当前期刊: medRxiv - Allergy and Immunology Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: IF: - GO 导出
  • SARS-CoV-2 antigens expressed in plants detect antibody responses in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Mohau S Makatsa; Marius B Tincho; Jerome M Wendoh; Sherazaan D Ismail; Rofhiwa Nesamari; Francisco Pera; Scott de Beer; Anura David; Sarika Jugwanth; Maemu P Gededzha; Nakampe Mampeule; Ian Sanne; Wendy Stevens; Lesley Scott; Jonathan Blackburn; Elizabeth S Mayne; Roanne S Keeton; Wendy A Burgers

    Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has swept the world and poses a significant global threat to lives and livelihoods, with over 16 million confirmed cases and at least 650 000 deaths from COVID-19 in the first 7 months of the pandemic. Developing tools to measure seroprevalence and understand protective immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is a priority. We aimed to develop a serological assay using plant-derived

  • Evidence for sustained mucosal and systemic antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-08-04
    Baweleta Isho; Kento T Abe; Michelle Zuo; Alainna J Jamal; Bhavisha Rathod; Jenny H Wang; Zhijie Li; Gary Chao; Olga L Rojas; Yeo Myong Bang; Annie Pu; Natasha Christie-Holmes; Christian Gervais; Derek Ceccarelli; Payman Samavarchi-Tehrani; Furkan Guvenc; Patrick Budylowski; Angel Li; Aimee Paterson; Yue Feng Yun; Lina G Marin; Lauren Caldwell; Jeffrey L Wrana; Karen Colwill; Frank Sicheri; Samira

    While the antibody response to SARS-CoV-2 has been extensively studied in blood, relatively little is known about the mucosal immune response and its relationship to systemic antibody levels. Since SARS-CoV-2 initially replicates in the upper airway, the antibody response in the oral cavity is likely an important parameter that influences the course of infection. We developed enzyme linked immunosorbent

  • Sensitive detection of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion by flow cytometry reveals the presence of nucleoprotein-reactive antibodies in Covid-19-naive individuals
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Leire Egia-Mendikute; Alexandre Bosch; Endika Prieto-Fernandez; So Young Lee; Borja Jimenez-Lasheras; Ana Garcia del Rio; Asier Antonana-Vildosola; Chiara Bruzzone; Maider Bizkarguenaga; Nieves Embade; Nicola G A Abrescia; Jose M. Mato; Oscar Millet; Asis Palazon

    We have developed a novel multiplexed flow cytometric bead array (C19BA) for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion that allows sensitive identification of IgG and IgM antibodies against three immunogenic proteins: the spike receptor-binding domain (RBD), the spike protein subunit 1 (S1) and the nucleoprotein (N) simultaneously. This assay is more sensitive than ELISA, and the combination of three

  • Evaluation of a SARS-CoV-2 surrogate virus neutralization test for detection of antibody in human, canine, cat and hamster sera
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Joseph Sriyal Malik Peiris; Ranawaka APM Perera

    Surrogate neutralization assays for SARS-CoV-2 that can be done without biosafety-level-3 containment and across multiple species are desirable. We evaluate a recently developed surrogate virus neutralization test (sVNT) in comparison to 90% plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT90) in human, canine, cat and hamster sera and found excellent concordance between the two assays. Using a panel of

  • SARS-CoV-2 antibody responses determine disease severity in COVID-19 infected individuals
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-29
    Cecilie Bo Hansen; Ida Jarlhelt; Laura Pérez-Alós; Lone Hummelshøj Landsy; Mette Loftager; Anne Rosbjerg; Charlotte Helgstrand; Jais Rose Bjelke; Thomas Egebjerg; Joseph G. Jardine; Charlotte Sværke Jørgensen; Kasper Iversen; Rafael Bayarri-Olmos; Peter Garred; Mikkel-Ole Skjoedt

    Globally, the COVID-19 pandemic has had extreme consequences for the healthcare system and calls for diagnostic tools to monitor and understand the transmission, pathogenesis and epidemiology, as well as to evaluate future vaccination strategies. Here we have developed novel flexible ELISA-based assays for specific detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies against the receptor-binding domain (RBD): An antigen

  • Therapeutic use of cannabis, cannabis-derived products and synthetic cannabinoids for rheumatoid arthritis: protocol of a systematic review
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    Clara Edith Schulze; Josefina Durán; Rocío Bravo; Francisca Verdugo-Paiva; Macarena Morel; Gabriel Rada

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the therapeutic effects of cannabis, cannabis-derived products and synthetic cannabinoids for rheumatoid arthritis. DESIGN: This is the protocol of a systematic review. DATA SOURCES: Searches will be conducted in PubMed/Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), trial registries, grey literature and in a centralized repository in L-OVE (Living OVerview

  • Levels of the TNF related cytokine, LIGHT increase in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with Cytokine Release Syndrome and ARDS
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-28
    David S Perlin; Inbal Zafir-Lavie; Lori Roadcap; Shane Raines; Carl F Ware; Garry A Neil

    Many COVID-19 patients demonstrate lethal respiratory complications caused by cytokine release syndrome (CRS). Multiple cytokines have been implicated in CRS, but TNFSF14 (LIGHT) has not been previously measured in this setting. In this study, we observed significantly elevated serum LIGHT levels in hospitalized COVID-19 patients as compared to healthy age and gender matched control patients. The assay

  • Total predicted MHC-I epitope load is inversely associated with mortality from SARS-CoV-2
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-20
    Eric Wilson; Gabrielle Hirneise; Abhishek Singharoy; Karen S Anderson

    Polymorphisms in MHC-I protein sequences across human populations significantly impacts viral peptide binding capacity and thus alters T cell immunity to infection. Consequently, allelic variants of the MHC-I protein have been found to be associated with patient outcome to various viral infections, including SARS-CoV. In the present study, we assess the relationship between observed SARS-CoV-2 population

  • Disease-associated antibody phenotypes and probabilistic seroprevalence estimates during the emergence of SARS-CoV-2
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Xaquin Castro Dopico; Leo Hanke; Daniel J Sheward; Murray Christian; Sandra Muschiol; Nastasiya F Grinberg; Monika Adori; Laura Perez Vidakovics; Kim Chang Il; Sharesta Khoenkhoen; Pradeepa Pushparaj; Ainhoa Moliner Morro; Marco Mandolesi; Mattias Forsell; Jonathan Coquet; Martin Corcoran; Joanna Rorbach; Soo Aleman; Gordana Bogdanovic; Gerald Mcinerney; Tobias Allander; Chris Wallace; Ben Murrell;

    Serological studies are critical for understanding pathogen−specific immune responses and informing public health measures (1,2). By developing highly sensitive and specific trimeric spike (S)−based antibody tests, we report IgM, IgG and IgA responses to SARS−CoV−2 in COVID−19 patients (n=105) representing different categories of disease severity. All patients surveyed were IgG positive against S.

  • Asthma in COVID-19: An extra chain fitting around the neck?
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-15
    Mohammad Hosny Hussein; Eman Ali Toraih; Abdallah S Attia; Mohanad Youssef; Mahmoud Omar; Nicholas Burley; Allen D Zhang; Jackson Roos; August Houghton; Nedum Aniemeka; Mohamed Ahmed Shama; Juan Duchesne; Emad Kandil

    Introduction The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rapidly spread across the globe, overwhelming healthcare systems and depleting resources. The infection has a wide spectrum of presentations, and pre-existing comorbidities have been found to have a dramatic effect on the disease course and prognosis. We sought to analyze the effect of asthma on the disease progression and outcomes of COVID-19

  • Antibody responses to SARS-CoV2 are distinct in children with MIS-C compared to adults with COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Stuart P Weisberg; Thomas Connors; Yun Zhu; Matthew Baldwin; Wen-Hsuan Lin; Sandeep Wontakal; Peter A Szabo; Steven B Wells; Pranay Dogra; Joshua I Gray; Emma Idzikowski; Francesca Bovier; Julia Davis-Porada; Rei Matsumoto; Maya Meimei Li Poon; Michael P Chait; Cyrille Mathieu; Branka Horvat; Didier Decimo; Zachary C Bitan; Francesca La Carpia; Stephen A Ferrara; Emily Mace; Joshua Milner; Anne Moscona;

    Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 are associated with age. While children are largely spared from severe respiratory disease, they can present with a SARS-CoV-2-associated multisystem inflammatory syndrome (MIS-C) similar to Kawasaki's disease. Here, we show distinct antibody (Ab) responses in children with MIS-C compared to adults with severe COVID-19 causing

  • Novel SARS-CoV-2 specific antibody and neutralization assays reveal wide range of humoral immune response during COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-08
    Mikail Dogan; Lina Kozhaya; Lindsey Placek; Courtney Gunter; Mesut Yigit; Rachel Hardy; Matt Plassmeyer; Paige Coatney; Kimberleigh Lillard; Zaheer Bukhari; Michael Kleinberg; Chelsea Hayes; Moshe Arditi; Ellen Klapper; Noah Merin; Bruce T Liang; Raavi Gupta; Oral Alpan; Derya Unutmaz

    Development of antibody protection during SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2) infection is a pressing question for public health and for vaccine development. We developed highly sensitive CoV-2-specific antibody and neutralization assays. CoV-2 Spike protein or Nucleocapsid protein specific IgG antibodies at titers more than 1:100,000 were detectable in all PCR+ subjects (n=87) and were absent in the negative controls

  • Recurrent respiratory viral diseases and chronic sequelae due to dominant negative IFIH1
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Christin L Deal; Timothy J Thauland; Rebecca Signer; Stanley F Nelson; Undiagnosed Diseases Network; Hane Lee; Manish J Butte

    Viral respiratory infections are the most common childhood infection worldwide. However, even common pathogens can have significant consequences in the context of patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. More than half or viral infections annually are due to rhinovirus/enterovirus strains. Most clinical manifestations of viral infection are mild. However 3% of cases result in hospitalization

  • DALES - a prospective cross-sectional study of incidence of penicillin allergy labels, risk of true allergy and attitudes of patients and anaesthetists to de-labelling strategies
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-07-03
    Louise Savic; Caroline Thomas; David Fallaha; Michelle Wilson; Philip Hopkins; Sinisa Savic; Samuel Clark

    Background Direct drug provocation testing (DPT) in patients with low-risk penicillin allergy labels would allow population-level de-labelling. We sought to determine the incidence and nature of penicillin allergy labels in a large UK surgical cohort and to define patient and anaesthetist attitudes towards penicillin allergy testing. Methods A prospective cross-sectional study was performed in 213

  • Baricitinib restrains the immune dysregulation in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Vincenzo Bronte; Stefano Ugel; Elisa Tinazzi; Antonio Vella; Francesco De Sanctis; Stefania Canè; Veronica Batani; Rosalinda Trovato; Alessandra Fiore; Varvara Petrova; Francesca Hofer; Roza Maria Barouni; Chiara Musiu; Simone Caligola; Laura Pinton; Lorena Torroni; Enrico Polati; Katia Donadello; Simonetta Friso; Francesca Pizzolo; Manuela Iezzi; Federica Facciotti; Pier Giuseppe Pelicci; Daniela

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of the ongoing pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The majority of patients with COVID-19 have a good prognosis, but variable percentages in different countries develop pneumonia associated with lymphocytopenia and severe inflammatory response due to uncontrolled release of cytokines. These immune mediators

  • A Streamlined CyTOF Workflow To Facilitate Standardized Multi-Site Immune Profiling of COVID-19 Patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-29
    Daniel Geanon; Brian Lee; Geoffrey Kelly; Diana Handler; Bhaskar Upadhyaya; John Leech; Manon Herbinet; Diane Del Valle; Sacha Gnjatic; Seunghee Kim-Schulze; Miriam Merad; Adeeb Rahman

    Mass cytometry (CyTOF) represents one of the most powerful tools in immune phenotyping, allowing high throughput quantification of over 40 single parameters at single-cell resolution. However, wide deployment of CyTOF-based immune phenotyping studies are limited by complex experimental workflows and the need for specialized CyTOF equipment and technical expertise. Furthermore, differences in cell isolation

  • Spectrum of innate and adaptive immune response to SARS CoV 2 infection across asymptomatic, mild and severe cases; a longitudinal cohort study
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Rita Carsetti; Salvatore Zaffina; Eva Piano Mortari; Sara Terreri; Francesco Corrente; Claudia Capponi; Patrizia Palomba; Mattia Mirabella; Simona Cascioli; Paolo Palange; Ilaria Cuccaro; Cinzia Milito; Alimuddin Zumla; Markus Maeurer; Vincenzo Camisa; Maria Rosaria Vinci; Annapaola Santoro; Eleonora Cimini; Luisa Marchioni; Emanuele Nicastri; Fabrizio Palmieri; Chiara Agrati; Giuseppe Ippolito; Ottavia

    Background: SARS-CoV-2 is a novel coronavirus, not encountered before by humans. The wide spectrum of clinical expression of SARS-CoV-2 illness suggests that individual immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 play a crucial role in determining the clinical course after first infection. Immunological studies have focussed on patients with moderate to severe disease, demonstrating excessive inflammation in tissues

  • Trefoil factor 3 positively associates with IL-25 in patients with Chronic Rhinosinusitis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-23
    Jorge F. Ortiz-Carpena; Ivy W. Maina; Cailu Lin; Neil N. Patel; Vasiliki Triantafillou; Neil N. Luu; Michael A. Kohanski; Edward C. Kuan; Charles C. L. Tong; John V. Bosso; Nithin D. Adappa; James N. Palmer; Danielle R. Reed; De'Broski R. Herbert; Noam A. Cohen

    Background Trefoil factor family cytokines (TFF1-3) have documented reparative and immunoregulatory effects on mucosal epithelial cells that include: blocking apoptosis, directed cell migration, and regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production. TFF1 and TFF3 have been shown to undergo altered expression within sinonasal tissues of patients with various forms of chronic rhinosinusitis including

  • Critically ill SARS-CoV-2 patients display lupus-like hallmarks of extrafollicular B cell activation.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Matthew Woodruff,Richard Ramonell,Kevin Cashman,Doan Nguyen,Ariel Ley,Shuya Kyu,Ankur Saini,Natalie Haddad,Weirong Chen,J Christina Howell,Tugba Ozturk,Saeyun Lee,Jacob Estrada,Andrea Morrison-Porter,Andrew Derrico,Fabliha Anam,Henry Wu,Sang Le,Scott Jenks,Wiliam Hu,F Eun-Hyung Lee,Ignacio Sanz

    A wide clinical spectrum has become a hallmark of the SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) pandemic, although its immunologic underpinnings remain to be defined. We have performed deep characterization of B cell responses through high-dimensional flow cytometry to reveal substantial heterogeneity in both effector and immature populations. More notably, critically ill patients displayed hallmarks of extrafollicular

  • Perinatal Granulopoiesis and Risk of Pediatric Asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-22
    Benjamin A Turturice; Julian Theorell; Mary Dawn Koenig; Lisa Tussing-Humphreys; Diane R Gold; Augusto A Litonjua; Emily Oken; Sheryl L Rifas-Shiman; David L Perkins; Patricia W Finn

    Many perinatal characteristics are associated with risk for pediatric asthma. Identification of biologic processes influenced by these characteristics could facilitate risk stratification or new therapeutic targets. We hypothesized that transcriptional changes associated with multiple epidemiologic risk factors would be mediators of pediatric asthma risk. Using publicly available transcriptomic data

  • Highly Accurate and Reproducible Diagnosis of Peanut Allergy Using Epitope Mapping
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-20
    Paul Kearney; Robert Getts; Clive Hayward; David Luta; Alex Porter; Marc Witmer; George du Toit; Gideon Lack; R. Sharon Chinthrajah; Stephen J Galli; Kari Nadeau; Galina Grishina; Mayte Suarez-Farinas; Maria Suprun; Hugh A Sampson

    Abstract Background: Misdiagnosis of peanut allergy is a significant clinical challenge. Here, a novel diagnostic blood-based test using a Bead-Based Epitope Assay (peanut BBEA) has been developed on the LEAP cohort and then independently validated on the CoFAR2 and POISED cohorts. Methods: Development of the peanut BBEA followed the National Academy of Medicine established guidelines with discovery

  • Complement and tissue factor-enriched neutrophil extracellular traps are key drivers in COVID-19 immunothrombosis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Panagiotis Skendros; Alexandros Mitsios; Akrivi Chrysanthopoulou; Dimitrios C Mastellos; Simeon Metallidis; Petros Rafailidis; Maria Ntinopoulou; Eleni Sertaridou; Victoria Tsironidou; Christina Tsigalou; Maria Tektonidou; Theocharis Konstantinidis; Charalampos Papagoras; Ioannis Mitroulis; Georgios Germanidis; John D Lambris; Konstantinos Ritis

    Emerging data indicate that complement and neutrophils are involved in the maladaptive host immune response that fuels hyper-inflammation and thrombotic microangiopathy increasing the mortality rate in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Here, we investigated the interaction between complement and the platelet/neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs)/thrombin axis, using COVID-19 clinical samples, cell-based

  • A Risk Prediction and Clinical Guidance System for Evaluating Patients with Recurrent Infections.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Nicholas L Rider; Gina Cahill; Tina Motazedi; Lei Wei; Ashok Kurian; Lenora M Noroski; Filiz O Seeborg; Ivan K Chinn; Kirk Roberts

    Background: Primary immunodeficiency diseases represent an expanding set of heterogeneous conditions which are difficult to recognize clinically. Diagnostic rates outside of the newborn period have not changed appreciably. This concern underscores a need for novel methods of disease detection. Objective: We built an artificial intelligence model to provide real-time risk assessment about primary immunodeficiency

  • Plasma from recovered COVID19 subjects inhibits spike protein binding to ACE2 in a microsphere-based inhibition assay.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-11
    Edward P Gniffke,Whitney E Harrington,Nicolas Dambrauskas,Yonghou Jiang,Olesya Trakhimets,Vladimir Vigdorovich,Lisa Frenkel,D Noah Sather,Stephen E P Smith

    High throughput serological tests that can establish the presence and functional activity of anti-SARS-COV2 antibodies are urgently needed. Here we present microsphere-based Flow Cytometry assays that quantify both anti-spike IgGs in plasma, and the ability of plasma to inhibit the binding of spike protein to angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). First, we detected anti-trimer IgGs in 22/24 and anti-RBD

  • Hydroxychloroquine inhibits trained immunity - implications for COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-09
    Nils Rother; Cansu Yanginlar; Rik G.H. Lindeboom; Siroon Bekkering; Mandy M.T. van Leent; Baranca Buijsers; Inge Jonkman; Mark de Graaf; Marijke Baltissen; Lieke A. Lamers; Niels P. Riksen; Zahi A. Fayad; Willem J.M. Mulder; Luuk B. Hilbrands; Leo A.B. Joosten; Mihai G. Netea; Michiel Vermeulen; Johan van der Vlag; Raphaël Duivenvoorden

    SARS-CoV-2 infection can cause severe disease for which currently no specific therapy is available. The use of hydroxychloroquine to prevent or treat SARS-CoV-2 infection is controversial and its mode of action poorly understood. We demonstrate that hydroxychloroquine inhibits trained immunity at the functional and epigenetic level and is accompanied by profound changes in the cellular lipidome as

  • Cell-density independent increased lymphocyte production and loss rates post-autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-08
    Mariona Baliu-Pique; Vera van Hoeven; Julia Drylewicz; Lotte E. van der Wagen; Anke Janssen; Sigrid A. Otto; Menno C. van Zelm; Rob J. de Boer; Jurgen Kuball; Jose A. M. Borghans; Kiki Tesselaar

    Lymphocyte numbers need to be quite tightly regulated. It is generally assumed that lymphocyte production and survival rates increase homeostatically when lymphocyte numbers decrease. This widely-accepted concept is largely based on experiments in mice. In humans, lymphocyte reconstitution usually occurs very slowly, which challenges the idea that density dependent homeostasis aids recovery from lymphopenia

  • Systems-level immunomonitoring from acute to recovery phase of severe COVID-19
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    Lucie Rodriguez; Pirkka Pekkarinen; Lakshmi Kanth Tadepally; Ziyang Tan; Camila Rosat Consiglio; Christian Pou; Yang Chen; Constantin Habimana Mugabo; Anh Nguyen Quoc; Kirsten Nowlan; Tomas Strandin; Lev Levanov; Jaromir Mikes; Jun Wang; Anu Kantele; Jussi Hepojoki; Olli Vapalahti; Santtu Heinonen; Eliisa Kekalainen; Petter Brodin

    The immune response to SARS-CoV2 is under intense investigation, but not fully understood att this moment. Severe disease is characterized by vigorous inflammatory responses in the lung, often with a sudden onset after 5-7 days of stable disease. Efforts to modulate this hyperinflammation and the associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, rely on the unraveling of the immune cell interactions

  • Risk factors for rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema among schoolchildren in Uganda
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Harriet Mpairwe; Gyaviira Nkurunungi; Pius Tumwesige; Hellen Akurut; Milly Namutebi; Irene Nambuya; Marble Nnaluwooza; Barbara Apule; Caroline Onen; Tonny Katongole; Emmanuel Niwagaba; Mike Mukasa; Emily L Webb; Alison M Elliott; Neil Pearce

    Background: The prevalence of allergy-related diseases (ARDs), including rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and eczema, is on the increase in Africa and globally. The causes of this increase are not well established. Objectives: To investigate the risk factors for ARDs among schoolchildren in Uganda. Methods: We conducted a secondary data analysis of a large asthma case-control study involving 1,700

  • A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in at-home collected finger-prick dried blood spots.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Donna Grace Karp,Kenneth Danh,David Seftel,Peter Robinson,Cheng-Ting Tsai

    Accurate surveillance of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) incidence requires large-scale testing of the population. Current testing methods require in-person collection of biospecimens by a healthcare worker, limiting access of individuals who do not have access to testing facilities while placing both the patient and healthcare worker at risk of exposure to infection. We report the development

  • Effectiveness of mepolizumab in a real-life cohort of patients with severe refractory eosinophilic asthma and multiple comorbidities
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-06-02
    Claudia Crimi; Raffaele Campisi; Giulia Cacopardo; Rossella Intravaia; Santi Nolasco; Morena Porto; Nunzio Crimi; Corrado Pelaia

    Abstract Background: Patients with severe asthma often suffer from comorbidities whose impact on the course of biological therapy has not been elucidated yet. Objective: This study evaluated, for the first time, patients with one or more comorbidities who received mepolizumab (MEPO) for the treatment of severe eosinophilic asthma to assess its real-life effectiveness and to explore the presence/absence

  • Emergence of Low-density Inflammatory Neutrophils Correlates with Hypercoagulable State and Disease Severity in COVID-19 Patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Samantha M Morrissey; Anne E Geller; Xiaoling Hu; David Tieri; Elizabeth A Cooke; Chuanlin Ding; Matthew Woeste; Huang-ge Zhange; Rodrigo Cavallazi; Sean P Clifford; James Chen; Maiying Kong; Corey T Watson; Jiapeng Huang; Jun Yan

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a novel viral pathogen that causes a clinical disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Approximately 20% of infected patients experience a severe manifestation of the disease, causing bilateral pneumonia and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Severe COVID-19 patients also have a pronounced coagulopathy with approximately 30%

  • IgG serology in health care and administrative staff populations from 7 hospital representative of different exposures to SARS-CoV-2 in Lombardy, Italy
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Maria Teresa Sandri; Elena Azzolini; Valter Torri; Sara Carloni; Michele Tedeschi; Massimo Castoldi; Alberto Mantovani; Maria Rescigno

    Lombardy is one of the regions in Italy most affected by COVID-19. We assessed the diffusion of the virus via testing plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies in 3985 employees of 7 different hospitals, located across the Lombardy region in areas with different exposure to the epidemic. Subjects filled an anamnestic questionnaire to self-report on COVID-19 symptoms, co-morbidities, smoking, regular or

  • High seroreactivity against SARS-CoV-2 Spike epitopes in a pre SARS-CoV-2 cohort: implications for antibody testing and vaccine design
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-22
    Kaia Palm; Mariliis Jaago; Annika Rahni; Nadezhda Pupina; Arno Pihlak; Helle Sadam; Annela Avarlaid; Anu Planken; Margus Planken; Liina Haring; Eero Vasar; Miljana Bacevic; France Lambert; Eija Kalso; Pirkko Pussinen; Pentti Tienari; Antti Vaheri; Dan Lindholm; Tonis Timmusk; Amir M Ghaemmaghami

    Little is known about the quality of polyclonal antibody responses in COVID-19 patients, and how it correlates with disease severity or patients' prior exposure to other pathogens. The whole polyclonal antibody repertoire in a retrospective cohort of 538 individuals was mapped against SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein, the main target of antibody immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Bioinformatic

  • SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in health care workers
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Adrian M Shields; Sian E Faustini; Marisol Perez-Toledo; Sian Jossi; Erin L Aldera; Joel D Allen; Saly Al-Taei; Claire Backhouse; Andrew Bosworth; Lyndsey Dunbar; Daniel Ebanks; Beena Emmanuel; Joanne Grey; I Michael Kidd; Golaeh McGinnell; Dee McLoughlin; Gabriella Morley; Joanne O'Neill; Danai Papakonstantinou; Oliver Pickles; Charlotte Poxon; Megan Richter; Eloise Walker; Kasun Wanigasooriya; Yasunori

    Background The correlates of protection against SARS-CoV-2 and their longevity remain unclear. Studies in severely ill individuals have identified robust cellular and humoral immune responses against the virus. Asymptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2 has also been described, but it is unknown whether this is sufficient to produce antibody responses. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study recruiting

  • COVID-19 progression is potentially driven by T cell immunopathogenesis
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-05-19
    Moritz Anft; Krystallenia Paniskaki; Arturo Blazquez-Navarro; Adrian Atila Nicolas Doevelaar; Felix Seibert; Bodo Hoelzer; Sarah Skrzypczyk; Eva Kohut; Julia Kurek; Jan Zapka; Patrizia Wehler; Sviatlana Kaliszczyk; Sharon Bajda; Constantin Thieme; Toralf Roch; Margarethe Justine Konik; Thorsten Brenner; Clemens Tempfer; Carsten Watzl; Sebastian Dolff; Ulf Dittmer; Timm Westhoff; Oliver Witzke; Ulrik

    Background: The role of cellular immunity in pathogenesis of COVID-19 is unclear and conflicting data points to insufficient or pathogenic immunity as drivers of COVID-19 progression. Here we aimed to delineate the phenotype and function of the immune system in patients with moderate, severe, and critical COVID-19. Methods: In this prospective study, we included 53 patients with moderate (n=21), severe

  • The production of antibodies for SARS-CoV-2 and its clinical implication
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-24
    Qianfang Hu; Xiaoping Cui; Xinzhu Liu; Bin Peng; Jinyue Jiang; Xiaohui Wang; Yan Li; Wenhui Hu; Zhi Ao; Jun Duan; Xue Wang; Linxiao Zhu; Shuliang Guo; Guicheng Wu

    Background: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2(SARS-CoV-2), a novel betacoronavirus, has caused an outburst of pneumonia cases in Wuhan, China. We report the production of specific IgM and IgG antibodies after the infection of SARS-CoV-2 and its implication for the diagnosis, pathology and the course of the disease as well as the recurrence of positive nucleic acid tests after discharge

  • Long-term Coexistence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with Antibody Response in Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Bin Wang; Li Wang; Xianggen Kong; Jin Geng; Di Xiao; Chunhong Ma; Xuemei Jiang; Pei-Hui Wang

    Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection causing coronavirus disease 2019 has spread worldwide. Whether antibodies are important for the adaptive immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 infection needs to be determined. Here, 26 cases of COVID-19 in Jinan, China, were examined and shown to be mild or with common clinical symptoms and no cases of severe symptoms were found among these patients

  • Novel KITLG/SCF regulatory variants are associated with lung function in African American children with asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-21
    Angel Mak; Satria Sajuthi; Jaehyun Joo; Shujie Xiao; Patrick Sleiman; Marquitta J White; Eunice Y Lee; Benjamin Saef; Donglei Hu; Hongsheng Gui; Kevin L Keys; Fred Lurmann; Deepti Jain; Goncalo Abecasis; Hyun Min Kang; Deborah A Nickerson; Soren Germer; Michael C Zody; Lara Winterkorn; Catherine Reeves; Scott Huntsman; Celeste Eng; Sandra Salazar; Sam S Oh; Frank Gilliland; Zhanghua Chen; Rajesh Kumar;

    Baseline lung function, quantified as forced expiratory volume in the first second of exhalation (FEV1), is a standard diagnostic criterion used by clinicians to identify and classify lung diseases. Using whole genome sequencing data from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute TOPMed project, we identified a novel genetic association with FEV1 on chromosome 12 in 867 African American children

  • A serological assay to detect SARS-CoV-2 seroconversion in humans.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Fatima Amanat,Daniel Stadlbauer,Shirin Strohmeier,Thi H O Nguyen,Veronika Chromikova,Meagan McMahon,Kaijun Jiang,Guha Asthagiri Arunkumar,Denise Jurczyszak,Jose Polanco,Maria Bermudez-Gonzalez,Giulio Kleiner,Teresa Aydillo,Lisa Miorin,Daniel Fierer,Luz Amarilis Lugo,Erna Milunka Kojic,Jonathan Stoever,Sean T H Liu,Charlotte Cunningham-Rundles,Philip L Felgner,Thomas Moran,Adolfo Garcia-Sastre,Daniel

    SARS-Cov-2 (severe acute respiratory disease coronavirus 2), which causes Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID19) was first detected in China in late 2019 and has since then caused a global pandemic. While molecular assays to directly detect the viral genetic material are available for the diagnosis of acute infection, we currently lack serological assays suitable to specifically detect SARS-CoV-2 antibodies

  • Early-life exposure to perfluorinated alkyl substances modulates lipid metabolism in progression to celiac disease
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Lisanna Sinisalu; Partho Sen; Samira Salihovic; Suvi Virtanen; Heikki Hyoty; Jorma Ilonen; Jorma Toppari; Riitta Veijola; Matej Oresic; Mikael Knip; Tuulia Hyotylainen

    OBJECTIVES Celiac disease (CD) is a systemic immune-mediated disorder with increased frequency in the developed countries over the last decades implicating the potential causal role of various environmental triggers in addition to gluten. Herein, we apply determination of perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) and combine the results with the determination of bile acids (BAs) and molecular lipids,

  • The phenotypic changes of γδ T cells in COVID-19 patients
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    Lei Lei; Hongbo Qian; Xiaofeng Yang; Xiaobo Zhou; Xingzhe Zhang; Dan Zhang; Tongxin Dai; Rui Guo; Lin Shi; Yanbin Cheng; Baojun Zhang; Jinsong Hu Hu; Yaling Guo

    A novel pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome named coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), which caused by SARS-CoV-2 and broken in Wuhan, China in the end of 2019. Unfortunately, there is no specific antiviral agent or vaccine available to treat SARS-CoV-2 infections. Also, information regarding the immunological characteristics in COVID-19 patients remains limited. Here we collected the blood samples

  • Dynamic profile of severe or critical COVID-19 cases
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Yang Xu

    In December 2019, a cluster of acute respiratory illness, now known as SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia, occurred in Wuhan, China. World Health Organization (WHO) declared the rapidly spreading coronavirus outbreak a pandemic on March 11, 2020, acknowledging what has seemed clear for some time-the virus will likely spread to all countries on the globe. As of February 11, 2020, the Chinese Center for Disease Control

  • Characterization of anti-viral immunity in recovered individuals infected by SARS-CoV-2
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Chen Dong; Ling Ni; Fang Ye; Meng-Li Chen; Yu Feng; Yong-Qiang Deng; Hui Zhao; Peng Wei; Jiwan Ge; Xiaoli Li; Lin Sun; Pengzhi Wang; Peng Liang; Han Guo; Xinquan Wang; Cheng-Feng Qin; Fang Chen

    The WHO has declared SARS-CoV-2 outbreak a public health emergency of international concern. However, to date, there was hardly any study in characterizing the immune responses, especially adaptive immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection. In this study, we collected blood from COVID-19 patients who have recently become virus-free and therefore were discharged, and analyzed their SARS-CoV-2-specific

  • Evaluation of Nucleocapsid and Spike Protein-based ELISAs for detecting antibodies against SARS-CoV-2
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-03-20
    Wanbing Liu; Lei Liu; Guomei Kou; Yaqiong Zheng; Yinjuan Ding; Wenxu Ni; Qiongshu Wang; Li Tan; Wanlei Wu; Shi Tang; Zhou Xiong; Shangen Zheng

    Background: At present, PCR-based nucleic acid detection cannot meet the demands for coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) diagnosis. Methods: 214 confirmed COVID-19 patients who were hospitalized in the General Hospital of Central Theater Command of the People's Liberation Army between January 18 and February 26, 2020, were recruited. Two Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) kits based on

  • Development and validation of a transcriptional signature for the assessment of fibrosis in organs
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-03-17
    Bin Wang; Shiju Chen; Hongyan Qian; Rongjuan Chen; Yan He; Xinwei Zhang; Jingxiu Xuan; Yuan Liu; Guixiu Shi

    Background: Fibrosis in most organs has proven to be an critical factor related to high risk of morbidity and mortality, but an adequate assessment of fibrosis severity is still challenging. This study tried to evaluate fibrosis severity through a fibrosis transcriptional signature. Methods: A fibrosis transcriptional signature was developed through an integrated analysis of multiple expression profiling

  • The landscape of lung bronchoalveolar immune cells in COVID-19 revealed by single-cell RNA sequencing
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-02-26
    Minfeng Liao; Yang Liu; Jin Yuan; Yanling Wen; Gang Xu; Juanjuan Zhao; Lin Chen; Jinxiu Li; Xin Wang; Fuxiang Wang; Lei Liu; Shuye Zhang; Zheng Zhang

    The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2, etiological agent of recently named Coronavirus infected disease (COVID-19) by WHO, has caused more than 2, 000 deaths worldwide since its emergency in Wuhan City, Hubei province, China, in December, 2019. The symptoms of COVID-19 varied from modest, mild to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and the latter of which is generally associated with deregulated

  • Isolevuglandins promote autoimmunity and hypertension in systemic lupus erythematosus
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    David M. Patrick; Nestor D. Visitacion; Michelle J. Ormseth; Charles Michael Stein; Sean S. Davies; Valery N. Yermalitsky; Venkataraman Amarnath; Leslie J. Crofford; Jonathan M Williams; Sergey Dikalov; Anna Dikalova; Liang Xiao; Justin P. Van Beusecum; Mingfang Ao; Agnes B. Fogo; Kirabo Annet; David G. Harrison

    Hypertension, vascular inflammation and renal inflammation are characteristic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a multisystem autoimmune disease that is complex and poorly understood. Oxidation products of arachidonic and other fatty acids, termed isolevuglandins (isoLG) lead to formation of post-translational protein modifications that are immunogenic. We demonstrate isoLG enrichment in dendritic

  • ACE2 expression by colonic epithelial cells is associated with viral infection, immunity and energy metabolism
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Jun Wang; Shanmeizi Zhao; Ming Liu; Zhiyao Zhao; Yiping Xu; Ping Wang; Meng Lin; Yanhui Xu; Bing Huang; Xiaoyu Zuo; Zhanghua Chen; Fan Bai; Jun Cui; Andrew M Lew; Jincun Zhao; Yan Zhang; Haibin Luo; Yuxia Zhang

    Respiratory disease caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia first emerged in Wuhan, Hubei Province, China, in December 2019 and spread rapidly to other provinces and other countries. Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is the receptor for SARS-CoV and has been suggested to be also the receptor for 2019-nCoV. Paradoxically, ACE2 expression in the lung protects mice from SARS-CoV

  • High Risk Infants who are Low Dose Tolerant after Peanut Oral Food Challenges
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-02-03
    Adora Lin; Burcin Uygungil; Karen Robbins; Olivia Ackerman; Hemant Sharma

    Background: Early peanut (PN) introduction may prevent peanut allergy in at-risk children. Little data exists regarding early introduction for infants with large skin prick tests (SPT) or high peanut IgE levels, who are not often offered oral food challenges (OFC). Objective: To retrospectively assess tolerance of a low dose (1 gram) of peanut in infants at risk for peanut allergy, including highest-risk

  • Clinical utility of Basophil and B-cell biomarkers for monitoring disease activity in food allergy and food oral immunotherapy
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-01-23
    Oral Alpan; Theodore Kim; Douglas Jones; Atul Shah; Richard Wasserman

    As research in the field of food allergy is gaining momentum with new and emerging therapies there is need for both researchers and clinicians to have a better understanding on how to put all this new information into context in clinical care. We are continuously learning from other fields, such as oncology, that a one-shoe-fits all type approaches are becoming the practice of the past and there is

  • Personalised prediction of daily eczema severity scores using a mechanistic machine learning model
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-01-18
    Guillem Hurault; Elisa Domínguez-Hüttinger; Sinéad M Langan; Hywel C Williams; Reiko J Tanaka

    Background: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with periods of flares and remission. Designing personalised treatment strategies for AD is challenging, given the apparent unpredictability and large variation in AD symptoms and treatment responses within and across individuals. Better prediction of AD severity over time for individual patients could help to select optimum

  • Exploiting the Reverse Vaccinology Approach to Design Novel Subunit Vaccine against Ebola Virus
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Md. Asad Ullah; Bishajit Sarkar; Syed Sajidul Islam

    Ebola virus is a highly pathogenic RNA virus that causes haemorrhagic fever in human. With very high mortality rate, Ebola virus is considered as one of the dangerous viruses in the world. Although, the Ebola outbreaks claimed many lives in the past, no satisfactory treatment or vaccine have been discovered yet to fight against Ebola. For this reason, in this study, various tools of bioinformatics

  • Pilot assessment of low NK cell-mediated ADCC and FCGR3A genetics in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS): Based on inclusion of family members without ME/CFS as controls, low ADCC is unsuitable as a diagnostic biomarker
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Alexander P. Sung; Jennifer J-J Tang; Michael J Guglielmo; Julie Smith-Gagen; Lucinda Bateman; Doug D. Redelman; Dorothy Hudig

    ADCC (antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity) is dependent on the varying capacity of NK cells to kill, the affinities of FCGR3A-encoded CD16A receptors for antibody, and the presence of antigen-specific antibodies. In vivo ADCC depends on the number of CD16A receptor-positive NK cells in blood. We hypothesized that low ADCC cell function or low effector cell numbers could be biomarkers or risk

  • Differential asthma risk following respiratory infection in children from three minority populations
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Eric M Wohlford; Luisa N Borrell; Jennifer R Elhawary; Brian Plotkin; Sam S Oh; Thomas J Nuckton; Celeste Eng; Sandra Salazar; Michael A Lenoir; Kelly Meade; Harold J Farber; Denise Serebrisky; Emerita Brigino-Buenaventura; William Rodriguez-Cintron; Rajesh Kumar; Shannon Thyne; Max A Seibold; Jose R Rodriguez-Santana; Esteban G Burchard

    Rationale: Severe early-life respiratory illnesses, particularly those caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and human rhinovirus (HRV), are strongly associated with the development of asthma in children. Puerto Rican children in particular have a strikingly high asthma burden, but prior studies of the potential associations between early-life respiratory illnesses and asthma in Puerto Rican

  • Novel meta-analysis pipeline of heterogeneous high-throughput gene expression datasets reveals dysregulated interactions and pathways in asthma
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Brandon Guo; Abhinav Kaushik; Kari C. Nadeau

    Introduction: Asthma is a complex and chronic inflammatory disorder with varying degrees of airway inflammation. It affects ~235 million people worldwide, and about 8% of the United States population. Unlike single-gene disorders, asthma phenotypes are guided by a highly variable combination of genotypes, making it a complex disease to study computationally. Recently, several independent high-throughput

  • Evidence linking atopy and staphylococcal superantigens to the pathogenesis of lymphomatoid papulosis, a recurrent CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Marshall E Kadin; Robert C Hamilton; Eric C Vonderheid

    Background: Lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) is a self-healing CD30+ cutaneous lymphoproliferative disorder (CLPD) with paradoxical histology of a malignant lymphoma. Case reports and small patient series suggest an association of LyP with atopy. However, the prevalence of atopy depends on patient recall which is not always reliable. More objective criteria of atopy include skin reactivity to allergens

  • Not all animals are equal - farm living and allergy in Upper Bavaria
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-10-08
    Matthias Wjst

    Background: A lower allergy and asthma prevalence in farm children has been described three decades ago in Switzerland. Objective: After years of research into bacterial exposure at farms, the origin of the farm effect is still unknown. We now hypothesize, that there is no such an effect in large industrial cattle farms with slatted floors indoors but in small farms only where animals are grazing outdoors

  • Clinical and laboratory characteristics of clozapine treated schizophrenia patients referred to a national immunodeficiency clinic reveals a B-cell signature resembling CVID.
    medRxiv. Allergy Immunol. Pub Date : 2019-10-02
    Mark J Ponsford; Rachael Steven; Kathryn Bramhall; Mathew Burgess; Sonali Wijetilleka; Emily Carne; Frances McGuire; Colin R Price; Mo Moody; Soha Zouwail; Tayyeb Tahir; Daniel Farewell; Tariq El-Shanawany; Stephen Jolles

    Purpose: An association between antibody deficiency and clozapine use in individuals with Schizophrenia has recently been reported. We hypothesized that if clozapine-associated hypogammaglobulinaemia was clinically relevant this would manifest in referral patterns. Methods: Retrospective case note review of patients referred and assessed by Immunology Centre for Wales (ICW) between January 2005 and

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.