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  • Contributions of Age-Related Thymic Involution to Immunosenescence and Inflammaging
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Rachel Thomas; Weikan Wang; Dong-Ming Su

    Immune system aging is characterized by the paradox of immunosenescence (insufficiency) and inflammaging (over-reaction), which incorporate two sides of the same coin, resulting in immune disorder. Immunosenescence refers to disruption in the structural architecture of immune organs and dysfunction in immune responses, resulting from both aged innate and adaptive immunity. Inflammaging, described as a chronic, sterile, systemic inflammatory condition associated with advanced age, is mainly attributed to somatic cellular senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) and age-related autoimmune predisposition. However, the inability to reduce senescent somatic cells (SSCs), because of immunosenescence, exacerbates inflammaging. Age-related adaptive immune system deviations, particularly altered T cell function, are derived from age-related thymic atrophy or involution, a hallmark of thymic aging. Recently, there have been major developments in understanding how age-related thymic involution contributes to inflammaging and immunosenescence at the cellular and molecular levels, including genetic and epigenetic regulation, as well as developments of many potential rejuvenation strategies. Herein, we discuss the research progress uncovering how age-related thymic involution contributes to immunosenescence and inflammaging, as well as their intersection. We also describe how T cell adaptive immunity mediates inflammaging and plays a crucial role in the progression of age-related neurological and cardiovascular diseases, as well as cancer. We then briefly outline the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of age-related thymic involution, and finally summarize potential rejuvenation strategies to restore aged thymic function.

    更新日期:2020-01-21
  • Immune cell extracellular vesicles and their mitochondrial content decline with ageing
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Xin Zhang; Monica Jeanne Hubal; Virginia Byers Kraus

    Although the mechanisms of action are not fully understood, extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as key indicators and effectors of immune function. Characterizing circulating EVs associated with stem and immune cells across the lifespan of healthy individuals could aid an understanding of immunosenescence, a process of age-related decline of cells in both adaptive and innate immune systems. Using high resolution multicolor flow cytometry, we identified three major subsets of EVs of varying sizes in healthy control (HC) plasma. Multiple plasma EVs associated with immune cells declined with ageing in HCs. In addition, we observed age-associated declines of respiring mitochondria cargo in EVs of several types of immune cells, suggesting that these parent cells may experience a decline in mitophagy or a mitochondrial dysfunction-induced immunosenescence. By contrast, the number of CD34+ hematopoietic stem cell-associated EVs were high and carried respiring mitochondria, which did not decline with age. As demonstrated here, multicolor flow cytometry simultaneously measures plasma EV size, surface markers and cargo that reflect biological processes of specific cell types. The distinct surface markers and cytokine cargo of plasma EVs suggest that they may carry different bio-messages and originate by different biogenesis pathways.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Network topology dynamics of circulating biomarkers and cognitive performance in older Cytomegalovirus-seropositive or -seronegative men and women
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Svetlana Di Benedetto; Ludmila Müller; Stefanie Rauskolb; Michael Sendtner; Timo Deutschbein; Graham Pawelec; Viktor Müller

    Cytokines are signaling molecules operating within complex cascade patterns and having exceptional modulatory functions. They impact various physiological processes such as neuroendocrine and metabolic interactions, neurotrophins’ metabolism, neuroplasticity, and may affect behavior and cognition. In our previous study, we found that sex and Cytomegalovirus (CMV)-serostatus may modulate levels of circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, metabolic factors, immune cells, and cognitive performance, as well as associations between them. In the present study, we used a graph-theoretical approach to investigate the network topology dynamics of 22 circulating biomarkers and 11 measures of cognitive performance in 161 older participants recruited to undergo a six-months training intervention. For network construction, we applied coefficient of determination (R2) that was calculated for all possible pairs of variables (N = 33) in four groups (CMV− men and women; CMV+ men and women). Network topology has been evaluated by clustering coefficient (CC) and characteristic path length (CPL) as well as local (Elocal) and global (Eglobal) efficiency, showing the degree of network segregation (CC and Elocal) and integration (CPL and Eglobal). We found that networks under consideration showed small-world networks properties with more random characteristics. Mean CC, as well as local and global efficiency were highest and CPL shortest in CMV− males (having lowest inflammatory status and highest cognitive performance). CMV− and CMV+ females did not show any significant differences. Modularity analyses showed that the networks exhibit in all cases highly differentiated modular organization (with Q-value ranged between 0.397 and 0.453). In this work, we found that segregation and integration properties of the network were notably stronger in the group with balanced inflammatory status. We were also able to confirm our previous findings that CMV-infection and sex modulate multiple circulating biomarkers and cognitive performance and that balanced inflammatory and metabolic status in elderly contributes to better cognitive functioning. Thus, network analyses provide a useful strategy for visualization and quantitative description of multiple interactions between various circulating pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers, hormones, neurotrophic and metabolic factors, immune cells, and measures of cognitive performance and can be in general applied for analyzing interactions between different physiological systems.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • A study on the relationship between waist phenotype, hypertriglyceridemia, coronary artery lesions and serum free fatty acids in adult and elderly patients with coronary diseases
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-06-15
    Rui-Feng Yang; Hanlei Zhang; Zhongchun Wang; Xiao-Yong Liu; Zhi Lin

    Abdominal obesity is an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CHD) and high serum triglyceride (TG) and free fatty acid levels may precipitate or aggravate CHD. We enrolled patients with coronary heart disease in our hospital from October 2008 to July 2009. Patients with high TG and increased WC, i.e. waist phenotype WP were included in group A. In group B, were included patients with high TG but not WP. Group C consisted of patients with WP but not high TG. Finally, Group D was composed of patients without high TG or WP. Serum FFA levels for all patients were measured by ELISA. The relationship between TG levels, WC, FFA levels, and coronary artery score was analysed by a single variable regression. Group A had a significantly higher FFA level than the other groups. Regression analysis showed that FFA, TG, WC, hip circumference, waist-to-height ratio, systolic blood pressure, pulse pressure index, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol all positively correlated with CAS (r = 0.160 ~ 0.415, P = 0.000 ~ 0.032). After we controlled for traditional risk factors for cardiovascular disease, FFA levels remained positively correlated to the CAS (r = 0.365, P < 0.001). The serum FFA level for patients with complications of both increased WC and high TG levels was significantly higher than that of patients without either of these complications. The close correlation between the CAS and FFA levels showed by regression analysis suggested that inflammation in these patients was more serious. Increased WC and high TG levels as well as FFA level are valuable for the prediction of cardiovascular disease and can be applied as a clinical guidance for early intervention in the treatment of coronary heart diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Anti-cytomegalovirus IgG antibody titer is positively associated with advanced T cell differentiation and coronary artery disease in end-stage renal disease
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-07-02
    Feng-Jung Yang; Kai-Hsiang Shu; Hung-Yuan Chen; I-Yu Chen; Fang-Yun Lay; Yi-Fang Chuang; Chien-Sheng Wu; Wan-Chuan Tsai; Yu-Sen Peng; Shih-Ping Hsu; Chih-Kang Chiang; George Wang; Yen-Ling Chiu

    Accumulating evidence indicates that persistent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection is associated with several health-related adverse outcomes including atherosclerosis and premature mortality in individuals with normal renal function. Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit impaired immune function and thus may face higher risk of HCMV-related adverse outcomes. Whether the level of anti-HCMV immune response may be associated with the prognosis of hemodialysis patients is unknown. Among 412 of the immunity in ESRD study (iESRD study) participants, 408 were HCMV seropositive and were analyzed. Compared to 57 healthy individuals, ESRD patients had higher levels of anti-HCMV IgG. In a multivariate-adjusted logistic regression model, the log level of anti-HCMV IgG was independently associated with prevalent coronary artery disease (OR = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.2~ 3.2, p = 0.01) after adjusting for age, sex, hemoglobin, diabetes, calcium phosphate product and high sensitivity C-reactive protein. Levels of anti-HCMV IgG also positively correlated with both the percentage and absolute number of terminally differentiated CD8+ and CD4+ CD45RA+ CCR7- TEMRA cells, indicating that immunosenescence may participate in the development of coronary artery disease. This is the first study showing that the magnitude of anti-HCMV humoral immune response positively correlates with T cell immunosenescence and coronary artery disease in ESRD patients. The impact of persistent HCMV infection should be further investigated in this special patient population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • ESRD-associated immune phenotype depends on dialysis modality and iron status: clinical implications
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-07-17
    Didier Ducloux; Mathieu Legendre; Jamal Bamoulid; Jean-Michel Rebibou; Philippe Saas; Cécile Courivaud; Thomas Crepin

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) causes premature ageing of the immune system. However, it is not known whether hemodialysis (HD) and peritoneal dialysis (PD) similarly affect the T cell system. The aim of our study was to analyse whether dialysis modality may mitigate ESRD-induced immune senescence. We explored a large population of patients (675 ESRD patients) and both confirmed and refined the results in a second cohort (84 patients). HD patients exhibited higher inflammatory monocytes counts (44/mm3 (1–520) vs 36/mm3 (1–161); p = 0.005). Patients on HD also had higher frequency of CD8 T cells (24% (7–61) vs 22% (8–42); p = 0.003) and reduced CD4/CD8 ratio. Such results were confirmed in the second cohort. Moreover, both CD4 + CD57 + CD28- (3.25% (0–38.2) vs 1.05% (0–28.5); p = 0.068) and CD8 + CD57 + CD28- (38.5% (3.6–76.8) vs 26.1 (2.1–46.9); p = 0.039) T cells frequencies were increased in HD patients. Telomere length did not differ according to dialysis modality, but was inversely related to ferritin levels (r = − 0.33; p = 0.003). There was a trend towards higher telomerase activity in PD patients (11 ± 13 vs 6 ± 11; p = 0.053). Thymic function was not different in PD and HD patients. Patients on PD before transplantation had a higher risk of acute rejection after kidney transplantation (HR, 1.61; 95%CI, 1.02 to 2.56; p = 0.041). More pronounced inflammation with hemodialysis may induce premature aging of the immune system. This observation correlates with a lower risk of acute kidney rejection in patients previously on HD. Clinical consequences in patients maintained on dialysis should be determined. Trial registration: NCT02843867 , registered July 8, 2016.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Virtual memory cells make a major contribution to the response of aged influenza-naïve mice to influenza virus infection
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Kathleen G. Lanzer; Tres Cookenham; William W. Reiley; Marcia A. Blackman

    A diverse repertoire of naïve T cells is thought to be essential for a robust response to new infections. However, a key aspect of aging of the T cell compartment is a decline in numbers and diversity of peripheral naïve T cells. We have hypothesized that the age-related decline in naïve T cells forces the immune system to respond to new infections using cross-reactive memory T cells generated to previous infections that dominate the aged peripheral T cell repertoire. Here we confirm that the CD8 T cell response of aged, influenza-naïve mice to primary infection with influenza virus is dominated by T cells that derive from the memory T cell pool. These cells exhibit the phenotypic characteristics of virtual memory cells rather than true memory cells. Furthermore, we find that the repertoire of responding CD8 T cells is constrained compared with that of young mice, and differs significantly between individual aged mice. After infection, these virtual memory CD8 T cells effectively develop into granzyme-producing effector cells, and clear virus with kinetics comparable to naïve CD8 T cells from young mice. The response of aged, influenza-naive mice to a new influenza infection is mediated largely by memory CD8 T cells. However, unexpectedly, they have the phenotype of VM cells. In response to de novo influenza virus infection, the VM cells develop into granzyme-producing effector cells and clear virus with comparable kinetics to young CD8 T cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Virtual memory cells make a major contribution to the response of aged influenza-naïve mice to influenza virus infection
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-08-21
    Kathleen G. Lanzer; Tres Cookenham; William W. Reiley; Marcia A. Blackman

    In the original publication of this article [1] there is an error in Fig. 3a as the labels “TM” and “VM” are in the wrong order for the last plot. The CD49d high cells should be “TM” and the CD49d low cells should be “VM”.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Immune response to influenza vaccination in the elderly is altered by chronic medication use
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-08-31
    Divyansh Agarwal; Kenneth E. Schmader; Andrew V. Kossenkov; Susan Doyle; Raj Kurupati; Hildegund C. J. Ertl

    The elderly patient population is the most susceptible to influenza virus infection and its associated complications. Polypharmacy is common in the aged, who often have multiple co-morbidities. Previous studies have demonstrated that commonly used prescription drugs can have extensive impact on immune defenses and responses to vaccination. In this study, we examined how the dynamics of immune responses to the two influenza A virus strains of the trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) can be affected by patient’s history of using the prescription drugs Metformin, NSAIDs or Statins. We provide evidence for differential antibody (Ab) production, B-cell phenotypic changes, alteration in immune cell proportions and transcriptome-wide perturbation in individuals with a history of long-term medication use, compared with non-users. We noted a diminished response to TIV in the elderly on Metformin, whereas those on NSAIDs or Statins had higher baseline responses but reduced relative increases in virus-neutralizing Abs (VNAs) or Abs detected by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) following vaccination. Collectively, our findings suggest novel pathways that might underlie how long-term medication use impacts immune response to influenza vaccination in the elderly. They provide a strong rationale for targeting the medication-immunity interaction in the aged population to improve vaccination responses.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Age does not influence the disease course in a mouse model of Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype 3 meningitis
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-09-07
    Anja Manig; Sandra Ribes; Catharina Diesselberg; Stephanie Bunkowski; Roland Nau; Sandra Schütze

    In order to elucidate the causes for the increased mortality of aged patients with bacterial central nervous system (CNS) infections, we compared the course of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) meningitis in aged and young mice. Aged (21.2 ± 3.1 months, n = 40) and young (3.2 ± 0.9 months, n = 42) C57BL/6N and B6/SJL mice were infected by intracerebral injection of 50–70 CFU S. pneumoniae serotype 3 and monitored for 15 days. Aged and young mice did not differ concerning mortality (35% versus 38%), weight loss, development of clinical symptoms, bacterial concentrations in cerebellum and spleen as well as the number of leukocytes infiltrating the CNS. In contrast to results from our geriatric mouse model of Escherichia coli (E. coli) meningitis, where aged mice showed a higher mortality and an impaired elimination of bacteria, we did not find any differences between aged and young mice after intracerebral infection with S. pneumoniae serotype 3. This indicates that the increased susceptibility of aged mice to bacterial CNS infections is pathogen-specific: It appears less prominent in infections caused by hardly phagocytable pathogens with thick capsules like S. pneumoniae serotype 3, where the age-related decline of the phagocytic capacity of microglia and macrophages has a minor influence on the disease course.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The baseline levels and risk factors for high-sensitive C-reactive protein in Chinese healthy population
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-09-08
    Ying Tang; Peifen Liang; Junzhe Chen; Sha Fu; Bo Liu; Min Feng; Baojuan Lin; Ben Lee; Anping Xu; Hui Y. Lan

    Recent studies show that C-reactive protein (CRP) is not only a biomarker but also a pathogenic mediator contributing to the development of inflammation and ageing-related diseases. However, serum levels of CRP in the healthy ageing population remained unclear, which was investigated in the present study. Serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), glucose (Glu), triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c), superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum creatinine (SCr), serum uric acid (SUA) were measured in 6060healthy subjects (3672 male and 2388 female, mean age:45.9 years) who received routine physical examination at Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Guangzhou, China. In total of 6060 healthy people, serum levels of hs-CRP were significantly increased with ageing (P < 0.05), particularly in those with age over 45-year-old (1.31[0.69–2.75] vs 1.05[0.53–2.16]mg/L, P < 0.001). Interestingly, levels of serum hs-CRP were significantly higher in male than female population (1.24[0.65–2.57] vs 1.07[0.53–2.29]mg/L, P < 0.001). Correlation analysis also revealed that serum levels of hs-CRP positively correlated with age and SUA, but inversely correlated with serum levels of HDL-c and SOD (all P < 0.05). Baseline levels of serum hs-CRP are increased with ageing and are significantly higher in male than female healthy population. In addition, elevated serum levels of hs-CRP are also associated with increased SUA but decreased HDL-c and SOD. Thus, serum levels of hs-CRP may be an indicator associated with ageing in healthy Chinese population.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Immunosenescence and lymphomagenesis
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-09-21
    Salvatrice Mancuso; Melania Carlisi; Marco Santoro; Mariasanta Napolitano; Simona Raso; Sergio Siragusa

    One of the most important determinants of aging-related changes is a complex biological process emerged recently and called “immunosenescence”. Immunosenescence refers to the inability of an aging immune system to produce an appropriate and effective response to challenge. This immune dysregulation may manifest as increased susceptibility to infection, cancer, autoimmune disease, and vaccine failure. At present, the relationship between immunosenescence and lymphoma in elderly patients is not defined in a satisfactory way. This review presents a brief overview of the interplay between aging, cancer and lymphoma, and the key topic of immunosenescence is addressed in the context of two main lymphoma groups, namely Non Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin Lymphoma (HL). Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) plays a central role in the onset of neoplastic lymphoproliferation associated with immunological changes in aging, although the pathophysiology varies vastly among different disease entities. The interaction between immune dysfunction, immunosenescence and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) infection appears to differ between NHL and HL, as well as between NHL subtypes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Expression changes of autophagy-related proteins in AKI patients treated with CRRT and their effects on prognosis of adult and elderly patients
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Yang Zhang; Ling Wang; Lei Meng; Guang-Ke Cao; Yu-Liang Zhao; Yu Wu

    Sepsis is one of the common death factors in intensive care unit, which refers to the systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by infection. It has many complications such as acute renal injury, shock, multiple organ dysfunction, and failure. The mortality of acute renal injury is the highest among the complications, which is a serious threat to the safety of patients and affects the quality of life. This study aimed to observe the changes in autophagy-related protein expressions in patients with acute kidney injury (AKI) after continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) and their impacts on prognosis. 207 AKI patients visiting the Emergency Department of The First People’s Hospital of Xuzhou from January 2014 to February 2018 were recruited and treated with CRRT. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was applied to detect the expression of autophagy-related genes, including light chain 3 type II (LC3-II), autophagy-related 5 (Atg-5) and Beclin-1, in the monocytes of the patient’s peripheral blood before and after treatment. The levels of inflammatory mediators interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 were determined via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay before and after treatment. The patient’s serum creatinine (Scr) level before and after treatment was measured using a full-automatic biochemistry analyser. Moreover, the treatment effect was graded after CRRT, and the relationship between the prognosis of patients and the autophagy-related proteins was observed. The Scr levels in the patients were significantly decreased after treatment with CRRT. Before treatment, the IL-1β and IL-6 blood levels were high in the patients, while the amounts were significantly reduced after CRTT. The expressions of LC3-II, Atg-5 and Beclin-1 in the monocytes of patients after treatment were significantly decreased compared with those before treatment. Compared with those in survived patients, the expression of autophagy-related proteins was significantly elevated in in patients died after one to three weeks after the treatment. IL-1β, IL-6, LC3-II and Beclin-1, but not Atg-5 values were significantly correlated with Scr. The expression of LC3-II, Atg-5 and Beclin-1 in the monocytes of patients may change prominently after treatment with CRRT, so they are expected to be regarded as new prognostic indicators for AKI patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Crocetin attenuates inflammation and amyloid-β accumulation in APPsw transgenic mice
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-10-30
    Jin Zhang; Yuchao Wang; Xueshuang Dong; Jianghua Liu

    Crocetin, an agent derived from saffron, has multiple pharmacological properties, such as neuroprotective, anti-oxidant, and anti-inflammatory actions. These properties might benefit the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we tested whether crocetin attenuates inflammation and amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation in APPsw transgenic mice, AD mouse models. Cell viability and the levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in HeLa cells stably transfected with Swedish mutant APP751 were evaluated. Mice with Swedish mutant APP751 transgene were used as transgenic mouse models of AD, and were orally administrated with crocetin. Aβ protein and inflammatory cytokines were measured with ELISA. NF-κB and P53 were measured with western blot assay. Learning and memory were analyzed with Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests. Crocetin significantly reduced Aβ40 and Aβ42 secretion in Hela cells without effecting cell viability. In AD transgenic mice, crocetin significantly reduced the pro-inflammatory cytokines and enhanced anti-inflammatory cytokine in plasma, suppressed NF-κB activation and P53 expression in the hippocampus, decreased Aβ in various brain areas, and improved learning and memory deficits. Crocetin improves Aβ accumulation-induced learning and memory deficit in AD transgenic mice, probably due to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic functions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Genetics of exceptional longevity: possible role of GM allotypes
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-06
    Calogero Caruso; Janardan P. Pandey; Annibale A. Puca

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    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Association of immunoglobulin GM allotypes with longevity in long-living individuals from Southern Italy
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-06
    Annibale A. Puca; Anna Ferrario; Anna Maciag; Giulia Accardi; Anna Aiello; Caterina Maria Gambino; Giuseppina Candore; Calogero Caruso; Aryan M. Namboodiri; Janardan P. Pandey

    The aim of this study was to analyse the role of GM allotypes, i.e. the hereditary antigenic determinants expressed on immunoglobulin polypeptide chains, in the attainment of longevity. The role played by immunoglobulin allotypes in the control of immune responses is well known as well as the role of an efficient immune response in longevity achievement. So, it is conceivable that particular GM allotypes may contribute to the generation of an efficient immune response that supports successful ageing, hence longevity. In order to show if GM allotypes play a role in the achievement of longevity, we typed the DNA of 95 Long-living individuals (LLIs) and 96 young control individuals (YCs) from South Italy for GM3/17 and GM23+/− alleles. To demonstrate the role of GM allotypes in the attainment of longevity we compared genotype and allele frequencies of GM allotypes between LLIs and YCs. A global chi-square test (3 × 2) shows that the distribution of genotypes at the GM 3/17 locus is highly significantly different in LLIs from that observed in YCs (p < 0.0001). The 2 × 2 chi-square test shows that the carriers of the GM3 allele contribute to this highly significant difference. Accordingly, GM3 allele is significantly overrepresented in LLIs. No significant differences were instead observed regarding GM23 allele. These preliminary results show that GM3 allotype is significantly overrepresented in LLIs. To best of our knowledge, this is the first study performed to assess the role of GM allotypes in longevity. So, it should be necessary to verify the data in a larger sample of individuals to confirm GM role in the attainment of longevity.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • A comprehensive characterization of aggravated aging-related changes in T lymphocytes and monocytes in end-stage renal disease: the iESRD study
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-08
    Yen-Ling Chiu; Kai-Hsiang Shu; Feng-Jung Yang; Tzu-Ying Chou; Ping-Min Chen; Fang-Yun Lay; Szu-Yu Pan; Cheng-Jui Lin; Nicolle H R Litjens; Michiel G H Betjes; Selma Bermudez; Kung-Chi Kao; Jean-San Chia; George Wang; Yu-Sen Peng; Yi-Fang Chuang

    Patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) exhibit a premature aging phenotype of the immune system. Nevertheless, the etiology and impact of these changes in ESRD patients remain unknown. Compared to healthy individuals, ESRD patients exhibit accelerated immunosenescence in both T cell and monocyte compartments, characterized by a dramatic reduction in naïve CD4+ and CD8+ T cell numbers but increase in CD8+ TEMRA cell and proinflammatory monocyte numbers. Notably, within ESRD patients, aging-related immune changes positively correlated not only with increasing age but also with longer dialysis vintage. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, the combination of high terminally differentiated CD8+ T cell level and high intermediate monocyte level, as a composite predictive immunophenotype, was independently associated with prevalent coronary artery disease as well as cardiovascular disease, after adjustment for age, sex, systemic inflammation and presence of diabetes. Levels of terminally differentiated CD8+ T cells also positively correlated with the level of uremic toxin p-cresyl sulfate. Aging-associated adaptive and innate immune changes are aggravated in ESRD and are associated with cardiovascular diseases. For the first time, our study demonstrates the potential link between immunosenescence in ESRD and duration of exposure to the uremic milieu.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Healthy elderly Singaporeans show no age-related humoral hyporesponsiveness nor diminished plasmablast generation in response to influenza vaccine
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-12
    Xavier Camous; Lucian Visan; Crystal Tan Tze Ying; Brian Abel; Ma Shwe Zin Nyunt; Vipin Narang; Michael Poidinger; Christophe Carre; Sanie Sesay; Nabil Bosco; Nicolas Burdin; Paul Anantharajah Tambyah; Ng Tze Pin; Anis Larbi

    Improving influenza vaccine efficacy is a priority to reduce the burden of influenza-associated morbidity and mortality. By careful selection of individuals based on health we show sustained response to influenza vaccination in older adults. Sustaining health in aging could be an important player in maintaining immune responses to influenza vaccination. NCT03266237. Registered 30 August 2017, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03266237 .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effects of chocolate containing Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NTM048 on immune function: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-20
    Reiko Kuroda; Hiroaki Higuchi; Keishirou Yoshida; Yasunori Yonejima; Keiko Hisa; Masanori Utsuyama; Kenji Osawa; Katsuiku Hirokawa

    Previous reports showed that oral administration of Leuconostoc mesenteroides strain NTM048 increases IgA levels and CD4+ T cell population in feces and mice, respectively, as revealed by flow cytometric analysis of splenocytes. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of chocolate supplemented with L. mesenteroides strain NTM048 (> 1.00 × 109 CFU/day, NTM048) on the immune parameters of healthy subjects, using a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded study design. Participants (mean age: 46.3 years) ingested 28 g of test food daily, at a time of their own choice, for 4 weeks. The immunological parameters of all participants were evaluated two times (pre- and post- ingestion). At the end of the study, various immunological parameters of the participants were measured and scoring of immunological vigor (SIV) was performed using a comprehensive algorithm. Ingestion of NTM048-supplemented chocolate significantly improved SIV in the NTM048 group (18.6 ± 1.6) compared to that in the placebo group (17.8 ± 2.0) after 4 weeks (p = 0.049). Several immunological parameters (CD8+T cells, CD8+CD28+ T cells, and memory T cells) were significantly elevated in the NTM048 group as compared to the placebo group (all p < 0.05). In addition, T cell proliferation index at post-ingestion significantly increased compared with that at pre-ingestion in the NTM048 (p = 0.017) and placebo groups (p = 0.037), although no differences were observed between the two groups. Our results suggest that ingestion of chocolate supplemented with NTM048 is effective against the age-related decline in T cell-related immune functions. UMIN Clinical Trials Registry UMIN000021989. Registered 19 April 2016, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-open-bin/ctr_e/ctr_view.cgi?recptno=R000025321

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Different age-independent effects of nutraceutical combinations on endothelium-mediated coronary flow reserve
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-22
    Roberta Esposito; Regina Sorrentino; Giuseppe Giugliano; Marisa Avvedimento; Roberta Paolillo; Ciro Santoro; Maria Scalamogna; Mafalda Esposito; Federica Ilardi; Francesco Rozza; Giovanni Esposito; Maurizio Galderisi; Valentina Trimarco

    Some components of Nutraceuticals (NUT) such as red yeast rice and Morus alba have demonstrated positive effects on the endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic subjects. Our aim was to compare the effects of two different NUT combinations on cold pressure test (CPT) derived coronary flow reserve (CFR) assessed by transthoracic echo-Doppler. In a randomized, single-blind study, 28 consecutive patients with a variety of cardiovascular risk factors received NUT A (LopiGLIK®: berberine, red yeast rice powder, and leaf extract of Morus alba) or B (Armolipid Plus®: policosanol, red yeast rice, berberine, astaxantine, folic acidandcoenzyme Q10). An echo-Doppler exam with evaluation of CFR was performed at baseline, 2 h (acute test) and 30 days after daily NUT assumption. Blood sampling for metabolic profile and platelet aggregometry was performed at baseline and after 30 days of daily NUT assumption. CFR was not significantly modified at the acute test. After 30 days, CFR improved with NUT A (p < 0.0001), because of the increase of hyperemic flow velocity (p = 0.007), but not with NUT B. CFR was comparable between the two groups at baseline but became significantly higher after 30 days in NUT A (p < 0.02), with a higher CFR percent variation versus baseline (p = 0.008). Total cholesterol and LDL-cholesterol were reduced with both NUT A (p < 0.001 and p < 0.002, respectively) and B (both p < 0.02), whereas platelet aggregation did not significantly change. In the pooled group of patients, after adjusting for age and percent changes of systolic blood pressure, heart rate, LDL-cholesterol and glycemia, NUT A – but not NUT B - was independently associated with CFR changes (β = 0.599, p = 0.003). LopiGLIK® improved endothelial-derived CFR, independently of the beneficial effects exerted on the lipid profile. These findings can have clinical reflections on the prevention of age-related inflammatory diseases including coronary artery disease. (NUTRENDO)″(ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02969070 ).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • CD56bright cells respond to stimulation until very advanced age revealing increased expression of cellular protective proteins SIRT1, HSP70 and SOD2
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Lucyna Kaszubowska; Jerzy Foerster; Daria Schetz; Zbigniew Kmieć

    NK cells are cytotoxic lymphocytes of innate immunity composed of: cytotoxic CD56dim and immunoregulatory CD56bright cells. The study aimed to analyze the expression of cellular protective proteins: sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and manganese superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in CD56dim and CD56bright NK cells of the young, seniors aged under 85 (‘the old’) and seniors aged over 85 (‘the oldest’). We studied both non-stimulated NK cells and cells stimulated by IL-2, LPS or PMA with ionomycin. The expression level of proinflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-γ was also assessed in NK cell subsets and some relationships between the studied parameters were analyzed. CD56bright cells showed sensitivity to most of the applied stimulatory agents until very advanced age in regards to the expression of SIRT1 and intracellular HSP70. On the contrary, CD56dim cells, sensitive to stimulation by most of the stimulatory agents in the young and the old, in the oldest lost this sensitivity and presented rather high, constant expression of SIRT1 and HSP70, resistant to further stimulation. With reference to SOD2 expression, CD56dim cells were insensitive to stimulation in the young, but their sensitivity increased with ageing. CD56bright cells were sensitive to most of the applied agents in the young and the old but in the oldest they responded to all of the stimulatory agents used in the study. Similarly, both NK cell subsets were sensitive to stimulation until very advanced age in regards to the expression of TNF and IFN-γ. CD56bright cells maintained sensitivity to stimulation until very advanced age presenting also an increased expression of SIRT1 and HSP70. CD56dim cells showed a constantly increased expression of these cellular protective proteins in the oldest, insensitive for further stimulation. The oldest, however, did not reveal an increased level of SOD2 expression, but it was significantly elevated in both NK cell subsets after stimulation. The pattern of expression of the studied cellular protective proteins in ageing process revealed the adaptation of NK cells to stress response in the oldest seniors which might accompany the immunosenescence and contribute to the long lifespan of this group of the elderly.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Aged mice display altered numbers and phenotype of basophils, and bone marrow-derived basophil activation, with a limited role for aging-associated microbiota
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-11-29
    Adriaan A. van Beek; Floris Fransen; Ben Meijer; Paul de Vos; Edward F. Knol; Huub F. J. Savelkoul

    The influence of age on basophils is poorly understood, as well as the effect of aging-associated microbiota on basophils. Therefore, we studied the influence of aging and aging-associated microbiota on basophil frequency and phenotype, and differentiation from basophil precursors. Basophils became more abundant in bone marrow (BM) and spleens of 19-month-old mice compared with 4-month-old mice. Aged basophils tended to express less CD200R3 and more CD123, both in BM and spleen. Differences in microbiota composition with aging were confirmed by 16S sequencing. Microbiota transfers from young and old mice to germ-free recipients revealed that CD11b tended to be lowered on splenic basophils by aging-associated microbiota. Furthermore, abundance of Alistipes, Oscillibacter, Bacteroidetes RC9 gut group, and S24–7 family positively correlated and CD123 expression, whereas Akkermansia abundance negatively correlated with basophils numbers. Subsequently, we purified FcεRIα+CD11c−CD117− BM-derived basophils and found that those from aged mice expressed lower levels of CD11b upon stimulation. Higher frequencies of IL-4+ basophils were generated from basophil precursors of aged mice, which could be reproduced in basophils derived from germ-free recipients of aging-associated microbiota. Collectively, these results show the influence of aging on basophils. Furthermore, this study shows that aging-associated microbiota altered activation of BM-derived basophils in a similar fashion as observed in BM-derived basophils from aged mice.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Application of biological age assessment of Chinese population in potential anti-ageing technology
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2018-12-18
    Xufeng Li; Jiren Zhang; Chen Sun; Yuanyuan Zhang; Rui Cai; Shilin Fu; Jingfen Zheng; Dehai Huang

    This study aimed to construct a biological age assessment formula for the Chinese population and to explore the effectiveness of double filtration plasmapheresis for anti-ageing and longevity. 915 subjects were recruited, including 584 (63.8%) males and 331 females (36.2%). Male age was 50.94±10.60 (mean±SD), and female age was 51.20±11.84 (mean±SD). 34 blood markers were detected in the laboratory. The ageing biomarkers were determined by statistical correlation analysis and redundancy analysis, and the biological age assessment formula was established by multiple linear regression analysis. Paired sample T test was used to analyse the elimination effect of double filtration plasmapheresis on aging biomarkers. Based on the comprehensive blood test and analysis, the ageing biomarkers were screened, and the male and female biological age assessment formulas were established. Then, the elimination of ageing biomarkers by double filtration plasmapheresis was examined. Double filtration plasmapheresis can eliminate ageing biomarkers, with an average of 4.47 years decrease in age for males and 8.36 years for females. So, biological age provides a scientific tool for assessing ageing, and double filtration plasmapheresis is safe and might be effective for anti-ageing and longevity. However, the effect of plasmapheresis is expected to be transient, so further studies are needed to plan the number and range of the plasmapheresis procedures necessary to consistently lower the parameters under study.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Healthy lifestyles reduce suPAR and mortality in a Danish general population study
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-01-22
    Thomas Huneck Haupt; Line Jee Hartmann Rasmussen; Thomas Kallemose; Steen Ladelund; Ove Andersen; Charlotta Pisinger; Jesper Eugen-Olsen

    The plasma level of the inflammatory biomarker soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR) is a strong predictor of disease development and premature mortality in the general population. Unhealthy lifestyle habits such as smoking or unhealthy eating is known to elevate the suPAR level. We aimed to investigate whether change in lifestyle habits impact on the suPAR level, and whether the resultant levels are associated with mortality. Paired suPAR measurements from baseline- and the 5-year visit of the population-based Inter99 study were compared with the habits of diet, smoking, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. Paired suPAR measurements for 3225 individuals were analyzed by linear regression, adjusted for demographics and lifestyle habits. Compared to individuals with a healthy lifestyle, an unhealthy diet, low physical activity, and daily smoking were associated with a 5.9, 12.8, and 17.6% higher 5-year suPAR, respectively. During 6.1 years of follow-up after the 5-year visit, 1.6% of those with a low suPAR (mean 2.93 ng/ml) died compared with 3.8% of individuals with a high suPAR (mean 4.73 ng/ml), P < 0.001. In Cox regression analysis, adjusted for demographics and lifestyle, the hazard ratio for mortality per 5-year suPAR doubling was 2.03 (95% CI: 1.22–3.37). Lifestyle has a considerable impact on suPAR levels; the combination of unhealthy habits was associated with 44% higher 5-year suPAR values and the 5-year suPAR was a strong predictor of mortality. We propose suPAR as a candidate biomarker for lifestyle changes as well as the subsequent risk of mortality.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Decreased immunoglobulin G in brain regions of elder female APOE4-TR mice accompany with Aβ accumulation
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-01-25
    Lihang Zhang; Juan Xu; Jinchao Gao; Peiqing Chen; Ming Yin; Wenjuan Zhao

    Apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) and ageing are the most important known risk factors for late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In the present study, we determined the alterations of IgG, CD19, and Aβ in various brain regions of uninfected male and female APOE3- and APOE4-TR mice at the age of 3 and 10 months to elucidate impacts of AD risk factors on alterations of brain IgG. Positive staining for IgG was distributed across the brain, including neocortex, entorhinal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum. IgG positive staining was mainly located on microglia, but not astrocytes. Some IgG positive neurons were also observed, but only in mediodorsal thalamic nucleus. Compared with APOE3-TR mice, 10-month-old female APOE4-TR mice had lower IgG level in AD susceptible brain regions such as neocortex, entorhinal cortex and hippocampus, but no significant changes in thalamus and cerebellum, two regions nearly intact in AD. In addition, the expression of CD19, a specific marker for mature B cells, was significantly reduced in the hippocampus of 10-month-old female APOE4-TR mice. Although there were no obvious differences in plasma IgG levels between APOE4- and age matched female APOE3-TR mice, significant decreased B cell amount in blood of 10-month-old female APOE4-TR mice have also been found. Moreover, more obvious positive staining for Aβ was observed in the cortex of 10-month-old female APOE4-TR mice than other groups. Our study demonstrated that AD risk factors were associated with IgG alterations in various brain regions, which might result from the defects of humoral immunity and lead to the impairment of IgG-mediated clearance of Aβ by microglia, therefore facilitated AD progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Classical monocytes maintain ex vivo glycolytic metabolism and early but not later inflammatory responses in older adults
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-01-26
    Brandt D. Pence; Johnathan R. Yarbro

    Inflammaging is a condition of chronic low-grade inflammation due to the aging process and is associated with a variety of chronic diseases. Monocytes are innate immune cells which contribute to inflammation and are dysregulated during aging, demonstrated reduced phagocytosis, increased inflammation, and alterations in subset proportions. Metabolism is known to determine immune cell function, with quiescent and anti-inflammatory cells primarily relying on fatty acid oxidation, while activated and inflammatory cells primarily rely on glycolysis. We have previously shown an age-related decrease in mitochondrial respiratory capacity in monocytes, so we hypothesized here that a compensatory shift toward glycolysis would occur which would also exacerbate inflammation. Using Seahorse assays, we profiled glycolysis in classical monocytes isolated from older (60–80 yr) and younger (18–35 yr) adults. Aging did not affect parameters of basal glycolysis in the glycolysis stress test, nor did it alter glycolytic activation early (2 h) or later (24 h) post-LPS stimulation. Cytokine gene expression was unchanged between aged and young subjects at 2 h post-LPS but was reduced in older subjects at 24 h post-LPS either significantly (IL1B) or near-significantly (IL6, IL10). Aging appears not to affect glycolytic metabolism ex vivo in classical monocytes, but may reduce cytokine expression at later timepoints. Studies examining monocytes stimulated with age-altered circulating factors or with other pattern recognition receptor agonists may shed further light on monocyte metabolism as a determinant of immunosenescence and inflammaging.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • PTX3: an inflammatory protein modulating ultrastructure and bioenergetics of human endothelial cells
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-02-02
    Albino Carrizzo; Claudio Procaccini; Paola Lenzi; Clorinda Fusco; Francesco Villa; Serena Migliarino; Massimiliano De Lucia; Francesco Fornai; Giuseppe Matarese; Annibale A. Puca; Carmine Vecchione

    Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), an acute-phase inflammation protein produced by several cell types, has long been described as a possible biomarker for age-related cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. Although several mechanisms of action have been identified to date in the vascular and immune systems, the direct effects of PTX3 on isolated endothelial cells at morphological and metabolic levels remain unknown. PTX3 induced cytoplasmic vacuolization and dilution of mitochondrial matrix in isolated, human endothelial cells. Moreover, metabolic assays revealed that PTX3 increases respiratory capacity in support of mitochondrial function, and partially sustains the glycolytic pathway. PTX3 has, per se, a direct action on ultrastructural and bioenergetic parameters of isolated endothelial cells. This finding can be associated with our previous demonstration of a deleterious effect of PTX3 on the endothelial layer. More studies are needed to clearly demonstrate any direct correlation between these ultrastructural and bioenergetic changes with endothelial dysfunction, especially with regard to age-related cerebro- and cardio-vascular diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Taste receptors, innate immunity and longevity: the case of TAS2R16 gene
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-02-23
    Alberto Malovini; Giulia Accardi; Anna Aiello; Riccardo Bellazzi; Giuseppina Candore; Calogero Caruso; Mattia Emanuela Ligotti; Anna Maciag; Francesco Villa; Annibale A. Puca

    Innate immunity utilizes components of sensory signal transduction such as bitter and sweet taste receptors. In fact, empirical evidence has shown bitter and sweet taste receptors to be an integral component of antimicrobial immune response in upper respiratory tract infections. Since an efficient immune response plays a key role in the attainment of longevity, it is not surprising that the rs978739 polymorphism of the bitter taste receptor TAS2R16 gene has been shown to be associated with longevity in a population of 941 individuals ranging in age from 20 to 106 years from Calabria (Italy). There are many possible candidate genes for human longevity, however of the many genes tested, only APOE and FOXO3 survived to association in replication studies. So, it is necessary to validate in other studies genes proposed to be associated with longevity. Thus, we analysed the association of the quoted polymorphism in a population of long lived individuals (LLIs) and controls from another Italian population from Cilento. The analysis has been performed on data previously obtained with genome-wide association study on a population of LLIs (age range 90–109 years) and young controls (age range 18–45 years) from Cilento (Italy). Statistical power calculations showed that the analysed cohort represented by 410 LLIs and 553 young controls was sufficiently powered to replicate the association between rs978739 and the longevity phenotype according to the effect size and frequencies described in the previous paper, under a dominant and additive genetic model. However, no evidence of association between rs978739 and the longevity phenotype was observed according to the additive or dominant model. There are several reasons for the failure of the confirmation of a previous study. However, the differences between the two studies in terms of environment of the population adopted and of the criteria of inclusion have made difficult the replication of the findings.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Akkermansia muciniphila ameliorates the age-related decline in colonic mucus thickness and attenuates immune activation in accelerated aging Ercc1−/Δ7 mice
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-03-08
    Benthe van der Lugt; Adriaan A. van Beek; Steven Aalvink; Ben Meijer; Bruno Sovran; Wilbert P. Vermeij; Renata M. C. Brandt; Willem M. de Vos; Huub F. J. Savelkoul; Wilma T. Steegenga; Clara Belzer

    The use of Akkermansia muciniphila as potential therapeutic intervention is receiving increasing attention. Health benefits attributed to this bacterium include an improvement of metabolic disorders and exerting anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of A. muciniphila is associated with a healthy gut in early mid- and later life. However, the effects of A. muciniphila on a decline in intestinal health during the aging process are not investigated yet. We supplemented accelerated aging Ercc1−/Δ7 mice with A. muciniphila for 10 weeks and investigated histological, transcriptional and immunological aspects of intestinal health. The thickness of the colonic mucus layer increased about 3-fold after long-term A. muciniphila supplementation and was even significantly thicker compared to mice supplemented with Lactobacillus plantarum WCFS1. Colonic gene expression profiles pointed towards a decreased expression of genes and pathways related to inflammation and immune function, and suggested a decreased presence of B cells in colon. Total B cell frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were not altered after A. muciniphila supplementation. Mature and immature B cell frequencies in bone marrow were increased, whereas B cell precursors were unaffected. These findings implicate that B cell migration rather than production was affected by A. muciniphila supplementation. Gene expression profiles in ileum pointed toward a decrease in metabolic- and immune-related processes and antimicrobial peptide production after A. muciniphila supplementation. Besides, A. muciniphila decreased the frequency of activated CD80+CD273− B cells in Peyer’s patches. Additionally, the increased numbers of peritoneal resident macrophages and a decrease in Ly6Cint monocyte frequencies in spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes add evidence for the potentially anti-inflammatory properties of A. muciniphila. Altogether, we show that supplementation with A. muciniphila prevented the age-related decline in thickness of the colonic mucus layer and attenuated inflammation and immune-related processes at old age. This study implies that A. muciniphila supplementation can contribute to a promotion of healthy aging.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Lag-time in Alzheimer’s disease patients: a potential plasmatic oxidative stress marker associated with ApoE4 isoform
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-04-01
    Luca Massaccesi; Emanuela Galliera; Daniela Galimberti; Chiara Fenoglio; Marina Arcaro; Giancarlo Goi; Alessandra Barassi; Massimiliano Marco Corsi Romanelli

    In the brain, Oxidative Stress (OS) contribute to structural and functional changes associated with vascular aging, such as endothelial dysfunction, extracellular matrix degradation, resulting in age-related reduced vasodilatation in response to agonists. For this reason, OS is considered a key factor in Alzheimer’s Disease (AD) development and recent evidence correlated oxidative stress with vascular lesion in the pathogenesis of AD, but the mechanism still need to be fully clarified. The etiology of AD is still not completely understood and is influenced by several factors including Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genotype. In particular, the Apo ε4 isoform is considered a risk factor for AD development. This study was aimed to evaluate the possible relationship between three plasmatic OS marker and Apo ε4 carrier status. Plasmatic soluble receptor for advanced glycation end products (sRAGE) levels, plasma antioxidant total defenses (by lag-time method) and plasmatic Reactive Oxygen species (ROS) levels were evaluated in 25 AD patients and in 30 matched controls. ROS were significantly higher while plasma antioxidant total defenses and sRAGE levels were significantly lower in AD patients compared to controls. In AD patients lag-time values show a significant positive linear correlation with sRAGE levels and a (even not significant) negative correlation with ROS levels. Lag-time is significantly lower in ε4 carrier (N = 13) than in ε4 non-carrier (N = 12). Our result confirms the substantial OS in AD. Lag-time levels showed a significant positive correlation with sRAGE levels and a significant association with ε4 carrier status suggesting that plasmatic lag-time evaluation can be considered as a potential useful OS risk marker in AD.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Research on immunity and ageing comes of age
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-04-29
    Nan-ping Weng; Graham Pawelec

    Ageing has a profound detrimental impact on almost all living organisms. Immune systems play a particularly important role in protection against external challenges (pathogens) and internal insults (cancer) but their protective capacity commonly wanes with advancing age. With the rapid increase in the numbers of older people around the world, research in the field of immunity and ageing is becoming increasingly important. This realization, together with recent and ongoing technical advances in analytical capabilities, is facilitating rapid progress towards a better understanding of immunity and ageing and the resulting anticipated improved application of this knowledge to medical treatments in the years ahead.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Age-associated decrease in de novo donor-specific antibodies in renal transplant recipients reflects changing humoral immunity
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-05-09
    Seraina von Moos; Gesa Schalk; Thomas F. Mueller; Guido Laube

    Older age at organ transplantation is associated with increased risk of infection and malignancy but reduced risk of cellular rejection. De novo donor-specific anti-HLA antibodies (dnDSA), are key biomarkers associated with reduced long-term allograft survival, yet there is a lack of data focusing on age-associated changes. Development of dnDSA was restrospectively analyzed in all subjects who received a kidney transplant at the University Hospital Zurich between 01/2006 and 02/2015. Follow up continued until 03/2016. The incidence of dnDSA in different age categories was compared with special focus on the extremes of age: children < 10 years (n = 19) and adults ≥60 years of age (n = 110). Incidence of dnDSA gradually decreased with age, with older recipients having a significantly lower risk (HR 0.21, p = 0.0224) compared to pediatric recipients. Cumulative incidence of dnDSA at 2, 5 and 10 years was 6.2, 9.1 and 36% in the older recipients versus 5.3, 29.5 and 47.1% in pediatric recipients. Median time to development of dnDSA was similar (older 720 days, min 356, max 3646 days; children 1086 days, min 42, max 2474 days). Annual incidence was highest within the first two years after transplantation in the older recipients and peaked in years two to four in pediatric recipients. DnDSA were predominantly class II. More dnDSA were observed with cyclosporine as compared to tacrolimus. Older kidney transplant recipients have a lower risk of developing dnDSA than pediatric recipients, pointing towards reduced humoral immune reactivity with increasing age. This observation raises the question of adjustment in immunosuppression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • RVG-modified exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells rescue memory deficits by regulating inflammatory responses in a mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-05-13
    Guo-hong Cui; Hai-dong Guo; Han Li; Yu Zhai; Zhang-bin Gong; Jing Wu; Jian-sheng Liu; You-rong Dong; Shuang-xing Hou; Jian-ren Liu

    Exosomes are lipid-bilayer enclosed nano-sized vesicles that transfer functional cellular proteins, mRNA and miRNAs. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived exosomes have been demonstrated to prevent memory deficits in the animal model of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). However, the intravenously injected exosomes could be abundantly tracked in other organs except for the targeted regions in the brain. Here, we proposed the use of central nervous system-specific rabies viral glycoprotein (RVG) peptide to target intravenously-infused exosomes derived from MSCs (MSC-Exo) to the brain of transgenic APP/PS1 mice. MSC-Exo were conjugated with RVG through a DOPE-NHS linker. RVG-tagged MSC-Exo exhibited improved targeting to the cortex and hippocampus after being administered intravenously. Compared with the group administered MSC-Exo, in the group administered RVG-conjugated MSC-Exo (MSC-RVG-Exo) plaque deposition and Aβ levels were sharply decreased and activation of astrocytes was obviously reduced. The brain targeted exosomes derived from MSCs was better than unmodified exosomes to improve cognitive function in APP/PS1 mice according to Morris water maze test. Additionally, although MSC-Exo injected intravenously reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-β, and IL-6, but the changes of anti-inflammatory factors IL-10 and IL-13 were not obvious. However, administration of MSC-RVG-Exo significantly reduced the levels of TNF-α, IL-β, and IL-6 while significantly raised the levels of IL-10, IL-4 and IL-13. Taken together, our results demonstrated a novel method for increasing delivery of exosomes for treatment of AD. By targeting exosomes to the cortex and hippocampus of AD mouse, there was a significant improvement in learning and memory capabilities with reduced plaque deposition and Aβ levels, and normalized levels of inflammatory cytokines.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Cytokines for evaluation of chronic inflammatory status in ageing research: reliability and phenotypic characterisation
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-05-21
    Liselot Koelman; Olga Pivovarova-Ramich; Andreas F. H. Pfeiffer; Tilman Grune; Krasimira Aleksandrova

    There is a growing interest in the role of inflammageing for chronic disease development. Cytokines are potent soluble immune mediators that can be used as target biomarkers of inflammageing; however, their measurement in human samples has been challenging. This study aimed to assess the reliability of a pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine panel in a sample of healthy people measured with a novel electrochemiluminescent multiplex immunoassay platform (Meso Scale Discovery, MSD), and to characterize their associations with metabolic and inflammatory phenotypes. Overall, the majority of cytokines were above the limit of detection (in at least 85.3% of the samples). Cytokines IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ showed overall good to fair reliability (ICC > 0.40), whereas IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, and IL-12p70 showed poor reliability (ICC < 0.40). The reliability estimates were not substantially influenced by participants’ age, sex, obesity and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. As expected, cytokine concentrations were elevated with advanced age most pronouncedly for IL-6, IL-8, Il-2, IFN- γ, and TNF-α. No major associations with metabolic phenotypes were observed for most cytokines, with the exception of a positive association between IL-6 and TNF-α with body mass index and CRP (ρ: 0.36; ρ: 0.20; ρ: 0.53; ρ: 0.22, respectively), and IFN-γ and IL-10 with CRP (ρ: 0.23 and ρ: 0.19, respectively). Single measurements of selected cytokines using MSD platform, including IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, TNF-α, and IFN-γ have shown to be representative of an individual’s average level over time and could be suitable for use in prospective epidemiological and clinical studies. Such studies are highly warranted to characterize associations of cytokines with phenotypes and diseases associated with ageing.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Topological DNA damage, telomere attrition and T cell senescence during chronic viral infections
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Yingjie Ji; Xindi Dang; Lam Ngoc Thao Nguyen; Lam Nhat Nguyen; Juan Zhao; Dechao Cao; Sushant Khanal; Madison Schank; Xiao Y. Wu; Zheng D. Morrison; Yue Zou; Mohamed El Gazzar; Shunbin Ning; Ling Wang; Jonathan P. Moorman; Zhi Q. Yao

    T cells play a key role in controlling viral infections; however, the underlying mechanisms regulating their functions during human viral infections remain incompletely understood. Here, we used CD4 T cells derived from individuals with chronic viral infections or healthy T cells treated with camptothecin (CPT) - a topoisomerase I (Top 1) inhibitor - as a model to investigate the role of DNA topology in reprogramming telomeric DNA damage responses (DDR) and remodeling T cell functions. We demonstrated that Top 1 protein expression and enzyme activity were significantly inhibited, while the Top 1 cleavage complex (TOP1cc) was trapped in genomic DNA, in T cells derived from individuals with chronic viral (HCV, HBV, or HIV) infections. Top 1 inhibition by CPT treatment of healthy CD4 T cells caused topological DNA damage, telomere attrition, and T cell apoptosis or dysfunction via inducing Top1cc accumulation, PARP1 cleavage, and failure in DNA repair, thus recapitulating T cell dysregulation in the setting of chronic viral infections. Moreover, T cells from virally infected subjects with inhibited Top 1 activity were more vulnerable to CPT-induced topological DNA damage and cell apoptosis, indicating an important role for Top 1 in securing DNA integrity and cell survival. These findings provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms for immunomodulation by chronic viral infections via disrupting DNA topology to induce telomeric DNA damage, T cell senescence, apoptosis and dysfunction. As such, restoring the impaired DNA topologic machinery may offer a new strategy for maintaining T cell function against human viral diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Viruses and immunosenescence – more players in the game
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-06-24
    Mikko Hurme

    Viral infections are common clinical problems in aged individuals often affecting both mortality and morbidity. The pathogenic mechanisms of the various viruses are not universal in aged individuals, i.e. the clinical disease may be caused by the reactivation of a virus which has stayed in the body in a latent form, or alternatively, the virus is exogenous, derived from the environment. However, it is now evident, that this concept is too simple. Recent data have shown that in our body, even in the blood of healthy individuals, there are large amount of various viruses, which seem to live in balance with our immune defense mechanism (viral normal flora?). Moreover, there is now data suggesting that remnants of ancient retroviral infections in our genome can be activated and show virus-like activities. The possible significance of these findings in immunosenescence is discussed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Effect of homeostatic T-cell proliferation in the vaccine responsiveness against influenza in elderly people
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    I. Herrero-Fernández; I. Rosado-Sánchez; A. I. Álvarez-Ríos; M. I. Galvá; M. De Luna-Romero; S. Sanbonmatsu-Gámez; M. Pérez-Ruiz; J. M. Navarro-Marí; A. Carrillo-Vico; B. Sánchez; R. Ramos; J. Cañizares; M. Leal; Y. M. Pacheco

    Seasonal influenza virus infection is a significant cause of morbimortality in the elderly. However, there is poor vaccine efficacy in this population due to immunosenescence. We aimed to explore several homeostatic parameters in the elderly that could impact influenza vaccine responsiveness. Subjects (> 60 years old) who were vaccinated against influenza virus were included, and the vaccine response was measured by a haemagglutination inhibition (HAI) test. At baseline, peripheral CD4 and CD8 T-cells were phenotypically characterized. Thymic function and the levels of different inflammation-related biomarkers, including Lipopolysaccharide Binding Protein (LBP) and anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) IgG antibodies, were also measured. Influenza vaccine non-responders showed a tendency of higher frequency of regulatory T-cells (Tregs) before vaccination than responders (1.49 [1.08–1.85] vs. 1.12 [0.94–1.63], respectively, p = 0.061), as well as higher expression of the proliferation marker Ki67 in Tregs and different CD4 and CD8 T-cell maturational subsets. The levels of inflammation-related biomarkers correlated with the frequencies of different proliferating T-cell subsets and with thymic function (e.g., thymic function with D-dimers, r = − 0.442, p = 0.001). Age-related homeostatic dysregulation involving the proliferation of CD4 and CD8 T-cell subsets, including Tregs, was related to a limited responsiveness to influenza vaccination and a higher inflammatory status in a cohort of elderly people.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Inflammatory markers and bone health in postmenopausal women: a cross-sectional overview
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-07-10
    Bolaji Lilian Ilesanmi-Oyelere; Linda Schollum; Barbara Kuhn-Sherlock; Michelle McConnell; Sonya Mros; Jane Coad; Nicole C. Roy; Marlena Cathorina Kruger

    Cytokines, chemokines, C-reactive proteins (CRP) and ferritin are known inflammatory markers. However, cytokines such as interleukin (IL-1β), (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) have been reported to interfere with both the bone resorption and bone formation processes. Similarly, immune cell cytokines are known to contribute to inflammation of the adipose tissue especially with obesity. IL-10 but not IL-33 has been linked to lower ferritin levels and anemia. In this study, we hypothesized that specific cytokine levels in the plasma of women with low bone mineral density (BMD) would be higher than those in the plasma of healthy women due to the actions of elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in inducing osteoclast formation and differentiation during senescence. Levels of cytokines (IFNα2, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-33) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were significantly higher in the plasma of the osteoporotic group compared to the osteopenic and/or healthy groups. Meanwhile CRP levels were significantly lower in women with osteoporosis (P = 0.040) than the osteopenic and healthy groups. Hip BMD values were significantly lower in women with high/detectable values of IL-1β (P = 0.020) and IL-6 (P = 0.030) compared to women where these were not detected. Similarly, women with high/detectable values of IL-1β had significantly lower spine BMD than those where IL-1β was not detected (P = 0.030). Participants’ CRP levels were significantly positively correlated with BMI, fat mass and fat percentage (P < 0.001). In addition, ferritin levels of women with high/detectable values of anti-osteoclastogenic IL-10 (P = 0.012) and IL-33 (P = 0.017) were significantly lower than those where these were not detected. There was no statistically significant association between TNF-α and BMD of the hip and lumbar spine. High levels of cytokines (IFNα2, IFN-γ, IL-12p70, IL-33) and MCP-1 in apparently healthy postmenopausal women are associated with bone health issues. In addition, an increase in levels of IL-10 and IL-33 may be associated with low ferritin levels in this age group. ANZCTR, ACTRN12617000802303. Registered May 31st, 2017, https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=373020

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Elevated urine IL-10 concentrations associate with Escherichia coli persistence in older patients susceptible to recurrent urinary tract infections
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-07-11
    Lauren K. L. Drage; Wendy Robson; Catherine Mowbray; Ased Ali; John D. Perry; Katherine E. Walton; Christopher Harding; Robert Pickard; Judith Hall; Phillip D. Aldridge

    Age is a significant risk factor for recurrent urinary tract (rUTI) infections, but the clinical picture is often confused in older patients who also present with asymptomatic bacteriuria (ASB). Yet, how bacteriuria establishes in such patients and the factors underpinning and/or driving symptomatic UTI episodes are still not understood. To explore this further a pilot study was completed in which 30 male and female community based older patients (mean age 75y) presenting clinically with ASB / rUTIs and 15 control volunteers (72y) were recruited and monitored for up to 6 months. During this period symptomatic UTI episodes were recorded and urines collected for urinary cytokine and uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) analyses. Eighty-six per cent of patients carried E. coli (102 ≥ 105 CFU/ml urine) at some point throughout the study and molecular typing identified 26 different E. coli strains in total. Analyses of urine samples for ten different cytokines identified substantial patient variability. However, when examined longitudinally the pro-inflammatory markers, IL-1 and IL-8, and the anti-inflammatory markers, IL-5 and IL-10, were significantly different in the patient urines compared to those of the controls (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, analysing the cytokine data of the rUTI susceptible cohort in relation to E. coli carriage, showed the mean IL-10 concentration to be significantly elevated (P = 0.04), in patients displaying E. coli numbers ≥105 CFU/ml. These pilot study data suggest that bacteriuria, characteristic of older rUTI patients, is associated with an immune homeostasis in the urinary tract involving the synthesis and activities of the pro and anti-inflammatory cytokines IL-1, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10. Data also suggests a role for IL-10 in regulating bacterial persistence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Six weeks of strength endurance training decreases circulating senescence-prone T-lymphocytes in cytomegalovirus seropositive but not seronegative older women
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Hung Cao Dinh; Ivan Bautmans; Ingo Beyer; Oscar Okwudiri Onyema; Keliane Liberman; Liza De Dobbeleer; Wim Renmans; Sam Vander Meeren; Kristin Jochmans; Andreas Delaere; Veerle Knoop; Rose Njemini

    Ageing is associated with a decline in immune function termed immunosenescence. This process is characterized amongst others by less naive T-cells and more senescent phenotypes, which have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many age-related diseases. Thus far, reports regarding the long-term adaptation effects of exercise on T-cell phenotypes are scant and largely equivocal. These inconsistencies may be due to potential contributors to immunosenescence, particularly cytomegalovirus infection, which is considered a hallmark of T-cell senescence. Therefore, we sought to investigate the impact of cytomegalovirus serostatus on the distribution of peripheral T-cell subsets following long-term exercise in older women. One hundred women (aged 65 years and above) were randomized to 3 times/weekly training at either intensive strength training (3 × 10 repetitions at 80% of one-repetition maximum, n = 31), strength endurance training (2 × 30 repetitions at 40% of one-repetition maximum, n = 33), or control (passive stretching exercise, n = 36) for 6 weeks. All training sessions were supervised by trained instructors to minimize the risk of injury and to ensure that the participants adhered to the training protocol throughout the entire range of motion. The T-cell percentages and absolute blood counts were determined before and after 6 weeks (24 h–48 h after the last training session) using flow cytometry and a haematology analyser. Cytomegalovirus antibodies were measured in serum using Architect iSystem and cytomegalovirus serostatus was balanced in the three intervention groups. C-reactive protein was measured using immunonephelometry. We report for the first time that 6 weeks of strength endurance training significantly decreased senescence-prone T-cells along with a small increase in the number of CD8– naive T-cells in blood. The absolute counts of senescent-like T-cells decreased by 44% (from 26.03 ± 35.27 to 14.66 ± 21.36 cells/μL, p < 0.01) and by 51% (from 6.55 ± 12.37 to 3.18 ± 6.83 cells/μL, p < 0.05) for the CD8+ and CD8– T-cell pools, respectively. Intriguingly, these changes were observed in cytomegalovirus seropositive, but not cytomegalovirus seronegative individuals. In conclusion, the present study shows that strength endurance training leads to a reduction in circulating senescence-prone T-cells in cytomegalovirus seropositive older women. It remains to be established if monitoring of peripheral senescence-prone T-cells may have utility as cellular biomarkers of immunosenescence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Systemic infection and microglia activation: a prospective postmortem study in sepsis patients
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    D. Westhoff; J. Y. Engelen-Lee; I. C. M. Hoogland; E. M. A. Aronica; D. J. van Westerloo; D. van de Beek; W. A. van Gool

    Systemic infection is associated with long-term cognitive deficits and functional decline. In this study we hypothesized that severe systemic inflammation leads to a neuroinflammatory response that is characterized by microglial activation, and that these effects might be more pronounced in patients using medication with anticholinergic side-effects. Based on the results of a pilot study in 8 patients, we assessed the number of MHC-II and CD-68 positive cells by immunohistochemistry and compared the number of microglia in specific brain regions of 16 well-characterized patients with septic shock and 15 controls. In the pilot study, patients with sepsis tended to have higher density of MHC-II and CD-68 positive microglia in the basal ganglia (putamen, caudate nucleus and globus pallidus) and of MHC-II positive microglia in the hippocampus. In the validation study, patients with sepsis had a significantly higher number of CD-68 positive cells in hippocampus (1.5 fold; p = 0.012), putamen (2.2 fold; p = 0.008) and cerebellum (2.5 fold; p = 0.011) than control patients. The density of MHC-II positive microglia was similar between sepsis and control groups. There was no consistent correlation between microglia counts and anti-cholinergic activity drugs score. In patients who die during septic shock, severe systemic inflammation is accompanied by localized and strong upregulation of CD-68 positive microglia, but not of MHC-II positive microglia. We identified regional differences in the brain with increased microglial activation in putamen, hippocampus and cerebellum.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • CD27- IgD- B cell memory subset associates with inflammation and frailty in elderly individuals but only in males
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-08-13
    Tapio Nevalainen; Arttu Autio; Laura Kummola; Tanja Salomaa; Ilkka Junttila; Marja Jylhä; Mikko Hurme

    Immunosenescence, i.e. the aging-associated decline of the capacity of the immune system, is characterized by several distinct changes in the number and functions of the immune cells. In the case of B cells, the total number of CD19+ B cells is lower in the blood of elderly individuals than in the younger ones. CD19+ B cell population contains several subsets, which are commonly characterized by the presence of CD27 and IgD molecules, i.e. naïve B cells (CD27- IgD+), IgM memory (CD27+ IgD+), switched memory (CD27+ IgD-) and late memory (CD27- IgD-). This late memory, double negative, population represents cells which are nondividing, but are still able to produce inflammatory mediators and in this way maybe contributing to the aging-associated inflammation, inflammaging. Here we have focused on the role of these B cell subsets in elderly individuals, nonagenarians, in the regulation of inflammation and inflammation-associated decline of bodily functions. As the biological aging process demonstrates gender-specific characteristics, the analyses were performed separately in males and female. A subcohort of The Vitality 90+ study (67 nonagenarians, 22/45 males/females and 40 young controls, 13/27 males/females) was used. Flow cytometric analysis indicated that the total percentage of the CD19+ cells was ca. 50% lower in the nonagenarians than in the controls in both genders. The proportions of these four B cell subsets within the CD19+ populations were very similar in young and old individuals. Thus, it seems that the aging-associated decline of the total CD19+ cells affects similarly all these B cell subsets. To analyze the role of these subsets in the regulation of inflammation, the correlation with IL-6 levels was calculated. A significant correlation was observed only with the percentage of CD27- IgD- cells and only in males. As inflammation is associated with aging-associated functional performance and frailty, the correlations with the Barthel index and frailty score was analyzed. Again, only the CD27- IgD- population demonstrated a strong male-specific correlation. These data show that the CD27- IgD- B cell subset demonstrates a strong pro-inflammatory effect in nonagenarians, which significantly associates with the decline of the bodily functions. However, this phenomenon is only observed in males.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The transcriptome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with clinical subtypes of late age-related macular degeneration
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-08-15
    Yousif Subhi; Marie Krogh Nielsen; Christopher Rue Molbech; Charlotte Liisborg; Helle Bach Søndergaard; Finn Sellebjerg; Torben Lykke Sørensen

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are implicated in the pathogenesis of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We here mapped the global gene transcriptome of PBMCs from patients with different clinical subtypes of late AMD. We sampled fresh venous blood from patients with geographic atrophy (GA) secondary to AMD without choroidal neovascularizations (n = 19), patients with neovascular AMD without GA (n = 38), patients with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) (n = 19), and aged control individuals with healthy retinae (n = 20). We isolated PBMCs, extracted RNA, and used microarray to investigate gene expression. Volcano plots identified statistically significant differentially expressed genes (P < 0.05) at a high magnitude (≥30% higher/lower) for GA (62 genes), neovascular AMD (41 genes), and PCV (41 genes). These clinical subtypes differed substantially across gene expression and the following pathways identified in enrichment analyses. In a subgroup analysis, we investigated presence vs. absence of subretinal fibrosis and found 826 differentially expressed genes (≥30% higher/lower, P < 0.05) with relation to mRNA splicing, endothelial migration, and interleukin-1 signaling. We here map the global gene transcriptome of PBMCs related to clinical subtypes of late AMD and find evidence of subtype-specific immunological involvement. Our findings provide a transcriptomic insight into the systemic immunity associated with AMD.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Peripheral antibody concentrations are associated with highly differentiated T cells and inflammatory processes in the human bone marrow
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Erin Naismith; Luca Pangrazzi; Marco Grasse; Michael Keller; Carina Miggitsch; Birgit Weinberger; Klemens Trieb; Beatrix Grubeck-Loebenstein

    Antigen-experienced immune cells migrate back to the bone marrow (BM), where they are maintained in BM survival niches for an extended period. The composition of T cell subpopulations in the BM changes with age, leading to an accumulation of highly differentiated T cells and a loss of naïve T cells. While innate immune cells are also affected by age, little is known about interactions between different adaptive immune cell populations maintained in the BM. In this study, the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive immune cells isolated from human BM and peripheral blood (PB) was analysed in detail using flow cytometry, to determine if the accumulation of highly differentiated T and B cells, supported by the BM niches, limits the maintenance of other immune cells, or affects their functions such as providing protective antibody concentrations. Total T cells increase in the BM with age, as do highly differentiated CD8+ T cells which no longer express the co-stimulatory molecule CD28, while natural killer T (NKT) cells, monocytes, B cells, and naïve CD8+ T cells all decrease in the BM with age. A negative correlation of total T cells with B cells was observed in the BM. The percentage of B cells in the BM negatively correlated with highly differentiated CD8+CD28− T cells, replicative-senescent CD8+CD57+ T cells, as well as the CD8+CD28−CD57+ population. Similar correlations were seen between B cells and the frequency of highly differentiated T cells producing pro-inflammatory molecules in the BM. Interestingly, plasma concentrations of diphtheria-specific antibodies negatively correlated with highly differentiated CD8+CD57+ T cells as well as with exhausted central memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells in the BM. A negative impact on diphtheria-specific antibodies was also observed for CD8+ T cells expressing senescence associated genes such as the cell cycle regulator p21 (CDKN1A), KLRG-1, and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Our data suggest that the accumulation and maintenance of highly differentiated, senescent, and exhausted T cells in the BM, particularly in old age, may interfere with the survival of other cell populations resident in the BM such as monocytes and B cells, leading to reduced peripheral diphtheria antibody concentrations as a result. These findings further highlight the importance of the BM in the long-term maintenance of immunological memory.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The presence of CLL-associated stereotypic B cell receptors in the normal BCR repertoire from healthy individuals increases with age
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Alice F. Muggen; Madelon de Jong; Ingrid L. M. Wolvers-Tettero; Martine J. Kallemeijn; Cristina Teodósio; Nikos Darzentas; Ralph Stadhouders; Hanna IJspeert; Mirjam van der Burg; Wilfred FJ van IJcken; Jan A. N. Verhaar; Wayel H. Abdulahad; Elisabeth Brouwer; Annemieke M. H. Boots; Rudi W. Hendriks; Jacques J. M. van Dongen; Anton W. Langerak

    Aging is known to induce immunosenescence, resulting in alterations in both the innate and adaptive immune system. Here we evaluated the effects of aging on B cell subsets in peripheral blood of 155 immunologically healthy individuals in four age categories (range 20-95y) via multi-parameter flow cytometry. Furthermore, we studied the naive and antigen-experienced B cell receptor (BCR) repertoire of different age groups and compared it to the clonal BCR repertoire of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disease typically presenting in elderly individuals. Total numbers and relative frequencies of B cells were found to decline upon aging, with reductions in transitional B cells, memory cell types, and plasma blasts in the 70 + y group. The BCR repertoire of naive mature B cells and antigen-experienced B cells did not clearly alter until age 70y. Clear changes in IGHV gene usage were observed in naive mature B cells of 70 + y individuals, with a transitional pattern in the 50-70y group. IGHV gene usage of naive mature B cells of the 50-70y, but not the 70 + y, age group resembled that of both younger (50-70y) and older (70 + y) CLL patients. Additionally, CLL-associated stereotypic BCR were found as part of the healthy control BCR repertoire, with an age-associated increase in frequency of several stereotypic BCR (particularly subsets #2 and #5). Composition of the peripheral B cell compartment changes with ageing, with clear reductions in non-switched and CD27 + IgG+ switched memory B cells and plasma blasts in especially the 70 + y group. The BCR repertoire is relatively stable until 70y, whereafter differences in IGHV gene usage are seen. Upon ageing, an increasing trend in the occurrence of particular CLL-associated stereotypic BCR is observed.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • AuNP-M2e + sCpG vaccination of juvenile mice generates lifelong protective immunity to influenza A virus infection
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Lynn Bimler; Amber Y. Song; Duy T. Le; Ashleigh Murphy Schafer; Silke Paust

    Influenza virus infection causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Humans fail to make a universally protective memory response to influenza A because of high mutation rates in the immune-dominant influenza epitopes. We seek the development of a universal influenza A vaccine. The extracellular domain of the M2-ion channel (M2e) is an ideal antigenic target, as it is highly conserved, has a low mutation rate, and is essential for viral entry and replication. Considering the potential of a universal influenza vaccine for lifelong protection, we aimed to examine this potential using a recently published gold nanoparticle M2e vaccine with CpG as an adjuvant (AuNP-M2e + sCpG). Intranasal vaccination induces an M2e-specific memory response, which is protective against lethal infection with H1N1, H3N2, and H5N1 serotypes, in young BALB/c mice. Protection with AuNP-M2e + sCpG has been published up to 8 months after vaccination. However, the highest risk population during most influenza seasons is adults over 65 years old. Additionally, the efficacy of many vaccines decrease after aging and requiring booster vaccinations to remain effective. To determine if the AuNP-M2e + sCpG vaccine is a viable option as a universal vaccination capable of protection through geriatric age, we tested if the AuNP-M2e + sCpG vaccination loses efficacy after aging mice to geriatric age (over 18 months). Our data shows that mice aged 15 months after vaccination (~ 18–21 months old) retain significant M2e-specific antibody titers in total IgG, IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b. These mice are significantly protected from lethal influenza challenge (H1N1, 8.3 PFU). Further, these antibody titers increase upon infection with influenza A and remain elevated for 3 months, suggesting the elderly mice retain effective M2e-specific memory B cells. Our results demonstrate that protective M2e-specific memory in mice developed at a young age can persist until geriatric age. Additionally, this memory is protective and M2e-specific B cells produced by vaccination with AuNP-M2e + sCpG are maintained and functional. If the results of this study persist in humans, they suggest that a universal influenza A vaccine could be administered early in life and maintain lifelong protection into geriatric age.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Age related human T cell subset evolution and senescence
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Mingde Li; Danlin Yao; Xiangbo Zeng; Dimitri Kasakovski; Yikai Zhang; Shaohua Chen; Xianfeng Zha; Yangqiu Li; Ling Xu

    T cells are fundamental effector cells against viruses and cancers that can be divided into different subsets based on their long-term immune protection and immediate immune response effects. The percentage and absolute number of these subsets change with ageing, which leads to a reduced immune response in older individuals. Stem cell memory T cells (TSCM) represent a small population of memory T cells with enhanced proliferation and differentiation properties that are endowed with high potential for maintaining T cell homeostasis. However, whether these cells change with ageing and gender remains unknown. Here, we assayed the distribution of TSCM and other T cell subsets in peripheral blood from 92 healthy subjects (44 females and 48 males) ranging from 3 to 88 years old by flow cytometry. We found that CD4+ and CD8+ TSCM in the circulation have relatively stable frequencies, and the absolute number of CD8+ TSCM decreased with age; however, the ratio of TSCM to the CD4+ or CD8+ naïve population increased with age. Unlike the obvious changes in other T cell subsets with age and gender, the stable level of TSCM in peripheral blood may support their capacity for sustaining long-term immunological memory, while their importance may increase together with ageing.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Immunosenescence and human vaccine immune responses
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Stephen N. Crooke; Inna G. Ovsyannikova; Gregory A. Poland; Richard B. Kennedy

    The age-related dysregulation and decline of the immune system—collectively termed “immunosenescence”—has been generally associated with an increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens and poor vaccine responses in older adults. While numerous studies have reported on the clinical outcomes of infected or vaccinated individuals, our understanding of the mechanisms governing the onset of immunosenescence and its effects on adaptive immunity remains incomplete. Age-dependent differences in T and B lymphocyte populations and functions have been well-defined, yet studies that demonstrate direct associations between immune cell function and clinical outcomes in older individuals are lacking. Despite these knowledge gaps, research has progressed in the development of vaccine and adjuvant formulations tailored for older adults in order to boost protective immunity and overcome immunosenescence. In this review, we will discuss the development of vaccines for older adults in light of our current understanding—or lack thereof—of the aging immune system. We highlight the functional changes that are known to occur in the adaptive immune system with age, followed by a discussion of current, clinically relevant pathogens that disproportionately affect older adults and are the central focus of vaccine research efforts for the aging population. We conclude with an outlook on personalized vaccine development for older adults and areas in need of further study in order to improve our fundamental understanding of adaptive immunosenescence.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Lymphocyte homeostasis is maintained in perinatally HIV-infected patients after three decades of life
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-10-13
    S. Paghera; E. Quiros-Roldan; A. Sottini; M. Properzi; F. Castelli; L. Imberti

    While immunosenescence, defined as reduced production of new lymphocytes, restriction of T-cell receptor repertoire and telomeres shortening, has been extensively evaluated in HIV-infected children and adults, no data about these parameters are available in perinatally-infected patients with very long-lasting HIV infection. We compared thymic and bone marrow output, telomere length (measured by Real-Time PCR) and T-cell receptor repertoire (determined by spectratyping) of 21 perinatally HIV-infected subjects (with a median of 27 years of infection) with those of 19 age-matched non-perinatally HIV-infected patients and 40 healthy controls. All patients received a combined antiretroviral therapy. While thymic and bone marrow output were not different among the analyzed groups, telomere length in peripheral blood cells and T-cell receptor diversity were significantly lower in HIV-perinatally and non-perinatally infected individuals compared to healthy controls. In HIV-infected subjects, a normal thymic output together with a reduced telomere length and a restricted T-cell receptor repertoire could be explained by the shift of newly produced cells into memory subsets. This phenomenon may allow to control viral infection and maintain peripheral homeostasis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Prime-pull vaccination with a plant-derived virus-like particle influenza vaccine elicits a broad immune response and protects aged mice from death and frailty after challenge
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    Breanna Hodgins; Stephane Pillet; Nathalie Landry; Brian J. Ward

    Administered intramuscularly (IM), plant-derived, virus-like-particle (VLP) vaccines based on the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) protein elicit both humoral and cellular responses that can protect aged mice from lethal challenge. Unlike split virus vaccines, VLPs can be administered by different routes including intranasally (IN). We evaluated novel vaccine strategies such as prime-pull (IM boosted by IN) and multi-modality vaccination (IM and IN given simultaneously). We wished to determine if these approaches would provide better quality protection in old mice after less severe (borderline-lethal) challenge (ie: immunogenicity, frailty and survival). Survival rates were similar in all vaccinated groups. Antibody responses were modest in all groups but tended to be higher in VLP groups compared to inactivated influenza vaccine (IIV) recipients. All VLP groups had higher splenocyte T cell responses than the split virus group. Lung homogenate chemokine/cytokine levels and virus loads were lower in the VLP groups compared to IIV recipients 3 days after challenge (p < 0.05 for viral load vs all VLP groups combined). The VLP-vaccinated groups also had less weight loss and recovered more rapidly than the IIV recipients. There was limited evidence of an immunologic or survival advantage with IN delivery of the VLP vaccine. Compared to IIV, the plant-derived VLP vaccine induced a broader immune response in aged mice (cellular and humoral) using either traditional (IM/IM) or novel schedules (multi-modality, prime-pull).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Associations of plasma high-sensitivity C-reactive protein concentrations with all-cause and cause-specific mortality among middle-aged and elderly individuals
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Zhi-Hao Li; Wen-Fang Zhong; Yue-Bin Lv; Virginia Byers Kraus; Xiang Gao; Pei-Liang Chen; Qing-Mei Huang; Jin-Dong Ni; Xiao-Ming Shi; Chen Mao; Xian-Bo Wu

    The association of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) with mortality is controversial. We aimed to investigate the associations of hsCRP concentrations with the risks of all-cause and cause-specific mortality and identify potential modifying factors affecting these associations among middle-aged and elderly individuals. This community-based prospective cohort study included 14,220 participants aged 50+ years (mean age: 64.9 years) from the Health and Retirement Study. Cox proportional hazard models were employed to estimate the associations between the hsCRP concentrations and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality with adjustment for sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, self-reported medical history, and other potential confounders. In total, 1730 all-cause deaths were recorded, including 725 cardiovascular- and 417 cancer-related deaths, after an 80,572 person-year follow-up (median: 6.4 years; range: 3.6–8.1 years). The comparisons of the groups with the highest (quartile 4) and lowest (quartile 1) hsCRP concentrations revealed that the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals were 1.50 (1.31–1.72) for all-cause mortality, 1.44 (1.13–1.82) for cardiovascular mortality, and 1.67 (1.23–2.26) for cancer mortality. The associations between high hsCRP concentrations and the risks of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality were similar in the men and women (P for interaction > 0.05). Among middle-aged and older individuals, elevated hsCRP concentration could increase the risk of all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality in men and women.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Senescent synovial fibroblasts accumulate prematurely in rheumatoid arthritis tissues and display an enhanced inflammatory phenotype
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Manuel J. Del Rey; Álvaro Valín; Alicia Usategui; Sandra Ergueta; Eduardo Martín; Cristina Municio; Juan D. Cañete; Francisco J. Blanco; Gabriel Criado; José L. Pablos

    Accumulation of senescent cells has been associated with pro-inflammatory effects with deleterious consequences in different human diseases. The purpose of this study was to analyze cell senescence in human synovial tissues (ST), and its impact on the pro-inflammatory function of synovial fibroblasts (SF). The expression of the senescence marker p16INK4a (p16) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis (OA), and normal ST from variably aged donors. The proportion of p16(+) senescent cells in normal ST from older donors was higher than from younger ones. Although older RA and OA ST showed proportions of senescent cells similar to older normal ST, senescence was increased in younger RA ST compared to age-matched normal ST. The percentage of senescent SA-β-gal(+) SF after 14 days in culture positively correlated with donor’s age. Initial exposure to H2O2 or TNFα enhanced SF senescence and increased mRNA expression of IL6, CXCL8, CCL2 and MMP3 and proteins secretion. Senescent SF show a heightened IL6, CXCL8 and MMP3 mRNA and IL-6 and IL-8 protein expression response upon further challenge with TNFα. Treatment of senescent SF with the senolytic drug fenofibrate normalized IL6, CXCL8 and CCL2 mRNA expression. Accumulation of senescent cells in ST increases in normal aging and prematurely in RA patients. Senescence of cultured SF is accelerated upon exposure to TNFα or oxidative stress and may contribute to the pathogenesis of synovitis by increasing the production of pro-inflammatory mediators.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Combined associations of hs-CRP and cognitive function with all-cause mortality among oldest-old adults in Chinese longevity areas: a prospective cohort study
    Immun. Ageing (IF 4.25) Pub Date : 2019-11-17
    Chen Chen; Yingchun Liu; Zhaojin Cao; Zhaoxue Yin; Feng Zhao; Yuebin Lv; Zuyun Liu; Chen Mao; Shixun Song; Ling Liu; Yingli Qu; Saisai Ji; Jun Duan; Jiaonan Wang; Virginia Byers Kraus; Yi Zeng; Xiaoming Shi

    Inflammatory markers, such as high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and cognitive impairment (CI) are associated with mortality; CRP is related to the deterioration of CI. However, it is still unknown whether these two indices predict mortality independent of each other. Furthermore, their joint effect on all-cause mortality has not been well established, especially in oldest-old adults. Based on data from the 2012 wave of the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), we included 1447 oldest-old adults (mean age 84.7 years and 58.7% were female, weighted) with information on hs-CRP (stratified by a cutoff value of 3.0 mg/L) and cognition (quantified by Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) scored according to the personal educational level) at baseline. Mortality was assessed in followed 2014 and 2017 waves. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used, with adjustment for hs-CRP and cognition (mutually controlled) and several traditional mortality risk factors. During a median follow-up period of 32.8 months (Q1-Q3, 9.7–59.0 months), 826 participants died. Hs-CRP [HR > 3.0 mg/L vs ≤ 3.0 mg/L: 1.64 (95% CI, 1.17, 2.30)] and cognition [HR CI vs normal: 2.30 (95% CI, 1.64, 3.21)] each was independent predictor of all-cause mortality, even after accounting for each other and other covariates. Monotonic and positive associations were observed in combined analyses, in which the highest mortality risk was obtained in elders with both high hs-CRP> 3.0 mg/L and CI [HR: 3.56 (95% CI, 2.35, 5.38)].The combined effects were stronger in male and younger oldest-old (aged 80–89 years). High hs-CRP and CI, both individually and jointly, were associated with increased all-cause mortality risks in Chinese oldest-old. Intervention strategies for preventing inflammation and maintaining adequate cognitive function may be more important in male and younger oldest-old for reducing mortality risk.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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