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  • The Evolutionary and Historical Foundation of the Modern Horse: Lessons from Ancient Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Ludovic Orlando

    The domestication of the horse some 5,500 years ago followed those of dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs by ∼2,500–10,000 years. By providing fast transportation and transforming warfare, the horse had an impact on human history with no equivalent in the animal kingdom. Even though the equine sport industry has considerable economic value today, the evolutionary history underlying the emergence of

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • A Field Guide to Eukaryotic Transposable Elements.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Jonathan N Wells,Cédric Feschotte

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that propagate within genomes. Through diverse invasion strategies, TEs have come to occupy a substantial fraction of nearly all eukaryotic genomes, and they represent a major source of genetic variation and novelty. Here we review the defining features of each major group of eukaryotic TEs and explore their evolutionary origins and relationships

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates and Resulting Outcomes of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Julian S Peters,Nabila Ismail,Anzaan Dippenaar,Shuyi Ma,David R Sherman,Robin M Warren,Bavesh D Kana

    Tuberculosis claims more human lives than any other bacterial infectious disease and represents a clear and present danger to global health as new tools for vaccination, treatment, and interruption of transmission have been slow to emerge. Additionally, tuberculosis presents with notable clinical heterogeneity, which complicates diagnosis, treatment, and the establishment of nonrelapsing cure. How

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Mosaicism in Human Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Jeremy Thorpe,Ikeoluwa A Osei-Owusu,Bracha Erlanger Avigdor,Rossella Tupler,Jonathan Pevsner

    Mosaicism refers to the occurrence of two or more genomes in an individual derived from a single zygote. Germline mosaicism is a mutation that is limited to the gonads and can be transmitted to offspring. Somatic mosaicism is a postzygotic mutation that occurs in the soma, and it may occur at any developmental stage or in adult tissues. Mosaic variation may be classified in six ways: (a) germline or

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Canary in the Coal Mine? Male Infertility as a Marker of Overall Health
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Nahid Punjani; Dolores J. Lamb

    Male factor infertility is a common problem. Evidence is emerging regarding the spectrum of systemic disease and illness harbored by infertile men who otherwise appear healthy. In this review, we present evidence that infertile men have poor overall health and increased morbidity and mortality, increased rates of both genitourinary and non-genitourinary malignancy, and greater risks of systemic disease

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • What Has a Century of Quantitative Genetics Taught Us About Nature's Genetic Toolkit?
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Christopher M Jakobson,Daniel F Jarosz

    The complexity of heredity has been appreciated for decades: Many traits are controlled not by a single genetic locus but instead by polymorphisms throughout the genome. The importance of complex traits in biology and medicine has motivated diverse approaches to understanding their detailed genetic bases. Here, we focus on recent systematic studies, many in budding yeast, which have revealed that large

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Linking Genes to Shape in Plants Using Morphometrics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Hao Xu,George W Bassel

    A transition from qualitative to quantitative descriptors of morphology has been facilitated through the growing field of morphometrics, representing the conversion of shapes and patterns into numbers. The analysis of plant form at the macromorphological scale using morphometric approaches quantifies what is commonly referred to as a phenotype. Quantitative phenotypic analysis of individuals with contrasting

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Toxin-Antidote Elements Across the Tree of Life.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Alejandro Burga,Eyal Ben-David,Leonid Kruglyak

    In life's constant battle for survival, it takes one to kill but two to conquer. Toxin-antitoxin or toxin-antidote (TA) elements are genetic dyads that cheat the laws of inheritance to guarantee their transmission to the next generation. This seemingly simple genetic arrangement—a toxin linked to its antidote—is capable of quickly spreading and persisting in natural populations. TA elements were first

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Pioneer Transcription Factors Initiating Gene Network Changes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Kenneth S Zaret

    Pioneer transcription factors have the intrinsic biochemical ability to scan partial DNA sequence motifs that are exposed on the surface of a nucleosome and thus access silent genes that are inaccessible to other transcription factors. Pioneer factors subsequently enable other transcription factors, nucleosome remodeling complexes, and histone modifiers to engage chromatin, thereby initiating the formation

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Transposon Insertion Sequencing, a Global Measure of Gene Function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Tim van Opijnen,Henry L Levin

    The goal of genomics and systems biology is to understand how complex systems of factors assemble into pathways and structures that combine to form living organisms. Great advances in understanding biological processes result from determining the function of individual genes, a process that has classically relied on characterizing single mutations. Advances in DNA sequencing has made available the

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Regulation and Function of RNA Pseudouridylation in Human Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Erin K Borchardt,Nicole M Martinez,Wendy V Gilbert

    Recent advances in pseudouridine detection reveal a complex pseudouridine landscape that includes messenger RNA and diverse classes of noncoding RNA in human cells. The known molecular functions of pseudouridine, which include stabilizing RNA conformations and destabilizing interactions with varied RNA-binding proteins, suggest that RNA pseudouridylation could have widespread effects on RNA metabolism

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • New Horizons for Dissecting Epistasis in Crop Quantitative Trait Variation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Sebastian Soyk,Matthias Benoit,Zachary B Lippman

    Uncovering the genes, variants, and interactions underlying crop diversity is a frontier in plant genetics. Phenotypic variation often does not reflect the cumulative effect of individual gene mutations. This deviation is due to epistasis, in which interactions between alleles are often unpredictable and quantitative in effect. Recent advances in genomics and genome-editing technologies are elevating

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Moonlighting Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Nadia Singh,Needhi Bhalla

    The single gene, single protein, single function hypothesis is increasingly becoming obsolete. Numerous studies have demonstrated that individual proteins can moonlight, meaning they can have multiple functions based on their cellular or developmental context. In this review, we discuss moonlighting proteins, highlighting the biological pathways where this phenomenon may be particularly relevant. In

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Conserved Upstream Open Reading Frame Nascent Peptides that Control Translation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Thomas E Dever,Ivaylo P Ivanov,Matthew S Sachs

    Cells utilize transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms to alter gene expression in response to environmental cues. Gene-specific controls, including changing the translation of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), provide a rapid means to respond precisely to different conditions. Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are known to control the translation of mRNAs. Recent studies in bacteria and

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Evolutionary Genomics of High Fecundity.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Bjarki Eldon

    Natural highly fecund populations abound. These range from viruses to gadids. Many highly fecund populations are economically important. Highly fecund populations provide an important contrast to the low-fecundity organisms that have traditionally been applied in evolutionary studies. A key question regarding high fecundity is whether large numbers of offspring are produced on a regular basis, by few

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Canalization and Robustness in Human Genetics and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Greg Gibson,Kristine A Lacek

    Canalization refers to the evolution of populations such that the number of individuals who deviate from the optimum trait, or experience disease, is minimized. In the presence of rapid cultural, environmental, or genetic change, the reverse process of decanalization may contribute to observed increases in disease prevalence. This review starts by defining relevant concepts, drawing distinctions between

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Measuring and Modeling Single-Cell Heterogeneity and Fate Decision in Mouse Embryos.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Jonathan Fiorentino,Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla,Antonio Scialdone

    Cellular heterogeneity is a property of any living system; however, its relationship with cellular fate decision remains an open question. Recent technological advances have enabled valuable insights, especially in complex systems such as the mouse embryo. In this review, we discuss recent studies that characterize cellular heterogeneity at different levels during mouse development, from the two-cell

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Mitochondria Are Fundamental for the Emergence of Metazoans: On Metabolism, Genomic Regulation, and the Birth of Complex Organisms.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Hadar Medini,Tal Cohen,Dan Mishmar

    Out of many intracellular bacteria, only the mitochondria and chloroplasts abandoned their independence billions of years ago and became endosymbionts within the host eukaryotic cell. Consequently, one cannot grow eukaryotic cells without their mitochondria, and the mitochondria cannot divide outside of the cell, thus reflecting interdependence. Here, we argue that such interdependence underlies the

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Histone Variants: The Nexus of Developmental Decisions and Epigenetic Memory.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Benjamin Loppin,Frédéric Berger

    Nucleosome dynamics and properties are central to all forms of genomic activities. Among the core histones, H3 variants play a pivotal role in modulating nucleosome structure and function. Here, we focus on the impact of H3 variants on various facets of development. The deposition of the replicative H3 variant following DNA replication is essential for the transmission of the epigenomic information

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Molecular Mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas Immunity in Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Philip M Nussenzweig,Luciano A Marraffini

    Prokaryotes have developed numerous defense strategies to combat the constant threat posed by the diverse genetic parasites that endanger them. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas loci guard their hosts with an adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Protection starts with an immunization phase, in which short pieces of the invader's genome, known as

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Brown Algal Model Organisms
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Susana M. Coelho; J. Mark Cock

    Model organisms are extensively used in research as accessible and convenient systems for studying a particular area or question in biology. Traditionally, only a limited number of organisms have been studied in detail, but modern genomic tools are enabling researchers to extend beyond the set of classical model organisms to include novel species from less-studied phylogenetic groups. This review focuses

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Noncanonical Roles of tRNAs: tRNA Fragments and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Zhangli Su,Briana Wilson,Pankaj Kumar,Anindya Dutta

    As one of the most abundant and conserved RNA species, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are well known for their role in reading the codons on messenger RNAs and translating them into proteins. In this review, we discuss the noncanonical functions of tRNAs. These include tRNAs as precursors to novel small RNA molecules derived from tRNAs, also called tRNA-derived fragments, that are abundant across species and

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • RAD51 Gene Family Structure and Function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    Braulio Bonilla,Sarah R Hengel,McKenzie K Grundy,Kara A Bernstein

    Accurate DNA repair and replication are critical for genomic stability and cancer prevention. RAD51 and its gene family are key regulators of DNA fidelity through diverse roles in double-strand break repair, replication stress, and meiosis. RAD51 is an ATPase that forms a nucleoprotein filament on single-stranded DNA. RAD51 has the function of finding and invading homologous DNA sequences to enable

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • The Sins of Our Forefathers: Paternal Impacts on De Novo Mutation Rate and Development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-11-23
    R John Aitken,Geoffry N De Iuliis,Brett Nixon

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are generally characterized by excellent DNA surveillance and repair, resulting in one of the lowest spontaneous mutation rates in the body. However, the barriers to mutagenesis can be overwhelmed under two sets of circumstances. First, replication errors may generate age-dependent mutations that provide the mutant cells with a selective advantage, leading to the clonal

    更新日期:2020-11-25
  • Zebrafish Pigment Pattern Formation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Adult Form.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Larissa B Patterson,David M Parichy

    Vertebrate pigment patterns are diverse and fascinating adult traits that allow animals to recognize conspecifics, attract mates, and avoid predators. Pigment patterns in fish are among the most amenable traits for studying the cellular basis of adult form, as the cells that produce diverse patterns are readily visible in the skin during development. The genetic basis of pigment pattern development

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Power of Human Cancer Genetics as Revealed by Low-Grade Gliomas.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    David T W Jones,Pratiti Bandopadhayay,Nada Jabado

    The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Organization of Chromosomal DNA by SMC Complexes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Stanislau Yatskevich,James Rhodes,Kim Nasmyth

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are key organizers of chromosome architecture in all kingdoms of life. Despite seemingly divergent functions, such as chromosome segregation, chromosome maintenance, sister chromatid cohesion, and mitotic chromosome compaction, it appears that these complexes function via highly conserved mechanisms and that they represent a novel class of DNA translocases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction and the Mating-Type Locus: Links to Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Human Pathogenic Fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Sheng Sun,Marco A Coelho,Márcia David-Palma,Shelby J Priest,Joseph Heitman

    Cryptococcus species utilize a variety of sexual reproduction mechanisms, which generate genetic diversity, purge deleterious mutations, and contribute to their ability to occupy myriad environmental niches and exhibit a range of pathogenic potential. The bisexual and unisexual cycles of pathogenic Cryptococcus species are stimulated by properties associated with their environmental niches and proceed

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Arms Race Between KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins and Endogenous Retroelements and Its Impact on Mammals.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Melania Bruno,Mohamed Mahgoub,Todd S Macfarlan

    Nearly half of the human genome consists of endogenous retroelements (EREs) and their genetic remnants, a small fraction of which carry the potential to propagate in the host genome, posing a threat to genome integrity and cell/organismal survival. The largest family of transcription factors in tetrapods, the Krüppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs), binds to specific EREs and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The foraging Gene and Its Behavioral Effects: Pleiotropy and Plasticity.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Ina Anreiter,Marla B Sokolowski

    The Drosophila melanogaster foraging (for) gene is a well-established example of a gene with major effects on behavior and natural variation. This gene is best known for underlying the behavioral strategies of rover and sitter foraging larvae, having been mapped and named for this phenotype. Nevertheless, in the last three decades an extensive array of studies describing for's role as a modifier of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Standard Deviations: The Biological Bases of Transmission Ratio Distortion.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lila Fishman,Mariah McIntosh

    The rule of Mendelian inheritance is remarkably robust, but deviations from the equal transmission of alternative alleles at a locus [a.k.a. transmission ratio distortion (TRD)] are also commonly observed in genetic mapping populations. Such TRD reveals locus-specific selection acting at some point between the diploid heterozygous parents and progeny genotyping and therefore can provide novel insight

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Regulation of Genomic Output and (Pluri)potency in Regeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Elizabeth M Duncan,Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    Regeneration is a remarkable phenomenon that has been the subject of awe and bafflement for hundreds of years. Although regeneration competence is found in highly divergent organisms throughout the animal kingdom, recent advances in tools used for molecular and genomic characterization have uncovered common genes, molecular mechanisms, and genomic features in regenerating animals. In this review we

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Natural Viruses of Caenorhabditis Nematodes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Marie-Anne Félix,David Wang

    Caenorhabditis elegans has long been a laboratory model organism with no known natural pathogens. In the past ten years, however, natural viruses have been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans (Orsay virus) and its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae (Santeuil virus, Le Blanc virus, and Melnik virus). All are RNA positive-sense viruses related to Nodaviridae; they infect intestinal cells and are horizontally

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multigenerational Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Chromatin Landscape by Germline Small RNAs.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Natasha E Weiser,John K Kim

    In animals, small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in the germline and transmitted to progeny control gene expression to promote fertility. Germline-expressed small RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), drive the repression of deleterious transcripts such as transposons, repetitive elements, and pseudogenes. Recent studies have highlighted

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Microglia in Brain Development, Homeostasis, and Neurodegeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Christopher J Bohlen,Brad A Friedman,Borislav Dejanovic,Morgan Sheng

    Advances in human genetics have implicated a growing number of genes in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insight into pathological processes. For Alzheimer disease in particular, genome-wide association studies and gene expression studies have emphasized the pathogenic contributions from microglial cells and motivated studies of microglial function/dysfunction. Here, we summarize recent genetic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Microbiome and Aging.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Bianca Bana,Filipe Cabreiro

    Aging is a natural process of organismal decay that underpins the development of myriad diseases and disorders. Extensive efforts have been made to understand the biology of aging and its regulation, but most studies focus solely on the host organism. Considering the pivotal role of the microbiota in host health and metabolism, we propose viewing the host and its microbiota as a single biological entity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mechanisms of DNA Uptake by Naturally Competent Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    David Dubnau,Melanie Blokesch

    Transformation is a widespread mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. DNA uptake to the periplasmic compartment requires a DNA-uptake pilus and the DNA-binding protein ComEA. In the gram-negative bacteria, DNA is first pulled toward the outer membrane by retraction of the pilus and then taken up by binding to periplasmic ComEA, acting as a Brownian ratchet to prevent backward diffusion

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Living with Two Genomes: Grafting and Its Implications for Plant Genome-to-Genome Interactions, Phenotypic Variation, and Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Brandon S Gaut,Allison J Miller,Danelle K Seymour

    Plant genomes interact when genetically distinct individuals join, or are joined, together. Individuals can fuse in three contexts: artificial grafts, natural grafts, and host-parasite interactions. Artificial grafts have been studied for decades and are important platforms for studying the movement of RNA, DNA, and protein. Yet several mysteries about artificial grafts remain, including the factors

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Simon Alberti,Dorothee Dormann

    We have made rapid progress in recent years in identifying the genetic causes of many human diseases. However, despite this recent progress, our mechanistic understanding of these diseases is often incomplete. This is a problem because it limits our ability to develop effective disease treatments. To overcome this limitation, we need new concepts to describe and comprehend the complex mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Light in the Fungal World: From Photoreception to Gene Transcription and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Luis M Corrochano

    Fungi see light of different colors by using photoreceptors such as the White Collar proteins and cryptochromes for blue light, opsins for green light, and phytochromes for red light. Light regulates fungal development, promotes the accumulation of protective pigments and proteins, and regulates tropic growth. The White Collar complex (WCC) is a photoreceptor and a transcription factor that is responsible

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Factors in Mammalian Prion Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Simon Mead,Sarah Lloyd,John Collinge

    Mammalian prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative conditions caused by infection of the central nervous system with proteinaceous agents called prions, including sporadic, variant, and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; kuru; inherited prion disease; sheep scrapie; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease. Prions are composed of misfolded and multimeric forms of the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolutionary Ecology of Wolbachia Releases for Disease Control.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Perran A Ross,Michael Turelli,Ary A Hoffmann

    Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic Alphaproteobacteria that can suppress insect-borne diseases through decreasing host virus transmission (population replacement) or through decreasing host population density (population suppression). We contrast natural Wolbachia infections in insect populations with Wolbachia transinfections in mosquitoes to gain insights into factors potentially affecting the long-term

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Drosophila Myoblast Fusion: Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Donghoon M Lee,Elizabeth H Chen

    Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cell Size Control in Plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Marco D'Ario,Robert Sablowski

    The genetic control of the characteristic cell sizes of different species and tissues is a long-standing enigma. Plants are convenient for studying this question in a multicellular context, as their cells do not move and are easily tracked and measured from organ initiation in the meristems to subsequent morphogenesis and differentiation. In this article, we discuss cell size control in plants compared

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Crossover Interference: Shedding Light on the Evolution of Recombination.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Sarah P Otto,Bret A Payseur

    Through recombination, genes are freed to evolve more independently of one another, unleashing genetic variance hidden in the linkage disequilibrium that accumulates through selection combined with drift. Yet crossover numbers are evolutionarily constrained, with at least one and not many more than one crossover per bivalent in most taxa. Crossover interference, whereby a crossover reduces the probability

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Screens to Analyze Pattern Formation of Egg and Embryo in Drosophila: A Personal History.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Trudi Schüpbach

    In Drosophila development, the axes of the egg and future embryo are established during oogenesis. To learn about the underlying genetic and molecular pathways that lead to axis formation, I conducted a large-scale genetic screen at the beginning of my independent career. This led to the eventual understanding that both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern information is transmitted from the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Tracing My Roots: How I Became a Plant Biologist
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Frederick M. Ausubel

    My trajectory to becoming a plant biologist was shaped by a complex mix of scientific, political, sociological, and personal factors. I was trained as a microbiologist and molecular biologist in the late 1960s and early 1970s, a time of political upheaval surrounding the Vietnam War. My political activism taught me to be wary of the potential misuses of scientific knowledge and to promote the positive

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Transgenerational Epigenetic Inheritance
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Ana Bošković, Oliver J. Rando

    Inheritance of genomic DNA underlies the vast majority of biological inheritance, yet it has been clear for decades that additional epigenetic information can be passed on to future generations. Here, we review major model systems for transgenerational epigenetic inheritance via the germline in multicellular organisms. In addition to surveying examples of epivariation that may arise stochastically

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Mechanisms of Neural Crest Migration
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    András Szabó, Roberto Mayor

    Neural crest cells are a transient embryonic cell population that migrate collectively to various locations throughout the embryo to contribute a number of cell types to several organs. After induction, the neural crest delaminates and undergoes an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition before migrating through intricate yet characteristic paths. The neural crest exhibits a variety of migratory behaviors

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • The Hippo Signaling Network and Its Biological Functions
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Jyoti R. Misra, Kenneth D. Irvine

    Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved network that has a central role in regulating cell proliferation and cell fate to control organ growth and regeneration. It promotes activation of the LATS kinases, which control gene expression by inhibiting the activity of the transcriptional coactivator proteins YAP and TAZ in mammals and Yorkie in Drosophila. Diverse upstream inputs, including both

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • The Smc5/6 Complex: New and Old Functions of the Enigmatic Long-Distance Relative
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Luis Aragón

    Smc5 and Smc6, together with the kleisin Nse4, form the heart of the enigmatic and poorly understood Smc5/6 complex, which is frequently viewed as a cousin of cohesin and condensin with functions in DNA repair. As novel functions for cohesin and condensin complexes in the organization of long-range chromatin architecture have recently emerged, new unsuspected roles for Smc5/6 have also surfaced. Here

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • H3–H4 Histone Chaperone Pathways
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Prerna Grover, Jonathon S. Asa, Eric I. Campos

    Nucleosomes compact and organize genetic material on a structural level. However, they also alter local chromatin accessibility through changes in their position, through the incorporation of histone variants, and through a vast array of histone posttranslational modifications. The dynamic nature of chromatin requires histone chaperones to process, deposit, and evict histones in different tissues and

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Metabolic Gene Clusters in Eukaryotes
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Hans-Wilhelm Nützmann, Claudio Scazzocchio, Anne Osbourn

    In bacteria, more than half of the genes in the genome are organized in operons. In contrast, in eukaryotes, functionally related genes are usually dispersed across the genome. There are, however, numerous examples of functional clusters of nonhomologous genes for metabolic pathways in fungi and plants. Despite superficial similarities with operons (physical clustering, coordinate regulation), these

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Genetic Control of Early Cell Lineages in the Mammalian Embryo
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Janet Rossant

    Establishing the different lineages of the early mammalian embryo takes place over several days and several rounds of cell divisions from the fertilized egg. The resulting blastocyst contains the pluripotent cells of the epiblast, from which embryonic stem cells can be derived, as well as the extraembryonic lineages required for a mammalian embryo to survive in the uterine environment. The dynamics

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Power in Numbers: Single-Cell RNA-Seq Strategies to Dissect Complex Tissues
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Kenneth D. Birnbaum

    The growing scale and declining cost of single-cell RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) now permit a repetition of cell sampling that increases the power to detect rare cell states, reconstruct developmental trajectories, and measure phenotype in new terms such as cellular variance. The characterization of anatomy and developmental dynamics has not had an equivalent breakthrough since groundbreaking advances

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Shelterin-Mediated Telomere Protection
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Titia de Lange

    For more than a decade, it has been known that mammalian cells use shelterin to protect chromosome ends. Much progress has been made on the mechanism by which shelterin prevents telomeres from inadvertently activating DNA damage signaling and double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways. Shelterin averts activation of three DNA damage response enzymes [the ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) and ataxia

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Understanding the Genetic Basis of C4 Kranz Anatomy with a View to Engineering C3 Crops
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Olga V. Sedelnikova, Thomas E. Hughes, Jane A. Langdale

    One of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution is the transition from C3 to C4 photosynthesis, an event that occurred on over 60 independent occasions. The evolution of C4 is particularly noteworthy because of the complexity of the developmental and metabolic changes that took place. In most cases, compartmentalized metabolic reactions were facilitated by the development of a distinct

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Aging in a Dish: iPSC-Derived and Directly Induced Neurons for Studying Brain Aging and Age-Related Neurodegenerative Diseases
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Jerome Mertens, Dylan Reid, Shong Lau, Yongsung Kim, Fred H. Gage

    Age-associated neurological diseases represent a profound challenge in biomedical research as we are still struggling to understand the interface between the aging process and the manifestation of disease. Various pathologies in the elderly do not directly result from genetic mutations, toxins, or infectious agents but are primarily driven by the many manifestations of biological aging. Therefore,

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Chromosome Dynamics in Response to DNA Damage
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Andrew Seeber, Michael H. Hauer, Susan M. Gasser

    Recent advances in both the technologies used to measure chromatin movement and the biophysical analysis used to model them have yielded a fuller understanding of chromatin dynamics and the polymer structure that underlies it. Changes in nucleosome packing, checkpoint kinase activation, the cell cycle, chromosomal tethers, and external forces acting on nuclei in response to external and internal stimuli

    更新日期:2018-11-26
  • Chemical Modifications in the Life of an mRNA Transcript.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2018-11-26
    Sigrid Nachtergaele,Chuan He

    Investigations over the past eight years of chemical modifications on messenger RNA (mRNA) have revealed a new level of posttranscriptional gene regulation in eukaryotes. Rapid progress in our understanding of these modifications, particularly, N6-methyladenosine (m6A), has revealed their roles throughout the life cycle of an mRNA transcript. m6A methylation provides a rapid mechanism for coordinated

    更新日期:2018-11-26
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