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  • The Evolutionary and Historical Foundation of the Modern Horse: Lessons from Ancient Genomics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Ludovic Orlando

    The domestication of the horse some 5,500 years ago followed those of dogs, sheep, goats, cattle, and pigs by ∼2,500-10,000 years. By providing fast transportation and transforming warfare, the horse had an impact on human history with no equivalent in the animal kingdom. Even though the equine sport industry has considerable economic value today, the evolutionary history underlying the emergence of

    更新日期:2020-09-22
  • A Field Guide to Eukaryotic Transposable Elements.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-21
    Jonathan N Wells,Cédric Feschotte

    Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile DNA sequences that propagate within genomes. Through diverse invasion strategies, TEs have come to occupy a substantial fraction of nearly all eukaryotic genomes, and they represent a major source of genetic variation and novelty. Here we review the defining features of each major group of eukaryotic TEs and explore their evolutionary origins and relationships

    更新日期:2020-09-21
  • Genetic Diversity in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Clinical Isolates and Resulting Outcomes of Tuberculosis Infection and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-14
    Julian S Peters,Nabila Ismail,Anzaan Dippenaar,Shuyi Ma,David R Sherman,Robin M Warren,Bavesh D Kana

    Tuberculosis claims more human lives than any other bacterial infectious disease and represents a clear and present danger to global health as new tools for vaccination, treatment, and interruption of transmission have been slow to emerge. Additionally, tuberculosis presents with notable clinical heterogeneity, which complicates diagnosis, treatment, and the establishment of nonrelapsing cure. How

    更新日期:2020-09-14
  • Mosaicism in Human Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Jeremy Thorpe,Ikeoluwa A Osei-Owusu,Bracha Erlanger Avigdor,Rossella Tupler,Jonathan Pevsner

    Mosaicism refers to the occurrence of two or more genomes in an individual derived from a single zygote. Germline mosaicism is a mutation that is limited to the gonads and can be transmitted to offspring. Somatic mosaicism is a postzygotic mutation that occurs in the soma, and it may occur at any developmental stage or in adult tissues. Mosaic variation may be classified in six ways: (a) germline or

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • What Has a Century of Quantitative Genetics Taught Us About Nature's Genetic Toolkit?
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-08
    Christopher M Jakobson,Daniel F Jarosz

    The complexity of heredity has been appreciated for decades: Many traits are controlled not by a single genetic locus but instead by polymorphisms throughout the genome. The importance of complex traits in biology and medicine has motivated diverse approaches to understanding their detailed genetic bases. Here, we focus on recent systematic studies, many in budding yeast, which have revealed that large

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Pioneer Transcription Factors Initiating Gene Network Changes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Kenneth S Zaret

    Pioneer transcription factors have the intrinsic biochemical ability to scan partial DNA sequence motifs that are exposed on the surface of a nucleosome and thus access silent genes that are inaccessible to other transcription factors. Pioneer factors subsequently enable other transcription factors, nucleosome remodeling complexes, and histone modifiers to engage chromatin, thereby initiating the formation

    更新日期:2020-09-04
  • Toxin-Antidote Elements Across the Tree of Life.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Alejandro Burga,Eyal Ben-David,Leonid Kruglyak

    In life's constant battle for survival, it takes one to kill but two to conquer. Toxin-antitoxin or toxin-antidote (TA) elements are genetic dyads that cheat the laws of inheritance to guarantee their transmission to the next generation. This seemingly simple genetic arrangement-a toxin linked to its antidote-is capable of quickly spreading and persisting in natural populations. TA elements were first

    更新日期:2020-09-04
  • Transposon Insertion Sequencing, a Global Measure of Gene Function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Tim van Opijnen,Henry L Levin

    The goal of genomics and systems biology is to understand how complex systems of factors assemble into pathways and structures that combine to form living organisms. Great advances in understanding biological processes result from determining the function of individual genes, a process that has classically relied on characterizing single mutations. Advances in DNA sequencing has made available the

    更新日期:2020-09-04
  • Linking Genes to Shape in Plants Using Morphometrics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-04
    Hao Xu,George W Bassel

    A transition from qualitative to quantitative descriptors of morphology has been facilitated through the growing field of morphometrics, representing the conversion of shapes and patterns into numbers. The analysis of plant form at the macromorphological scale using morphometric approaches quantifies what is commonly referred to as a phenotype, while the individual plants with contrasting genotypes

    更新日期:2020-09-04
  • Moonlighting Proteins.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Nadia Singh,Needhi Bhalla

    The single gene, single protein, single function hypothesis is increasingly becoming obsolete. Numerous studies have demonstrated that individual proteins can moonlight, meaning they can have multiple functions based on their cellular or developmental context. In this review, we discuss moonlighting proteins, highlighting the biological pathways where this phenomenon may be particularly relevant. In

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • New Horizons for Dissecting Epistasis in Crop Quantitative Trait Variation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Sebastian Soyk,Matthias Benoit,Zachary B Lippman

    Uncovering the genes, variants, and interactions underlying crop diversity is a frontier in plant genetics. Phenotypic variation often does not reflect the cumulative effect of individual gene mutations. This deviation is due to epistasis, in which interactions between alleles are often unpredictable and quantitative in effect. Recent advances in genomics and genome-editing technologies are elevating

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Regulation and Function of RNA Pseudouridylation in Human Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Erin K Borchardt,Nicole M Martinez,Wendy V Gilbert

    Recent advances in pseudouridine detection reveal a complex pseudouridine landscape that includes messenger RNA and diverse classes of noncoding RNA in human cells. The known molecular functions of pseudouridine, which include stabilizing RNA conformations and destabilizing interactions with varied RNA-binding proteins, suggest that RNA pseudouridylation could have widespread effects on RNA metabolism

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Evolutionary Genomics of High Fecundity.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Bjarki Eldon

    Natural highly fecund populations abound. These range from viruses to gadids. Many highly fecund populations are economically important. Highly fecund populations provide an important contrast to the low-fecundity organisms that have traditionally been applied in evolutionary studies. A key question regarding high fecundity is whether large numbers of offspring are produced on a regular basis, by few

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Conserved Upstream Open Reading Frame Nascent Peptides that Control Translation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-09-01
    Thomas E Dever,Ivaylo P Ivanov,Matthew S Sachs

    Cells utilize transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms to alter gene expression in response to environmental cues. Gene-specific controls, including changing the translation of specific messenger RNAs (mRNAs), provide a rapid means to respond precisely to different conditions. Upstream open reading frames (uORFs) are known to control the translation of mRNAs. Recent studies in bacteria and

    更新日期:2020-09-01
  • Measuring and Modeling Single-Cell Heterogeneity and Fate Decision in Mouse Embryos.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Jonathan Fiorentino,Maria-Elena Torres-Padilla,Antonio Scialdone

    Cellular heterogeneity is a property of any living system; however, its relationship with cellular fate decision remains an open question. Recent technological advances have enabled valuable insights, especially in complex systems such as the mouse embryo. In this review, we discuss recent studies that characterize cellular heterogeneity at different levels during mouse development, from the two-cell

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Canalization and Robustness in Human Genetics and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-31
    Greg Gibson,Kristine A Lacek

    Canalization refers to the evolution of populations such that the number of individuals who deviate from the optimum trait, or experience disease, is minimized. In the presence of rapid cultural, environmental, or genetic change, the reverse process of decanalization may contribute to observed increases in disease prevalence. This review starts by defining relevant concepts, drawing distinctions between

    更新日期:2020-08-31
  • Histone Variants: The Nexus of Developmental Decisions and Epigenetic Memory.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Benjamin Loppin,Frédéric Berger

    Nucleosome dynamics and properties are central to all forms of genomic activities. Among the core histones, H3 variants play a pivotal role in modulating nucleosome structure and function. Here, we focus on the impact of H3 variants on various facets of development. The deposition of replicative H3 variant following DNA replication is essential for the transmission of the epigenomic information encoded

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Mitochondria Are Fundamental for the Emergence of Metazoans: On Metabolism, Genomic Regulation, and the Birth of Complex Organisms.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Hadar Medini,Tal Cohen,Dan Mishmar

    Out of many intracellular bacteria, only the mitochondria and chloroplasts abandoned their independence billions of years ago and became endosymbionts within the host eukaryotic cell. Consequently, one cannot grow eukaryotic cells without their mitochondria, and the mitochondria cannot divide outside of the cell, thus reflecting interdependence. Here, we argue that such interdependence underlies the

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Molecular Mechanisms of CRISPR-Cas Immunity in Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-28
    Philip M Nussenzweig,Luciano A Marraffini

    Prokaryotes have developed numerous defense strategies to combat the constant threat posed by the diverse genetic parasites that endanger them. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas loci guard their hosts with an adaptive immune system against foreign nucleic acids. Protection starts with an immunization phase, in which short pieces of the invader's genome, known as

    更新日期:2020-08-28
  • Noncanonical Roles of tRNAs: tRNA Fragments and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-08-25
    Zhangli Su,Briana Wilson,Pankaj Kumar,Anindya Dutta

    As one of the most abundant and conserved RNA species, transfer RNAs (tRNAs) are well known for their role in reading the codons on messenger RNAs and translating them into proteins. In this review, we discuss the noncanonical functions of tRNAs. These include tRNAs as precursors to novel small RNA molecules derived from tRNAs, also called tRNA-derived fragments, that are abundant across species and

    更新日期:2020-08-25
  • RAD51 Gene Family Structure and Function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Braulio Bonilla,Sarah R Hengel,McKenzie K Grundy,Kara A Bernstein

    Accurate DNA repair and replication are critical for genomic stability and cancer prevention. RAD51 and its gene family are key regulators of DNA fidelity through diverse roles in double-strand break repair, replication stress, and meiosis. RAD51 is an ATPase that forms a nucleoprotein filament on single-stranded DNA. RAD51 has the function of finding and invading homologous DNA sequences to enable

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • The Sins of Our Forefathers: Paternal Impacts on De Novo Mutation Rate and Development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    R John Aitken,Geoffry N De Iuliis,Brett Nixon

    Spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) are generally characterized by excellent DNA surveillance and repair, resulting in one of the lowest spontaneous mutation rates in the body. However, the barriers to mutagenesis can be overwhelmed under two sets of circumstances. First, replication errors may generate age-dependent mutations that provide the mutant cells with a selective advantage, leading to the clonal

    更新日期:2020-07-14
  • Zebrafish Pigment Pattern Formation: Insights into the Development and Evolution of Adult Form.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Larissa B Patterson,David M Parichy

    Vertebrate pigment patterns are diverse and fascinating adult traits that allow animals to recognize conspecifics, attract mates, and avoid predators. Pigment patterns in fish are among the most amenable traits for studying the cellular basis of adult form, as the cells that produce diverse patterns are readily visible in the skin during development. The genetic basis of pigment pattern development

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Power of Human Cancer Genetics as Revealed by Low-Grade Gliomas.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    David T W Jones,Pratiti Bandopadhayay,Nada Jabado

    The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Organization of Chromosomal DNA by SMC Complexes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Stanislau Yatskevich,James Rhodes,Kim Nasmyth

    Structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) complexes are key organizers of chromosome architecture in all kingdoms of life. Despite seemingly divergent functions, such as chromosome segregation, chromosome maintenance, sister chromatid cohesion, and mitotic chromosome compaction, it appears that these complexes function via highly conserved mechanisms and that they represent a novel class of DNA translocases

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Evolution of Sexual Reproduction and the Mating-Type Locus: Links to Pathogenesis of Cryptococcus Human Pathogenic Fungi.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Sheng Sun,Marco A Coelho,Márcia David-Palma,Shelby J Priest,Joseph Heitman

    Cryptococcus species utilize a variety of sexual reproduction mechanisms, which generate genetic diversity, purge deleterious mutations, and contribute to their ability to occupy myriad environmental niches and exhibit a range of pathogenic potential. The bisexual and unisexual cycles of pathogenic Cryptococcus species are stimulated by properties associated with their environmental niches and proceed

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Arms Race Between KRAB-Zinc Finger Proteins and Endogenous Retroelements and Its Impact on Mammals.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Melania Bruno,Mohamed Mahgoub,Todd S Macfarlan

    Nearly half of the human genome consists of endogenous retroelements (EREs) and their genetic remnants, a small fraction of which carry the potential to propagate in the host genome, posing a threat to genome integrity and cell/organismal survival. The largest family of transcription factors in tetrapods, the Krüppel-associated box domain zinc finger proteins (KRAB-ZFPs), binds to specific EREs and

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The foraging Gene and Its Behavioral Effects: Pleiotropy and Plasticity.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Ina Anreiter,Marla B Sokolowski

    The Drosophila melanogaster foraging (for) gene is a well-established example of a gene with major effects on behavior and natural variation. This gene is best known for underlying the behavioral strategies of rover and sitter foraging larvae, having been mapped and named for this phenotype. Nevertheless, in the last three decades an extensive array of studies describing for's role as a modifier of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Standard Deviations: The Biological Bases of Transmission Ratio Distortion.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Lila Fishman,Mariah McIntosh

    The rule of Mendelian inheritance is remarkably robust, but deviations from the equal transmission of alternative alleles at a locus [a.k.a. transmission ratio distortion (TRD)] are also commonly observed in genetic mapping populations. Such TRD reveals locus-specific selection acting at some point between the diploid heterozygous parents and progeny genotyping and therefore can provide novel insight

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Regulation of Genomic Output and (Pluri)potency in Regeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Elizabeth M Duncan,Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    Regeneration is a remarkable phenomenon that has been the subject of awe and bafflement for hundreds of years. Although regeneration competence is found in highly divergent organisms throughout the animal kingdom, recent advances in tools used for molecular and genomic characterization have uncovered common genes, molecular mechanisms, and genomic features in regenerating animals. In this review we

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Natural Viruses of Caenorhabditis Nematodes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Marie-Anne Félix,David Wang

    Caenorhabditis elegans has long been a laboratory model organism with no known natural pathogens. In the past ten years, however, natural viruses have been isolated from wild-caught C. elegans (Orsay virus) and its relative Caenorhabditis briggsae (Santeuil virus, Le Blanc virus, and Melnik virus). All are RNA positive-sense viruses related to Nodaviridae; they infect intestinal cells and are horizontally

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Multigenerational Regulation of the Caenorhabditis elegans Chromatin Landscape by Germline Small RNAs.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-05-31
    Natasha E Weiser,John K Kim

    In animals, small noncoding RNAs that are expressed in the germline and transmitted to progeny control gene expression to promote fertility. Germline-expressed small RNAs, including endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), drive the repression of deleterious transcripts such as transposons, repetitive elements, and pseudogenes. Recent studies have highlighted

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Microglia in Brain Development, Homeostasis, and Neurodegeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Christopher J Bohlen,Brad A Friedman,Borislav Dejanovic,Morgan Sheng

    Advances in human genetics have implicated a growing number of genes in neurodegenerative diseases, providing insight into pathological processes. For Alzheimer disease in particular, genome-wide association studies and gene expression studies have emphasized the pathogenic contributions from microglial cells and motivated studies of microglial function/dysfunction. Here, we summarize recent genetic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Microbiome and Aging.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Bianca Bana,Filipe Cabreiro

    Aging is a natural process of organismal decay that underpins the development of myriad diseases and disorders. Extensive efforts have been made to understand the biology of aging and its regulation, but most studies focus solely on the host organism. Considering the pivotal role of the microbiota in host health and metabolism, we propose viewing the host and its microbiota as a single biological entity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Mechanisms of DNA Uptake by Naturally Competent Bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    David Dubnau,Melanie Blokesch

    Transformation is a widespread mechanism of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria. DNA uptake to the periplasmic compartment requires a DNA-uptake pilus and the DNA-binding protein ComEA. In the gram-negative bacteria, DNA is first pulled toward the outer membrane by retraction of the pilus and then taken up by binding to periplasmic ComEA, acting as a Brownian ratchet to prevent backward diffusion

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Living with Two Genomes: Grafting and Its Implications for Plant Genome-to-Genome Interactions, Phenotypic Variation, and Evolution.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Brandon S Gaut,Allison J Miller,Danelle K Seymour

    Plant genomes interact when genetically distinct individuals join, or are joined, together. Individuals can fuse in three contexts: artificial grafts, natural grafts, and host-parasite interactions. Artificial grafts have been studied for decades and are important platforms for studying the movement of RNA, DNA, and protein. Yet several mysteries about artificial grafts remain, including the factors

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Liquid-Liquid Phase Separation in Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Simon Alberti,Dorothee Dormann

    We have made rapid progress in recent years in identifying the genetic causes of many human diseases. However, despite this recent progress, our mechanistic understanding of these diseases is often incomplete. This is a problem because it limits our ability to develop effective disease treatments. To overcome this limitation, we need new concepts to describe and comprehend the complex mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Light in the Fungal World: From Photoreception to Gene Transcription and Beyond.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Luis M Corrochano

    Fungi see light of different colors by using photoreceptors such as the White Collar proteins and cryptochromes for blue light, opsins for green light, and phytochromes for red light. Light regulates fungal development, promotes the accumulation of protective pigments and proteins, and regulates tropic growth. The White Collar complex (WCC) is a photoreceptor and a transcription factor that is responsible

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Factors in Mammalian Prion Diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-19
    Simon Mead,Sarah Lloyd,John Collinge

    Mammalian prion diseases are a group of neurodegenerative conditions caused by infection of the central nervous system with proteinaceous agents called prions, including sporadic, variant, and iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease; kuru; inherited prion disease; sheep scrapie; bovine spongiform encephalopathy; and chronic wasting disease. Prions are composed of misfolded and multimeric forms of the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Evolutionary Ecology of Wolbachia Releases for Disease Control.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Perran A Ross,Michael Turelli,Ary A Hoffmann

    Wolbachia is an endosymbiotic Alphaproteobacteria that can suppress insect-borne diseases through decreasing host virus transmission (population replacement) or through decreasing host population density (population suppression). We contrast natural Wolbachia infections in insect populations with Wolbachia transinfections in mosquitoes to gain insights into factors potentially affecting the long-term

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Drosophila Myoblast Fusion: Invasion and Resistance for the Ultimate Union.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-07-05
    Donghoon M Lee,Elizabeth H Chen

    Cell-cell fusion is indispensable for creating life and building syncytial tissues and organs. Ever since the discovery of cell-cell fusion, how cells join together to form zygotes and multinucleated syncytia has remained a fundamental question in cell and developmental biology. In the past two decades, Drosophila myoblast fusion has been used as a powerful genetic model to unravel mechanisms underlying

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cell Size Control in Plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Marco D'Ario,Robert Sablowski

    The genetic control of the characteristic cell sizes of different species and tissues is a long-standing enigma. Plants are convenient for studying this question in a multicellular context, as their cells do not move and are easily tracked and measured from organ initiation in the meristems to subsequent morphogenesis and differentiation. In this article, we discuss cell size control in plants compared

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Crossover Interference: Shedding Light on the Evolution of Recombination.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Sarah P Otto,Bret A Payseur

    Through recombination, genes are freed to evolve more independently of one another, unleashing genetic variance hidden in the linkage disequilibrium that accumulates through selection combined with drift. Yet crossover numbers are evolutionarily constrained, with at least one and not many more than one crossover per bivalent in most taxa. Crossover interference, whereby a crossover reduces the probability

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetic Screens to Analyze Pattern Formation of Egg and Embryo in Drosophila: A Personal History.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Trudi Schüpbach

    In Drosophila development, the axes of the egg and future embryo are established during oogenesis. To learn about the underlying genetic and molecular pathways that lead to axis formation, I conducted a large-scale genetic screen at the beginning of my independent career. This led to the eventual understanding that both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern information is transmitted from the

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Withdrawn: Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2013-07-03
    Ariel Fernández

    Ahead of Print article withheld by publisher: It has come to the publisher’s attention that some key concepts reviewed in the manuscript entitled "Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization" by Ariel Fernández (scheduled to appear in Volume 47 of the Annual Review of Genetics) derive from at least one article in the primary research literature currently under dispute due to unsettled anomalies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomic insights into marine microalgae.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Micaela S Parker,Thomas Mock,E Virginia Armbrust

    Marine eukaryotic photosynthesis is dominated by a diverse group of unicellular organisms collectively called microalgae. Microalgae include cells derived from a primary endosymbiotic event (similar to land plants) and cells derived from subsequent secondary and/or tertiary endosymbiotic events. These latter cells are chimeras of several genomes and dominate primary production in the marine environment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Weird animal genomes and the evolution of vertebrate sex and sex chromosomes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves

    Humans, mice, and even kangaroos have an XX female:XY male system of sex determination, in which the Y harbors a male-dominant sex-determining gene SRY. Birds have the opposite, ZZ males and ZW females, and may use a dosage-sensitive Z-borne gene. Other reptiles have genetic sex but no visible sex chromosomes, or determine sex by temperature of egg incubation. How can we make sense of so much variation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The dynamics of photosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Stephan Eberhard,Giovanni Finazzi,Francis-André Wollman

    Despite recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of major photosynthetic complexes, our understanding of light energy conversion in plant chloroplasts and microalgae under physiological conditions requires exploring the dynamics of photosynthesis. The photosynthetic apparatus is a flexible molecular machine that can acclimate to metabolic and light fluctuations in a matter of seconds and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular determinants of a symbiotic chronic infection.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Katherine E Gibson,Hajime Kobayashi,Graham C Walker

    Rhizobial bacteria colonize legume roots for the purpose of biological nitrogen fixation. A complex series of events, coordinated by host and bacterial signal molecules, underlie the development of this symbiotic interaction. Rhizobia elicit de novo formation of a novel root organ within which they establish a chronic intracellular infection. Legumes permit rhizobia to invade these root tissues while

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary genetics of genome merger and doubling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jeff J Doyle,Lex E Flagel,Andrew H Paterson,Ryan A Rapp,Douglas E Soltis,Pamela S Soltis,Jonathan F Wendel

    Polyploidy is a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. The profound effects of polyploidy on gene expression appear to be caused more by hybridity than by genome doubling. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome-wide changes in expression are as yet poorly understood; only methylation has received much study, and its importance varies among polyploids. Genetic diploidization begins with the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of sleep.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Rozi Andretic,Paul Franken,Mehdi Tafti

    Molecular and genetic approaches in several species have provided new insights into the mechanisms of rest-activity and sleep-wake regulation. Many of these discoveries are believed to support hypotheses about sleep functions, which nevertheless remain elusive. In this review we discuss the specific contribution of both mammalian and invertebrate models to our understanding of the molecular basis of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selection on codon bias.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Ruth Hershberg,Dmitri A Petrov

    In a wide variety of organisms, synonymous codons are used with different frequencies, a phenomenon known as codon bias. Population genetic studies have shown that synonymous sites are under weak selection and that codon bias is maintained by a balance between selection, mutation, and genetic drift. It appears that the major cause for selection on codon bias is that certain preferred codons are translated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the genetic toolkit for animal development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Antonis Rokas

    Multicellularity appeared early and repeatedly in life's history; its instantiations presumably required the confluence of environmental, ecological, and genetic factors. Comparisons of several independently evolved pairs of multicellular and unicellular relatives indicate that transitions to multicellularity are typically associated with increases in the numbers of genes involved in cell differentiation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nancy A Moran,John P McCutcheon,Atsushi Nakabachi

    Insect heritable symbionts have proven to be ubiquitous, based on molecular screening of various insect lineages. Recently, molecular and experimental approaches have yielded an immensely richer understanding of their diverse biological roles, resulting in a burgeoning research literature. Increasingly, commonalities and intermediates are being discovered between categories of symbionts once considered

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diatoms-from cell wall biogenesis to nanotechnology.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nils Kröger,Nicole Poulsen

    Diatoms are single-celled algae that produce intricately structured cell walls made of nanopatterned silica (SiO(2)). The cell wall structure is a species-specific characteristic demonstrating that diatom silica morphogenesis is genetically encoded. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a single cell executes the morphogenetic program for the formation of an inorganic material (biomineralization)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Joshua Lederberg: the Stanford years (1958-1978).
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Leonore Herzenberg,Thomas Rindfleisch,Leonard Herzenberg

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The future of mouse QTL mapping to diagnose disease in mice in the age of whole-genome association studies.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-09-02
    Kent W Hunter,Nigel P S Crawford

    Genome-wide association analysis is emerging as a powerful tool to define novel genes and molecular pathways involved in susceptibility to human complex disorders. However, in spite of recent successes, this approach is not without its limitations, the most notable of which is inconsistent phenotype penetrance due to varied environmental exposures. Mouse models do, however, circumvent some of these

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • X chromosome dosage compensation: how mammals keep the balance.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Bernhard Payer,Jeannie T Lee

    The development of genetic sex determination and cytologically distinct sex chromosomes leads to the potential problem of gene dosage imbalances between autosomes and sex chromosomes and also between males and females. To circumvent these imbalances, mammals have developed an elaborate system of dosage compensation that includes both upregulation and repression of the X chromosome. Recent advances

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The genetics and cell biology of Wolbachia-host interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Laura R Serbus,Catharina Casper-Lindley,Frédéric Landmann,William Sullivan

    Wolbachia are gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature, carried by the majority of insect species as well as some mites, crustaceans, and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia can range from parasitic to symbiotic, depending upon the interaction with the host species. The success of Wolbachia is attributed to efficient maternal transmission and manipulations of host reproduction that favor infected

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quorum sensing in staphylococci.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 11.146) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Richard P Novick,Edward Geisinger

    The staphylococcal agr locus encodes a quorum sensing (QS) system that controls the expression of virulence and other accessory genes by a classical two-component signaling module. Like QS modalities in other Gram-positive bacteria, agr encodes an autoactivating peptide (AIP) that is the inducing ligand for AgrC, the agr signal receptor. Unlike other such systems, agr variants have arisen that show

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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