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  • Zebrafish Pigment Pattern Formation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Adult Form.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Larissa B Patterson,David M Parichy

    Vertebrate pigment patterns are diverse and fascinating adult traits that allow animals to recognize conspecifics, attract mates, and avoid predators. Pigment patterns in fish are among the most amenable traits for studying the cellular basis of adult form, as the cells that produce diverse patterns are readily visible in the skin during development. The genetic basis of pigment pattern development

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Power of Human Cancer Genetics as Revealed by Low-Grade Gliomas.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    David T W Jones,Pratiti Bandopadhayay,Nada Jabado

    The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Organization of Chromosomal DNA by SMC Complexes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Stanislau Yatskevich,James Rhodes,Kim Nasmyth

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are key organizers of chromosome architecture in all kingdoms of life. Despite seemingly divergent functions, such as chromosome segregation, chromosome maintenance, sister chromatid cohesion, and mitotic chromosome compaction, it appears that these complexes function via highly conserved mechanisms and that they represent a novel class of DNA translocases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction and the Mating-Type Locus: Links to Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Human Pathogenic Fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Sheng Sun,Marco A Coelho,Márcia David-Palma,Shelby J Priest,Joseph Heitman

    Cryptococcus species utilize a variety of sexual reproduction mechanisms, which generate genetic diversity, purge deleterious mutations, and contribute to their ability to occupy myriad environmental niches and exhibit a range of pathogenic potential. The bisexual and unisexual cycles of pathogenic Cryptococcus species are stimulated by properties associated with their environmental niches and proceed

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Arms Race Between KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins and Endogenous Retroelements and Its Impact on Mammals.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Melania Bruno,Mohamed Mahgoub,Todd S Macfarlan

    Nearly half of the human genome consists of endogenous retroelements (EREs) and their genetic remnants, a small fraction of which carry the potential to propagate in the host genome, posing a threat to genome integrity and cell/organismal survival. The largest family of transcription factors in tetrapods, the Krüppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs), binds to specific EREs and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The foraging Gene and Its Behavioral Effects: Pleiotropy and Plasticity.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Ina Anreiter,Marla B Sokolowski

    The Drosophila melanogaster foraging (for) gene is a well-established example of a gene with major effects on behavior and natural variation. This gene is best known for underlying the behavioral strategies of rover and sitter foraging larvae, having been mapped and named for this phenotype. Nevertheless, in the last three decades an extensive array of studies describing for's role as a modifier of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Standard Deviations: The Biological Bases of Transmission Ratio Distortion.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lila Fishman,Mariah McIntosh

    The rule of Mendelian inheritance is remarkably robust, but deviations from the equal transmission of alternative alleles at a locus [a.k.a. transmission ratio distortion (TRD)] are also commonly observed in genetic mapping populations. Such TRD reveals locus-specific selection acting at some point between the diploid heterozygous parents and progeny genotyping and therefore can provide novel insight

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Regulation of Genomic Output and (Pluri)potency in Regeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Elizabeth M Duncan,Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    Regeneration is a remarkable phenomenon that has been the subject of awe and bafflement for hundreds of years. Although regeneration competence is found in highly divergent organisms throughout the animal kingdom, recent advances in tools used for molecular and genomic characterization have uncovered common genes, molecular mechanisms, and genomic features in regenerating animals. In this review we

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Natural Viruses of Caenorhabditis Nematodes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Marie-Anne Félix,David Wang

    Caenorhabditis elegans has long been a laboratory model organism with no known natural pathogens. In the past ten years, however, natural viruses have been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans (Orsay virus) and its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae (Santeuil virus, Le Blanc virus, and Melnik virus). All are RNA positive-sense viruses related to Nodaviridae; they infect intestinal cells and are horizontally

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multigenerational Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Chromatin Landscape by Germline Small RNAs.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Natasha E Weiser,John K Kim

    In animals, small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in the germline and transmitted to progeny control gene expression to promote fertility. Germline-expressed small RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), drive the repression of deleterious transcripts such as transposons, repetitive elements, and pseudogenes. Recent studies have highlighted

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Microglia in Brain Development, Homeostasis, and Neurodegeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Christopher J Bohlen,Brad A Friedman,Borislav Dejanovic,Morgan Sheng

    Advances in human genetics have implicated a growing number of genes in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insight into pathological processes. For Alzheimer disease in particular, genome-wide association studies and gene expression studies have emphasized the pathogenic contributions from microglial cells and motivated studies of microglial function/dysfunction. Here, we summarize recent genetic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Microbiome and Aging.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Bianca Bana,Filipe Cabreiro

    Aging is a natural process of organismal decay that underpins the development of myriad diseases and disorders. Extensive efforts have been made to understand the biology of aging and its regulation, but most studies focus solely on the host organism. Considering the pivotal role of the microbiota in host health and metabolism, we propose viewing the host and its microbiota as a single biological entity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mechanisms of DNA Uptake by Naturally Competent Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    David Dubnau,Melanie Blokesch

    Transformation is a widespread mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. DNA uptake to the periplasmic compartment requires a DNA-uptake pilus and the DNA-binding protein ComEA. In the gram-negative bacteria, DNA is first pulled toward the outer membrane by retraction of the pilus and then taken up by binding to periplasmic ComEA, acting as a Brownian ratchet to prevent backward diffusion

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Living with Two Genomes: Grafting and Its Implications for Plant Genome-to-Genome Interactions, Phenotypic Variation, and Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Brandon S Gaut,Allison J Miller,Danelle K Seymour

    Plant genomes interact when genetically distinct individuals join, or are joined, together. Individuals can fuse in three contexts: artificial grafts, natural grafts, and host-parasite interactions. Artificial grafts have been studied for decades and are important platforms for studying the movement of RNA, DNA, and protein. Yet several mysteries about artificial grafts remain, including the factors

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Simon Alberti,Dorothee Dormann

    We have made rapid progress in recent years in identifying the genetic causes of many human diseases. However, despite this recent progress, our mechanistic understanding of these diseases is often incomplete. This is a problem because it limits our ability to develop effective disease treatments. To overcome this limitation, we need new concepts to describe and comprehend the complex mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Light in the Fungal World: From Photoreception to Gene Transcription and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Luis M Corrochano

    Fungi see light of different colors by using photoreceptors such as the White Collar proteins and cryptochromes for blue light, opsins for green light, and phytochromes for red light. Light regulates fungal development, promotes the accumulation of protective pigments and proteins, and regulates tropic growth. The White Collar complex (WCC) is a photoreceptor and a transcription factor that is responsible

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Factors in Mammalian Prion Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Simon Mead,Sarah Lloyd,John Collinge

    Mammalian prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative conditions caused by infection of the central nervous system with proteinaceous agents called prions, including sporadic, variant, and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; kuru; inherited prion disease; sheep scrapie; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease. Prions are composed of misfolded and multimeric forms of the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolutionary Ecology of Wolbachia Releases for Disease Control.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Perran A Ross,Michael Turelli,Ary A Hoffmann

    Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic Alphaproteobacteria that can suppress insect-borne diseases through decreasing host virus transmission (population replacement) or through decreasing host population density (population suppression). We contrast natural Wolbachia infections in insect populations with Wolbachia transinfections in mosquitoes to gain insights into factors potentially affecting the long-term

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Drosophila Myoblast Fusion: Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Donghoon M Lee,Elizabeth H Chen

    Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cell Size Control in Plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Marco D'Ario,Robert Sablowski

    The genetic control of the characteristic cell sizes of different species and tissues is a long-standing enigma. Plants are convenient for studying this question in a multicellular context, as their cells do not move and are easily tracked and measured from organ initiation in the meristems to subsequent morphogenesis and differentiation. In this article, we discuss cell size control in plants compared

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Crossover Interference: Shedding Light on the Evolution of Recombination.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Sarah P Otto,Bret A Payseur

    Through recombination, genes are freed to evolve more independently of one another, unleashing genetic variance hidden in the linkage disequilibrium that accumulates through selection combined with drift. Yet crossover numbers are evolutionarily constrained, with at least one and not many more than one crossover per bivalent in most taxa. Crossover interference, whereby a crossover reduces the probability

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Screens to Analyze Pattern Formation of Egg and Embryo in Drosophila: A Personal History.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Trudi Schüpbach

    In Drosophila development, the axes of the egg and future embryo are established during oogenesis. To learn about the underlying genetic and molecular pathways that lead to axis formation, I conducted a large-scale genetic screen at the beginning of my independent career. This led to the eventual understanding that both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern information is transmitted from the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Withdrawn: Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2013-07-03
    Ariel Fernández

    Ahead of Print article withheld by publisher: It has come to the publisher’s attention that some key concepts reviewed in the manuscript entitled "Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization" by Ariel Fernández (scheduled to appear in Volume 47 of the Annual Review of Genetics) derive from at least one article in the primary research literature currently under dispute due to unsettled anomalies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomic insights into marine microalgae.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Micaela S Parker,Thomas Mock,E Virginia Armbrust

    Marine eukaryotic photosynthesis is dominated by a diverse group of unicellular organisms collectively called microalgae. Microalgae include cells derived from a primary endosymbiotic event (similar to land plants) and cells derived from subsequent secondary and/or tertiary endosymbiotic events. These latter cells are chimeras of several genomes and dominate primary production in the marine environment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Weird animal genomes and the evolution of vertebrate sex and sex chromosomes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves

    Humans, mice, and even kangaroos have an XX female:XY male system of sex determination, in which the Y harbors a male-dominant sex-determining gene SRY. Birds have the opposite, ZZ males and ZW females, and may use a dosage-sensitive Z-borne gene. Other reptiles have genetic sex but no visible sex chromosomes, or determine sex by temperature of egg incubation. How can we make sense of so much variation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The dynamics of photosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Stephan Eberhard,Giovanni Finazzi,Francis-André Wollman

    Despite recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of major photosynthetic complexes, our understanding of light energy conversion in plant chloroplasts and microalgae under physiological conditions requires exploring the dynamics of photosynthesis. The photosynthetic apparatus is a flexible molecular machine that can acclimate to metabolic and light fluctuations in a matter of seconds and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular determinants of a symbiotic chronic infection.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Katherine E Gibson,Hajime Kobayashi,Graham C Walker

    Rhizobial bacteria colonize legume roots for the purpose of biological nitrogen fixation. A complex series of events, coordinated by host and bacterial signal molecules, underlie the development of this symbiotic interaction. Rhizobia elicit de novo formation of a novel root organ within which they establish a chronic intracellular infection. Legumes permit rhizobia to invade these root tissues while

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary genetics of genome merger and doubling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jeff J Doyle,Lex E Flagel,Andrew H Paterson,Ryan A Rapp,Douglas E Soltis,Pamela S Soltis,Jonathan F Wendel

    Polyploidy is a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. The profound effects of polyploidy on gene expression appear to be caused more by hybridity than by genome doubling. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome-wide changes in expression are as yet poorly understood; only methylation has received much study, and its importance varies among polyploids. Genetic diploidization begins with the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of sleep.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Rozi Andretic,Paul Franken,Mehdi Tafti

    Molecular and genetic approaches in several species have provided new insights into the mechanisms of rest-activity and sleep-wake regulation. Many of these discoveries are believed to support hypotheses about sleep functions, which nevertheless remain elusive. In this review we discuss the specific contribution of both mammalian and invertebrate models to our understanding of the molecular basis of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selection on codon bias.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Ruth Hershberg,Dmitri A Petrov

    In a wide variety of organisms, synonymous codons are used with different frequencies, a phenomenon known as codon bias. Population genetic studies have shown that synonymous sites are under weak selection and that codon bias is maintained by a balance between selection, mutation, and genetic drift. It appears that the major cause for selection on codon bias is that certain preferred codons are translated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the genetic toolkit for animal development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Antonis Rokas

    Multicellularity appeared early and repeatedly in life's history; its instantiations presumably required the confluence of environmental, ecological, and genetic factors. Comparisons of several independently evolved pairs of multicellular and unicellular relatives indicate that transitions to multicellularity are typically associated with increases in the numbers of genes involved in cell differentiation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nancy A Moran,John P McCutcheon,Atsushi Nakabachi

    Insect heritable symbionts have proven to be ubiquitous, based on molecular screening of various insect lineages. Recently, molecular and experimental approaches have yielded an immensely richer understanding of their diverse biological roles, resulting in a burgeoning research literature. Increasingly, commonalities and intermediates are being discovered between categories of symbionts once considered

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diatoms-from cell wall biogenesis to nanotechnology.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nils Kröger,Nicole Poulsen

    Diatoms are single-celled algae that produce intricately structured cell walls made of nanopatterned silica (SiO(2)). The cell wall structure is a species-specific characteristic demonstrating that diatom silica morphogenesis is genetically encoded. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a single cell executes the morphogenetic program for the formation of an inorganic material (biomineralization)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Joshua Lederberg: the Stanford years (1958-1978).
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Leonore Herzenberg,Thomas Rindfleisch,Leonard Herzenberg

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The future of mouse QTL mapping to diagnose disease in mice in the age of whole-genome association studies.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-09-02
    Kent W Hunter,Nigel P S Crawford

    Genome-wide association analysis is emerging as a powerful tool to define novel genes and molecular pathways involved in susceptibility to human complex disorders. However, in spite of recent successes, this approach is not without its limitations, the most notable of which is inconsistent phenotype penetrance due to varied environmental exposures. Mouse models do, however, circumvent some of these

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • X chromosome dosage compensation: how mammals keep the balance.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Bernhard Payer,Jeannie T Lee

    The development of genetic sex determination and cytologically distinct sex chromosomes leads to the potential problem of gene dosage imbalances between autosomes and sex chromosomes and also between males and females. To circumvent these imbalances, mammals have developed an elaborate system of dosage compensation that includes both upregulation and repression of the X chromosome. Recent advances

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The genetics and cell biology of Wolbachia-host interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Laura R Serbus,Catharina Casper-Lindley,Frédéric Landmann,William Sullivan

    Wolbachia are gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature, carried by the majority of insect species as well as some mites, crustaceans, and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia can range from parasitic to symbiotic, depending upon the interaction with the host species. The success of Wolbachia is attributed to efficient maternal transmission and manipulations of host reproduction that favor infected

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quorum sensing in staphylococci.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Richard P Novick,Edward Geisinger

    The staphylococcal agr locus encodes a quorum sensing (QS) system that controls the expression of virulence and other accessory genes by a classical two-component signaling module. Like QS modalities in other Gram-positive bacteria, agr encodes an autoactivating peptide (AIP) that is the inducing ligand for AgrC, the agr signal receptor. Unlike other such systems, agr variants have arisen that show

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Planar cell polarity signaling: from fly development to human disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-20
    Matias Simons,Marek Mlodzik

    Most, if not all, cell types and tissues display several aspects of polarization. In addition to the ubiquitous epithelial cell polarity along the apical-basolateral axis, many epithelial tissues and organs are also polarized within the plane of the epithelium. This is generally referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP; or historically, tissue polarity). Genetic screens in Drosophila pioneered the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determination of the cleavage plane in early C. elegans embryos.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-20
    Matilde Galli,Sander van den Heuvel

    Cells split in two at the final step of each division cycle. This division normally bisects through the middle of the cell and generates two equal daughters. However, developmental signals can change the plane of cell cleavage to facilitate asymmetric segregation of fate determinants and control the position and relative sizes of daughter cells. The anaphase spindle instructs the site of cell cleavage

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of retroviruses on host genome function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-13
    Patric Jern,John M Coffin

    For millions of years, retroviral infections have challenged vertebrates, occasionally leading to germline integration and inheritance as ERVs, genetic parasites whose remnants today constitute some 7% to 8% of the human genome. Although they have had significant evolutionary side effects, it is useful to view ERVs as fossil representatives of retroviruses extant at the time of their insertion into

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The bacteriophage DNA packaging motor.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-09
    Venigalla B Rao,Michael Feiss

    An ATP-powered DNA translocation machine encapsidates the viral genome in the large dsDNA bacteriophages. The essential components include the empty shell, prohead, and the packaging enzyme, terminase. During translocation, terminase is docked on the prohead's portal protein. The translocation ATPase and the concatemer-cutting endonuclease reside in terminase. Remarkably, terminases, portal proteins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The take and give between retrotransposable elements and their hosts.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Arthur Beauregard,M Joan Curcio,Marlene Belfort

    Retrotransposons mobilize via RNA intermediates and usually carry with them the agent of their mobility, reverse transcriptase. Retrotransposons are streamlined, and therefore rely on host factors to proliferate. However, retrotransposons are exposed to cellular forces that block their paths. For this review, we have selected for our focus elements from among target-primed (TP) retrotransposons, also

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Design features of a mitotic spindle: balancing tension and compression at a single microtubule kinetochore interface in budding yeast.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    David C Bouck,Ajit P Joglekar,Kerry S Bloom

    Accurate segregation of duplicated chromosomes ensures that daughter cells get one and only one copy of each chromosome. Errors in chromosome segregation result in aneuploidy and have severe consequences on human health. Incorrect chromosome number and chromosomal instability are hallmarks of tumor cells. Hence, segregation errors are thought to be a major cause of tumorigenesis. A study of the physical

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How shelterin protects mammalian telomeres.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Wilhelm Palm,Titia de Lange

    The genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles are usually circular as are most plasmids and viral genomes. In contrast, the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes are organized on linear chromosomes, which require mechanisms to protect and replicate DNA ends. Eukaryotes navigate these problems with the advent of telomeres, protective nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, and telomerase

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transposon Tn5.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    William S Reznikoff

    Tn5 was one of the first transposons to be identified ( 10 ). As a result of Tn5's early discovery and its simple macromolecular requirements for transposition, the Tn5 system has been a very productive tool for studying the molecular mechanism of DNA transposition. These studies are of broad value because they offer insights into DNA transposition in general, because DNA transposition is a useful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Individuality in bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-26
    Carla J Davidson,Michael G Surette

    While traditionally microbiologists have examined bacterial behavior averaged over large populations, increasingly we are becoming aware that bacterial populations can be composed of phenotypically diverse individuals generated by a variety of mechanisms. Though the results of different mechanisms, the phenomena of bistability, persistence, variation in chemotactic response, and phase and antigenic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mid-century controversies in population genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-26
    James F Crow

    Beginning in the 1930s, evolution became an experimental subject. New techniques, especially in Drosophila, made possible quantitative analysis of natural populations. In addition to a large number of studies on many species, there were four major controversies that dominated much of the discussion and experimentation. Some of the arguments were quite heated. These controversies were: Wright vs Fisher

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Host restriction factors blocking retroviral replication.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-16
    Daniel Wolf,Stephen P Goff

    Retroviruses are highly successful intracellular parasites, and as such they are found in nearly all branches of life. Some are relatively benign, but many are highly pathogenic and can cause either acute or chronic diseases. Therefore, there is tremendous selective pressure on the host to prevent retroviral replication, and for this reason cells have evolved a variety of restriction factors that act

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rhomboid proteases and their biological functions.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Matthew Freeman

    The rhomboids are a well-conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases, which are unrelated to the classical soluble serine proteases. Their active site is buried within the plane of the membrane, and they cleave substrates in or near transmembrane domains. Although recently discovered, it is becoming clear that rhomboids control many important cellular functions. This review briefly describes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Myxococcus-from single-cell polarity to complex multicellular patterns.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Dale Kaiser

    Myxococcus xanthus creates complex and dynamic multicellular patterns as it swarms. The cells have two polar gliding engines: pulling type IV pili at their leading pole and pushing slime secretory nozzles at their lagging pole. Evidence is presented that slime secretion is vital for cell survival and that the peptidoglycan/cytoskeleton serves as a template to keep both engines oriented in the same

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The organization of the bacterial genome.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Eduardo P C Rocha

    Many bacterial cellular processes interact intimately with the chromosome. Such interplay is the major driving force of genome structure or organization. Interactions take place at different scales-local for gene expression, global for replication-and lead to the differentiation of the chromosome into organizational units such as operons, replichores, or macrodomains. These processes are intermingled

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How Saccharomyces responds to nutrients.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Shadia Zaman,Soyeon Im Lippman,Xin Zhao,James R Broach

    Yeast cells sense the amount and quality of external nutrients through multiple interconnected signaling networks, which allow them to adjust their metabolism, transcriptional profile and developmental program to adapt readily and appropriately to changing nutritional states. We present our current understanding of the nutritional sensing networks yeast cells rely on for perceiving the nutritional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Cédric Feschotte,Ellen J Pritham

    Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Use of y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA population structure in tracing human migrations.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Peter A Underhill,Toomas Kivisild

    Well-resolved molecular gene trees illustrate the concept of descent with modification and exhibit the opposing processes of drift and migration, both of which influence population structure. Phylogenies of the maternally inherited mtDNA genome and the paternally inherited portion of the nonrecombining Y chromosome retain sequential records of the accumulation of genetic diversity. Although knowledge

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mendelian genetics of apomixis in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Peggy Ozias-Akins,Peter J van Dijk

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, has the potential to revolutionize agriculture if its genetic basis can be elucidated. However, the genetic control of natural apomixis has remained obscure until quite recently, owing to all the complications of Mendelian genetics, such as epistatic gene interactions, components that are expressed sporophytically and gametophytically, expression modifiers

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Systems biology of Caulobacter.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Michael T Laub,Lucy Shapiro,Harley H McAdams

    The dynamic range of a bacterial species' natural environment is reflected in the complexity of its systems that control cell cycle progression and its range of adaptive responses. We discuss the genetic network and integrated three-dimensional sensor/response systems that regulate the cell cycle and asymmetric cell division in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The cell cycle control circuitry

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mammalian meiotic recombination hot spots.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Norman Arnheim,Peter Calabrese,Irene Tiemann-Boege

    Our understanding of the details of mammalian meiotic recombination has recently advanced significantly. Sperm typing technologies, linkage studies, and computational inferences from population genetic data have together provided information in unprecedented detail about the location and activity of the sites of crossing-over in mice and humans. The results show that the vast majority of meiotic recombination

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MHC, TSP, and the origin of species: from immunogenetics to evolutionary genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Jan Klein,Akie Sato,Nikolas Nikolaidis

    The acronym Mhc, major histocompatibility complex, is customarily not allied with topics in evolutionary biology. Here, however, we attempt to demonstrate that the Mhc has much to offer to this discipline and intimate that evolutionary biologists who ignore its contributions miss out on a chance of applying a new approach to vexing questions. One aspect of the Mhc in particular affords a fresh look

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Specificity in two-component signal transduction pathways.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Michael T Laub,Mark Goulian

    Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. In the prototypical two-component system, a sensor histidine kinase catalyzes its autophosphorylation and then subsequently transfers the phosphoryl group to a response regulator, which can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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