Recognition.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Philip Bradley,Paul G Thomas

    Adaptive immune recognition is mediated by antigen receptors on B and T cells generated by somatic recombination during lineage development. The high level of diversity resulting from this process posed technical limitations that previously limited the comprehensive analysis of adaptive immune recognition. Advances over the last ten years have produced data and approaches allowing insights into how

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Tissue-Resident T Cells and Other Resident Leukocytes.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-02-06
    David Masopust,Andrew G Soerens

    Resident memory T (Trm) cells stably occupy tissues and cannot be sampled in superficial venous blood. Trm cells are heterogeneous but collectively constitute the most abundant memory T cell subset. Trm cells form an integral part of the immune sensing network, monitor for local perturbations in homeostasis throughout the body, participate in protection from infection and cancer, and likely promote

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • New Molecular Insights into Immune Cell Development.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Ana Cumano,Claire Berthault,Cyrille Ramond,Maxime Petit,Rachel Golub,Antonio Bandeira,Pablo Pereira

    During development innate lymphoid cells and specialized lymphocyte subsets colonize peripheral tissues, where they contribute to organogenesis and later constitute the first line of protection while maintaining tissue homeostasis. A few of these subsets are produced only during embryonic development and remain in the tissues throughout life. They are generated through a unique developmental program

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • CD8 T Cell Exhaustion During Chronic Viral Infection and Cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2015-04-16
    Laura M McLane,Mohamed S Abdel-Hakeem,E John Wherry

    Exhausted CD8 T (Tex) cells are a distinct cell lineage that arise during chronic infections and cancers in animal models and humans. Tex cells are characterized by progressive loss of effector functions, high and sustained inhibitory receptor expression, metabolic dysregulation, poor memory recall and homeostatic self-renewal, and distinct transcriptional and epigenetic programs. The ability to reinvigorate

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Nonclassical Monocytes in Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Prakash Babu Narasimhan,Paola Marcovecchio,Anouk A J Hamers,Catherine C Hedrick

    Monocytes are innate blood cells that maintain vascular homeostasis and are early responders to pathogens in acute infections. There are three well-characterized classes of monocytes: classical (CD14+CD16- in humans and Ly6Chi in mice), intermediate (CD14+CD16+ in humans and Ly6C+Treml4+ in mice), and nonclassical (CD14-CD16+ in humans and Ly6Clo in mice). Classical monocytes are critical for the initial

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Disease Tolerance as an Inherent Component of Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Rui Martins,Ana Rita Carlos,Faouzi Braza,Jessica A Thompson,Patricia Bastos-Amador,Susana Ramos,Miguel P Soares

    Pathogenic organisms exert a negative impact on host health, revealed by the clinical signs of infectious diseases. Immunity limits the severity of infectious diseases through resistance mechanisms that sense and target pathogens for containment, killing, or expulsion. These resistance mechanisms are viewed as the prevailing function of immunity. Under pathophysiologic conditions, however, immunity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Microbiome and Food Allergy.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-04-26
    Onyinye I Iweala,Cathryn R Nagler

    The gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) faces a considerable challenge. It encounters antigens derived from an estimated 1014 commensal microbes and greater than 30 kg of food proteins yearly. It must distinguish these harmless antigens from potential pathogens and mount the appropriate host immune response. Local and systemic hyporesponsiveness to dietary antigens, classically referred to as oral

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Double-Stranded RNA Sensors and Modulators in Innate Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-23
    Sun Hur

    Detection of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) is a central mechanism of innate immune defense in many organisms. We here discuss several families of dsRNA-binding proteins involved in mammalian antiviral innate immunity. These include RIG-I-like receptors, protein kinase R, oligoadenylate synthases, adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, RNA interference systems, and other proteins containing dsRNA-binding

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Purine Release, Metabolism, and Signaling in the Inflammatory Response.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-24
    Joel Linden,Friedrich Koch-Nolte,Gerhard Dahl

    ATP, NAD+, and nucleic acids are abundant purines that, in addition to having critical intracellular functions, have evolved extracellular roles as danger signals released in response to cell lysis, apoptosis, degranulation, or membrane pore formation. In general ATP and NAD+ have excitatory and adenosine has anti-inflammatory effects on immune cells. This review focuses on recent advances in our understanding

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Fine-Tuning Cytokine Signals.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-16
    Jian-Xin Lin,Warren J Leonard

    Cytokines are secreted or otherwise released polypeptide factors that exert autocrine and/or paracrine actions, with most cytokines acting in the immune and/or hematopoietic system. They are typically pleiotropic, controlling development, cell growth, survival, and/or differentiation. Correspondingly, cytokines are clinically important, and augmenting or attenuating cytokine signals can have deleterious

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Myeloid Cell Compartment-Cell by Cell.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-16
    Kevin Bassler,Jonas Schulte-Schrepping,Stefanie Warnat-Herresthal,Anna C Aschenbrenner,Joachim L Schultze

    Myeloid cells are a major cellular compartment of the immune system comprising monocytes, dendritic cells, tissue macrophages, and granulocytes. Models of cellular ontogeny, activation, differentiation, and tissue-specific functions of myeloid cells have been revisited during the last years with surprising results; for example, most tissue macrophages are yolk sac derived, monocytes and macrophages

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Self-Awareness: Nucleic Acid-Driven Inflammation and the Type I Interferonopathies.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2019-01-11
    Carolina Uggenti,Alice Lepelley,Yanick J Crow

    Recognition of foreign nucleic acids is the primary mechanism by which a type I interferon-mediated antiviral response is triggered. Given that human cells are replete with DNA and RNA, this evolutionary strategy poses an inherent biological challenge, i.e., the fundamental requirement to reliably differentiate self-nucleic acids from nonself nucleic acids. We suggest that the group of Mendelian inborn

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Antibody Response to Plasmodium falciparum: Cues for Vaccine Design and the Discovery of Receptor-Based Antibodies.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2018-12-19
    Joshua Tan,Luca Piccoli,Antonio Lanzavecchia

    Plasmodium falciparum remains a serious public health problem and a continuous challenge for the immune system due to the complexity and diversity of the pathogen. Recent advances from several laboratories in the characterization of the antibody response to the parasite have led to the identification of critical targets for protection and revealed a new mechanism of diversification based on the insertion

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Origin, Organization, Dynamics, and Function of Actin and Actomyosin Networks at the T Cell Immunological Synapse.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2018-12-21
    John A Hammer,Jia C Wang,Mezida Saeed,Antonio T Pedrosa

    The engagement of a T cell with an antigen-presenting cell (APC) or activating surface results in the formation within the T cell of several distinct actin and actomyosin networks. These networks reside largely within a narrow zone immediately under the T cell's plasma membrane at its site of contact with the APC or activating surface, i.e., at the immunological synapse. Here we review the origin,

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cancer Neoantigens.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2018-12-14
    Ton N Schumacher,Wouter Scheper,Pia Kvistborg

    Malignant transformation of cells depends on accumulation of DNA damage. Over the past years we have learned that the T cell-based immune system frequently responds to the neoantigens that arise as a consequence of this DNA damage. Furthermore, recognition of neoantigens appears an important driver of the clinical activity of both T cell checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy as cancer immunotherapies

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Emerging Cellular Therapies for Cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2018-12-10
    Sonia Guedan,Marco Ruella,Carl H June

    Genetically engineered T cells are powerful new medicines, offering hope for curative responses in patients with cancer. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells were recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and are poised to enter the practice of medicine for leukemia and lymphoma, demonstrating that engineered immune cells can serve as a powerful new class of cancer therapeutics. The

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Platelet Napoleon Complex-Small Cells, but Big Immune Regulatory Functions.
    Annu. Rev. Immunol. (IF 19.9) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Craig N Morrell,Daphne N Pariser,Zachary T Hilt,Denisse Vega Ocasio

    Platelets have dual physiologic roles as both cellular mediators of thrombosis and immune modulatory cells. Historically, the thrombotic function of platelets has received significant research and clinical attention, but emerging research indicates that the immune regulatory roles of platelets may be just as important. We now know that in addition to their role in the acute thrombotic event at the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
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