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  • Genetic Screens to Analyze Pattern Formation of Egg and Embryo in Drosophila: A Personal History.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Trudi Schüpbach

    In Drosophila development, the axes of the egg and future embryo are established during oogenesis. To learn about the underlying genetic and molecular pathways that lead to axis formation, I conducted a large-scale genetic screen at the beginning of my independent career. This led to the eventual understanding that both anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral pattern information is transmitted from the

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • The Power of Human Cancer Genetics as Revealed by Low-Grade Gliomas.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    David T W Jones,Pratiti Bandopadhayay,Nada Jabado

    The human brain contains a vast number of cells and shows extraordinary cellular diversity to facilitate the many cognitive and automatic commands governing our bodily functions. This complexity arises partly from large-scale structural variations in the genome, evolutionary processes to increase brain size, function, and cognition. Not surprisingly given recent technical advances, low-grade gliomas

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Withdrawn: Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2013-07-03
    Ariel Fernández

    Ahead of Print article withheld by publisher: It has come to the publisher’s attention that some key concepts reviewed in the manuscript entitled "Supramolecular Evolution of Protein Organization" by Ariel Fernández (scheduled to appear in Volume 47 of the Annual Review of Genetics) derive from at least one article in the primary research literature currently under dispute due to unsettled anomalies

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomic insights into marine microalgae.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Micaela S Parker,Thomas Mock,E Virginia Armbrust

    Marine eukaryotic photosynthesis is dominated by a diverse group of unicellular organisms collectively called microalgae. Microalgae include cells derived from a primary endosymbiotic event (similar to land plants) and cells derived from subsequent secondary and/or tertiary endosymbiotic events. These latter cells are chimeras of several genomes and dominate primary production in the marine environment

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Weird animal genomes and the evolution of vertebrate sex and sex chromosomes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jennifer A Marshall Graves

    Humans, mice, and even kangaroos have an XX female:XY male system of sex determination, in which the Y harbors a male-dominant sex-determining gene SRY. Birds have the opposite, ZZ males and ZW females, and may use a dosage-sensitive Z-borne gene. Other reptiles have genetic sex but no visible sex chromosomes, or determine sex by temperature of egg incubation. How can we make sense of so much variation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The dynamics of photosynthesis.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Stephan Eberhard,Giovanni Finazzi,Francis-André Wollman

    Despite recent elucidation of the three-dimensional structure of major photosynthetic complexes, our understanding of light energy conversion in plant chloroplasts and microalgae under physiological conditions requires exploring the dynamics of photosynthesis. The photosynthetic apparatus is a flexible molecular machine that can acclimate to metabolic and light fluctuations in a matter of seconds and

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Molecular determinants of a symbiotic chronic infection.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Katherine E Gibson,Hajime Kobayashi,Graham C Walker

    Rhizobial bacteria colonize legume roots for the purpose of biological nitrogen fixation. A complex series of events, coordinated by host and bacterial signal molecules, underlie the development of this symbiotic interaction. Rhizobia elicit de novo formation of a novel root organ within which they establish a chronic intracellular infection. Legumes permit rhizobia to invade these root tissues while

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary genetics of genome merger and doubling in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Jeff J Doyle,Lex E Flagel,Andrew H Paterson,Ryan A Rapp,Douglas E Soltis,Pamela S Soltis,Jonathan F Wendel

    Polyploidy is a common mode of evolution in flowering plants. The profound effects of polyploidy on gene expression appear to be caused more by hybridity than by genome doubling. Epigenetic mechanisms underlying genome-wide changes in expression are as yet poorly understood; only methylation has received much study, and its importance varies among polyploids. Genetic diploidization begins with the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of sleep.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Rozi Andretic,Paul Franken,Mehdi Tafti

    Molecular and genetic approaches in several species have provided new insights into the mechanisms of rest-activity and sleep-wake regulation. Many of these discoveries are believed to support hypotheses about sleep functions, which nevertheless remain elusive. In this review we discuss the specific contribution of both mammalian and invertebrate models to our understanding of the molecular basis of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Selection on codon bias.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Ruth Hershberg,Dmitri A Petrov

    In a wide variety of organisms, synonymous codons are used with different frequencies, a phenomenon known as codon bias. Population genetic studies have shown that synonymous sites are under weak selection and that codon bias is maintained by a balance between selection, mutation, and genetic drift. It appears that the major cause for selection on codon bias is that certain preferred codons are translated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origins of multicellularity and the early history of the genetic toolkit for animal development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Antonis Rokas

    Multicellularity appeared early and repeatedly in life's history; its instantiations presumably required the confluence of environmental, ecological, and genetic factors. Comparisons of several independently evolved pairs of multicellular and unicellular relatives indicate that transitions to multicellularity are typically associated with increases in the numbers of genes involved in cell differentiation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genomics and evolution of heritable bacterial symbionts.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nancy A Moran,John P McCutcheon,Atsushi Nakabachi

    Insect heritable symbionts have proven to be ubiquitous, based on molecular screening of various insect lineages. Recently, molecular and experimental approaches have yielded an immensely richer understanding of their diverse biological roles, resulting in a burgeoning research literature. Increasingly, commonalities and intermediates are being discovered between categories of symbionts once considered

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Diatoms-from cell wall biogenesis to nanotechnology.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Nils Kröger,Nicole Poulsen

    Diatoms are single-celled algae that produce intricately structured cell walls made of nanopatterned silica (SiO(2)). The cell wall structure is a species-specific characteristic demonstrating that diatom silica morphogenesis is genetically encoded. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which a single cell executes the morphogenetic program for the formation of an inorganic material (biomineralization)

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Joshua Lederberg: the Stanford years (1958-1978).
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-11-06
    Leonore Herzenberg,Thomas Rindfleisch,Leonard Herzenberg

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The future of mouse QTL mapping to diagnose disease in mice in the age of whole-genome association studies.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-09-02
    Kent W Hunter,Nigel P S Crawford

    Genome-wide association analysis is emerging as a powerful tool to define novel genes and molecular pathways involved in susceptibility to human complex disorders. However, in spite of recent successes, this approach is not without its limitations, the most notable of which is inconsistent phenotype penetrance due to varied environmental exposures. Mouse models do, however, circumvent some of these

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • X chromosome dosage compensation: how mammals keep the balance.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-30
    Bernhard Payer,Jeannie T Lee

    The development of genetic sex determination and cytologically distinct sex chromosomes leads to the potential problem of gene dosage imbalances between autosomes and sex chromosomes and also between males and females. To circumvent these imbalances, mammals have developed an elaborate system of dosage compensation that includes both upregulation and repression of the X chromosome. Recent advances

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The genetics and cell biology of Wolbachia-host interactions.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Laura R Serbus,Catharina Casper-Lindley,Frédéric Landmann,William Sullivan

    Wolbachia are gram-negative bacteria that are widespread in nature, carried by the majority of insect species as well as some mites, crustaceans, and filarial nematodes. Wolbachia can range from parasitic to symbiotic, depending upon the interaction with the host species. The success of Wolbachia is attributed to efficient maternal transmission and manipulations of host reproduction that favor infected

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Quorum sensing in staphylococci.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-21
    Richard P Novick,Edward Geisinger

    The staphylococcal agr locus encodes a quorum sensing (QS) system that controls the expression of virulence and other accessory genes by a classical two-component signaling module. Like QS modalities in other Gram-positive bacteria, agr encodes an autoactivating peptide (AIP) that is the inducing ligand for AgrC, the agr signal receptor. Unlike other such systems, agr variants have arisen that show

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Planar cell polarity signaling: from fly development to human disease.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-20
    Matias Simons,Marek Mlodzik

    Most, if not all, cell types and tissues display several aspects of polarization. In addition to the ubiquitous epithelial cell polarity along the apical-basolateral axis, many epithelial tissues and organs are also polarized within the plane of the epithelium. This is generally referred to as planar cell polarity (PCP; or historically, tissue polarity). Genetic screens in Drosophila pioneered the

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Determination of the cleavage plane in early C. elegans embryos.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-20
    Matilde Galli,Sander van den Heuvel

    Cells split in two at the final step of each division cycle. This division normally bisects through the middle of the cell and generates two equal daughters. However, developmental signals can change the plane of cell cleavage to facilitate asymmetric segregation of fate determinants and control the position and relative sizes of daughter cells. The anaphase spindle instructs the site of cell cleavage

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Effects of retroviruses on host genome function.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-13
    Patric Jern,John M Coffin

    For millions of years, retroviral infections have challenged vertebrates, occasionally leading to germline integration and inheritance as ERVs, genetic parasites whose remnants today constitute some 7% to 8% of the human genome. Although they have had significant evolutionary side effects, it is useful to view ERVs as fossil representatives of retroviruses extant at the time of their insertion into

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The bacteriophage DNA packaging motor.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-09
    Venigalla B Rao,Michael Feiss

    An ATP-powered DNA translocation machine encapsidates the viral genome in the large dsDNA bacteriophages. The essential components include the empty shell, prohead, and the packaging enzyme, terminase. During translocation, terminase is docked on the prohead's portal protein. The translocation ATPase and the concatemer-cutting endonuclease reside in terminase. Remarkably, terminases, portal proteins

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The take and give between retrotransposable elements and their hosts.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Arthur Beauregard,M Joan Curcio,Marlene Belfort

    Retrotransposons mobilize via RNA intermediates and usually carry with them the agent of their mobility, reverse transcriptase. Retrotransposons are streamlined, and therefore rely on host factors to proliferate. However, retrotransposons are exposed to cellular forces that block their paths. For this review, we have selected for our focus elements from among target-primed (TP) retrotransposons, also

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Design features of a mitotic spindle: balancing tension and compression at a single microtubule kinetochore interface in budding yeast.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    David C Bouck,Ajit P Joglekar,Kerry S Bloom

    Accurate segregation of duplicated chromosomes ensures that daughter cells get one and only one copy of each chromosome. Errors in chromosome segregation result in aneuploidy and have severe consequences on human health. Incorrect chromosome number and chromosomal instability are hallmarks of tumor cells. Hence, segregation errors are thought to be a major cause of tumorigenesis. A study of the physical

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How shelterin protects mammalian telomeres.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    Wilhelm Palm,Titia de Lange

    The genomes of prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles are usually circular as are most plasmids and viral genomes. In contrast, the nuclear genomes of eukaryotes are organized on linear chromosomes, which require mechanisms to protect and replicate DNA ends. Eukaryotes navigate these problems with the advent of telomeres, protective nucleoprotein complexes at the ends of linear chromosomes, and telomerase

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transposon Tn5.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-08-06
    William S Reznikoff

    Tn5 was one of the first transposons to be identified ( 10 ). As a result of Tn5's early discovery and its simple macromolecular requirements for transposition, the Tn5 system has been a very productive tool for studying the molecular mechanism of DNA transposition. These studies are of broad value because they offer insights into DNA transposition in general, because DNA transposition is a useful

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Individuality in bacteria.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-26
    Carla J Davidson,Michael G Surette

    While traditionally microbiologists have examined bacterial behavior averaged over large populations, increasingly we are becoming aware that bacterial populations can be composed of phenotypically diverse individuals generated by a variety of mechanisms. Though the results of different mechanisms, the phenomena of bistability, persistence, variation in chemotactic response, and phase and antigenic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mid-century controversies in population genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-26
    James F Crow

    Beginning in the 1930s, evolution became an experimental subject. New techniques, especially in Drosophila, made possible quantitative analysis of natural populations. In addition to a large number of studies on many species, there were four major controversies that dominated much of the discussion and experimentation. Some of the arguments were quite heated. These controversies were: Wright vs Fisher

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Host restriction factors blocking retroviral replication.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-16
    Daniel Wolf,Stephen P Goff

    Retroviruses are highly successful intracellular parasites, and as such they are found in nearly all branches of life. Some are relatively benign, but many are highly pathogenic and can cause either acute or chronic diseases. Therefore, there is tremendous selective pressure on the host to prevent retroviral replication, and for this reason cells have evolved a variety of restriction factors that act

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Rhomboid proteases and their biological functions.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Matthew Freeman

    The rhomboids are a well-conserved family of intramembrane serine proteases, which are unrelated to the classical soluble serine proteases. Their active site is buried within the plane of the membrane, and they cleave substrates in or near transmembrane domains. Although recently discovered, it is becoming clear that rhomboids control many important cellular functions. This review briefly describes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Myxococcus-from single-cell polarity to complex multicellular patterns.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Dale Kaiser

    Myxococcus xanthus creates complex and dynamic multicellular patterns as it swarms. The cells have two polar gliding engines: pulling type IV pili at their leading pole and pushing slime secretory nozzles at their lagging pole. Evidence is presented that slime secretion is vital for cell survival and that the peptidoglycan/cytoskeleton serves as a template to keep both engines oriented in the same

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The organization of the bacterial genome.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-07-09
    Eduardo P C Rocha

    Many bacterial cellular processes interact intimately with the chromosome. Such interplay is the major driving force of genome structure or organization. Interactions take place at different scales-local for gene expression, global for replication-and lead to the differentiation of the chromosome into organizational units such as operons, replichores, or macrodomains. These processes are intermingled

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How Saccharomyces responds to nutrients.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2008-02-29
    Shadia Zaman,Soyeon Im Lippman,Xin Zhao,James R Broach

    Yeast cells sense the amount and quality of external nutrients through multiple interconnected signaling networks, which allow them to adjust their metabolism, transcriptional profile and developmental program to adapt readily and appropriately to changing nutritional states. We present our current understanding of the nutritional sensing networks yeast cells rely on for perceiving the nutritional

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • DNA transposons and the evolution of eukaryotic genomes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Cédric Feschotte,Ellen J Pritham

    Transposable elements are mobile genetic units that exhibit broad diversity in their structure and transposition mechanisms. Transposable elements occupy a large fraction of many eukaryotic genomes and their movement and accumulation represent a major force shaping the genes and genomes of almost all organisms. This review focuses on DNA-mediated or class 2 transposons and emphasizes how this class

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Use of y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA population structure in tracing human migrations.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Peter A Underhill,Toomas Kivisild

    Well-resolved molecular gene trees illustrate the concept of descent with modification and exhibit the opposing processes of drift and migration, both of which influence population structure. Phylogenies of the maternally inherited mtDNA genome and the paternally inherited portion of the nonrecombining Y chromosome retain sequential records of the accumulation of genetic diversity. Although knowledge

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mendelian genetics of apomixis in plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Peggy Ozias-Akins,Peter J van Dijk

    Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seeds, has the potential to revolutionize agriculture if its genetic basis can be elucidated. However, the genetic control of natural apomixis has remained obscure until quite recently, owing to all the complications of Mendelian genetics, such as epistatic gene interactions, components that are expressed sporophytically and gametophytically, expression modifiers

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Systems biology of Caulobacter.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Michael T Laub,Lucy Shapiro,Harley H McAdams

    The dynamic range of a bacterial species' natural environment is reflected in the complexity of its systems that control cell cycle progression and its range of adaptive responses. We discuss the genetic network and integrated three-dimensional sensor/response systems that regulate the cell cycle and asymmetric cell division in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus. The cell cycle control circuitry

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mammalian meiotic recombination hot spots.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Norman Arnheim,Peter Calabrese,Irene Tiemann-Boege

    Our understanding of the details of mammalian meiotic recombination has recently advanced significantly. Sperm typing technologies, linkage studies, and computational inferences from population genetic data have together provided information in unprecedented detail about the location and activity of the sites of crossing-over in mice and humans. The results show that the vast majority of meiotic recombination

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • MHC, TSP, and the origin of species: from immunogenetics to evolutionary genetics.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Jan Klein,Akie Sato,Nikolas Nikolaidis

    The acronym Mhc, major histocompatibility complex, is customarily not allied with topics in evolutionary biology. Here, however, we attempt to demonstrate that the Mhc has much to offer to this discipline and intimate that evolutionary biologists who ignore its contributions miss out on a chance of applying a new approach to vexing questions. One aspect of the Mhc in particular affords a fresh look

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Specificity in two-component signal transduction pathways.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Michael T Laub,Mark Goulian

    Two-component signal transduction systems enable bacteria to sense, respond, and adapt to a wide range of environments, stressors, and growth conditions. In the prototypical two-component system, a sensor histidine kinase catalyzes its autophosphorylation and then subsequently transfers the phosphoryl group to a response regulator, which can then effect changes in cellular physiology, often by regulating

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell turnover and adult tissue homeostasis: from humans to planarians.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Jason Pellettieri,Alejandro Sánchez Alvarado

    Many fully developed metazoan tissues remain in a state of flux throughout life. During physiological cell turnover, older differentiated cells are typically eliminated by apoptosis and replaced by the division progeny of adult stem cells. Independently, each of these processes has been researched extensively, yet we know very little about how cell death and stem cell division are coordinated in adult

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Bacillus and Myxococcus developmental networks and their transcriptional regulators.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-12-14
    Lee Kroos

    Studies of endospore formation by Bacillus subtilis and fruiting body development of Myxococcus xanthus have revealed key features of regulatory networks that govern temporal and spatial gene expression in bacteria. In B. subtilis, sigma factor cascades, modulated by other types of transcription factors, regulate genes in two cell types that form and communicate with each other during starvation-induced

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Epigenetic control of centromere behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-08-23
    Karl Ekwall

    The centromere is the DNA region that ensures genetic stability and is therefore of vital importance. Paradoxically, centromere proteins and centromeric structural domains are conserved despite that fact that centromere DNA sequences are highly variable and are not conserved. Remarkably, heritable states at the centromere can be propagated independent of the underlying centromeric DNA sequences. This

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Orthology and functional conservation in eukaryotes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-08-07
    Kara Dolinski,David Botstein

    In recent years, it has become clear that all of the organisms on the Earth are related to each other in ways that can be documented by molecular sequence comparison. In this review, we focus on the evolutionary relationships among the proteins of the eukaryotes, especially those that allow inference of function from one species to another. Data and illustrations are derived from specific comparison

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Biotin sensing: universal influence of biotin status on transcription.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-08-03
    Dorothy Beckett

    Although the role of biotin in metabolic reactions has long been recognized, its influence on transcription has only recently been discovered. A key protein in biotin-mediated transcription regulation is the biotin protein ligase, the enzyme responsible for catalyzing covalent linkage of the vitamin to biotin-dependent carboxylases. In the biotin regulatory system of Escherichia coli, the best characterized

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Regulation of sterol synthesis in eukaryotes.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-08-02
    Peter J Espenshade,Adam L Hughes

    Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes and is required for proper membrane permeability, fluidity, organelle identity, and protein function. Cells maintain sterol homeostasis by multiple feedback controls that act through transcriptional and posttranscriptional mechanisms. The membrane-bound transcription factor sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is the principal

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Transport of sequence-specific RNA interference information between cells.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-07-25
    Antony M Jose,Craig P Hunter

    When eukaryotic cells encounter double-stranded RNA, genes of matching sequence are silenced through RNA interference. Surprisingly, in some animals and plants, the same gene is specifically silenced even in cells that did not encounter the double-stranded RNA, due to the transport of a gene-specific silencing signal between cells. This silencing signal likely has an RNA component that gives it sequence-specificity

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell cycle regulation of DNA replication.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-07-17
    R A Sclafani,T M Holzen

    Eukaryotic DNA replication is regulated to ensure all chromosomes replicate once and only once per cell cycle. Replication begins at many origins scattered along each chromosome. Except for budding yeast, origins are not defined DNA sequences and probably are inherited by epigenetic mechanisms. Initiation at origins occurs throughout the S phase according to a temporal program that is important in

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of Candida albicans, a diploid human fungal pathogen.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-07-07
    Suzanne M Noble,Alexander D Johnson

    Candida albicans is a species of fungus that typically resides in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other warm-blooded animals. It is also the most common human fungal pathogen, causing a variety of skin and soft tissue infections in healthy people and more virulent invasive and disseminated diseases in patients with compromised immune systems. How this microorganism manages to persist in healthy

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Lessons learned from studies of fission yeast mating-type switching and silencing.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-07-07
    Amar J S Klar

    Stably maintaining specific states of gene expression during cell division is crucial for cellular differentiation. In fission yeast, such patterns result from directed gene rearrangements and chromosomally inherited epigenetic gene control mechanisms that control mating cell type. Recent advances have shown that a specific DNA strand at the mat1 locus is "differentiated" by a novel strand-specific

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Chromosome fragile sites.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-07-05
    Sandra G Durkin,Thomas W Glover

    Chromosomal fragile sites are specific loci that preferentially exhibit gaps and breaks on metaphase chromosomes following partial inhibition of DNA synthesis. Their discovery has led to novel findings spanning a number of areas of genetics. Rare fragile sites are seen in a small proportion of individuals and are inherited in a Mendelian manner. Some, such as FRAXA in the FMR1 gene, are associated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The origin and establishment of the plastid in algae and plants.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-06-30
    Adrian Reyes-Prieto,Andreas P M Weber,Debashish Bhattacharya

    The establishment of the photosynthetic organelle (plastid) in eukaryotes and the diversification of algae and plants were landmark evolutionary events because these taxa form the base of the food chain for many ecosystems on our planet. The plastid originated via a putative single, ancient primary endosymbiosis in which a heterotrophic protist engulfed and retained a cyanobacterium in its cytoplasm

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Immunoglobulin somatic hypermutation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-06-20
    Grace Teng,F Nina Papavasiliou

    The immunoglobulin (Ig) repertoire achieves functional diversification through several somatic alterations of the Ig locus. One of these processes, somatic hypermutation (SHM), deposits point mutations into the variable region of the Ig gene to generate higher-affinity variants. Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) converts cytidine to uridine to initiate the hypermutation process. Error-prone

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Function of the zinc-finger transcription factor SNAI2 in cancer and development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-06-07
    César Cobaleda,María Pérez-Caro,Carolina Vicente-Dueñas,Isidro Sánchez-García

    Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms that underlie disease development is still a tremendous challenge for basic science, and a prerequisite to the development of new and disease-specific targeted therapies. This review focuses on the function of SNAI2, a member of the Snail family of zinc-finger transcription factors, and discusses its possible role in disease development. SNAI2 has been implicated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Phage integration and chromosome structure. A personal history.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2007-05-04
    Allan Campbell

    In 1962, I proposed a model for integration of lambda prophage into the bacterial chromosome. The model postulated two steps (i) circularization of the linear DNA molecule that had been injected into the cell from the phage particle; (ii) reciprocal recombination between phage and bacterial DNA at specific sites on both partners. This resulted in a cyclic permutation of gene order going from phage

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Genetics of egg-laying in worms.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2006-11-11
    William F Schafer

    Genetic studies of behavior in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans have provided an effective approach to investigate the molecular and cellular basis of nervous system function and development. Among the best studied behaviors is egg-laying, the process by which hermaphrodites deposit developing embryos into the environment. Egg-laying involves a simple motor program involving a small network of motorneurons

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Aspects of genetic susceptibility to human infectious diseases.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2006-11-11
    Adrian V S Hill

    Host genetic factors play a major role in determining differential susceptibility to major infectious diseases of humans, such as malaria, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and invasive pneumococcal disease. Progress in identifying the relevant genetic loci has come from a variety of approaches. Most convincing associations have been identified by case-control studies assessing biologically plausible candidate

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Interplay of circadian clocks and metabolic rhythms.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2006-11-11
    Herman Wijnen,Michael W Young

    This review examines the connections between circadian and metabolic rhythms. Examples from a wide variety of well-studied organisms are used to illustrate some of the genetic and molecular pathways linking circadian timekeeping to metabolism. The principles underlying biological timekeeping by intrinsic circadian clocks are discussed briefly. Genetic and molecular studies have unambiguously identified

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bacterial contingency loci: the role of simple sequence DNA repeats in bacterial adaptation.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2006-11-11
    Richard Moxon,Chris Bayliss,Derek Hood

    Bacterial pathogens face stringent challenges to their survival because of the many unpredictable, often precipitate, and dynamic changes that occur in the host environment or in the process of transmission from one host to another. Bacterial adaptation to their hosts involves either a mechanism for sensing and responding to external changes or the selection of variants that arise through mutation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cell cycle regulation in plant development.
    Annu. Rev. Genet. (IF 9.184) Pub Date : 2006-11-11
    Dirk Inzé,Lieven De Veylder

    Cell cycle regulation is of pivotal importance for plant growth and development. Although plant cell division shares basic mechanisms with all eukaryotes, plants have evolved novel molecules orchestrating the cell cycle. Some regulatory proteins, such as cyclins and inhibitors of cyclin-dependent kinases, are particularly numerous in plants, possibly reflecting the remarkable ability of plants to modulate

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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