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  • Antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 train machine learning to assign likelihood of past infection during virus emergence in Sweden
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-10-19
    Xaquin Castro Dopico; Leo Hanke; Daniel J Sheward; Sandra Muschiol; Soo Aleman; Nastasiya F Grinberg; Murray Christian; Monika Adori; Laura Perez Vidakovics; Kim Chang Il; Sharesta Khoenkhoen; Pradeepa Pushparaj; Ainhoa Moliner Morro; Marco Mandolesi; Marcus Ahl; Mattias Forsell; Jonathan Coquet; Martin Corcoran; Joanna Rorbach; Joakim Dillner; Gordana Bogdanovic; Gerald Mcinerney; Tobias Allander;

    Serology is critical for understanding pathogen-specific immune responses, but is fraught with difficulty, not least because the strength of antibody (Ab) response varies greatly between individuals and mild infections generally generate lower Ab titers (1-3). We used robust IgM, IgG and IgA Ab tests to evaluate anti-SARS-CoV-2 responses in individuals PCR+ for virus RNA (n=105) representing different

  • Novel SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and neutralization assays reveal wide range of humoral immune response during COVID-19.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Mikail Dogan,Lina Kozhaya,Lindsey Placek,Courtney Gunter,Mesut Yigit,Rachel Hardy,Matt Plassmeyer,Paige Coatney,Kimberleigh Lillard,Zaheer Bukhari,Michael Kleinberg,Chelsea Hayes,Moshe Arditi,Ellen Klapper,Noah Merin,Bruce T Liang,Raavi Gupta,Oral Alpan,Derya Unutmaz

    Development of antibody protection during SARS-CoV-2 infection is a pressing question for public health and for vaccine development. We developed highly sensitive SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody and neutralization assays. SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleocapsid protein specific IgG antibodies at titers more than 1:100,000 were detectable in all PCR+ subjects (n=115) and were absent in the negative controls

  • Healthcare workers with mild / asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection show T cell responses and neutralising antibodies after the first wave
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Catherine J. Reynolds; Leo Swadling; Joseph M. Gibbons; Corinna Pade; Melanie Jensen; Mariana O. Diniz; Nathalie M. Schmidt; David K. Butler; Oliver E. Amin; Sasha N. L. Bailey; Stephen Talyor; Jessica Jones; Meleri Jones; Wing Yiu Jason Lee; Joshua Rosenheim; Aneesh Chandran; George Joy; Cecilia Di Genova; Nigel J. Temperton; Jonathan Lambourne; Teresa Cutino-Moguel; Mervyn Andiapen; Marianna Fontana;

    Studies of adaptive immunity to SARS-CoV-2 include characterisation of lethal, severe and mild cases. Understanding how long immunity lasts in people who have had mild or asymptomatic infection is crucial. Healthcare worker (HCW) cohorts exposed to and infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the early stages of the pandemic are an invaluable resource to study this question. The UK COVIDsortium is a longitudinal

  • Sex Differences in the Impact of Childhood Socioeconomic Status on Immune Function
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-10-05
    Jeffrey Gassen; Jordon White; Julia Peterman; Summer Mengelkoch; Randi Proffit Leyva; Marjorie Prokosch; Micah Eimerbrink; Kelly Brice; Dennis Cheek; Gary Boehm; Sarah Hill

    We examined relationships between multiple sources of early life stress and adult immune function in humans. Adult participants provided retrospective information about their childhood a) socioeconomic status, b) household unpredictability, and c) exposure to adverse experiences. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were then isolated for use in functional assays: a) tumor cell lysis by natural killer

  • Different innate and adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2 infection of asymptomatic, mild and severe cases
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-28
    Rita Carsetti; Salvatore Zaffina; Eva Piano Mortari; Sara Terreri; Francesco Corrente; Claudia Capponi; Patrizia Palomba; Mattia Mirabella; Simona Cascioli; Paolo Palange; Ilaria Cuccaro; Cinzia Milito; Alimuddin Zumla; Markus Maeurer; Vincenzo Camisa; Maria Rosaria Vinci; Annapaola Santoro; Eleonora Cimini; Luisa Marchioni; Emanuele Nicastri; Fabrizio Palmieri; Chiara Agrati; Giuseppe Ippolito; Ottavia

    SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, not encountered before by humans. The wide spectrum of clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 illness suggests that individual immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 play a crucial role in determining the clinical course after first infection. Immunological studies have focussed on patients with moderate to severe disease, demonstrating excessive inflammation in tissues and organ

  • Predictors of Incident Viral Symptoms Ascertained in the Era of Covid-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-25
    Gregory Marcus; Jeffrey E Olgin; Noah Peyser; Eric Vittinghoff; Vivian Yang; Sean Joyce; Robert Avram; Geoffrey Tison; David Wen; Xochitl Butcher; Helena Eitel; Mark Pletcher

    Background: In the absence of universal testing, effective therapies, or vaccines, identifying risk factors for viral infection, particularly readily modifiable exposures and behaviors, is required to identify effective strategies against viral infection and transmission. Methods: We conducted a world-wide mobile application-based prospective cohort study available to English speaking adults with a

  • Microfluidic Affinity Profiling reveals a Broad Range of Target Affinities for Anti-SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies in Plasma of Covid Survivors
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Matthias M. Schneider; Marc Emmenegger; Catherine K. Xu; Itzel Condado Morales; Priscilla Turelli; Manuela R. Zimmermann; Beat M. Frey; Sebastian Fiedler; Viola Denninger; Georg Meisl; Vasilis Kosmoliaptsis; Heike Fiegler; Didier Trono; Tuomas P. J. Knowles; Adriano AA Aguzzi

    The clinical outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infections can range from asymptomatic to lethal, and is thought to be crucially shaped by the quality of the immune response which includes antibody titres and affinity for their targets. Using Microfluidic Antibody Affinity Profiling (MAAP), we determined the aggregate affinities and concentrations of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in plasma samples of 42 seropositive

  • Developing a machine learning environmental allergy prediction model from real world data through a novel decentralized mobile study platform.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Chethan Sarabu; Sandra Steyaert; Nirav Shah

    Environmental allergies cause significant morbidity across a wide range of demographic groups. This morbidity could be mitigated through individualized predictive models capable of guiding personalized preventive measures. We developed a predictive model by integrating smartphone sensor data with symptom diaries maintained by patients. The machine learning model was found to be highly predictive, with

  • Pre-existing T cell memory as a risk factor for severe 1 COVID-19 in the elderly
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-18
    Petra Bacher; Elisa Rosati; Daniela Esser; Gabriela Rios Martini; Carina Saggau; Esther Schiminsky; Justina Dargvainiene; Ina Schröder; Imke Wieters; Fabian Eberhardt; Holger Neb; Yascha Khodamoradi; Michael Sonntagbauer; Maria JGT Vehreschild; Claudio Conrad; Florian Tran; Philip Rosenstiel; Robert Markewitz; Klaus-Peter Wandinger; Jan Rybniker; Matthias Kochanek; Frank Leypoldt; Oliver A Cornely;

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) displays high clinical variability but the parameters that determine disease severity are still unclear. Pre-existing T cell memory has been hypothesized as a protective mechanism but conclusive evidence is lacking. Here we demonstrate that all unexposed individuals harbor SARS-CoV-2-specific memory T cells with marginal cross-reactivity to common cold corona and

  • Switched and unswitched memory B cells detected during SARS-CoV-2 convalescence correlate with limited symptom duration.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-16
    Krista L Newell,Deanna C Clemmer,Justin B Cox,Yetunde I Kayode,Victoria Zoccoli-Rodriguez,Harry E Taylor,Timothy P Endy,Joel R Wilmore,Gary Winslow

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), the causative agent of the pandemic human respiratory illness COVID-19, is a global health emergency. While severe acute disease has been linked to an expansion of antibody-secreting plasmablasts, we sought to identify B cell responses that correlated with positive clinical outcomes in convalescent patients. We characterized the peripheral

  • Proteo-transcriptomic profiling of nasal mononuclear phagocytic system cells in human controlled allergen challenge
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Astrid L Voskamp; Maarten L Gerdes; Roberta Menafra; Ellen Duijster; Szymon M Kielbasa; Tom Groot Kormelink; Tamar Tak; Koen A Stam; Nicolette W de Jong; Rudi W Hendricks; Susan L Kloet; Maria Yazdanbakhsh; Esther C De Jong; Roy Gerth van Wijk; Hermelijn H Smits

    Immune homeostasis is essential to protect mucosal airway surfaces from unnecessary and damaging inflammation against inhaled harmless environmental antigens, such as allergens. However, in allergic individuals this protective homeostatic response seems absent. Innate cells part of the mononuclear phagocytic system (MPS) play an important role in these processes. Most of our knowledge on allergic immune

  • An epithelial microRNA upregulates airway IL-25 and TSLP expression in type 2-high asthma via targeting CD39-extracellular ATP axis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-09
    Kan Zhang; Yuchen Feng; Yuxia Liang; Wenliang Wu; Chenli Chang; Dian Chen; Shenchong Chen; Lingling Yi; Guohua Zhen

    The presence of type 2 inflammation is a prominent endotype of asthma. Airway epithelial cell-derived cytokines IL-25, IL-33 and TSLP initiate type 2 inflammation. However, the upstream signaling pathway regulating these cytokines expression remains elusive. We identified a small set of epithelial microRNAs differentially expressed between type 2-low and -high asthma patients. MiR-206 was the most

  • Integrative Genetics Analysis of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Identifies Novel Loci
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-09-03
    Yun R. Li; Jin Li; Joseph T. Glessner; Jie Yang; Michael E. March; Charlly Kao; Jonathan P. Bradfield; Junyi Li; Frank D. Mentch; Huiqi Qu; Xiaohui Qi; Xiao Chang; Cuiping Hou; Debra J. Abrams; Haijun Qiu; Zhi Wei; John J. Connolly; Fengxiang Wang; James Snyder; Sophie Limou; Berit Flatø; Øystein Førr; Susan D. Thompson; Carl D. Langefeld; David N. Glass; Mara L. Becker; Elena Perez; Benedicte A. Lie;

    Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA) is the most common type of arthritis among children, encompassing a highly heterogeneous group of immune-mediated joint disorders, being classified into seven subtypes based on clinical presentation. To systematically understand the distinct and shared genetic underpinnings of JIA subtypes, we conducted a heterogeneity-sensitive GWAS encompassing a total of 1245

  • Mucosal versus systemic antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-29
    Baweleta Isho; Kento T Abe; Michelle Zuo; Alainna J Jamal; Bhavisha Rathod; Jenny H Wang; Zhijie Li; Gary Chao; Olga L Rojas; Yeo Myong Bang; Annie Pu; Natasha Christie-Holmes; Christian Gervais; Derek Ceccarelli; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Furkan Guvenc; Patrick Budylowski; Angel Li; Aimee Paterson; Yue Feng Yun; Lina M Marin; Lauren Caldwell; Jeffrey L Wrana; Karen Colwill; Frank Sicheri; Samira

    While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the mucosal immune response and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Since SARS-CoV-2 initially replicates in the upper airway, the antibody response in the oral cavity is likely an important parameter that influences the course of infection, but how it correlates to the antibody

  • Development of antibodies to pan-coronavirus spike peptides in convalescent COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Andrii Rabets; Galyna Bila; Roman Grytsko; Markian Samborsky; Yuriy Rebets; Sandor Vari; Quentin Pagneux; Alexandre Barras; Rabah Boukherroub; Sabine Szunerits; Rostyslav Bilyy

    Coronaviruses are sharing several protein regions notable the spike protein (S) on their enveloped membrane surface, with the S1 subunit recognizing and binding to the cellular receptor, while the S2 subunit mediates viral and cellular membrane fusion. This similarity opens the question whether infection with one coronavirus will confer resistance to other coronaviruses? Investigating patient serum

  • Mechanisms and kinetics of bacterial clearance after experimental colonisation in adults with asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-22
    Seher Raza Zaidi; Simon P Jochems; Jesus Reine; Sherin Pojar; Elissavet Nikolaou; Elena Mitsi; Esther L German; Angela D Hyder-Wright; Hugh Adler; Hellen Hill; Caroline Hales; Victoria Connor; Carla Solorzano Gonzalez; Stephen Gordon; John Blakey; David Goldblatt; Daniela Ferreira; Jamie Rylance

    Background Pneumococcal pneumonia is a leading cause of death, particularly affecting those with chronic respiratory disease. Observational studies suggest increased nasopharyngeal colonisation rates with S.pneumoniae in asthma, and lower specific antibody levels. Objectives Using experimental human pneumococcal challenge, we examined the acquisition and kinetics of nasopharyngeal colonisation of Streptococcus

  • Laboratory biomarkers associated with COVID-19 severity and management.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Stephen Keddie; Oliver J Ziff; Michael KL Chou; Rachel L Taylor; Amanda Heslegrave; Edmund Garr; Neghat Lakdawala; Andrew Church; Dalia Ludwig; Jessica Manson; Marie Scully; Eleni Nastouli; Miles D Chapman; Melanie Hart; Michael P Lunn

    The heterogeneous disease course of COVID-19 is unpredictable, ranging from mild self-limiting symptoms to cytokine storms, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), multi-organ failure and death. Identification of high-risk cases will enable appropriate intervention and escalation. This study investigates the routine laboratory tests and cytokines implicated in COVID-19 for their potential application

  • The ImmuneRACE Study: A Prospective Multicohort Study of Immune Response Action to COVID-19 Events with the ImmuneCODE™ Open Access Database
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Jennifer N. Dines; Thomas J. Manley; Emily Svejnoha; Heidi M. Simmons; Ruth Taniguchi; Mark Klinger; Lance Baldo; Harlan Robins

    Background: Adaptive Biotechnologies has built an immune medicine platform based on the sequencing of immune receptors (immunoglobulins, B-cell receptors [BCRs] and T-cell receptors [TCRs]) with myriad applications in health and disease. This broad platform technology can be used to assess the diversity of the cellular adaptive immune system and track disease-associated TCRs and BCRs during the course

  • Complement C3 vs C5 inhibition in severe COVID-19: early clinical findings reveal differential biological efficacy
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-21
    Dimitrios C. Mastellos; Bruno G. P. Pires da Silva; Benedito A. L. Fonseca; Natasha P. Fonseca; Maria A. Martins; Sara Mastaglio; Annalisa Ruggeri; Marina Sironi; Peter Radermacher; Panagiotis Skendros; Konstantinos Ritis; Ilenia Manfra; Simona Iacobelli; Markus Huber-Lang; Bo Nilsson; Despina Yancopoulou; E. Sander Connolly; Cecilia Garlanda; Fabio Ciceri; Antonio M. Risitano; Rodrigo T. Calado; John

    Growing clinical evidence has implicated complement as a pivotal driver of COVID-19 immunopathology. Deregulated complement activation may fuel thrombotic microangiopathy and NET-driven immunothrombosis, thereby exacerbating cytokine-driven hyper-inflammation and multi-organ failure. Complement therapeutics have gained traction as candidate drugs for countering the detrimental consequences of SARS-CoV-2

  • Transcriptome-wide Association Study of Circulating IgE Levels Identifies Novel Targets for Asthma and Allergic Diseases
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-18
    Kathryn Recto; Tianxiao Huan; Dong Heon Lee; Gha Young Lee; Jessica Gereige; Chen Yao; Shih-Jen Hwang; Roby Joehanes; Rachel Kelly; George O'Connor; Jessica Lasky-Su; Daniel Levy

    Measurement of circulating immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration is helpful for diagnosing and treating asthma and allergic diseases. Identifying gene expression signatures associated with IgE might elucidate novel pathways for IgE regulation. To this end, we performed a discovery transcriptome-wide association study (TWAS) to identify differentially expressed genes associated with circulating IgE levels

  • Hypersensitivity reactions to IL-1 and IL-6 inhibitors are linked to common HLA-DRB1*15 alleles
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Jill Hollenbach; Michael Ombrello; Adriana Tremoulet; Jaime S Rosa Duque; Gilbert T Chua; Gonzalo Montero-Martin; Jane C Burns; Chisato Shimizu; Gail Deutsch; Dimitri Monos; Vamsee Mallajosyula; Jianpeng Xu; Debopam Ghosh; Serena Tan; Elaine Remmers; Scott Canna; Ann Marie Szymanski; Danielle Rubin; Marcelo Fernandez-Vina; Vivian Saper; Elizabeth D Mellins

    In Saper et al (2019), we described systemic JIA patients who developed a high-fatality diffuse lung disease (DLD) while on IL-1 or IL-6 inhibitors. We observed severe delayed drug hypersensitivity reactions (DHR) in a significant subset. Because alleles of the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) loci can mediate DHR, we investigated HLA genotype association with these DHR. We typed subjects treated with

  • Impaired cellular immunity to SARS-CoV-2 in severe COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-12
    Ling Ni; Meng-Li Cheng; Hui Zhao; Yu Feng; Jingyuan Liu; Fang Ye; Qing Ye; Gengzhen Zhu; Xiaoli Li; Pengzhi Wang; Jing Shao; Yong-qiang Deng; Peng Wei; Fang Chen; Cheng-feng Qin; Guoqing Wang; Fan Li; Hui Zeng; Chen Dong

    The World Health Organization has declared SARS-CoV-2 virus outbreak a world-wide pandemic. Individuals infected by the virus exhibited different degrees of symptoms, the basis of which remains largely unclear. Currently, though convalescent individuals have been shown with both cellular and humoral immune responses, there is very limited understanding on the immune responses, especially adaptive immune

  • Naturally acquired Rift Valley fever virus neutralizing antibodies predominantly target the Gn glycoprotein
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-11
    Daniel Wright; Elizabeth R. Allen; Madeleine H.A. Clark; John N. Gitonga; Henry K. Karanja; Ruben Hulswit; Iona Taylor; Sumi Biswas; Jennifer Marshall; Damaris Mwololo; John Muriuki; Bernard Bett; Thomas A. Bowden; George M. Warimwe

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a viral haemorrhagic disease first discovered in Kenya in 1930. Numerous animal studies have demonstrated that protective immunity is acquired following RVF virus (RVFV) infection, and that this correlates with acquisition of virus neutralizing antibodies (nAb) that target the viral envelope glycoproteins. However, naturally acquired immunity to RVF in humans is poorly described

  • Sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion by flow cytometry reveals the presence of nucleoprotein-reactive antibodies in unexposed individuals
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Leire Egia-Mendikute; Alexandre Bosch; Endika Prieto-Fernandez; So Young Lee; Borja Jimenez-Lasheras; Ana Garcia del Rio; Asier Antonana-Vildosola; Chiara Bruzzone; Maider Bizkarguenaga; Nieves Embade; Nicola G A Abrescia; Jose M. Mato; Oscar Millet; Asis Palazon

    There is an ongoing need of developing sensitive and specific methods for the determination of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion. For this purpose, we have developed a multiplexed flow cytometric bead array (C19BA) that allows the identification of IgG and IgM antibodies against three immunogenic proteins simultaneously: the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), the spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and the nucleoprotein

  • SARS-CoV-2 antigens expressed in plants detect antibody responses in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Mohau S Makatsa; Marius B Tincho; Jerome M Wendoh; Sherazaan D Ismail; Rofhiwa Nesamari; Francisco Pera; Scott de Beer; Anura David; Sarika Jugwanth; Maemu P Gededzha; Nakampe Mampeule; Ian Sanne; Wendy Stevens; Lesley Scott; Jonathan Blackburn; Elizabeth S Mayne; Roanne S Keeton; Wendy A Burgers

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with over 16 million confirmed cases and at least 650 000 deaths from COVID-19 in the first 7 months of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay using plant-derived

  • Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test for detection of antibody in human, canine, cat and hamster sera
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris; Ranawaka APM Perera

    Surrogate neutralization assays for SARS-CoV-2 that can be done without biosafety-level-3 containment and across multiple species are desirable. We evaluate a recently developed surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) in comparison to 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) in human, canine, cat and hamster sera and found excellent concordance between the two assays. Using a panel of

  • SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses determine disease severity in COVID-19 infected individuals
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Cecilie Bo Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Lone Hummelshøj Landsy; Mette Loftager; Anne Rosbjerg; Charlotte Helgstrand; Jais Rose Bjelke; Thomas Egebjerg; Joseph G. Jardine; Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen; Kasper Iversen; Rafael Bayarri-Olmos; Peter Garred; Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt

    Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. Here we have developed novel flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD): An antigen

  • Therapeutic use of cannabis, cannabis-derived products and synthetic cannabinoids for rheumatoid arthritis: protocol of a systematic review
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Clara Edith Schulze; Josefina Durán; Rocío Bravo; Francisca Verdugo-Paiva; Macarena Morel; Gabriel Rada

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic effects of cannabis, cannabis-derived products and synthetic cannabinoids for rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: This is the protocol of a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Searches will be conducted in PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), trial registries, grey literature and in a centralized repository in L-OVE (Living OVerview

  • Levels of the TNF related cytokine, LIGHT increase in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with Cytokine Release Syndrome and ARDS
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    David S Perlin; Inbal Zafir-Lavie; Lori Roadcap; Shane Raines; Carl F Ware; Garry A Neil

    Many COVID-19 patients demonstrate lethal respiratory complications caused by cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Multiple cytokines have been implicated in CRS, but TNFSF14 (LIGHT) has not been previously measured in this setting. In this study, we observed significantly elevated serum LIGHT levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients as compared to healthy age and gender matched control patients. The assay

  • Total predicted MHC-I epitope load is inversely associated with mortality from SARS-CoV-2
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Eric Wilson; Gabrielle Hirneise; Abhishek Singharoy; Karen S Anderson

    Polymorphisms in MHC-I protein sequences across human populations significantly impacts viral peptide binding capacity and thus alters T cell immunity to infection. Consequently, allelic variants of the MHC-I protein have been found to be associated with patient outcome to various viral infections, including SARS-CoV. In the present study, we assess the relationship between observed SARS-CoV-2 population

  • Asthma in COVID-19: An extra chain fitting around the neck?
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Mohammad Hosny Hussein; Eman Ali Toraih; Abdallah S Attia; Mohanad Youssef; Mahmoud Omar; Nicholas Burley; Allen D Zhang; Jackson Roos; August Houghton; Nedum Aniemeka; Mohamed Ahmed Shama; Juan Duchesne; Emad Kandil

    Introduction The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the globe, overwhelming healthcare systems and depleting resources. The infection has a wide spectrum of presentations, and pre-existing comorbidities have been found to have a dramatic effect on the disease course and prognosis. We sought to analyze the effect of asthma on the disease progression and outcomes of COVID-19

  • Antibody responses to SARS-CoV2 are distinct in children with MIS-C compared to adults with COVID-19.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Stuart P Weisberg,Thomas Connors,Yun Zhu,Matthew Baldwin,Wen-Hsuan Lin,Sandeep Wontakal,Peter A Szabo,Steven B Wells,Pranay Dogra,Joshua I Gray,Emma Idzikowski,Francesca Bovier,Julia Davis-Porada,Rei Matsumoto,Maya Meimei Li Poon,Michael P Chait,Cyrille Mathieu,Branka Horvat,Didier Decimo,Zachary C Bitan,Francesca La Carpia,Stephen A Ferrara,Emily Mace,Joshua Milner,Anne Moscona,Eldad A Hod,Matteo

    Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. While children are largely spared from severe respiratory disease, they can present with a SARS-CoV-2-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) similar to Kawasaki's disease. Here, we show distinct antibody (Ab) responses in children with MIS-C compared to adults with severe COVID-19 causing

  • Recurrent respiratory viral diseases and chronic sequelae due to dominant negative IFIH1
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Christin L Deal; Timothy J Thauland; Rebecca Signer; Stanley F Nelson; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Hane Lee; Manish J Butte

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common childhood infection worldwide. However, even common pathogens can have significant consequences in the context of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. More than half or viral infections annually are due to rhinovirus/enterovirus strains. Most clinical manifestations of viral infection are mild. However 3% of cases result in hospitalization

  • DALES - a prospective cross-sectional study of incidence of penicillin allergy labels, risk of true allergy and attitudes of patients and anaesthetists to de-labelling strategies
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Louise Savic; Caroline Thomas; David Fallaha; Michelle Wilson; Philip Hopkins; Sinisa Savic; Samuel Clark

    Background Direct drug provocation testing (DPT) in patients with low-risk penicillin allergy labels would allow population-level de-labelling. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of penicillin allergy labels in a large UK surgical cohort and to define patient and anaesthetist attitudes towards penicillin allergy testing. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 213

  • Baricitinib restrains the immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Vincenzo Bronte; Stefano Ugel; Elisa Tinazzi; Antonio Vella; Francesco De Sanctis; Stefania Canè; Veronica Batani; Rosalinda Trovato; Alessandra Fiore; Varvara Petrova; Francesca Hofer; Roza Maria Barouni; Chiara Musiu; Simone Caligola; Laura Pinton; Lorena Torroni; Enrico Polati; Katia Donadello; Simonetta Friso; Francesca Pizzolo; Manuela Iezzi; Federica Facciotti; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Daniela

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of patients with COVID-19 have a good prognosis, but variable percentages in different countries develop pneumonia associated with lymphocytopenia and severe inflammatory response due to uncontrolled release of cytokines. These immune mediators

  • A Streamlined CyTOF Workflow To Facilitate Standardized Multi-Site Immune Profiling of COVID-19 Patients.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Daniel Geanon,Brian Lee,Geoffrey Kelly,Diana Handler,Bhaskar Upadhyaya,John Leech,Manon Herbinet,Diane Del Valle,Sacha Gnjatic,Seunghee Kim-Schulze,Miriam Merad,Adeeb Rahman

    Mass cytometry (CyTOF) represents one of the most powerful tools in immune phenotyping, allowing high throughput quantification of over 40 single parameters at single-cell resolution. However, wide deployment of CyTOF-based immune phenotyping studies are limited by complex experimental workflows and the need for specialized CyTOF equipment and technical expertise. Furthermore, differences in cell isolation

  • Trefoil factor 3 positively associates with IL-25 in patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Jorge F. Ortiz-Carpena; Ivy W. Maina; Cailu Lin; Neil N. Patel; Vasiliki Triantafillou; Neil N. Luu; Michael A. Kohanski; Edward C. Kuan; Charles C. L. Tong; John V. Bosso; Nithin D. Adappa; James N. Palmer; Danielle R. Reed; De'Broski R. Herbert; Noam A. Cohen

    Background Trefoil factor family cytokines (TFF1-3) have documented reparative and immunoregulatory effects on mucosal epithelial cells that include: blocking apoptosis, directed cell migration, and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. TFF1 and TFF3 have been shown to undergo altered expression within sinonasal tissues of patients with various forms of chronic rhinosinusitis including

  • Critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients display lupus-like hallmarks of extrafollicular B cell activation.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Matthew Woodruff,Richard Ramonell,Kevin Cashman,Doan Nguyen,Ariel Ley,Shuya Kyu,Ankur Saini,Natalie Haddad,Weirong Chen,J Christina Howell,Tugba Ozturk,Saeyun Lee,Jacob Estrada,Andrea Morrison-Porter,Andrew Derrico,Fabliha Anam,Henry Wu,Sang Le,Scott Jenks,Wiliam Hu,F Eun-Hyung Lee,Ignacio Sanz

    A wide clinical spectrum has become a hallmark of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, although its immunologic underpinnings remain to be defined. We have performed deep characterization of B cell responses through high-dimensional flow cytometry to reveal substantial heterogeneity in both effector and immature populations. More notably, critically ill patients displayed hallmarks of extrafollicular

  • Perinatal Granulopoiesis and Risk of Pediatric Asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Benjamin A Turturice; Julian Theorell; Mary Dawn Koenig; Lisa Tussing-Humphreys; Diane R Gold; Augusto A Litonjua; Emily Oken; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; David L Perkins; Patricia W Finn

    Many perinatal characteristics are associated with risk for pediatric asthma. Identification of biologic processes influenced by these characteristics could facilitate risk stratification or new therapeutic targets. We hypothesized that transcriptional changes associated with multiple epidemiologic risk factors would be mediators of pediatric asthma risk. Using publicly available transcriptomic data

  • Highly Accurate and Reproducible Diagnosis of Peanut Allergy Using Epitope Mapping
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Paul Kearney; Robert Getts; Clive Hayward; David Luta; Alex Porter; Marc Witmer; George du Toit; Gideon Lack; R. Sharon Chinthrajah; Stephen J Galli; Kari Nadeau; Galina Grishina; Mayte Suarez-Farinas; Maria Suprun; Hugh A Sampson

    Abstract Background: Misdiagnosis of peanut allergy is a significant clinical challenge. Here, a novel diagnostic blood-based test using a Bead-Based Epitope Assay (peanut BBEA) has been developed on the LEAP cohort and then independently validated on the CoFAR2 and POISED cohorts. Methods: Development of the peanut BBEA followed the National Academy of Medicine established guidelines with discovery

  • Complement and tissue factor-enriched neutrophil extracellular traps are key drivers in COVID-19 immunothrombosis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Panagiotis Skendros; Alexandros Mitsios; Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou; Dimitrios C Mastellos; Simeon Metallidis; Petros Rafailidis; Maria Ntinopoulou; Eleni Sertaridou; Victoria Tsironidou; Christina Tsigalou; Maria Tektonidou; Theocharis Konstantinidis; Charalampos Papagoras; Ioannis Mitroulis; Georgios Germanidis; John D Lambris; Konstantinos Ritis

    Emerging data indicate that complement and neutrophils are involved in the maladaptive host immune response that fuels hyper-inflammation and thrombotic microangiopathy increasing the mortality rate in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigated the interaction between complement and the platelet/neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)/thrombin axis, using COVID-19 clinical samples, cell-based

  • A Risk Prediction and Clinical Guidance System for Evaluating Patients with Recurrent Infections.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Nicholas L Rider; Gina Cahill; Tina Motazedi; Lei Wei; Ashok Kurian; Lenora M Noroski; Filiz O Seeborg; Ivan K Chinn; Kirk Roberts

    Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases represent an expanding set of heterogeneous conditions which are difficult to recognize clinically. Diagnostic rates outside of the newborn period have not changed appreciably. This concern underscores a need for novel methods of disease detection. Objective: We built an artificial intelligence model to provide real-time risk assessment about primary immunodeficiency

  • Plasma from recovered COVID19 subjects inhibits spike protein binding to ACE2 in a microsphere-based inhibition assay.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Edward P Gniffke,Whitney E Harrington,Nicolas Dambrauskas,Yonghou Jiang,Olesya Trakhimets,Vladimir Vigdorovich,Lisa Frenkel,D Noah Sather,Stephen E P Smith

    High throughput serological tests that can establish the presence and functional activity of anti-SARS-COV2 antibodies are urgently needed. Here we present microsphere-based Flow Cytometry assays that quantify both anti-spike IgGs in plasma, and the ability of plasma to inhibit the binding of spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). First, we detected anti-trimer IgGs in 22/24 and anti-RBD

  • Hydroxychloroquine inhibits trained immunity - implications for COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Nils Rother; Cansu Yanginlar; Rik G.H. Lindeboom; Siroon Bekkering; Mandy M.T. van Leent; Baranca Buijsers; Inge Jonkman; Mark de Graaf; Marijke Baltissen; Lieke A. Lamers; Niels P. Riksen; Zahi A. Fayad; Willem J.M. Mulder; Luuk B. Hilbrands; Leo A.B. Joosten; Mihai G. Netea; Michiel Vermeulen; Johan van der Vlag; Raphaël Duivenvoorden

    SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause severe disease for which currently no specific therapy is available. The use of hydroxychloroquine to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection is controversial and its mode of action poorly understood. We demonstrate that hydroxychloroquine inhibits trained immunity at the functional and epigenetic level and is accompanied by profound changes in the cellular lipidome as

  • Cell-density independent increased lymphocyte production and loss rates post-autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Mariona Baliu-Pique; Vera van Hoeven; Julia Drylewicz; Lotte E. van der Wagen; Anke Janssen; Sigrid A. Otto; Menno C. van Zelm; Rob J. de Boer; Jurgen Kuball; Jose A. M. Borghans; Kiki Tesselaar

    Lymphocyte numbers need to be quite tightly regulated. It is generally assumed that lymphocyte production and survival rates increase homeostatically when lymphocyte numbers decrease. This widely-accepted concept is largely based on experiments in mice. In humans, lymphocyte reconstitution usually occurs very slowly, which challenges the idea that density dependent homeostasis aids recovery from lymphopenia

  • Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Lucie Rodriguez; Pirkka Pekkarinen; Lakshmi Kanth Tadepally; Ziyang Tan; Camila Rosat Consiglio; Christian Pou; Yang Chen; Constantin Habimana Mugabo; Anh Nguyen Quoc; Kirsten Nowlan; Tomas Strandin; Lev Levanov; Jaromir Mikes; Jun Wang; Anu Kantele; Jussi Hepojoki; Olli Vapalahti; Santtu Heinonen; Eliisa Kekalainen; Petter Brodin

    The immune response to SARS-CoV2 is under intense investigation, but not fully understood att this moment. Severe disease is characterized by vigorous inflammatory responses in the lung, often with a sudden onset after 5-7 days of stable disease. Efforts to modulate this hyperinflammation and the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, rely on the unraveling of the immune cell interactions

  • Risk factors for rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema among schoolchildren in Uganda
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Harriet Mpairwe; Gyaviira Nkurunungi; Pius Tumwesige; Hellen Akurut; Milly Namutebi; Irene Nambuya; Marble Nnaluwooza; Barbara Apule; Caroline Onen; Tonny Katongole; Emmanuel Niwagaba; Mike Mukasa; Emily L Webb; Alison M Elliott; Neil Pearce

    Background: The prevalence of allergy-related diseases (ARDs), including rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema, is on the increase in Africa and globally. The causes of this increase are not well established. Objectives: To investigate the risk factors for ARDs among schoolchildren in Uganda. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis of a large asthma case-control study involving 1,700

  • A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in at-home collected finger-prick dried blood spots.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Donna Grace Karp,Kenneth Danh,David Seftel,Peter Robinson,Cheng-Ting Tsai

    Accurate surveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence requires large-scale testing of the population. Current testing methods require in-person collection of biospecimens by a healthcare worker, limiting access of individuals who do not have access to testing facilities while placing both the patient and healthcare worker at risk of exposure to infection. We report the development

  • Effectiveness of mepolizumab in a real-life cohort of patients with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma and multiple comorbidities
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Claudia Crimi; Raffaele Campisi; Giulia Cacopardo; Rossella Intravaia; Santi Nolasco; Morena Porto; Nunzio Crimi; Corrado Pelaia

    Abstract Background: Patients with severe asthma often suffer from comorbidities whose impact on the course of biological therapy has not been elucidated yet. Objective: This study evaluated, for the first time, patients with one or more comorbidities who received mepolizumab (MEPO) for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma to assess its real-life effectiveness and to explore the presence/absence

  • Emergence of Low-density Inflammatory Neutrophils Correlates with Hypercoagulable State and Disease Severity in COVID-19 Patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Samantha M Morrissey; Anne E Geller; Xiaoling Hu; David Tieri; Elizabeth A Cooke; Chuanlin Ding; Matthew Woeste; Huang-ge Zhange; Rodrigo Cavallazi; Sean P Clifford; James Chen; Maiying Kong; Corey T Watson; Jiapeng Huang; Jun Yan

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel viral pathogen that causes a clinical disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Approximately 20% of infected patients experience a severe manifestation of the disease, causing bilateral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Severe COVID-19 patients also have a pronounced coagulopathy with approximately 30%

  • IgG serology in health care and administrative staff populations from 7 hospital representative of different exposures to SARS-CoV-2 in Lombardy, Italy
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Maria Teresa Sandri; Elena Azzolini; Valter Torri; Sara Carloni; Michele Tedeschi; Massimo Castoldi; Alberto Mantovani; Maria Rescigno

    Lombardy is one of the regions in Italy most affected by COVID-19. We assessed the diffusion of the virus via testing plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in 3985 employees of 7 different hospitals, located across the Lombardy region in areas with different exposure to the epidemic. Subjects filled an anamnestic questionnaire to self-report on COVID-19 symptoms, co-morbidities, smoking, regular or

  • High seroreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike epitopes in a pre SARS-CoV-2 cohort: implications for antibody testing and vaccine design
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Kaia Palm; Mariliis Jaago; Annika Rahni; Nadezhda Pupina; Arno Pihlak; Helle Sadam; Annela Avarlaid; Anu Planken; Margus Planken; Liina Haring; Eero Vasar; Miljana Bacevic; France Lambert; Eija Kalso; Pirkko Pussinen; Pentti Tienari; Antti Vaheri; Dan Lindholm; Tonis Timmusk; Amir M Ghaemmaghami

    Little is known about the quality of polyclonal antibody responses in COVID-19 patients, and how it correlates with disease severity or patients' prior exposure to other pathogens. The whole polyclonal antibody repertoire in a retrospective cohort of 538 individuals was mapped against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, the main target of antibody immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bioinformatic

  • SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in health care workers
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Adrian M Shields; Sian E Faustini; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Sian Jossi; Erin L Aldera; Joel D Allen; Saly Al-Taei; Claire Backhouse; Andrew Bosworth; Lyndsey Dunbar; Daniel Ebanks; Beena Emmanuel; Joanne Grey; I Michael Kidd; Golaeh McGinnell; Dee McLoughlin; Gabriella Morley; Joanne O'Neill; Danai Papakonstantinou; Oliver Pickles; Charlotte Poxon; Megan Richter; Eloise Walker; Kasun Wanigasooriya; Yasunori

    Background The correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 and their longevity remain unclear. Studies in severely ill individuals have identified robust cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 has also been described, but it is unknown whether this is sufficient to produce antibody responses. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study recruiting

  • COVID-19 progression is potentially driven by T cell immunopathogenesis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Moritz Anft; Krystallenia Paniskaki; Arturo Blazquez-Navarro; Adrian Atila Nicolas Doevelaar; Felix Seibert; Bodo Hoelzer; Sarah Skrzypczyk; Eva Kohut; Julia Kurek; Jan Zapka; Patrizia Wehler; Sviatlana Kaliszczyk; Sharon Bajda; Constantin Thieme; Toralf Roch; Margarethe Justine Konik; Thorsten Brenner; Clemens Tempfer; Carsten Watzl; Sebastian Dolff; Ulf Dittmer; Timm Westhoff; Oliver Witzke; Ulrik

    Background: The role of cellular immunity in pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and conflicting data points to insufficient or pathogenic immunity as drivers of COVID-19 progression. Here we aimed to delineate the phenotype and function of the immune system in patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19. Methods: In this prospective study, we included 53 patients with moderate (n=21), severe

  • The production of antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and its clinical implication
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Qianfang Hu; Xiaoping Cui; Xinzhu Liu; Bin Peng; Jinyue Jiang; Xiaohui Wang; Yan Li; Wenhui Hu; Zhi Ao; Jun Duan; Xue Wang; Linxiao Zhu; Shuliang Guo; Guicheng Wu

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2), a novel betacoronavirus, has caused an outburst of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. We report the production of specific IgM and IgG antibodies after the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its implication for the diagnosis, pathology and the course of the disease as well as the recurrence of positive nucleic acid tests after discharge

  • Long-term Coexistence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with Antibody Response in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Bin Wang; Li Wang; Xianggen Kong; Jin Geng; Di Xiao; Chunhong Ma; Xuemei Jiang; Pei-Hui Wang

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 has spread worldwide. Whether antibodies are important for the adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be determined. Here, 26 cases of COVID-19 in Jinan, China, were examined and shown to be mild or with common clinical symptoms and no cases of severe symptoms were found among these patients

  • Novel KITLG/SCF regulatory variants are associated with lung function in African American children with asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Angel Mak; Satria Sajuthi; Jaehyun Joo; Shujie Xiao; Patrick Sleiman; Marquitta J White; Eunice Y Lee; Benjamin Saef; Donglei Hu; Hongsheng Gui; Kevin L Keys; Fred Lurmann; Deepti Jain; Goncalo Abecasis; Hyun Min Kang; Deborah A Nickerson; Soren Germer; Michael C Zody; Lara Winterkorn; Catherine Reeves; Scott Huntsman; Celeste Eng; Sandra Salazar; Sam S Oh; Frank Gilliland; Zhanghua Chen; Rajesh Kumar;

    Baseline lung function, quantified as forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation (FEV1), is a standard diagnostic criterion used by clinicians to identify and classify lung diseases. Using whole genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute TOPMed project, we identified a novel genetic association with FEV1 on chromosome 12 in 867 African American children

  • A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Fatima Amanat,Daniel Stadlbauer,Shirin Strohmeier,Thi H O Nguyen,Veronika Chromikova,Meagan McMahon,Kaijun Jiang,Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar,Denise Jurczyszak,Jose Polanco,Maria Bermudez-Gonzalez,Giulio Kleiner,Teresa Aydillo,Lisa Miorin,Daniel Fierer,Luz Amarilis Lugo,Erna Milunka Kojic,Jonathan Stoever,Sean T H Liu,Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles,Philip L Felgner,Thomas Moran,Adolfo Garcia-Sastre,Daniel

    SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2), which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) was first detected in China in late 2019 and has since then caused a global pandemic. While molecular assays to directly detect the viral genetic material are available for the diagnosis of acute infection, we currently lack serological assays suitable to specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies