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  • Correction to: Transcriptomic analysis of hepatic responses to testosterone deficiency in miniature pigs fed a high-cholesterol diet
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhaowei Cai; Xiaoling Jiang; Yongming Pan; Liang Chen; Lifan Zhang; Keyan Zhu; Yueqin Cai; Yun Ling; Fangming Chen; Xiaoping Xu; Minli Chen

    Following the publication of the original article [1], it was reported that the accession number given in the ‘Data accessibility’ declaration, GSE65696, is incorrect.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • SMRT sequencing of a full-length transcriptome reveals transcript variants involved in C18 unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways at chilling temperature in Pennisetum giganteum
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Qingyuan Li; Conglin Xiang; Lin Xu; Jinghua Cui; Shao Fu; Baolin Chen; Shoukun Yang; Pan Wang; Yanfeng Xie; Ming Wei; Zhanchang Wang

    Pennisetum giganteum, an abundant, fast-growing perennial C4 grass that belongs to the genus Pennisetum, family Poaceae, has been developed as a source of biomass for mushroom cultivation and production, as a source of forage for cattle and sheep, and as a tool to remedy soil erosion. However, having a chilling-sensitive nature, P. giganteum seedlings need to be protected while overwintering in most temperate climate regions. To elucidate the cold stress responses of P. giganteum, we carried out comprehensive full-length transcriptomes from leaf and root tissues under room temperature (RT) and chilling temperature (CT) using PacBio Iso-Seq long reads. We identified 196,124 and 140,766 full-length consensus transcripts in the RT and CT samples, respectively. We then systematically performed functional annotation, transcription factor identification, long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) prediction, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) analysis of those full-length transcriptomes. Isoform analysis revealed that alternative splicing events may be induced by cold stress in P. giganteum, and transcript variants may be involved in C18 unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways at chilling temperature in P. giganteum. Furthermore, the fatty acid composition determination and gene expression level analysis supported that C18 unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis and metabolism pathways may play roles during cold stress in P. giganteum. We provide the first comprehensive full-length transcriptomic resource for the abundant and fast-growing perennial grass Pennisetum giganteum. Our results provide a useful transcriptomic resource for exploring the biological pathways involved in the cold stress responses of P. giganteum.

    更新日期:2020-01-16
  • Transcriptome analysis of Clinopodium gracile (Benth.) Matsum and identification of genes related to Triterpenoid Saponin biosynthesis
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Chunmiao Shan; Chenkai Wang; Shengxiang Zhang; Yuanyuan Shi; Kelong Ma; Qingshan Yang; Jiawen Wu

    Clinopodium gracile (Benth.) Matsum (C. gracile) is an annual herb with pharmacological properties effective in the treatment of various diseases, including hepatic carcinoma. Triterpenoid saponins are crucial bioactive compounds in C. gracile. However, the molecular understanding of the triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis pathway remains unclear. In this study, we performed RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) analysis of the flowers, leaves, roots, and stems of C. gracile plants using the BGISEQ-500 platform. The assembly of transcripts from all four types of tissues generated 128,856 unigenes, of which 99,020 were mapped to several public databases for functional annotation. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified via the comparison of gene expression levels between leaves and other tissues (flowers, roots, and stems). Multiple genes encoding pivotal enzymes, such as squalene synthase (SS), or transcription factors (TFs) related to triterpenoid saponin biosynthesis were identified and further analyzed. The expression levels of unigenes encoding important enzymes were verified by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Different chemical constituents of triterpenoid saponins were identified by Ultra-Performance Liquid Chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF-MS). Our results greatly extend the public transcriptome dataset of C. gracile and provide valuable information for the identification of candidate genes involved in the biosynthesis of triterpenoid saponins and other important secondary metabolites.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Transcriptome-based screening of intracellular pathways and angiogenesis related genes at different stages of thiram induced tibial lesions in broiler chickens
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Ali Raza Jahejo; Ding Zhang; Sheng Niu; Raza Ali Mangi; Afrasyab Khan; Muhammad Farhan Qadir; Ajab Khan; Huan-chun Chen; Wen-xia Tian

    The Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in fast-growing chickens is mainly caused by improper blood circulation. The exact mechanism underlying angiogenesis and vascularization in tibial growth plate of broiler chickens remains unclear. Therefore, this research attempts to study genes involved in the regulation of angiogenesis in chicken red blood cells. Twenty-four broiler chickens were allotted into a control and thiram (Tetramethyl thiuram disulfide) group. Blood samples were collected on day 2, 6 (8- and 14-days old chickens) and 15 (23 days old chickens). Histopathology and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) results showed that angiogenesis decreased on the 6th day of the experiment but started to recover on the 15th day of the experiment. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) results confirmed the expressions of integrin alpha-v precursor (ITGAV) and clusterin precursor (CLU). Transcriptome sequencing analysis evaluated 293 differentially expressed genes (DEGs), of which 103 up-regulated genes and 190 down-regulated genes were enriched in the pathways of neuroactive ligand receptor interaction, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), ribosome, regulation of actin cytoskeleton, focal adhesion, natural killer cell mediated cytotoxicity and the notch signalling pathways. DEGs (n = 20) related to angiogenesis of chicken erythrocytes in the enriched pathways were thromboxane A2 receptor (TBXA2R), interleukin-1 receptor type 1 precursor (IL1R1), ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17), integrin beta-3 precursor (ITGB3), ITGAV, integrin beta-2 precursor (ITGB2), ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), integrin alpha-2 (ITGA2), IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2 (IQGAP2), ARF GTPase-activating protein (GIT1), proto-oncogene vav (VAV1), integrin alpha-IIb-like (ITGA5), ras-related protein Rap-1b precursor (RAP1B), tyrosine protein kinase Fyn-like (FYN), tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 11 (PTPN11), protein patched homolog 1 (PTCH1), nuclear receptor corepressor 2 (NCOR2) and mastermind like protein 3 (MAML3) selected for further confirmation with qPCR. However, commonly DEGs were sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 3 (ATP2A3), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 R2 (UBE2R2), centriole cilia and spindle-associated protein (CCSAP), coagulation factor XIII A chain protein (F13A1), shroom 2 isoform X6 (SHROOM2), ras GTPase-activating protein 3 (RASA3) and CLU. We have found potential therapeutic genes concerned to erythrocytes and blood regulation, which regulated the angiogenesis in thiram induced TD chickens. This study also revealed the potential functions of erythrocytes. 1. Tibial dyschondroplasia (TD) in chickens were more on day 6, which started recovering on day 15. 2. The enriched pathway observed in TD chickens on day 6 was ribosome pathway, on day 15 were regulation of actin cytoskeleton and focal adhesion pathway. 3. The genes involved in the ribosome pathways was ribosomal protein L17 (RPL17). regulation of actin cytoskeleton pathway were Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (RAC2), Ras-related protein Rap-1b precursor (RAP1B), ARF GTPase-activating protein (GIT1), IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein 2 (IQGAP2), Integrin alpha-v precursor (ITGAV), Integrin alpha-2 (ITGA2), Integrin beta-2 precursor (ITGB2), Integrin beta-3 precursor (ITGB3), Integrin alpha-IIb-like (ITGA5). Focal adhesion Proto-oncogene vav (Vav-like), Tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn-like (FYN).

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Enhanced genome assembly and a new official gene set for Tribolium castaneum
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Nicolae Herndon; Jennifer Shelton; Lizzy Gerischer; Panos Ioannidis; Maria Ninova; Jürgen Dönitz; Robert M. Waterhouse; Chun Liang; Carsten Damm; Janna Siemanowski; Peter Kitzmann; Julia Ulrich; Stefan Dippel; Georg Oberhofer; Yonggang Hu; Jonas Schwirz; Magdalena Schacht; Sabrina Lehmann; Alice Montino; Nico Posnien; Daniela Gurska; Thorsten Horn; Jan Seibert; Iris M. Vargas Jentzsch; Kristen A. Panfilio; Jianwei Li; Ernst A. Wimmer; Dominik Stappert; Siegfried Roth; Reinhard Schröder; Yoonseong Park; Michael Schoppmeier; Ho-Ryun Chung; Martin Klingler; Sebastian Kittelmann; Markus Friedrich; Rui Chen; Boran Altincicek; Andreas Vilcinskas; Evgeny Zdobnov; Sam Griffiths-Jones; Matthew Ronshaugen; Mario Stanke; Sue J. Brown; Gregor Bucher

    The red flour beetle Tribolium castaneum has emerged as an important model organism for the study of gene function in development and physiology, for ecological and evolutionary genomics, for pest control and a plethora of other topics. RNA interference (RNAi), transgenesis and genome editing are well established and the resources for genome-wide RNAi screening have become available in this model. All these techniques depend on a high quality genome assembly and precise gene models. However, the first version of the genome assembly was generated by Sanger sequencing, and with a small set of RNA sequence data limiting annotation quality. Here, we present an improved genome assembly (Tcas5.2) and an enhanced genome annotation resulting in a new official gene set (OGS3) for Tribolium castaneum, which significantly increase the quality of the genomic resources. By adding large-distance jumping library DNA sequencing to join scaffolds and fill small gaps, the gaps in the genome assembly were reduced and the N50 increased to 4753kbp. The precision of the gene models was enhanced by the use of a large body of RNA-Seq reads of different life history stages and tissue types, leading to the discovery of 1452 novel gene sequences. We also added new features such as alternative splicing, well defined UTRs and microRNA target predictions. For quality control, 399 gene models were evaluated by manual inspection. The current gene set was submitted to Genbank and accepted as a RefSeq genome by NCBI. The new genome assembly (Tcas5.2) and the official gene set (OGS3) provide enhanced genomic resources for genetic work in Tribolium castaneum. The much improved information on transcription start sites supports transgenic and gene editing approaches. Further, novel types of information such as splice variants and microRNA target genes open additional possibilities for analysis.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Intraspecific diversification of the crop wild relative Brassica cretica Lam. using demographic model selection
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Antonios Kioukis; Vassiliki A. Michalopoulou; Laura Briers; Stergios Pirintsos; David J. Studholme; Pavlos Pavlidis; Panagiotis F. Sarris

    Crop wild relatives (CWRs) contain genetic diversity, representing an invaluable resource for crop improvement. Many of their traits have the potential to help crops to adapt to changing conditions that they experience due to climate change. An impressive global effort for the conservation of various CWR will facilitate their use in crop breeding for food security. The genus Brassica is listed in Annex I of the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture. Brassica oleracea (or wild cabbage), a species native to southern and western Europe, has become established as an important human food crop plant because of its large reserves stored over the winter in its leaves. Brassica cretica Lam. (Bc) is a CWR in the brassica group and B. cretica subsp. nivea (Bcn) has been suggested as a separate subspecies. The species Bc has been proposed as a potential gene donor to brassica crops, including broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, oilseed rape, etc. We sequenced genomes of four Bc individuals, including two Bcn and two Bc. Demographic analysis based on our whole-genome sequence data suggests that populations of Bc are not isolated. Classification of the Bc into distinct subspecies is not supported by the data. Using only the non-coding part of the data (thus, the parts of the genome that has evolved nearly neutrally), we find the gene flow between different Bc population is recent and its genomic diversity is high. Despite predictions on the disruptive effect of gene flow in adaptation, when selection is not strong enough to prevent the loss of locally adapted alleles, studies show that gene flow can promote adaptation, that local adaptations can be maintained despite high gene flow, and that genetic architecture plays a fundamental role in the origin and maintenance of local adaptation with gene flow. Thus, in the genomic era it is important to link the selected demographic models with the underlying processes of genomic variation because, if this variation is largely selectively neutral, we cannot assume that a diverse population of crop wild relatives will necessarily exhibit the wide-ranging adaptive diversity required for further crop improvement.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Robust estimation of heritability and predictive accuracy in plant breeding: evaluation using simulation and empirical data
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Vanda Milheiro Lourenço; Joseph Ochieng Ogutu; Hans-Peter Piepho

    Genomic prediction (GP) is used in animal and plant breeding to help identify the best genotypes for selection. One of the most important measures of the effectiveness and reliability of GP in plant breeding is predictive accuracy. An accurate estimate of this measure is thus central to GP. Moreover, regression models are the models of choice for analyzing field trial data in plant breeding. However, models that use the classical likelihood typically perform poorly, often resulting in biased parameter estimates, when their underlying assumptions are violated. This typically happens when data are contaminated with outliers. These biases often translate into inaccurate estimates of heritability and predictive accuracy, compromising the performance of GP. Since phenotypic data are susceptible to contamination, improving the methods for estimating heritability and predictive accuracy can enhance the performance of GP. Robust statistical methods provide an intuitively appealing and a theoretically well justified framework for overcoming some of the drawbacks of classical regression, most notably the departure from the normality assumption. We compare the performance of robust and classical approaches to two recently published methods for estimating heritability and predictive accuracy of GP using simulation of several plausible scenarios of random and block data contamination with outliers and commercial maize and rye breeding datasets. The robust approach generally performed as good as or better than the classical approach in phenotypic data analysis and in estimating the predictive accuracy of heritability and genomic prediction under both the random and block contamination scenarios. Notably, it consistently outperformed the classical approach under the random contamination scenario. Analyses of the empirical maize and rye datasets further reinforce the stability and reliability of the robust approach in the presence of outliers or missing data. The proposed robust approach enhances the predictive accuracy of heritability and genomic prediction by minimizing the deleterious effects of outliers for a broad range of simulation scenarios and empirical breeding datasets. Accordingly, plant breeders should seriously consider regularly using the robust alongside the classical approach and increasing the number of replicates to three or more, to further enhance the accuracy of the robust approach.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Changes in life history traits and transcriptional regulation of Coccinellini ladybirds in using alternative prey
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Mei-Lan Chen; Yu-Hao Huang; Bo-Yuan Qiu; Pei-Tao Chen; Xue-Yong Du; Hao-Sen Li; Hong Pang

    Ladybird beetles (Coleoptera, Coccinellidae) are highly diverse in their feeding habits. Most of them are specialist feeders, while some can have a broad spectrum of prey. As a representative group of generalists, the tribe Coccinellini includes many aphidophagous species, but members of this tribe also feed on other hemipterous insects including coccids, psyllids and whiteflies. As a result, several species are effective biological control agents or invasive species with serious non-target effects. Despite their economic importance, relatively little is known about how they adapt to new prey. In this study, comparisons of the life history traits and transcriptomes of ladybirds fed initial (aphids) and alternative prey (mealybugs) were performed in three Coccinellini species. The use of alternative prey greatly decreased performance, implied by the significantly prolonged development time and decreased survival rate and adult weight. Prey shifts resulted in a set of differentially expressed genes encoding chemosensory proteins and digestive and detoxifying enzymes. Our results suggest that these generalists do not perform well when they use alternative prey as the sole nutrition source. Although their capacity for predation might have created an opportunity to use varied prey, they must adapt to physiological obstacles including chemosensing, digestion and detoxification in response to a prey shift. These findings challenge the effect of Coccinellini predators on the biological control of non-aphid pests and suggest the possibility of non-target attacks by so-called specialists.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Changes in the expression of genes encoding type IV pili-associated proteins are seen when Clostridium perfringens is grown in liquid or on surfaces
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Samantha R. Soncini; Andrea H. Hartman; Tara M. Gallagher; Gary J. Camper; Roderick V. Jensen; Stephen B. Melville

    Clostridium perfringens is a Gram-positive anaerobic pathogen that causes multiple diseases in humans and animals. C. perfringens lack flagella but have type IV pili (TFP) and can glide on agar surfaces. When C. perfringens bacteria are placed on surfaces, they become elongated, flexible and have TFP on their surface, traits not seen in liquid-grown cells. In addition, the main pilin in C. perfringens TFP, PilA2, undergoes differential post-translational modification when grown in liquid or on plates. To understand the mechanisms underlying these phenotypes, bacteria were grown in three types of liquid media and on agar plates with the same medium to compare gene expression using RNA-Seq. Hundreds of genes were differentially expressed, including transcriptional regulatory protein-encoding genes and genes associated with TFP functions, which were higher on plates than in liquid. Transcript levels of TFP genes reflected the proportion of each protein predicted to reside in a TFP assembly complex. To measure differences in rates of translation, the Escherichia coli reporter gene gusA gene (encoding β-glucuronidase) was inserted into the chromosome downstream of TFP promoters and in-frame with the first gene of the operon. β-glucuronidase expression was then measured in cells grown in liquid or on plates. β-glucuronidase activity was proportional to mRNA levels in liquid-grown cells, but not plate-grown cells, suggesting significant levels of post-transcriptional regulation of these TFP-associated genes occurs when cells are grown on surfaces. This study reveals insights into how a non-flagellated pathogenic rod-shaped bacterium senses and responds to growth on surfaces, including inducing transcriptional regulators and activating multiple post-transcriptional regulatory mechanisms associated with TFP functions.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • miRNA and circRNA expression patterns in mouse brain during toxoplasmosis development
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Chun-Xue Zhou; Kang Ai; Cui-Qin Huang; Jing-Jing Guo; Hua Cong; Shen-Yi He; Xing-Quan Zhu

    Increasing evidence has shown that circular RNAs (circRNAs) are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, but their roles in neurological toxoplasmosis are yet to know. This study examined miRNA and circRNA expressions in mouse brain following oral infection with T. gondii Pru strain. Total RNA extracted from acutely infected (11 days post infection (DPI)), chronically infected (35 DPI) and uninfected mouse brain samples were subjected to genome-wide small RNA sequencing. In the acutely infected mice, 9 circRNAs and 20 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 67 circRNAs and 28 miRNAs were downregulated. In the chronically infected mice, 2 circRNAs and 42 miRNAs were upregulated, whereas 1 circRNA and 29 miRNAs were downregulated. Gene ontology analysis predicted that the host genes that produced the dysregulated circRNAs in the acutely infected brain were primarily involved in response to stimulus and ion binding activities. Furthermore, predictive interaction networks of circRNA-miRNA and miRNA-mRNA were constructed based on genome-wide transcriptome sequencing and computational analyses, which might suggest the putative functions of miRNAs and circRNAs as a large class of post-transcriptional regulators. These findings will shed light on circRNA-miRNA interactions during the pathogenesis of toxoplasmosis, and they will lay solid foundation for studying the potential regulation roles of miRNAs and circRNAs in T. gondii induced pathogenesis.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Genetic architecture of quantitative traits in beef cattle revealed by genome wide association studies of imputed whole genome sequence variants: II: carcass merit traits
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yining Wang; Feng Zhang; Robert Mukiibi; Liuhong Chen; Michael Vinsky; Graham Plastow; John Basarab; Paul Stothard; Changxi Li

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) were conducted on 7,853,211 imputed whole genome sequence variants in a population of 3354 to 3984 animals from multiple beef cattle breeds for five carcass merit traits including hot carcass weight (HCW), average backfat thickness (AFAT), rib eye area (REA), lean meat yield (LMY) and carcass marbling score (CMAR). Based on the GWAS results, genetic architectures of the carcass merit traits in beef cattle were elucidated. The distributions of DNA variant allele substitution effects approximated a bell-shaped distribution for all the traits while the distribution of additive genetic variances explained by single DNA variants conformed to a scaled inverse chi-squared distribution to a greater extent. At a threshold of P-value < 10–5, 51, 33, 46, 40, and 38 lead DNA variants on multiple chromosomes were significantly associated with HCW, AFAT, REA, LMY, and CMAR, respectively. In addition, lead DNA variants with potentially large pleiotropic effects on HCW, AFAT, REA, and LMY were found on chromosome 6. On average, missense variants, 3’UTR variants, 5’UTR variants, and other regulatory region variants exhibited larger allele substitution effects on the traits in comparison to other functional classes. The amounts of additive genetic variance explained per DNA variant were smaller for intergenic and intron variants on all the traits whereas synonymous variants, missense variants, 3’UTR variants, 5’UTR variants, downstream and upstream gene variants, and other regulatory region variants captured a greater amount of additive genetic variance per sequence variant for one or more carcass merit traits investigated. In total, 26 enriched cellular and molecular functions were identified with lipid metabolisms, small molecular biochemistry, and carbohydrate metabolism being the most significant for the carcass merit traits. The GWAS results have shown that the carcass merit traits are controlled by a few DNA variants with large effects and many DNA variants with small effects. Nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory, synonymous, and missense functional classes have relatively larger impacts per sequence variant on the variation of carcass merit traits. The genetic architecture as revealed by the GWAS will improve our understanding on genetic controls of carcass merit traits in beef cattle.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Transcriptome-wide map of m6A circRNAs identified in a rat model of hypoxia mediated pulmonary hypertension
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Hua Su; Guowen Wang; Lingfang Wu; Xiuqing Ma; Kejing Ying; Ruifeng Zhang

    Hypoxia mediated pulmonary hypertension (HPH) is a lethal disease and lacks effective therapy. CircRNAs play significant roles in physiological process. Recently, circRNAs are found to be m6A-modified. The abundance of circRNAs was influenced by m6A. Furthermore, the significance of m6A circRNAs has not been elucidated in HPH yet. Here we aim to investigate the transcriptome-wide map of m6A circRNAs in HPH. Differentially expressed m6A abundance was detected in lungs of HPH rats. M6A abundance in circRNAs was significantly reduced in hypoxia in vitro. M6A circRNAs were mainly from protein-coding genes spanned single exons in control and HPH groups. Moreover, m6A influenced the circRNA–miRNA–mRNA co-expression network in hypoxia. M6A circXpo6 and m6A circTmtc3 were firstly identified to be downregulated in HPH. Our study firstly identified the transcriptome-wide map of m6A circRNAs in HPH. M6A can influence circRNA–miRNA–mRNA network. Furthermore, we firstly identified two HPH-associated m6A circRNAs: circXpo6 and circTmtc3. However, the clinical significance of m6A circRNAs for HPH should be further validated.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Comparative transcriptomics of stem bark reveals genes associated with bast fiber development in Boehmeria nivea L. gaud (ramie)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Jiyong Xie; Jiaqi Li; Yucheng Jie; Deyu Xie; Di Yang; Huazhong Shi; Yingli Zhong

    Boehmeria nivea L. Gaud (Ramie) produces one of the longest natural fibers in nature. The bark of ramie mainly comprises of the phloem tissue of stem and is the raw material for fiber. Therefore, identifying the molecular regulation of phloem development is important for understanding of bast fiber biosynthesis and improvement of fiber quality in ramie. In this study, we collected top bud (TB), bark from internode elongating region (ER) and bark from internode fully elongated region (FER) from the ramie variety Zhongzhu No. 1. Histological study indicated that these samples contain phloem tissues at different developmental and maturation stages, with a higher degree of maturation of phloem tissue in FER. RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) was performed and de novo transcriptome was assembled. Unigenes and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in these three samples were identified. The analysis of DEGs by using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) revealed clear differences in gene expression between ER and FER. Some unigenes involved in secondary cell wall biosynthesis were up-regulated in both ER and FER, while unigenes for some cell wall components or cell wall modifications showed differential expression between ER and FER. In addition, the ethylene respond factors (ERFs) in the ethylene signaling pathway were up-regulated in FER, and ent-kaurenoic acid oxidase (KAO) and GA 20-oxidase (GA20ox) for gibberellins biosynthesis were up-regulated while GA 2-oxidase (GA2ox) for gibberellin inactivation was down-regulated in FER. Both morphological study and gene expression analysis supported a burst of phloem and vascular developmental processes during the fiber maturation in the ramie stem, and ethylene and gibberellin are likely to be involved in this process. Our findings provide novel insights into the phloem development and fiber maturation in ramie, which could be useful for fiber improvement in ramie and other fiber crops.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • GWAS and fine-mapping of livability and six disease traits in Holstein cattle
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Ellen Freebern; Daniel J. A. Santos; Lingzhao Fang; Jicai Jiang; Kristen L. Parker Gaddis; George E. Liu; Paul M. VanRaden; Christian Maltecca; John B. Cole; Li Ma

    Health traits are of significant economic importance to the dairy industry due to their effects on milk production and associated treatment costs. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide a means to identify associated genomic variants and thus reveal insights into the genetic architecture of complex traits and diseases. The objective of this study is to investigate the genetic basis of seven health traits in dairy cattle and to identify potential candidate genes associated with cattle health using GWAS, fine mapping, and analyses of multi-tissue transcriptome data. We studied cow livability and six direct disease traits, mastitis, ketosis, hypocalcemia, displaced abomasum, metritis, and retained placenta, using de-regressed breeding values and more than three million imputed DNA sequence variants. After data edits and filtering on reliability, the number of bulls included in the analyses ranged from 11,880 (hypocalcemia) to 24,699 (livability). GWAS was performed using a mixed-model association test, and a Bayesian fine-mapping procedure was conducted to calculate a posterior probability of causality to each variant and gene in the candidate regions. The GWAS detected a total of eight genome-wide significant associations for three traits, cow livability, ketosis, and hypocalcemia, including the bovine Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) region associated with livability. Our fine-mapping of associated regions reported 20 candidate genes with the highest posterior probabilities of causality for cattle health. Combined with transcriptome data across multiple tissues in cattle, we further exploited these candidate genes to identify specific expression patterns in disease-related tissues and relevant biological explanations such as the expression of Group-specific Component (GC) in the liver and association with mastitis as well as the Coiled-Coil Domain Containing 88C (CCDC88C) expression in CD8 cells and association with cow livability. Collectively, our analyses report six significant associations and 20 candidate genes of cattle health. With the integration of multi-tissue transcriptome data, our results provide useful information for future functional studies and better understanding of the biological relationship between genetics and disease susceptibility in cattle.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Gene regulatory response to hyposalinity in the brown seaweed Fucus vesiculosus
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Luca Rugiu; Marina Panova; Ricardo Tomás Pereyra; Veijo Jormalainen

    Rockweeds are among the most important foundation species of temperate rocky littoral shores. In the Baltic Sea, the rockweed Fucus vesiculosus is distributed along a decreasing salinity gradient from the North Atlantic entrance to the low-salinity regions in the north-eastern margins, thus, demonstrating a remarkable tolerance to hyposalinity. The underlying mechanisms for this tolerance are still poorly understood. Here, we exposed F. vesiculosus from two range-margin populations to the hyposaline (2.5 PSU - practical salinity unit) conditions that are projected to occur in the region by the end of this century as a result of climate change. We used transcriptome analysis (RNA-seq) to determine the gene expression patterns associated with hyposalinity acclimation, and examined the variation in these patterns between the sampled populations. Hyposalinity induced different responses in the two populations: in one, only 26 genes were differentially expressed between salinity treatments, while the other population demonstrated up- or downregulation in 3072 genes. In the latter population, the projected future hyposalinity induced an acute response in terms of antioxidant production. Genes associated with membrane composition and structure were also heavily involved, with the upregulation of fatty acid and actin production, and the downregulation of ion channels and alginate pathways. Changes in gene expression patterns clearly indicated an inhibition of the photosynthetic machinery, with a consequent downregulation of carbohydrate production. Simultaneously, energy consumption increased, as revealed by the upregulation of genes associated with respiration and ATP synthesis. Overall, the genes that demonstrated the largest increase in expression were ribosomal proteins involved in translation pathways. The fixation rate of SNP:s was higher within genes responding to hyposalinity than elsewhere in the transcriptome. The high fixation rate in the genes coding for salinity acclimation mechanisms implies strong selection for them. The among-population differentiation that we observed in the transcriptomic response to hyposalinity stress suggests that populations of F. vesiculosus may differ in their tolerance to future desalination, possibly as a result of local adaptation to salinity conditions within the Baltic Sea. These results emphasise the importance of considering interspecific genetic variation when evaluating the consequences of environmental change.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Genetic architecture of quantitative traits in beef cattle revealed by genome wide association studies of imputed whole genome sequence variants: I: feed efficiency and component traits
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Feng Zhang; Yining Wang; Robert Mukiibi; Liuhong Chen; Michael Vinsky; Graham Plastow; John Basarab; Paul Stothard; Changxi Li

    Genome wide association studies (GWAS) on residual feed intake (RFI) and its component traits including daily dry matter intake (DMI), average daily gain (ADG), and metabolic body weight (MWT) were conducted in a population of 7573 animals from multiple beef cattle breeds based on 7,853,211 imputed whole genome sequence variants. The GWAS results were used to elucidate genetic architectures of the feed efficiency related traits in beef cattle. The DNA variant allele substitution effects approximated a bell-shaped distribution for all the traits while the distribution of additive genetic variances explained by single DNA variants followed a scaled inverse chi-squared distribution to a greater extent. With a threshold of P-value < 1.00E-05, 16, 72, 88, and 116 lead DNA variants on multiple chromosomes were significantly associated with RFI, DMI, ADG, and MWT, respectively. In addition, lead DNA variants with potentially large pleiotropic effects on DMI, ADG, and MWT were found on chromosomes 6, 14 and 20. On average, missense, 3’UTR, 5’UTR, and other regulatory region variants exhibited larger allele substitution effects in comparison to other functional classes. Intergenic and intron variants captured smaller proportions of additive genetic variance per DNA variant. Instead 3’UTR and synonymous variants explained a greater amount of genetic variance per DNA variant for all the traits examined while missense, 5’UTR and other regulatory region variants accounted for relatively more additive genetic variance per sequence variant for RFI and ADG, respectively. In total, 25 to 27 enriched cellular and molecular functions were identified with lipid metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism being the most significant for the feed efficiency traits. RFI is controlled by many DNA variants with relatively small effects whereas DMI, ADG, and MWT are influenced by a few DNA variants with large effects and many DNA variants with small effects. Nucleotide polymorphisms in regulatory region and synonymous functional classes play a more important role per sequence variant in determining variation of the feed efficiency traits. The genetic architecture as revealed by the GWAS of the imputed 7,853,211 DNA variants will improve our understanding on the genetic control of feed efficiency traits in beef cattle.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Differential expression of microRNAs in tomato leaves treated with different light qualities
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Fei Dong; Chuanzeng Wang; Yuhui Dong; Shuqin Hao; Lixia Wang; Xiudong Sun; Shiqi Liu

    Light is the main source of energy and, as such, is one of the most important environmental factors for plant growth, morphogenesis, and other physiological responses. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous non-coding RNAs that contain 21–24 nucleotides (nt) and play important roles in plant growth and development as well as stress responses. However, the role of miRNAs in the light response is less studied. We used tomato seedlings that were cultured in red light then transferred to blue light for 2 min to identify miRNAs related to light response by high-throughput sequencing. A total of 108 known miRNAs and 141 predicted novel miRNAs were identified in leaf samples from tomato leaves treated with the different light qualities. Among them, 15 known and 5 predicted novel miRNAs were differentially expressed after blue light treatment compared with the control (red light treatment). KEGG enrichment analysis showed that significantly enriched pathways included zeatin biosynthesis (ko00908), homologous recombination (ko03440), and plant hormone signal transduction (ko04075). Zeatin biosynthesis and plant hormone signal transduction are related to plant hormones, indicating that plant hormones play important roles in the light response. Our results provide a theoretical basis for further understanding the role of miRNAs in the light response of plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Association analysis between constructed SNPLDBs and GCA effects of 9 quality-related traits in parents of hybrid rice (Oryza sativa L.)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Moaz S. Eltahawy; Nour Ali; Imdad U. Zaid; Dalu Li; Dina Abdulmajid; Lal Bux; Hui Wang; Delin Hong

    The general combining ability (GCA) of parents in hybrid rice affects not only heterotic level of grain yield and other important agronomic traits, but also performance of grain quality traits of F2 bulk population which is the commodity consumed by humans. In order to make GCA improvement for quality traits in parents of hybrid rice by molecular marker assisted selection feasible, genome-wide GCA loci for quality traits in parents were detected through association analysis between the effects of GCA and constructed single nucleotide polymorphism linkage disequilibrium blocks (SNPLDBs), by using unhusked rice grains harvested from F1 plants of 48 crosses of Indica rice and 78 crosses of Japonica rice. GCA-SNPLDBs association analysis. Among the 8 CMS and 6 restorer lines of indica rice subspecies, CMS lines Zhenpin A, Zhenshan97 A, and 257A, and restorers Kanghui98, Minghui63 and Yanhui559 were recognized as good general combiners based on their GCA effect values for the 9 quality traits (brown rice rate, milled rice rate, head rice rate, percentage of chalky grains, chalky area size, chalkiness degree, gelatinization temperature, gel consistency and amylose content). Among the 13 CMS and 6 restorer lines of japonica rice subspecies, CMS 863A, 6427A and Xu 2A, and restorers C418, Ninghui8hao and Yunhui4hao showed elite GCA effect values for the 9 traits. GCA-SNPLDB association analysis revealed 39 significant SNPLDB loci associated with the GCA of the 9 quality-related traits, and the numbers of SNPLDB loci located on chromosome 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 9, 11 and 12 were 1, 4, 3, 9, 6, 5, 5, 4 and 2, respectively. Number of superior GCA alleles for the 9 traits among the 33 parents ranged from 1 to 26. Thirty-nine significant SNPLDBs loci were identified associated with the GCA of 9 quality-related traits, and the superior SNPLDB alleles could be used to improve the GCA of parents for the traits in the future by molecular marker assisted selection. The genetic basis of trait GCA in parents is different from that of trait itself.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • The pan-genome of Treponema pallidum reveals differences in genome plasticity between subspecies related to venereal and non-venereal syphilis
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Arun Kumar Jaiswal; Sandeep Tiwari; Syed Babar Jamal; Letícia de Castro Oliveira; Leandro Gomes Alves; Vasco Azevedo; Preetam Ghosh; Carlo Jose Freira Oliveira; Siomar C. Soares

    Spirochetal organisms of the Treponema genus are responsible for causing Treponematoses. Pathogenic treponemes is a Gram-negative, motile, spirochete pathogen that causes syphilis in human. Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum (TEN) causes endemic syphilis (bejel); T. pallidum subsp. pallidum (TPA) causes venereal syphilis; T. pallidum subsp. pertenue (TPE) causes yaws; and T. pallidum subsp. Ccarateum causes pinta. Out of these four high morbidity diseases, venereal syphilis is mediated by sexual contact; the other three diseases are transmitted by close personal contact. The global distribution of syphilis is alarming and there is an increasing need of proper treatment and preventive measures. Unfortunately, effective measures are limited. Here, the genome sequences of 53 T. pallidum strains isolated from different parts of the world and a diverse range of hosts were comparatively analysed using pan-genomic strategy. Phylogenomic, pan-genomic, core genomic and singleton analysis disclosed the close connection among all strains of the pathogen T. pallidum, its clonal behaviour and showed increases in the sizes of the pan-genome. Based on the genome plasticity analysis of the subsets containing the subspecies T pallidum subsp. pallidum, T. pallidum subsp. endemicum and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue, we found differences in the presence/absence of pathogenicity islands (PAIs) and genomic islands (GIs) on subsp.-based study. In summary, we identified four pathogenicity islands (PAIs), eight genomic islands (GIs) in subsp. pallidum, whereas subsp. endemicum has three PAIs and seven GIs and subsp. pertenue harbours three PAIs and eight GIs. Concerning the presence of genes in PAIs and GIs, we found some genes related to lipid and amino acid biosynthesis that were only present in the subsp. of T. pallidum, compared to T. pallidum subsp. endemicum and T. pallidum subsp. pertenue.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Venomics of the ectoparasitoid wasp Bracon nigricans
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Andrea Becchimanzi; Maddalena Avolio; Hamed Bostan; Chiara Colantuono; Flora Cozzolino; Donato Mancini; Maria Luisa Chiusano; Pietro Pucci; Silvia Caccia; Francesco Pennacchio

    Venom is one of the most important sources of regulation factors used by parasitic Hymenoptera to redirect host physiology in favour of the developing offspring. This has stimulated a number of studies, both at functional and “omics” level, which, however, are still quite limited for ectophagous parasitoids that permanently paralyze and suppress their victims (i.e., idiobiont parasitoids). Here we present a combined transcriptomic and proteomic study of the venom of the generalist idiobiont wasp Bracon nigricans, an ectophagous larval parasitoid of different lepidopteran species, for which we recently described the host regulation strategy and the functional role of the venom in the induction of physiological changes in parasitized hosts. The experimental approach used led to the identification of the main components of B. nigricans venom involved in host regulation. Enzymes degrading lipids, proteins and carbohydrates are likely involved in the mobilization of storage nutrients from the fat body and may concurrently be responsible for the release of neurotoxic fatty acids inducing paralysis, and for the modulation of host immune responses. The present work contributes to fill the gap of knowledge on venom composition in ectoparasitoid wasps, and, along with our previous physiological study on this species, provides the foundation on which to develop a functional model of host regulation, based both on physiological and molecular data. This paves the way towards a better understanding of parasitism evolution in the basal lineages of Hymenoptera and to the possible exploitation of venom as source of bioinsecticidal molecules.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Custom selected reference genes outperform pre-defined reference genes in transcriptomic analysis
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Karen Cristine Gonçalves dos Santos; Isabel Desgagné-Penix; Hugo Germain

    RNA sequencing allows the measuring of gene expression at a resolution unmet by expression arrays or RT-qPCR. It is however necessary to normalize sequencing data by library size, transcript size and composition, among other factors, before comparing expression levels. The use of internal control genes or spike-ins is advocated in the literature for scaling read counts, but the methods for choosing reference genes are mostly targeted at RT-qPCR studies and require a set of pre-selected candidate controls or pre-selected target genes. Here, we report an R-based pipeline to select internal control genes based solely on read counts and gene sizes. This novel method first normalizes the read counts to Transcripts per Million (TPM) and then excludes weakly expressed genes using the DAFS script to calculate the cut-off. It then selects as references the genes with lowest TPM covariance. We used this method to pick custom reference genes for the differential expression analysis of three transcriptome sets from transgenic Arabidopsis plants expressing heterologous fungal effector proteins tagged with GFP (using GFP alone as the control). The custom reference genes showed lower covariance and fold change as well as a broader range of expression levels than commonly used reference genes. When analyzed with NormFinder, both typical and custom reference genes were considered suitable internal controls, but the custom selected genes were more stably expressed. geNorm produced a similar result in which most custom selected genes ranked higher (i.e. were more stably expressed) than commonly used reference genes. The proposed method is innovative, rapid and simple. Since it does not depend on genome annotation, it can be used with any organism, and does not require pre-selected reference candidates or target genes that are not always available.

    更新日期:2020-01-11
  • Correction to: Transcriptome profiling of resistance response to Meloidogyne chitwoodi introgressed from wild species Solanum bulbocastanum into cultivated potato
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Sapinder Bali; Kelly Vining; Cynthia Gleason; Hassan Majtahedi; Charles R. Brown; Vidyasagar Sathuvalli

    Following the publication of this article [1], the authors noted an error in Figure 11.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • A crustacean annotated transcriptome (CAT) database
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Wenyan Nong; Zacary Y. H. Chai; Xiaosen Jiang; Jing Qin; Ka Yan Ma; King Ming Chan; Ting Fung Chan; Billy K. C. Chow; Hoi Shan Kwan; Chris K. C. Wong; Jian-Wen Qiu; Jerome H. L. Hui; Ka Hou Chu

    Decapods are an order of crustaceans which includes shrimps, crabs, lobsters and crayfish. They occur worldwide and are of great scientific interest as well as being of ecological and economic importance in fisheries and aquaculture. However, our knowledge of their biology mainly comes from the group which is most closely related to crustaceans – insects. Here we produce a de novo transcriptome database, crustacean annotated transcriptome (CAT) database, spanning multiple tissues and the life stages of seven crustaceans. A total of 71 transcriptome assemblies from six decapod species and a stomatopod species, including the coral shrimp Stenopus hispidus, the cherry shrimp Neocaridina davidi, the redclaw crayfish Cherax quadricarinatus, the spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus, the red king crab Paralithodes camtschaticus, the coconut crab Birgus latro, and the zebra mantis shrimp Lysiosquillina maculata, were generated. Differential gene expression analyses within species were generated as a reference and included in a graphical user interface database at http://cat.sls.cuhk.edu.hk/. Users can carry out gene name searches and also access gene sequences based on a sequence query using the BLAST search function. The data generated and deposited in this database offers a valuable resource for the further study of these crustaceans, as well as being of use in aquaculture development.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Natural and pathogenic protein sequence variation affecting prion-like domains within and across human proteomes
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Sean M. Cascarina; Eric D. Ross

    Impaired proteostatic regulation of proteins with prion-like domains (PrLDs) is associated with a variety of human diseases including neurodegenerative disorders, myopathies, and certain forms of cancer. For many of these disorders, current models suggest a prion-like molecular mechanism of disease, whereby proteins aggregate and spread to neighboring cells in an infectious manner. The development of prion prediction algorithms has facilitated the large-scale identification of PrLDs among “reference” proteomes for various organisms. However, the degree to which intraspecies protein sequence diversity influences predicted prion propensity has not been systematically examined. Here, we explore protein sequence variation introduced at genetic, post-transcriptional, and post-translational levels, and its influence on predicted aggregation propensity for human PrLDs. We find that sequence variation is relatively common among PrLDs and in some cases can result in relatively large differences in predicted prion propensity. Sequence variation introduced at the post-transcriptional level (via alternative splicing) also commonly affects predicted aggregation propensity, often by direct inclusion or exclusion of a PrLD. Finally, analysis of a database of sequence variants associated with human disease reveals a number of mutations within PrLDs that are predicted to increase prion propensity. Our analyses expand the list of candidate human PrLDs, quantitatively estimate the effects of sequence variation on the aggregation propensity of PrLDs, and suggest the involvement of prion-like mechanisms in additional human diseases.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Genome-guided analysis allows the identification of novel physiological traits in Trichococcus species
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Nikolaos Strepis; Henry D. Naranjo; Jan Meier-Kolthoff; Markus Göker; Nicole Shapiro; Nikos Kyrpides; Hans-Peter Klenk; Peter J. Schaap; Alfons J. M. Stams; Diana Z. Sousa

    The genus Trichococcus currently contains nine species: T. flocculiformis, T. pasteurii, T. palustris, T. collinsii, T. patagoniensis, T. ilyis, T. paludicola, T. alkaliphilus, and T. shcherbakoviae. In general, Trichococcus species can degrade a wide range of carbohydrates. However, only T. pasteurii and a non-characterized strain of Trichococcus, strain ES5, have the capacity of converting glycerol to mainly 1,3-propanediol. Comparative genomic analysis of Trichococcus species provides the opportunity to further explore the physiological potential and uncover novel properties of this genus. In this study, a genotype-phenotype comparative analysis of Trichococcus strains was performed. The genome of Trichococcus strain ES5 was sequenced and included in the comparison with the other nine type strains. Genes encoding functions related to e.g. the utilization of different carbon sources (glycerol, arabinan and alginate), antibiotic resistance, tolerance to low temperature and osmoregulation could be identified in all the sequences analysed. T. pasteurii and Trichococcus strain ES5 contain a operon with genes encoding necessary enzymes for 1,3-PDO production from glycerol. All the analysed genomes comprise genes encoding for cold shock domains, but only five of the Trichococcus species can grow at 0 °C. Protein domains associated to osmoregulation mechanisms are encoded in the genomes of all Trichococcus species, except in T. palustris, which had a lower resistance to salinity than the other nine studied Trichococcus strains. Genome analysis and comparison of ten Trichococcus strains allowed the identification of physiological traits related to substrate utilization and environmental stress resistance (e.g. to cold and salinity). Some substrates were used by single species, e.g. alginate by T. collinsii and arabinan by T. alkaliphilus. Strain ES5 may represent a subspecies of Trichococcus flocculiformis and contrary to the type strain (DSM 2094T), is able to grow on glycerol with the production of 1,3-propanediol.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • CNCC: an analysis tool to determine genome-wide DNA break end structure at single-nucleotide resolution
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Karol Szlachta; Heather M. Raimer; Laurey D. Comeau; Yuh-Hwa Wang

    DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) are potentially deleterious events in a cell. The end structures (blunt, 3′- and 5′-overhangs) at DSB sites contribute to the fate of their repair and provide critical information concerning the consequences of the damage. Therefore, there has been a recent eruption of DNA break mapping and sequencing methods that aim to map at single-nucleotide resolution where breaks are generated genome-wide. These methods provide high resolution data for the location of DSBs, which can encode the type of end-structure present at these breaks. However, genome-wide analysis of the resulting end structures has not been investigated following these sequencing methods. To address this analysis gap, we develop the use of a coverage-normalized cross correlation analysis (CNCC) to process the high-precision genome-wide break mapping data, and determine genome-wide break end structure distributions at single-nucleotide resolution. We take advantage of the single-nucleotide position and the knowledge of strandness from every mapped break to analyze the relative shifts between positive and negative strand encoded break nucleotides. By applying CNCC we can identify the most abundant end structures captured by a break mapping technique, and further can make comparisons between different samples and treatments. We validate our analysis with restriction enzyme digestions of genomic DNA and establish the sensitivity of the analysis using end structures that only exist as a minor fraction of total breaks. Finally, we demonstrate the versatility of our analysis by applying CNCC to the breaks resulting after treatment with etoposide and study the variety of resulting end structures. For the first time, on a genome-wide scale, our analysis revealed the increase in the 5′ to 3′ end resection following etoposide treatment, and the global progression of the resection. Furthermore, our method distinguished the change in the pattern of DSB end structure with increasing doses of the drug. The ability of this method to determine DNA break end structures without a priori knowledge of break sequences or genomic position should have broad applications in understanding genome instability.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Evolutionary relationships among bifidobacteria and their hosts and environments
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Cynthia I. Rodriguez; Jennifer B. H. Martiny

    The assembly of animal microbiomes is influenced by multiple environmental factors and host genetics, although the relative importance of these factors remains unclear. Bifidobacteria (genus Bifidobacterium, phylum Actinobacteria) are common first colonizers of gut microbiomes in humans and inhabit other mammals, social insects, food, and sewages. In humans, the presence of bifidobacteria in the gut has been correlated with health-promoting benefits. Here, we compared the genome sequences of a subset of the over 400 Bifidobacterium strains publicly available to investigate the adaptation of bifidobacteria diversity. We tested 1) whether bifidobacteria show a phylogenetic signal with their isolation sources (hosts and environments) and 2) whether key traits encoded by the bifidobacteria genomes depend on the host or environment from which they were isolated. We analyzed Bifidobacterium genomes available in the PATRIC and NCBI repositories and identified the hosts and/or environment from which they were isolated. A multilocus phylogenetic analysis was conducted to compare the genetic relatedness the strains harbored by different hosts and environments. Furthermore, we examined differences in genomic traits and genes related to amino acid biosynthesis and degradation of carbohydrates. We found that bifidobacteria diversity appears to have evolved with their hosts as strains isolated from the same host were non-randomly associated with their phylogenetic relatedness. Moreover, bifidobacteria isolated from different sources displayed differences in genomic traits such as genome size and accessory gene composition and on particular traits related to amino acid production and degradation of carbohydrates. In contrast, when analyzing diversity within human-derived bifidobacteria, we observed no phylogenetic signal or differences on specific traits (amino acid biosynthesis genes and CAZymes). Overall, our study shows that bifidobacteria diversity is strongly adapted to specific hosts and environments and that several genomic traits were associated with their isolation sources. However, this signal is not observed in human-derived strains alone. Looking into the genomic signatures of bifidobacteria strains in different environments can give insights into how this bacterial group adapts to their environment and what types of traits are important for these adaptations.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Assessing genomic diversity and signatures of selection in Original Braunvieh cattle using whole-genome sequencing data
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Meenu Bhati; Naveen Kumar Kadri; Danang Crysnanto; Hubert Pausch

    Autochthonous cattle breeds are an important source of genetic variation because they might carry alleles that enable them to adapt to local environment and food conditions. Original Braunvieh (OB) is a local cattle breed of Switzerland used for beef and milk production in alpine areas. Using whole-genome sequencing (WGS) data of 49 key ancestors, we characterize genomic diversity, genomic inbreeding, and signatures of selection in Swiss OB cattle at nucleotide resolution. We annotated 15,722,811 SNPs and 1,580,878 Indels including 10,738 and 2763 missense deleterious and high impact variants, respectively, that were discovered in 49 OB key ancestors. Six Mendelian trait-associated variants that were previously detected in breeds other than OB, segregated in the sequenced key ancestors including variants causal for recessive xanthinuria and albinism. The average nucleotide diversity (1.6  × 10− 3) was higher in OB than many mainstream European cattle breeds. Accordingly, the average genomic inbreeding derived from runs of homozygosity (ROH) was relatively low (FROH = 0.14) in the 49 OB key ancestor animals. However, genomic inbreeding was higher in OB cattle of more recent generations (FROH = 0.16) due to a higher number of long (> 1 Mb) runs of homozygosity. Using two complementary approaches, composite likelihood ratio test and integrated haplotype score, we identified 95 and 162 genomic regions encompassing 136 and 157 protein-coding genes, respectively, that showed evidence (P < 0.005) of past and ongoing selection. These selection signals were enriched for quantitative trait loci related to beef traits including meat quality, feed efficiency and body weight and pathways related to blood coagulation, nervous and sensory stimulus. We provide a comprehensive overview of sequence variation in Swiss OB cattle genomes. With WGS data, we observe higher genomic diversity and less inbreeding in OB than many European mainstream cattle breeds. Footprints of selection were detected in genomic regions that are possibly relevant for meat quality and adaptation to local environmental conditions. Considering that the population size is low and genomic inbreeding increased in the past generations, the implementation of optimal mating strategies seems warranted to maintain genetic diversity in the Swiss OB cattle population.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • The transcriptome of Pinus pinaster under Fusarium circinatum challenge
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Laura Hernandez-Escribano; Erik A. Visser; Eugenia Iturritxa; Rosa Raposo; Sanushka Naidoo

    Fusarium circinatum, the causal agent of pitch canker disease, poses a serious threat to several Pinus species affecting plantations and nurseries. Although Pinus pinaster has shown moderate resistance to F. circinatum, the molecular mechanisms of defense in this host are still unknown. Phytohormones produced by the plant and by the pathogen are known to play a crucial role in determining the outcome of plant-pathogen interactions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the role of phytohormones in F. circinatum virulence, that compromise host resistance. A high quality P. pinaster de novo transcriptome assembly was generated, represented by 24,375 sequences from which 17,593 were full length genes, and utilized to determine the expression profiles of both organisms during the infection process at 3, 5 and 10 days post-inoculation using a dual RNA-sequencing approach. The moderate resistance shown by Pinus pinaster at the early time points may be explained by the expression profiles pertaining to early recognition of the pathogen, the induction of pathogenesis-related proteins and the activation of complex phytohormone signaling pathways that involves crosstalk between salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and possibly auxins. Moreover, the expression of F. circinatum genes related to hormone biosynthesis suggests manipulation of the host phytohormone balance to its own benefit. We hypothesize three key steps of host manipulation: perturbing ethylene homeostasis by fungal expression of genes related to ethylene biosynthesis, blocking jasmonic acid signaling by coronatine insensitive 1 (COI1) suppression, and preventing salicylic acid biosynthesis from the chorismate pathway by the synthesis of isochorismatase family hydrolase (ICSH) genes. These results warrant further testing in F. circinatum mutants to confirm the mechanism behind perturbing host phytohormone homeostasis.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Identification of a novel anthocyanin synthesis pathway in the fungus Aspergillus sydowii H-1
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Congfan Bu; Qian Zhang; Jie Zeng; Xiyue Cao; Zhaonan Hao; Dairong Qiao; Yi Cao; Hui Xu

    Anthocyanins are common substances with many agro-food industrial applications. However, anthocyanins are generally considered to be found only in natural plants. Our previous study isolated and purified the fungus Aspergillus sydowii H-1, which can produce purple pigments during fermentation. To understand the characteristics of this strain, a transcriptomic and metabolomic comparative analysis was performed with A. sydowii H-1 from the second and eighth days of fermentation, which confer different pigment production. We found five anthocyanins with remarkably different production in A. sydowii H-1 on the eighth day of fermentation compared to the second day of fermentation. LC-MS/MS combined with other characteristics of anthocyanins suggested that the purple pigment contained anthocyanins. A total of 28 transcripts related to the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway was identified in A. sydowii H-1, and almost all of the identified genes displayed high correlations with the metabolome. Among them, the chalcone synthase gene (CHS) and cinnamate-4-hydroxylase gene (C4H) were only found using the de novo assembly method. Interestingly, the best hits of these two genes belonged to plant species. Finally, we also identified 530 lncRNAs in our datasets, and among them, three lncRNAs targeted the genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis via cis-regulation, which provided clues for understanding the underlying mechanism of anthocyanin production in fungi. We first reported that anthocyanin can be produced in fungus, A. sydowii H-1. Totally, 31 candidate transcripts were identified involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis, in which CHS and C4H, known as the key genes in anthocyanin biosynthesis, were only found in strain H1, which indicated that these two genes may contribute to anthocyanins producing in H-1. This discovery expanded our knowledges of the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and provided a direction for the production of anthocyanin.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Overexpression of a modified eIF4E regulates potato virus Y resistance at the transcriptional level in potato
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Pablo A. Gutierrez Sanchez; Lavanya Babujee; Helena Jaramillo Mesa; Erica Arcibal; Megan Gannon; Dennis Halterman; Molly Jahn; Jiming Jiang; Aurélie M. Rakotondrafara

    Potato virus Y (PVY) is a major pathogen of potatoes with major impact on global agricultural production. Resistance to PVY can be achieved by engineering potatoes to express a recessive, resistant allele of eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF4E, a host dependency factor essential to PVY replication. Here we analyzed transcriptome changes in eIF4E over-expressing potatoes to shed light on the mechanism underpinning eIF4E-mediated recessive PVY resistance. As anticipated, modified eIF4E-expressing potatoes demonstrated a high level of resistance, eIF4E expression, and an unexpected suppression of the susceptible allele transcript, likely explaining the bulk of the potent antiviral phenotype. In resistant plants, we also detected marked upregulation of genes involved in cell stress responses. Our results reveal a previously unanticipated second layer of signaling attributable to eIF4E regulatory control, and potentially relevant to establishment of a broader, more systematic antiviral host defense.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Preliminary investigation demonstrating the GHITM gene probably involved in apoptosis and growth of the golden apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Wenchao Yu; Baolu Zhang; Hongce Song; Rui Zhan; Lingling Li; Cheng He; Qiuyun Jiang; Xiaona Wang; Lei Wei; Nannan Zhao; Wen Guo; Xiaotong Wang

    Growth hormone inducible transmembrane protein (GHITM) is a highly conserved transmembrane protein. This study was conducted to investigate the role of GHITM gene in the apoptosis and growth of the golden apple snail Pomacea canaliculate. The complete cDNA of this gene was cloned using the rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) method and subjected to bioinformatics analysis. The full-length cDNA was 2242 bp, including an open reading frame of 1021 bp that encoded a protein of 342 amino acid residues. The mRNA expression profiles of GHITM gene in different tissues (liver, kidney, gonad and foot) and different growth phases (6-months old and 2-years old) showed that it was expressed in various tissues and different growth phases. Silencing of the GHITM gene by RNAi (RNA interference) experiments revealed that the GHITM gene possibly plays a role in inhibiting apoptosis through detecting the Caspase (Cysteine-requiring Aspartate Protease)-3 activity. In addition, the aperture width and body whorl length of the snail was significantly affected by RNAi, suggesting that this gene plays a significant role in promoting the growth of the organism. These results demonstrated that the GHITM gene was involved in apoptosis and growth in golden apple snail.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Topology and expressed repertoire of the Felis catus T cell receptor loci
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Araya Radtanakatikanon; Stefan M. Keller; Nikos Darzentas; Peter F. Moore; Géraldine Folch; Viviane Nguefack Ngoune; Marie-Paule Lefranc; William Vernau

    The domestic cat (Felis catus) is an important companion animal and is used as a large animal model for human disease. However, the comprehensive study of adaptive immunity in this species is hampered by the lack of data on lymphocyte antigen receptor genes and usage. The objectives of this study were to annotate the feline T cell receptor (TR) loci and to characterize the expressed repertoire in lymphoid organs of normal cats using high-throughput sequencing. The Felis catus TRG locus contains 30 genes: 12 TRGV, 12 TRGJ and 6 TRGC, the TRB locus contains 48 genes: 33 TRBV, 2 TRBD, 11 TRBJ, 2 TRBC, the TRD locus contains 19 genes: 11 TRDV, 2 TRDD, 5 TRDJ, 1 TRDC, and the TRA locus contains 127 genes: 62 TRAV, 64 TRAJ, 1 TRAC. Functional feline V genes form monophyletic clades with their orthologs, and clustering of multimember subgroups frequently occurs in V genes located at the 5′ end of TR loci. Recombination signal (RS) sequences of the heptamer and nonamer of functional V and J genes are highly conserved. Analysis of the TRG expressed repertoire showed preferential intra-cassette over inter-cassette rearrangements and dominant usage of the TRGV2–1 and TRGJ1–2 genes. The usage of TRBV genes showed minor bias but TRBJ genes of the second J-C-cluster were more commonly rearranged than TRBJ genes of the first cluster. The TRA/TRD V genes almost exclusively rearranged to J genes within their locus. The TRAV/TRAJ gene usage was relatively balanced while the TRD repertoire was dominated by TRDJ3. This is the first description of all TR loci in the cat. The genomic organization of feline TR loci was similar to that of previously described jawed vertebrates (gnathostomata) and is compatible with the birth-and-death model of evolution. The large-scale characterization of feline TR genes provides comprehensive baseline data on immune repertoires in healthy cats and will facilitate the development of improved reagents for the diagnosis of lymphoproliferative diseases in cats. In addition, these data might benefit studies using cats as a large animal model for human disease.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Identification and characterization of genes frequently responsive to Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and Magnaporthe oryzae infections in rice
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Weiwen Kong; Li Ding; Xue Xia

    Disease resistance is an important factor that impacts rice production. However, the mechanisms underlying rice disease resistance remain to be elucidated. Here, we show that a robust set of genes has been defined in rice response to the infections of Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) and Magnaporthe oryzae (Mor). We conducted a comprehensive analysis of the available microarray data from a variety of rice samples with inoculation of Xoo and Mor. A set of 12,932 genes was identified to be regulated by Xoo and another set of 2709 Mor-regulated genes was determined. GO enrichment analysis of the regulated genes by Xoo or Mor suggested mitochondrion may be an arena for the up-regulated genes and chloroplast be another for the down-regulated genes by Xoo or Mor. Cytokinin-related processes were most frequently repressed by Xoo, while processes relevant to jasmonic acid and abscisic acid were most frequently activated by Xoo and Mor. Among genes responsive to Xoo and Mor, defense responses and diverse signaling pathways were the most frequently enriched resistance mechanisms. InterPro annotation showed the zinc finger domain family, WRKY proteins, and Myb domain proteins were the most significant transcription factors regulated by Xoo and Mor. KEGG analysis demonstrated pathways including ‘phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’, ‘biosynthesis of antibiotics’, ‘phenylalanine metabolism’, and ‘biosynthesis of secondary metabolites’ were most frequently triggered by Xoo and Mor, whereas ‘circadian rhythm-plant’ was the most frequent pathway repressed by Xoo and Mor. The genes identified here represent a robust set of genes responsive to the infections of Xoo and Mor, which provides an overview of transcriptional reprogramming during rice defense against Xoo and Mor infections. Our study would be helpful in understanding the mechanisms of rice disease resistance.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Anti-masculinization induced by aromatase inhibitors in adult female zebrafish
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Lu Chen; Li Wang; Qiwei Cheng; Yi-Xuan Tu; Zhuang Yang; Run-Ze Li; Zhi-Hui Luo; Zhen-Xia Chen

    Early sex differentiation genes of zebrafish remain an unsolved mystery due to the difficulty to distinguish the sex of juvenile zebrafish. However, aromatase inhibitors (AIs) could direct juvenile zebrafish sex differentiation to male and even induce ovary-to-testis reversal in adult zebrafish. In order to determine the transcriptomic changes of sex differentiation in juvenile zebrafish and early sex-reversal in adult zebrafish, we sequenced the transcriptomes of juvenile and adult zebrafish treated with AI exemestane (EM) for 32 days, when juvenile zebrafish sex differentiation finished. EM treatment in females up-regulated the expression of genes involved in estrogen metabolic process, female gamete generation and oogenesis, including gsdf, macf1a and paqr5a, while down-regulated the expression of vitellogenin (vtg) genes, including vtg6, vtg2, vtg4, and vtg7 due to the lower level of Estradiol (E2). Furthermore, EM-juveniles showed up-regulation in genes related to cell death and apoptosis, such as bcl2l16 and anax1c, while the control-juveniles exhibited up-regulation of genes involved in positive regulation of reproductive process and oocyte differentiation such as zar1 and zpcx. Moreover, EM-females showed higher enrichment than control females in genes involved in VEGF signaling pathway, glycosaminoglycan degradation, hedgehog signaling pathway, GnRH signaling pathway and steroid hormone biosynthesis. Our study shows anti-masculinization in EM-treated adult females but not in EM-treated juveniles. This may be responsible for the lower sex plasticity in adults than juveniles.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Regulatory roles of differentially expressed MicroRNAs in metabolic processes in negative Lens-induced myopia Guinea pigs
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Dadong Guo; Meihua Ding; Xiaoli Song; Yuanyuan Sun; Guoping Li; Zonghong Li; Huixia Wei; Jianfeng Wu; Wenjun Jiang; Hongsheng Bi

    Myopia is one of the most common vision defects worldwide. microRNAs can regulate the target gene expression, influencing the development of diseases. To investigate the alterations of microRNA profiling in negative lens-induced myopia (NLIM) guinea pigs and to explore the regulatory role of microRNAs in the occurrence and the development of myopia, we first established the NLIM guinea pig model after induction for 2 weeks. Further, we isolated sclera to purify total messenger RNA (mRNA) in both NLIM and NLIM fellow sclera. Using next generation sequencing technique and bioinformatics analysis, we identified the differentially expressed microRNAs in NLIM guinea pigs, performed the bioinformatics annotation for the differentially expressed microRNAs, and validated the expression of differentially expressed microRNAs. As a result, we successfully established an NLIM model in guinea pigs, identified 27 differentially expressed microRNAs in NLIM guinea pig sclera, including 10 upregulated and 17 downregulated microRNAs. The KEGG annotation showed the main signaling pathways were closely associated with PPAR signaling, pyruvate and propanoate metabolisms, and TGF-beta signaling pathways. Our findings indicate that the development of myopia is mainly involved in the disorder of metabolic processes in NLIM guinea pigs. The PPAR signaling, pyruvate and propanoate metabolism pathways may play roles in the development of myopia.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Genome sequence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1161, a PAO1 derivative with the ICEPae1161 integrative and conjugative element
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Adam Kawalek; Karolina Kotecka; Magdalena Modrzejewska; Jan Gawor; Grazyna Jagura-Burdzy; Aneta Agnieszka Bartosik

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a cause of nosocomial infections, especially in patients with cystic fibrosis and burn wounds. PAO1 strain and its derivatives are widely used to study the biology of this bacterium, however recent studies demonstrated differences in the genomes and phenotypes of derivatives from different laboratories. Here we report the genome sequence of P. aeruginosa PAO1161 laboratory strain, a leu-, RifR, restriction-modification defective PAO1 derivative, described as the host of IncP-8 plasmid FP2, conferring the resistance to mercury. Comparison of PAO1161 genome with PAO1-UW sequence revealed lack of an inversion of a large genome segment between rRNA operons and 100 nucleotide polymorphisms, short insertions and deletions. These included a change in leuA, resulting in E108K substitution, which caused leucine auxotrophy and a mutation in rpoB, likely responsible for the rifampicin resistance. Nonsense mutations were detected in PA2735 and PA1939 encoding a DNA methyltransferase and a putative OLD family endonuclease, respectively. Analysis of revertants in these two genes showed that PA2735 is a component of a restriction-modification system, independent of PA1939. Moreover, a 12 kb RPG42 prophage and a novel 108 kb PAPI-1 like integrative conjugative element (ICE) encompassing a mercury resistance operon were identified. The ICEPae1161 was transferred to Pseudomonas putida cells, where it integrated in the genome and conferred the mercury resistance. The high-quality P. aeruginosa PAO1161 genome sequence provides a reference for further research including e.g. investigation of horizontal gene transfer or comparative genomics. The strain was found to carry ICEPae1161, a functional PAPI-1 family integrative conjugative element, containing loci conferring mercury resistance, in the past attributed to the FP2 plasmid of IncP-8 incompatibility group. This indicates that the only known member of IncP-8 is in fact an ICE.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Genetic regulatory networks for salt-alkali stress in Gossypium hirsutum with differing morphological characteristics
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Yanchao Xu; Richard Odongo Magwanga; Xiu Yang; Dingsha Jin; Xiaoyan Cai; Yuqing Hou; Yangyang Wei; Zhongli Zhou; Kunbo Wang; Fang Liu

    Cotton grows in altering environments that are often unfavorable or stressful for its growth and development. Consequently, the plant must cope with abiotic stresses such as soil salinity, drought, and excessive temperatures. Alkali-salt stress response remains a cumbersome biological process and is regulated via a multifaceted transcriptional regulatory network in cotton. To discover the molecular mechanisms of alkali-salt stress response in cotton, a comprehensive transcriptome analysis was carried out after alkali-salt stress treatment in three accessions of Gossypium hirsutum with contrasting phenotype. Expression level analysis proved that alkali-salt stress response presented significant stage-specific and tissue-specific. GO enrichment analysis typically suggested that signal transduction process involved in salt-alkali stress response at SS3 and SS12 stages in leaf; carbohydrate metabolic process and oxidation-reduction process involved in SS48 stages in leaf; the oxidation-reduction process involved at all three phases in the root. The Co-expression analysis suggested a potential GhSOS3/GhCBL10-SOS2 network was involved in salt-alkali stress response. Furthermore, Salt-alkali sensitivity was increased in GhSOS3 and GhCBL10 Virus-induced Gene Silencing (VIGS) plants. The findings may facilitate to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of alkali-salt stress response and provide an available resource to scrutinize the role of candidate genes and signaling pathway governing alkali-salt stress response.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Whole genome sequencing of Borrelia miyamotoi isolate Izh-4: reference for a complex bacterial genome
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Konstantin V. Kuleshov; Gabriele Margos; Volker Fingerle; Joris Koetsveld; Irina A. Goptar; Mikhail L. Markelov; Nadezhda M. Kolyasnikova; Denis S. Sarksyan; Nina P. Kirdyashkina; German A. Shipulin; Joppe W. Hovius; Alexander E. Platonov

    The genus Borrelia comprises spirochaetal bacteria maintained in natural transmission cycles by tick vectors and vertebrate reservoir hosts. The main groups are represented by a species complex including the causative agents of Lyme borreliosis and relapsing fever group Borrelia. Borrelia miyamotoi belongs to the relapsing fever group of spirochetes and forms distinct populations in North America, Asia, and Europe. As all Borrelia species B. miyamotoi possess an unusual and complex genome consisting of a linear chromosome and a number of linear and circular plasmids. The species is considered an emerging human pathogen and an increasing number of human cases are being described in the Northern hemisphere. The aim of this study was to produce a high quality reference genome that will facilitate future studies into genetic differences between different populations and the genome plasticity of B. miyamotoi. We used multiple available sequencing methods, including Pacific Bioscience single-molecule real-time technology (SMRT) and Oxford Nanopore technology (ONT) supplemented with highly accurate Illumina sequences, to explore the suitability for whole genome assembly of the Russian B. miyamotoi isolate, Izh-4. Plasmids were typed according to their potential plasmid partitioning genes (PF32, 49, 50, 57/62). Comparing and combining results of both long-read (SMRT and ONT) and short-read methods (Illumina), we determined that the genome of the isolate Izh-4 consisted of one linear chromosome, 12 linear and two circular plasmids. Whilst the majority of plasmids had corresponding contigs in the Asian B. miyamotoi isolate FR64b, there were only four that matched plasmids of the North American isolate CT13–2396, indicating differences between B. miyamotoi populations. Several plasmids, e.g. lp41, lp29, lp23, and lp24, were found to carry variable major proteins. Amongst those were variable large proteins (Vlp) subtype Vlp-α, Vlp-γ, Vlp-δ and also Vlp-β. Phylogenetic analysis of common plasmids types showed the uniqueness in Russian/Asian isolates of B. miyamotoi compared to other isolates. We here describe the genome of a Russian B. miyamotoi clinical isolate, providing a solid basis for future comparative genomics of B. miyamotoi isolates. This will be a great impetus for further basic, molecular and epidemiological research on this emerging tick-borne pathogen.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • A comprehensive epigenomic analysis of phenotypically distinguishable, genetically identical female and male Daphnia pulex
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Jouni Kvist; Camila Gonçalves Athanàsio; Michael E. Pfrender; James B. Brown; John K. Colbourne; Leda Mirbahai

    Daphnia species reproduce by cyclic parthenogenesis involving both sexual and asexual reproduction. The sex of the offspring is environmentally determined and mediated via endocrine signalling by the mother. Interestingly, male and female Daphnia can be genetically identical, yet display large differences in behaviour, morphology, lifespan and metabolic activity. Our goal was to integrate multiple omics datasets, including gene expression, splicing, histone modification and DNA methylation data generated from genetically identical female and male Daphnia pulex under controlled laboratory settings with the aim of achieving a better understanding of the underlying epigenetic factors that may contribute to the phenotypic differences observed between the two genders. In this study we demonstrate that gene expression level is positively correlated with increased DNA methylation, and histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at predicted promoter regions. Conversely, elevated histone H3 trimethylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me3), distributed across the entire transcript length, is negatively correlated with gene expression level. Interestingly, male Daphnia are dominated with epigenetic modifications that globally promote elevated gene expression, while female Daphnia are dominated with epigenetic modifications that reduce gene expression globally. For examples, CpG methylation (positively correlated with gene expression level) is significantly higher in almost all differentially methylated sites in male compared to female Daphnia. Furthermore, H3K4me3 modifications are higher in male compared to female Daphnia in more than 3/4 of the differentially regulated promoters. On the other hand, H3K27me3 is higher in female compared to male Daphnia in more than 5/6 of differentially modified sites. However, both sexes demonstrate roughly equal number of genes that are up-regulated in one gender compared to the other sex. Since, gene expression analyses typically assume that most genes are expressed at equal level among samples and different conditions, and thus cannot detect global changes affecting most genes. The epigenetic differences between male and female in Daphnia pulex are vast and dominated by changes that promote elevated gene expression in male Daphnia. Furthermore, the differences observed in both gene expression changes and epigenetic modifications between the genders relate to pathways that are physiologically relevant to the observed phenotypic differences.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • An Axiom SNP genotyping array for Douglas-fir
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Glenn T. Howe; Keith Jayawickrama; Scott E. Kolpak; Jennifer Kling; Matt Trappe; Valerie Hipkins; Terrance Ye; Stephanie Guida; Richard Cronn; Samuel A. Cushman; Susan McEvoy

    In forest trees, genetic markers have been used to understand the genetic architecture of natural populations, identify quantitative trait loci, infer gene function, and enhance tree breeding. Recently, new, efficient technologies for genotyping thousands to millions of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have finally made large-scale use of genetic markers widely available. These methods will be exceedingly valuable for improving tree breeding and understanding the ecological genetics of Douglas-fir, one of the most economically and ecologically important trees in the world. We designed SNP assays for 55,766 potential SNPs that were discovered from previous transcriptome sequencing projects. We tested the array on ~ 2300 related and unrelated coastal Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) from Oregon and Washington, and 13 trees of interior Douglas-fir (P. menziesii var. glauca). As many as ~ 28 K SNPs were reliably genotyped and polymorphic, depending on the selected SNP call rate. To increase the number of SNPs and improve genome coverage, we developed protocols to ‘rescue’ SNPs that did not pass the default Affymetrix quality control criteria (e.g., 97% SNP call rate). Lowering the SNP call rate threshold from 97 to 60% increased the number of successful SNPs from 20,669 to 28,094. We used a subset of 395 unrelated trees to calculate SNP population genetic statistics for coastal Douglas-fir. Over a range of call rate thresholds (97 to 60%), the median call rate for SNPs in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium ranged from 99.2 to 99.7%, and the median minor allele frequency ranged from 0.198 to 0.233. The successful SNPs also worked well on interior Douglas-fir. Based on the original transcriptome assemblies and comparisons to version 1.0 of the Douglas-fir reference genome, we conclude that these SNPs can be used to genotype about 10 K to 15 K loci. The Axiom genotyping array will serve as an excellent foundation for studying the population genomics of Douglas-fir and for implementing genomic selection. We are currently using the array to construct a linkage map and test genomic selection in a three-generation breeding program for coastal Douglas-fir.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Transcriptomic analyses of Pinus koraiensis under different cold stresses
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Fang Wang; Song Chen; Deyang Liang; Guan-Zheng Qu; Su Chen; Xiyang Zhao

    Pinus koraiensis is an evergreen tree species with strong cold resistance. However, the transcriptomic patterns in response to cold stress are poorly understood for P. koraiensis. In this study, global transcriptome profiles were generated for P. koraiensis under cold stress (− 20 °C) over time by high-throughput sequencing. More than 763 million clean reads were produced, which assembled into a nonredundant data set of 123,445 unigenes. Among them, 38,905 unigenes had homology with known genes, 18,239 were assigned to 54 gene ontology (GO) categories and 18,909 were assigned to 25 clusters of orthologous groups (COG) categories. Comparison of transcriptomes of P. koraiensis seedlings grown at room temperature (20 °C) and low temperature (− 20 °C) revealed 9842 differential expressed genes (DEGs) in the 6 h sample, 9250 in the 24 h sample, and 9697 in the 48 h sample. The number of DEGs in the pairwise comparisons of 6 h, 24 h and 48 h was relatively small. The accuracy of the RNA-seq was validated by analyzing the expression patterns of 12 DEGs by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, 34 DEGs (22 upregulated and 12 downregulated) were involved in the perception and transmission of cold signals, 96 DEGs (41 upregulated and 55 downregulated) encoding 8 transcription factors that regulated cold-related genes expression, and 27 DEGs (17 upregulated and 10 downregulated) were involved in antioxidant mechanisms in response to cold stress. Among them, the expression levels of c63631_g1 (annexin D1), c65620_g1 (alpha-amylase isozyme 3C), c61970_g1 (calcium-binding protein KIC), c51736_g1 (ABA), c58408_g1 (DREB3), c66599_g1 (DREB3), c67548_g2 (SOD), c55044_g1 (CAT), c71938_g2 (CAT) and c11358_g1 (GPX) first increased significantly and then decreased significantly with the extension of stress time. A large number of DEGs were identified in P. koraiensis under cold stress, especially the DEGs involved in the perception and transmission of cold signals, the DEGs encoding TFs related to cold regulation and the DEGs removing ROS in antioxidation mechanisms. The transcriptome and digital expression profiling of P. koraiensis could facilitate the understanding of the molecular control mechanism related to cold responses and provide the basis for the molecular breeding of conifers.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Novel genomic resources for shelled pteropods: a draft genome and target capture probes for Limacina bulimoides, tested for cross-species relevance
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Le Qin Choo; Thijs M. P. Bal; Marvin Choquet; Irina Smolina; Paula Ramos-Silva; Ferdinand Marlétaz; Martina Kopp; Galice Hoarau; Katja T. C. A. Peijnenburg

    Pteropods are planktonic gastropods that are considered as bio-indicators to monitor impacts of ocean acidification on marine ecosystems. In order to gain insight into their adaptive potential to future environmental changes, it is critical to use adequate molecular tools to delimit species and population boundaries and to assess their genetic connectivity. We developed a set of target capture probes to investigate genetic variation across their large-sized genome using a population genomics approach. Target capture is less limited by DNA amount and quality than other genome-reduced representation protocols, and has the potential for application on closely related species based on probes designed from one species. We generated the first draft genome of a pteropod, Limacina bulimoides, resulting in a fragmented assembly of 2.9 Gbp. Using this assembly and a transcriptome as a reference, we designed a set of 2899 genome-wide target capture probes for L. bulimoides. The set of probes includes 2812 single copy nuclear targets, the 28S rDNA sequence, ten mitochondrial genes, 35 candidate biomineralisation genes, and 41 non-coding regions. The capture reaction performed with these probes was highly efficient with 97% of the targets recovered on the focal species. A total of 137,938 single nucleotide polymorphism markers were obtained from the captured sequences across a test panel of nine individuals. The probes set was also tested on four related species: L. trochiformis, L. lesueurii, L. helicina, and Heliconoides inflatus, showing an exponential decrease in capture efficiency with increased genetic distance from the focal species. Sixty-two targets were sufficiently conserved to be recovered consistently across all five species. The target capture protocol used in this study was effective in capturing genome-wide variation in the focal species L. bulimoides, suitable for population genomic analyses, while providing insights into conserved genomic regions in related species. The present study provides new genomic resources for pteropods and supports the use of target capture-based protocols to efficiently characterise genomic variation in small non-model organisms with large genomes.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comprehensive genomic analysis of the DUF4228 gene family in land plants and expression profiling of ATDUF4228 under abiotic stresses
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Qi Yang; Xiaocui Niu; Xiaona Tian; Xiujuan Zhang; Jingyu Cong; Ruigang Wang; Guosheng Zhang; Guojing Li

    Domain of unknown function (DUF) proteins represent a number of gene families that encode functionally uncharacterized proteins in eukaryotes. The DUF4228 gene family is one of these families in plants that has not been described previously. In this study, we performed an extensive comparative analysis of DUF4228 proteins and determined their phylogeny in the plant lineage. A total of 489 high-confidence DUF4228 family members were identified from 14 land plant species, which sub-divided into three distinct phylogenetic groups: group I, group II and group III. A highly conserved DUF4228 domain and motif distribution existed in each group, implying their functional conservation. To reveal the possible biological functions of these DUF4228 genes, 25 ATDUF4228 sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana were selected for further analysis of characteristics such as their chromosomal position, gene duplications and gene structures. Ka/Ks analysis identified seven segmental duplication events, while no tandemly duplication gene pairs were found in A. thaliana. Some cis-elements responding to abiotic stress and phytohormones were identified in the upstream sequences of the ATDUF4228 genes. Expression profiling of the ATDUF4228 genes under abiotic stresses (mainly osmotic, salt and cold) and protein-protein interaction prediction suggested that some ATDUF4228 genes are may be involved in the pathways of plant resistance to abiotic stresses. These results expand our knowledge of the evolution of the DUF4228 gene family in plants and will contribute to the elucidation of the biological functions of DUF4228 genes in the future.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Comparison of the molecular and cellular phenotypes of common mouse syngeneic models with human tumors
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Wenyan Zhong; Jeremy S. Myers; Fang Wang; Kai Wang; Justin Lucas; Edward Rosfjord; Judy Lucas; Andrea T. Hooper; Sharon Yang; Lu Anna Lemon; Magali Guffroy; Chad May; Jadwiga R. Bienkowska; Paul A. Rejto

    The clinical success of immune checkpoint inhibitors demonstrates that reactivation of the human immune system delivers durable responses for some patients and represents an exciting approach for cancer treatment. An important class of preclinical in vivo models for immuno-oncology is immunocompetent mice bearing mouse syngeneic tumors. To facilitate translation of preclinical studies into human, we characterized the genomic, transcriptomic, and protein expression of a panel of ten commonly used mouse tumor cell lines grown in vitro culture as well as in vivo tumors. Our studies identified a number of genetic and cellular phenotypic differences that distinguish commonly used mouse syngeneic models in our study from human cancers. Only a fraction of the somatic single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in these common mouse cell lines directly match SNVs in human actionable cancer genes. Some models derived from epithelial tumors have a more mesenchymal phenotype with relatively low T-lymphocyte infiltration compared to the corresponding human cancers. CT26, a colon tumor model, had the highest immunogenicity and was the model most responsive to CTLA4 inhibitor treatment, by contrast to the relatively low immunogenicity and response rate to checkpoint inhibitor therapies in human colon cancers. The relative immunogenicity of these ten syngeneic tumors does not resemble typical human tumors derived from the same tissue of origin. By characterizing the mouse syngeneic models and comparing with their human tumor counterparts, this study contributes to a framework that may help investigators select the model most relevant to study a particular immune-oncology mechanism, and may rationalize some of the challenges associated with translating preclinical findings to clinical studies.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The complete genome sequence of the nitrile biocatalyst Rhodocccus rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Joni Frederick; Fritha Hennessy; Uli Horn; Pilar de la Torre Cortés; Marcel van den Broek; Ulrich Strych; Richard Willson; Charles A. Hefer; Jean-Marc G. Daran; Trevor Sewell; Linda G. Otten; Dean Brady

    Rhodococci are industrially important soil-dwelling Gram-positive bacteria that are well known for both nitrile hydrolysis and oxidative metabolism of aromatics. Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870 is capable of metabolising a wide range of aliphatic and aromatic nitriles and amides. The genome of the organism was sequenced and analysed in order to better understand this whole cell biocatalyst. The genome of R. rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870 is the first Rhodococcus genome fully sequenced using Nanopore sequencing. The circular genome contains 5.9 megabase pairs (Mbp) and includes a 0.53 Mbp linear plasmid, that together encode 7548 predicted protein sequences according to BASys annotation, and 5535 predicted protein sequences according to RAST annotation. The genome contains numerous oxidoreductases, 15 identified antibiotic and secondary metabolite gene clusters, several terpene and nonribosomal peptide synthetase clusters, as well as 6 putative clusters of unknown type. The 0.53 Mbp plasmid encodes 677 predicted genes and contains the nitrile converting gene cluster, including a nitrilase, a low molecular weight nitrile hydratase, and an enantioselective amidase. Although there are fewer biotechnologically relevant enzymes compared to those found in rhodococci with larger genomes, such as the well-known Rhodococcus jostii RHA1, the abundance of transporters in combination with the myriad of enzymes found in strain BAA-870 might make it more suitable for use in industrially relevant processes than other rhodococci. The sequence and comprehensive description of the R. rhodochrous ATCC BAA-870 genome will facilitate the additional exploitation of rhodococci for biotechnological applications, as well as enable further characterisation of this model organism. The genome encodes a wide range of enzymes, many with unknown substrate specificities supporting potential applications in biotechnology, including nitrilases, nitrile hydratase, monooxygenases, cytochrome P450s, reductases, proteases, lipases, and transaminases.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Global scale transcriptome analysis reveals differentially expressed genes involve in early somatic embryogenesis in Dimocarpus longan Lour
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Yukun Chen; Xiaoping Xu; Zhuanxia Liu; Zihao Zhang; Xu XuHan; Yuling Lin; Zhongxion Lai

    Somatic embryogenesis (SE) is a process of somatic cells that dedifferentiate to totipotent embryonic stem cells and generate embryos in vitro. Longan SE has been established and wildly used as model system for studying embryogenesis in woody plants, SE-related genes had been characterized. In spite of that, a comprehensive overview of SE at a molecular level is still absent. To understand the molecular mechanisms during longan SE, we examined the transcriptome changes by using Illumina HiSeq from the four distinct developmental stages, including non-embryogenic callus (NEC), embryogenic callus (EC), incomplete compact pro-embryogenic cultures (ICpEC), globular embryos (GE). RNA-seq of the four samples generated a total of 243.78 million high quality reads, approximately 81.5% of the data were mapped to longan genome. The cDNA libraries of NEC, EC, ICpEC and GE, generated 22,743, 19,745, 21,144, 21,102 expressed transcripts, 1935, 1710, 1816, 1732 novel transcripts, 2645, 366, 505, 588 unique genes, respectively. Comparative transcriptome analysis showed that a total of 10,642, 4180, 5846 and 1785 genes were differentially expressed in the pairwise comparisons of NEC_vs_EC, EC_vs_ICpEC, EC_vs_GE, ICpEC_vs_GE, respectively. Among them, plant hormones signalling related genes were significantly enriched, especially the auxin and cytokinin signalling components. The transcripts of flavonoid biosynthesis related genes were mainly expressed in NEC, while fatty acid biosynthesis related genes mainly accumulated in early SE. In addition, the extracelluar protein encoding genes LTP, CHI, GLP, AGP, EP1 were related to longan SE. Combined with the FPKM value of longan nine tissues transcription, 27 SE specific or preferential genes (LEC1, LEC1-like, PDF1.3, GH3.6, AGL80, PIN1, BBM, WOX9, WOX2, ABI3, et al.) and 28 NEC preferential genes (LEA5, CNOT3, DC2.15, PR1–1, NsLTP2, DIR1, PIP1, PIP2.1, TIP2–1, POD-P7 and POD5 et al.) were characterized as molecular markers for longan early SE. qRT-PCR validation of SE-related genes showed a high correlation between RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data. This study provides new insights into the role of the transcriptome during early SE in longan. Differentially expressed genes reveal that plant hormones signalling, flavonoid and fatty acid biosynthesis, and extracelluar protein related genes were involved in longan early SE. It could serve as a valuable platform resource for further functional studies addressing embryogenesis in woody plants.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Whole genome sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of human metapneumovirus strains from Kenya and Zambia
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Everlyn Kamau; John W. Oketch; Zaydah R. de Laurent; My V. T. Phan; Charles N. Agoti; D. James Nokes; Matthew Cotten

    Human metapneumovirus (HMPV) is an important cause of acute respiratory illness in young children. Whole genome sequencing enables better identification of transmission events and outbreaks, which is not always possible with sub-genomic sequences. We report a 2-reaction amplicon-based next generation sequencing method to determine the complete genome sequences of five HMPV strains, representing three subgroups (A2, B1 and B2), directly from clinical samples. In addition to reporting five novel HMPV genomes from Africa we examined genetic diversity and sequence patterns of publicly available HMPV genomes. We found that the overall nucleotide sequence identity was 71.3 and 80% for HMPV group A and B, respectively, the diversity between HMPV groups was greater at amino acid level for SH and G surface protein genes, and multiple subgroups co-circulated in various countries. Comparison of sequences between HMPV groups revealed variability in G protein length (219 to 241 amino acids) due to changes in the stop codon position. Genome-wide phylogenetic analysis showed congruence with the individual gene sequence sets except for F and M2 genes. This is the first genomic characterization of HMPV genomes from African patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • The advantages of the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC) over F1 score and accuracy in binary classification evaluation
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Davide Chicco; Giuseppe Jurman

    To evaluate binary classifications and their confusion matrices, scientific researchers can employ several statistical rates, accordingly to the goal of the experiment they are investigating. Despite being a crucial issue in machine learning, no widespread consensus has been reached on a unified elective chosen measure yet. Accuracy and F1 score computed on confusion matrices have been (and still are) among the most popular adopted metrics in binary classification tasks. However, these statistical measures can dangerously show overoptimistic inflated results, especially on imbalanced datasets. The Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), instead, is a more reliable statistical rate which produces a high score only if the prediction obtained good results in all of the four confusion matrix categories (true positives, false negatives, true negatives, and false positives), proportionally both to the size of positive elements and the size of negative elements in the dataset. In this article, we show how MCC produces a more informative and truthful score in evaluating binary classifications than accuracy and F1 score, by first explaining the mathematical properties, and then the asset of MCC in six synthetic use cases and in a real genomics scenario. We believe that the Matthews correlation coefficient should be preferred to accuracy and F1 score in evaluating binary classification tasks by all scientific communities.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • A detailed in silico analysis of secondary metabolite biosynthesis clusters in the genome of the broad host range plant pathogenic fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Carolyn Graham-Taylor; Lars G. Kamphuis; Mark C. Derbyshire

    The broad host range pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infects over 400 plant species and causes substantial yield losses in crops worldwide. Secondary metabolites are known to play important roles in the virulence of plant pathogens, but little is known about the secondary metabolite repertoire of S. sclerotiorum. In this study, we predicted secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in the genome of S. sclerotiorum and analysed their expression during infection of Brassica napus using an existing transcriptome data set. We also investigated their sequence diversity among a panel of 25 previously published S. sclerotiorum isolate genomes. We identified 80 putative secondary metabolite clusters. Over half of the clusters contained at least three transcriptionally coregulated genes. Comparative genomics revealed clusters homologous to clusters in the closely related plant pathogen Botrytis cinerea for production of carotenoids, hydroxamate siderophores, DHN melanin and botcinic acid. We also identified putative phytotoxin clusters that can potentially produce the polyketide sclerin and an epipolythiodioxopiperazine. Secondary metabolite clusters were enriched in subtelomeric genomic regions, and those containing paralogues showed a particularly strong association with repeats. The positional bias we identified was borne out by intraspecific comparisons that revealed putative secondary metabolite genes suffered more presence / absence polymorphisms and exhibited a significantly higher sequence diversity than other genes. These data suggest that S. sclerotiorum produces numerous secondary metabolites during plant infection and that their gene clusters undergo enhanced rates of mutation, duplication and recombination in subtelomeric regions. The microevolutionary regimes leading to S. sclerotiorum secondary metabolite diversity have yet to be elucidated. Several potential phytotoxins documented in this study provide the basis for future functional analyses.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Analysis of MADS-box genes revealed modified flowering gene network and diurnal expression in pineapple
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2020-01-02
    Xiaodan Zhang; Mahpara Fatima; Ping Zhou; Qing Ma; Ray Ming

    Pineapple is the most important crop with CAM photosynthesis, but its molecular biology is underexplored. MADS-box genes are crucial transcription factors involving in plant development and several biological processes. However, there is no systematic analysis of MADS-box family genes in pineapple (Ananas comosus). Forty-eight MADS-box genes were identified in the pineapple genome. Based on the phylogenetic studies, pineapple MADS-box genes can be divided into type I and type II MADS-box genes. Thirty-four pineapple genes were classified as type II MADS-box genes including 32 MIKC-type and 2 Mδ-type, while 14 type I MADS-box genes were further divided into Mα, Mβ and Mγ subgroups. A majority of pineapple MADS-box genes were randomly distributed across 19 chromosomes. RNA-seq expression patterns of MADS-box genes in four different tissues revealed that more genes were highly expressed in flowers, which was confirmed by our quantitative RT-PCR results. There is no FLC and CO orthologs in pineapple. The loss of FLC and CO orthologs in pineapple indicated that modified flowering genes network in this tropical plant compared with Arabidopsis. The expression patterns of MADS-box genes in photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic leaf tissues indicated the potential roles of some MADS-box genes in pineapple CAM photosynthesis. The 23% of pineapple MADS-box genes showed diurnal rhythm, indicating that these MADS-box genes are regulated by circadian clock. MADS-box genes identified in pineapple are closely related to flowering development. Some MADS-box genes are involved in CAM photosynthesis and regulated by the circadian clock. These findings will facilitate research on the development of unusual spiral inflorescences on pineapple fruit and CAM photosynthesis.

    更新日期:2020-01-02
  • Genome sequencing of Mycobacterium pinnipedii strains: genetic characterization and evidence of superinfection in a South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Taiana T. Silva-Pereira; Cássia Y. Ikuta; Cristina K. Zimpel; Naila C. S. Camargo; Antônio F. de Souza Filho; José S. Ferreira Neto; Marcos B. Heinemann; Ana M. S. Guimarães

    Mycobacterium pinnipedii, a member of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC), is capable of infecting several host species, including humans. Recently, ancient DNA from this organism was recovered from pre-Columbian mummies of Peru, sparking debate over the origin and frequency of tuberculosis in the Americas prior to European colonization. We present the first comparative genomic study of this bacterial species, starting from the genome sequencing of two M. pinnipedii isolates (MP1 and MP2) obtained from different organs of a stranded South American sea lion. Our results indicate that MP1 and MP2 differ by 113 SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) and 46 indels, constituting the first report of a mixed-strain infection in a sea lion. SNP annotation analyses indicate that genes of the VapBC family, a toxin-antitoxin system, and genes related to cell wall remodeling are under evolutionary pressure for protein sequence change in these strains. OrthoMCL analysis with seven modern isolates of M. pinnipedii shows that these strains have highly similar proteomes. Gene variations were only marginally associated with hypothetical proteins and PE/PPE (proline-glutamate and proline-proline-glutamate, respectively) gene families. We also detected large deletions in ancient and modern M. pinnipedii strains, including a few occurring only in modern strains, indicating a process of genome reduction occurring over the past one thousand years. Our phylogenomic analyses suggest the existence of two modern clusters of M. pinnipedii associated with geographic location, and possibly host species, and one basal node associated with the ancient M. pinnipedii strains. Previously described MiD3 and MiD4 deletions may have occurred independently, twice, over the evolutionary course of the MTBC. The presence of superinfection (i.e. mixed-strain infection) in this sea lion suggests that M. pinnipedii is highly endemic in this population. Mycobacterium pinnipedii proteomes of the studied isolates showed a high degree of conservation, despite being under genomic decay when compared to M. tuberculosis. This finding indicates that further genomes need to be sequenced and analyzed to increase the chances of finding variably present genes among strains or that M. pinnipedii genome remodeling occurred prior to bacterial speciation.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Proximal femoral head transcriptome reveals novel candidate genes related to epiphysiolysis in broiler chickens
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jane de Oliveira Peixoto; Igor Ricardo Savoldi; Adriana Mércia Guaratini Ibelli; Maurício Egídio Cantão; Fátima Regina Ferreira Jaenisch; Poliana Fernanda Giachetto; Matthew Lee Settles; Ricardo Zanella; Jorge Augusto Petroli Marchesi; José Rodrigo Pandolfi; Luiz Lehmann Coutinho; Mônica Corrêa Ledur

    The proximal femoral head separation (FHS) or epiphysiolysis is a prevalent disorder affecting the chicken femur epiphysis, being considered a risk factor to infection which can cause bacterial chondronecrosis with osteomyelitis in broilers. To identify the genetic mechanisms involved in epiphysiolysis, differentially expressed (DE) genes in the femur of normal and FHS-affected broilers were identified using RNA-Seq technology. Femoral growth plate (GP) samples from 35-day-old commercial male broilers were collected from 4 healthy and 4 FHS-affected broilers. Sequencing was performed using an Illumina paired-end protocol. Differentially expressed genes were obtained using the edgeR package based on the False Discovery Rate (FDR < 0.05). Approximately 16 million reads/sample were generated with 2 × 100 bp paired-end reads. After data quality control, approximately 12 million reads/sample were mapped to the reference chicken genome (Galgal5). A total of 12,645 genes were expressed in the femur GP. Out of those, 314 were DE between groups, being 154 upregulated and 160 downregulated in FHS-affected broilers. In the functional analyses, several biological processes (BP) were overrepresented. Among them, those related to cell adhesion, extracellular matrix (ECM), bone development, blood circulation and lipid metabolism, which are more related to chicken growth, are possibly involved with the onset of FHS. On the other hand, BP associated to apoptosis or cell death and immune response, which were also found in our study, could be related to the consequence of the FHS. Genes with potential role in the epiphysiolysis were identified through the femur head transcriptome analysis, providing a better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate bone development in fast-growing chickens. In this study, we highlighted the importance of cell adhesion and extracellular matrix related genes in triggering FHS. Furthermore, we have shown new insights on the involvement of lipidemia and immune response/inflammation with FHS in broilers. Understanding the changes in the GP transcriptome might support breeding strategies to address poultry robustness and to obtain more resilient broilers.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Genomic identification and characterization of MYC family genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Jian-fang Bai; Yu-kun Wang; Li-ping Guo; Xiao-ming Guo; Hao-yu Guo; Shao-hua Yuan; Wen-jing Duan; Zihan Liu; Chang-ping Zhao; Feng-ting Zhang; Li-ping Zhang

    MYC transcriptional factors are members of the bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) superfamily, and play important roles in plant growth and development. Recent studies have revealed that some MYCs are involved in the crosstalk between Jasmonic acid regulatory pathway and light signaling in Arabidopsis, but such kinds of studies are rare in wheat, especially in photo-thermo-sensitive genic male sterile (PTGMS) wheat line. 27 non-redundant MYC gene copies, which belonged to 11 TaMYC genes, were identified in the whole genome of wheat (Chinese Spring). These gene copies were distributed on 13 different chromosomes, respectively. Based on the results of phylogenetic analysis, 27 TaMYC gene copies were clustered into group I, group III, and group IV. The identified TaMYC genes copies contained different numbers of light, stress, and hormone-responsive regulatory elements in their 1500 base pair promoter regions. Besides, we found that TaMYC3 was expressed highly in stem, TaMYC5 and TaMYC9 were expressed specially in glume, and the rest of TaMYC genes were expressed in all tissues (root, stem, leaf, pistil, stamen, and glume) of the PTGMS line BS366. Moreover, we found that TaMYC3, TaMYC7, TaMYC9, and TaMYC10 were highly sensitive to methyl jasmonate (MeJA), and other TaMYC genes responded at different levels. Furthermore, we confirmed the expression profiles of TaMYC family members under different light quality and plant hormone stimuli, and abiotic stresses. Finally, we predicted the wheat microRNAs that could interact with TaMYC family members, and built up a network to show their integrative relationships. This study analyzed the size and composition of the MYC gene family in wheat, and investigated stress-responsive and light quality induced expression profiles of each TaMYC gene in the PTGMS wheat line BS366. In conclusion, we obtained lots of important information of TaMYC family, and the results of this study was supposed to contribute novel insights and gene and microRNA resources for wheat breeding, especially for the improvement of PTGMS wheat lines.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Chicken adaptive response to low energy diet: main role of the hypothalamic lipid metabolism revealed by a phenotypic and multi-tissue transcriptomic approach
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    F. Jehl; C. Désert; C. Klopp; M. Brenet; A. Rau; S. Leroux; M. Boutin; L. Lagoutte; K. Muret; Y. Blum; D. Esquerré; D. Gourichon; T. Burlot; A. Collin; F. Pitel; A. Benani; T. Zerjal; S. Lagarrigue

    Production conditions of layer chicken can vary in terms of temperature or diet energy content compared to the controlled environment where pure-bred selection is undertaken. The aim of this study was to better understand the long-term effects of a 15%-energy depleted diet on egg-production, energy homeostasis and metabolism via a multi-tissue transcriptomic analysis. Study was designed to compare effects of the nutritional intervention in two layer chicken lines divergently selected for residual feed intake. Chicken adapted to the diet in terms of production by significantly increasing their feed intake and decreasing their body weight and body fat composition, while their egg production was unchanged. No significant interaction was observed between diet and line for the production traits. The low energy diet had no effect on adipose tissue and liver transcriptomes. By contrast, the nutritional challenge affected the blood transcriptome and, more severely, the hypothalamus transcriptome which displayed 2700 differentially expressed genes. In this tissue, the low-energy diet lead to an over-expression of genes related to endocannabinoid signaling (CN1R, NAPE-PLD) and to the complement system, a part of the immune system, both known to regulate feed intake. Both mechanisms are associated to genes related polyunsaturated fatty acids synthesis (FADS1, ELOVL5 and FADS2), like the arachidonic acid, a precursor of anandamide, a key endocannabinoid, and of prostaglandins, that mediate the regulatory effects of the complement system. A possible regulatory role of NR1H3 (alias LXRα) has been associated to these transcriptional changes. The low-energy diet further affected brain plasticity-related genes involved in the cholesterol synthesis and in the synaptic activity, revealing a link between nutrition and brain plasticity. It upregulated genes related to protein synthesis, mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation and fatty acid oxidation in the hypothalamus, suggesting reorganization in nutrient utilization and biological synthesis in this brain area. We observed a complex transcriptome modulation in the hypothalamus of chicken in response to low-energy diet suggesting numerous changes in synaptic plasticity, endocannabinoid regulation, neurotransmission, lipid metabolism, mitochondrial activity and protein synthesis. This global transcriptomic reprogramming could explain the adaptive behavioral response (i.e. increase of feed intake) of the animals to the low-energy content of the diet.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Hydrogen cyanamide induces grape bud endodormancy release through carbohydrate metabolism and plant hormone signaling
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Dong Liang; Xiaojing Huang; Yanqiu Shen; Tian Shen; Huifen Zhang; Lijin Lin; Jin Wang; Qunxian Deng; Xiulan Lyu; Hui Xia

    Grape buds exhibit non-uniform, or delayed, break in early spring in subtropical regions because the accumulation of chilling is insufficient. Hydrogen cyanamide (H2CN2, HC) can partially replace chilling to effectively promote bud sprouting and is used widely in warm winter areas. However, the exact underlying mechanism of grape bud release from endodormancy induced by HC remains elusive. In this study, the transcriptome of grape winter buds under in vitro conditions following HC and water treatment (control) was analyzed using RNA-seq technology. A total of 6772 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. Furthermore, the gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that starch and sucrose metabolism and plant hormone signaling transduction were most enriched out of the 50 total pathways. HC treatment induced the upregulated expression of sucrose synthase (SUS), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), α-amylase (AM), and β-amylase (BM) and downregulated expression of sucrose invertase (INV), hexokinase (HK), fructokinase (FK), soluble starch synthase (SS), and granule-bound starch synthase (GBSS). Hence, the starch concentration in the HC-treated group was significantly lower than that in control, whereas soluble sugar content in the HC-treated group increased quickly and was higher than that in control between 0 and 8 d. The concentration of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and zeatin (ZT) increased, whereas that of abscisic acid (ABA) and gibberellin (GA) decreased in HC treated group, which coincided with the expression level of genes involved in above hormone signals. The content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) were increased in grape buds with HC treatment, whereas catalase (CAT) activity was decreased. HC treatment increased the expression of POD, SOD, primary amine oxidase (PAO), polyamine oxidase (PAOX), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). Based on these results, it is possible to propose a mechanistic model that underlies the regulation of endodormancy release in grapevine buds by exogenous HC application.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • De novo sequencing of the transcriptome reveals regulators of the floral transition in Fargesia macclureana (Poaceae)
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Ying Li; Chunxia Zhang; Kebin Yang; Jingjing Shi; Yulong Ding; Zhimin Gao

    Fargesia macclureana (Poaceae) is a woody bamboo species found on the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau (QTP) approximately 2000 ~ 3800 m above sea level. It rarely blossoms in the QTP, but it flowered 20 days after growing in our lab, which is in a low-altitude area outside the QTP. To date, little is known regarding the molecular mechanism of bamboo flowering, and no studies of flowering have been conducted on wild bamboo plants growing in extreme environments. Here, we report the first de novo transcriptome sequence for F. macclureana to investigate the putative mechanisms underlying the flowering time control used by F. macclureana to adapt to its environment. Illumina deep sequencing of the F. macclureana transcriptome generated 140.94 Gb of data, assembled into 99,056 unigenes. A comprehensive analysis of the broadly, specifically and differentially expressed unigenes (BEUs, SEUs and DEUs) indicated that they were mostly involved in metabolism and signal transduction, as well as DNA repair and plant-pathogen interactions, which may be of adaptive importance. In addition, comparison analysis between non-flowering and flowering tissues revealed that expressions of FmFT and FmHd3a, two putative F. macclureana orthologs, were differently regulated in NF- vs F- leaves, and carbohydrate metabolism and signal transduction were two major KEGG pathways that DEUs were enriched in. Finally, we detected 9296 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) that may be useful for further molecular marker-assisted breeding. F. macclureana may have evolved specific reproductive strategies for flowering-related pathways in response to photoperiodic cues to ensure long vegetation growing period. Our findings will provide new insights to future investigations into the mechanisms of flowering time control and adaptive evolution in plants growing at high altitudes.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Comparative genomics of Alternaria species provides insights into the pathogenic lifestyle of Alternaria brassicae – a pathogen of the Brassicaceae family
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Sivasubramanian Rajarammohan; Kumar Paritosh; Deepak Pental; Jagreet Kaur

    Alternaria brassicae, a necrotrophic pathogen, causes Alternaria Leaf Spot, one of the economically important diseases of Brassica crops. Many other Alternaria spp. such as A. brassicicola and A. alternata are known to cause secondary infections in the A. brassicae-infected Brassicas. The genome architecture, pathogenicity factors, and determinants of host-specificity of A. brassicae are unknown. In this study, we annotated and characterised the recently announced genome assembly of A. brassicae and compared it with other Alternaria spp. to gain insights into its pathogenic lifestyle. We also sequenced the genomes of two A. alternata isolates that were co-infecting B. juncea using Nanopore MinION sequencing for additional comparative analyses within the Alternaria genus. Genome alignments within the Alternaria spp. revealed high levels of synteny between most chromosomes with some intrachromosomal rearrangements. We show for the first time that the genome of A. brassicae, a large-spored Alternaria species, contains a dispensable chromosome. We identified 460 A. brassicae-specific genes, which included many secreted proteins and effectors. Furthermore, we have identified the gene clusters responsible for the production of Destruxin-B, a known pathogenicity factor of A. brassicae. The study provides a perspective into the unique and shared repertoire of genes within the Alternaria genus and identifies genes that could be contributing to the pathogenic lifestyle of A. brassicae.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Capture of complete ciliate chromosomes in single sequencing reads reveals widespread chromosome isoforms
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Kelsi A. Lindblad; Jananan S. Pathmanathan; Sandrine Moreira; John R. Bracht; Robert P. Sebra; Elizabeth R. Hutton; Laura F. Landweber

    Whole-genome shotgun sequencing, which stitches together millions of short sequencing reads into a single genome, ushered in the era of modern genomics and led to a rapid expansion of the number of genome sequences available. Nevertheless, assembly of short reads remains difficult, resulting in fragmented genome sequences. Ultimately, only a sequencing technology capable of capturing complete chromosomes in a single run could resolve all ambiguities. Even “third generation” sequencing technologies produce reads far shorter than most eukaryotic chromosomes. However, the ciliate Oxytricha trifallax has a somatic genome with thousands of chromosomes averaging only 3.2 kbp, making it an ideal candidate for exploring the benefits of sequencing whole chromosomes without assembly. We used single-molecule real-time sequencing to capture thousands of complete chromosomes in single reads and to update the published Oxytricha trifallax JRB310 genome assembly. In this version, over 50% of the completed chromosomes with two telomeres derive from single reads. The improved assembly includes over 12,000 new chromosome isoforms, and demonstrates that somatic chromosomes derive from variable rearrangements between somatic segments encoded up to 191,000 base pairs away. However, while long reads reduce the need for assembly, a hybrid approach that supplements long-read sequencing with short reads for error correction produced the most complete and accurate assembly, overall. This assembly provides the first example of complete eukaryotic chromosomes captured by single sequencing reads and demonstrates that traditional approaches to genome assembly can mask considerable structural variation.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
  • Correction to: Comparative transcriptomics reveals PrrABmediated control of metabolic, respiration, energy-generating, and dormancy pathways in Mycobacterium smegmatis
    BMC Genomics (IF 3.501) Pub Date : 2019-12-31
    Jason D. Maarsingh; Shanshan Yang; Jin G. Park; Shelley E. Haydel

    Following the publication of the original article [1], the authors reported an error in Fig. 2 of the PDF version of their article.

    更新日期:2019-12-31
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