当前期刊: mAbs Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
  • SPLICELECT™: an adaptable cell surface display technology based on alternative splicing allowing the qualitative and quantitative prediction of secreted product at a single-cell level
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-19
    Christel Aebischer-Gumy; Pierre Moretti; Romain Ollier; Christelle Ries Fecourt; François Rousseau; Martin Bertschinger

    ABSTRACT We describe a mammalian expression construct (SPLICELECT™) that allows the redirection of a proportion of a secreted protein onto the cell surface using alternative splicing: whereas the majority of the RNA is spliced into a transcript encoding a secreted protein, a weak splice donor site yields a secondary transcript encoding, in addition, a C-terminal transmembrane domain. The different sequence elements can be modified in order to modulate the level of cell surface display and of secretion in an independent manner. In this work, we demonstrated that the cell surface display of stable cell lines is correlated with the level of the secreted protein of interest, but also with the level of heterodimerization in the case of a bispecific antibody. It was also shown that this construct may be useful for rapid screening of multiple antibody candidates in binding assays following transient transfection. Thus, the correlation of product quantity and quality of the secreted and of membrane-displayed product in combination with the flexibility of the construct with regards to cell surface display/secretion levels make SPLICELECT™ a valuable tool with many potential applications, not limited to industrial cell line development or antibody engineering.

  • NHDL, a recombinant VL/VH hybrid antibody control for IgG2/4 antibodies
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Corinna Lau; Martin Berner McAdam; Grethe Bergseth; Algirdas Grevys; Jack Ansgar Bruun; Judith Krey Ludviksen; Hilde Fure; Terje Espevik; Anders Moen; Jan Terje Andersen; Tom Eirik Mollnes

    ABSTRACT The mechanism of action of recombinant IgG2/4 antibodies involves blocking of their target without the induction of effector functions. Examples are eculizumab (Soliris®), which is used clinically to block complement factor C5, as well as anti-human CD14 (r18D11) and anti-porcine CD14 (rMIL2) produced in our laboratory. So far, no proper IgG2/4 control antibody has been available for controlled validation of IgG2/4 antibody functions. Here, we describe the design of a recombinant control antibody (NHDL), which was generated by combining the variable light (VL) and heavy (VH) chains from two unrelated specificities. NHDL was readily expressed and purified as a stable IgG2/4 antibody, and showed no detectable specificity toward any putative antigen present in human or porcine blood. The approach of artificial VL/VH combination may be adopted for the design of other recombinant control antibodies.

  • Functional activity of anti-LINGO-1 antibody opicinumab requires target engagement at a secondary binding site
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Karl J. M. Hanf; Joseph W. Arndt; YuTing Liu; Bang Jian Gong; Mia Rushe; Richelle Sopko; Ramiro Massol; Benjamin Smith; Yan Gao; Isin Dalkilic-Liddle; Xinhua Lee; Shanell Mojta; Zhaohui Shao; Sha Mi; R. Blake Pepinsky

    ABSTRACT LINGO-1 is a membrane protein of the central nervous system (CNS) that suppresses myelination of axons. Preclinical studies have revealed that blockade of LINGO-1 function leads to CNS repair in demyelinating animal models. The anti-LINGO-1 antibody Li81 (opicinumab), which blocks LINGO-1 function and shows robust remyelinating activity in animal models, is currently being investigated in a Phase 2 clinical trial as a potential treatment for individuals with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (AFFINITY: clinical trial.gov number NCT03222973). Li81 has the unusual feature that it contains two LINGO-1 binding sites: a classical site utilizing its complementarity-determining regions and a cryptic secondary site involving Li81 light chain framework residues that recruits a second LINGO-1 molecule only after engagement of the primary binding site. Concurrent binding at both sites leads to formation of a 2:2 complex of LINGO-1 with the Li81 antigen-binding fragment, and higher order complexes with intact Li81 antibody. To elucidate the role of the secondary binding site, we designed a series of Li81 variant constructs that eliminate it while retaining the classic site contacts. These Li81 mutants retained the high affinity binding to LINGO-1, but lost the antibody-induced oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) differentiation activity and myelination activity in OPC- dorsal root ganglion neuron cocultures seen with Li81. The mutations also attenuate antibody-induced internalization of LINGO-1 on cultured cortical neurons, OPCs, and cells over-expressing LINGO-1. Together these studies reveal that engagement at both LINGO-1 binding sites of Li81 is critical for robust functional activity of the antibody.

  • Discovery and characterization of single-domain antibodies for polymeric Ig receptor-mediated mucosal delivery of biologics
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Bharathikumar Vellalore Maruthachalam; Adam Zwolak; Xiefan Lin-Schmidt; Edward Keough; Ninkka Tamot; Sathya Venkataramani; Brian Geist; Sanjaya Singh; Rajkumar Ganesan

    ABSTRACT Mucosal immunity is dominated by secretory IgA and IgM, although these are less favorable compared to IgG molecules for therapeutic development. Polymeric IgA and IgM are actively transported across the epithelial barrier via engagement of the polymeric Ig receptor (pIgR), but IgG molecules lack a lumen-targeted active transport mechanism, resulting in poor biodistribution of IgG therapeutics in mucosal tissues. In this work, we describe the discovery and characterization of single-domain antibodies (VHH) that engage pIgR and undergo transepithelial transport across the mucosal epithelium. The anti-pIgR VHH panel displayed a broad range of biophysical characteristics, epitope diversity, IgA competition profiles and transcytosis activity in cell and human primary lung tissue models. Making use of this diverse VHH panel, we studied the relationship between biophysical and functional properties of anti-pIgR binders targeting different domains and epitopes of pIgR. These VHH molecules will serve as excellent tools for studying pIgR-mediated transport of biologics and for delivering multispecific IgG antibodies into mucosal lumen, where they can target and neutralize mucosal antigens.

  • Molecular mechanism of an antagonistic antibody against glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-12
    Xiaoshan Min; Junming Yie; Jinghong Wang; Ben C. Chung; Ching-Shin Huang; Haoda Xu; Jie Yang; Liying Deng; Joanne Lin; Qing Chen; Christina M. Abbott; Caroline Gundel; Stephen A. Thibault; Tina Meng; Darren L. Bates; David J. Lloyd; Murielle M. Véniant; Zhulun Wang

    ABSTRACT Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is an incretin hormone involved in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism. GIP receptor (GIPR) antagonism is believed to offer therapeutic potential for various metabolic diseases. Pharmacological intervention of GIPR, however, has limited success due to lack of effective antagonistic reagents. Previously we reported the discovery of two mouse anti-murine GIPR monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with distinctive properties in rodent models. Here, we report the detailed structural and biochemical characterization of these two antibodies, mAb1 and mAb2. In vitro and in vivo characterizations demonstrated mAb2 is a full GIPR antagonistic antibody and mAb1 is a non-neutralizing GIPR binder. To understand the molecular basis of these two antibodies, we determined the co-crystal structures of GIPR extracellular domain in complex with mAb1 and with mAb2 at resolutions of 2.1 and 2.6 Å, respectively. While the non-neutralizing mAb1 binds to GIPR without competing with the ligand peptide, mAb2 not only partially occludes the ligand peptide binding, but also recognizes the GIPR C-terminal stalk region in a helical conformation that acts as a molecular mimic of the ligand peptide and locks GIPR in a novel auto-inhibited state. Furthermore, administration of mAb2 in diet-induced obesity mice for 7 weeks leads to both reduction in body weight gain and improvement of metabolic profiles. In contrast, mAb1 has no effect on body weight or other metabolic improvement. Together, our studies reveal the unique molecular mechanism of action underlying the superior antagonistic activity of mAb2 and signify the promising therapeutic potential of effective GIPR antagonism for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  • T cell epitope mapping of secukinumab and ixekizumab in healthy donors
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sebastian Spindeldreher; Anette Karle; Evelyne Correia; Maxime Tenon; Sascha Gottlieb; Thomas Huber; Bernard Maillere; Frank Kolbinger

    ABSTRACT Secukinumab, a human monoclonal antibody that selectively neutralizes IL-17A, has consistently shown low anti-drug antibody responses in patients with psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. Secukinumab has also shown lower in vitro immunogenicity potential compared with other monoclonal antibodies used to treat psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis, and a significantly lower in vitro T cell precursor frequency compared with ixekizumab, which targets the same antigen. Here, secukinumab and ixekizumab were further examined regarding their specific T cell epitopes. Secukinumab- or ixekizumab-specific CD4 T cell lines were generated from 31 healthy, treatment-naïve donors via 28-day co-culture with mature monocyte-derived dendritic cells exposed to either antibody. Consistent with previous data, the frequency of preexisting T cells to secukinumab was significantly lower as compared with ixekizumab. Only two T cell lines from two different donors could be derived for secukinumab, but no specific T cell epitope was identified. In contrast, 32 T cell lines from eight donors were obtained for ixekizumab. For 11 of these T cell lines, the specific T cell epitopes could be identified and confirmed by major histocompatibility complex–associated peptide proteomics as being naturally presented peptides. All identified T cell epitopes cluster in four main regions that are overlapping with the complementarity-determining regions HCDR3, LCDR1, LCDR2 and LCDR3. Interestingly, ixekizumab CDRs contain amino acids that are not found in any of the germline family members. These amino acids may be associated with the higher number of T cell epitopes identified for ixekizumab light chain and may contribute to the increased in vitro immunogenicity potential observed for ixekizumab vs. secukinumab.

  • VHH antibody targeting the chemokine receptor CX3CR1 inhibits progression of atherosclerosis
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Sarah Low; Haixia Wu; Kavita Jerath; Annette Tibolla; Birgit Fogal; Rebecca Conrad; Margit MacDougall; Steven Kerr; Valentina Berger; Rajvee Dave; Jorge Villalona; Lynn Pantages; Jennifer Ahlberg; Hua Li; Diane Van Hoorick; Cedric Ververken; John Broadwater; Alisa Waterman; Sanjaya Singh; Rachel Kroe-Barrett

    ABSTRACT CX3CR1 has been identified as a highly attractive target for several therapeutic interventions. Despite this potential, no potent antagonists, either small molecule or monoclonal antibody, have been identified. Here we describe the lead finding and engineering approach that lead to the identification of BI 655088, a potent biotherapeutic antagonist to CX3CR1. BI 655088 is a potent CX3CR1 antagonist that, upon therapeutic dosing, significantly inhibits plaque progression in the standard mouse model of atherosclerosis. BI 655088 represents a novel and highly selective biotherapeutic that could reduce inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque when added to standard of care treatment including statins, which could result in a significant decrease in atherothrombotic events in patients with existing cardiovascular disease.

  • The impact of proline isomerization on antigen binding and the analytical profile of a trispecific anti-HIV antibody.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : null
    Masiero Alessandro,Lechat Nelly,Gentric Marianne,Sourrouille Christophe,Laville Florian,Crépin Ronan,Borel Claire,Ziegler Cornelia,Bisch Grégoire,Leclerc Eric,Laurent Ludovic,Brault Dominique,Alexandre Sylvie,Gagnaire Marie,Duffieux Francis,Soubrier Fabienne,Capdevila Cécile,Arnould Isabelle,Dumas Jacques,Dabin Jérôme,Genet Bruno,Radošević Katarina,Menet Jean-Michel,Prades Catherine

    Proline cis-trans conformational isomerization is a mechanism that affects different types of protein functions and behaviors. Using analytical characterization, structural analysis and molecular dynamics simulations, we studied the causes of an aberrant two-peak size exclusion chromatography profile observed for a trispecific anti-HIV antibody. We found that proline isomerization in the tyrosine-proline-proline (YPP) motif in the heavy chain complementarity-determining region (CDR)3 domain of one of the antibody arms (10e8v4) was a component of this profile. The pH effect on the conformational equilibrium that led to these two populations was presumably caused by a histidine residue (H147) in the light chain that is in direct contact with the YPP motif. Finally, we demonstrated that, due to chemical equilibrium between the cis and trans proline conformers, the antigen binding potency of the trispecific anti-HIV antibody was not significantly affected in spite of a potential structural clash of 10e8v4 YPtransPtrans conformers with the membrane proximal ectodomain region epitope in the GP41 antigen. Altogether, these results reveal at mechanistic and molecular levels the effect of proline isomerization in the CDR on the antibody binding and analytical profiles, and support further development of the trispecific anti-HIV antibody.

  • Homogeneous antibody-drug conjugates: DAR 2 anti-HER2 obtained by conjugation on isolated light chain followed by mAb assembly
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Mercè Farràs; Joan Miret; Marc Camps; Ramón Román; Óscar Martínez; Xavier Pujol; Stéphane Erb; Anthony Ehkirch; Sarah Cianferani; Antoni Casablancas; Jordi Joan Cairó

    ABSTRACT Despite advances in medical care, cancer remains a major threat to human health. Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) are a promising targeted therapy to overcome adverse side effects to normal tissues. In this field, the current challenge is obtaining homogeneous preparations of conjugates, where a defined number of drugs are conjugated to specific antibody sites. Site-directed cysteine-based conjugation is commonly used to obtain homogeneous ADC, but it is a time-consuming and expensive approach due to the need for extensive antibody engineering to identify the optimal conjugation sites and reduction – oxidation protocols are specific for each antibody. There is thus a need for ADC platforms that offer homogeneity and direct applicability to the already approved antibody therapeutics. Here we describe a novel approach to derive homogeneous ADCs with drug-to-antibody ratio of 2 from any human immunoglobulin 1 (IgG1), using trastuzumab as a model. The method is based on the production of heavy chains (HC) and light chains (LC) in two recombinant HEK293 independent cultures, so the original amino acid sequence is not altered. Isolated LC was effectively conjugated to a single drug-linker (vcMMAE) construct and mixed to isolated HC dimers, in order to obtain a correctly folded ADC. The relevance of the work was validated in terms of ADC homogeneity (HIC-HPLC, MS), purity (SEC-HPLC), isolated antigen recognition (ELISA) and biological activity (HER2-positive breast cancer cells cytotoxicity assays).

  • Rapid two-dimensional Protein-A size exclusion chromatography of monoclonal antibodies for titer and aggregation measurements from harvested cell culture fluid samples
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Zachary D. Dunn; Jayesh Desai; Gabriel M. Leme; Dwight R. Stoll; Douglas D. Richardson

    ABSTRACT The success of monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapeutics have increased pharmaceutical investment in mAb production, which has led to a greater demand of technologies to efficiently characterize these biotherapeutics. The large size and heterogeneity of mAbs require the measurement of multiple critical quality attributes (CQAs) during production. The current workflow to measure CQAs of antibodies involves multiple one-dimensional liquid chromatography methods, including Protein-A (ProA), ion-exchange (IEX), reversed-phase, size exclusion (SEC), hydrophilic interaction, and hydrophobic interaction (HIC). Recent advances in commercial two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC) affords an opportunity to perform two separations at once to measure multiple CQAs in a single assay. Here, we describe the development of a 2D ProA–SEC method using entirely commercially available instrumentation. Each individual separation and the transfer of material between dimensions were optimized to develop a method that measures titer and aggregation of a target antibody from harvested cell culture fluid in under 5 min. We determined the effects of each parameter of the method on mAb recovery and stability, as well as speed, robustness, resolution, and accuracy of the aggregate amount detected in the second dimension (2D). While there are still sources of error caused by hardware limitations, our rapid ProA-SEC method is an effective screening tool with a significant throughput advantage over previously described methods. Additionally, this work serves as a basis for developing other 2D-LC methods with ProA as the first dimension (1D) separation coupled with different 2D separation, such as ProA-IEX and ProA-HIC.

  • Antibodies to watch in 2020
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Hélène Kaplon; Mrinalini Muralidharan; Zita Schneider; Janice M. Reichert

    ABSTRACT This 2020 installment of the annual ‘Antibodies to Watch’ series documents the antibody therapeutics approved in 2019 and in regulatory review in the United States or European Union, as well as those in late-stage clinical studies, as of November 2019*. At this time, a total of 5 novel antibody therapeutics (romosozumab, risankizumab, polatuzumab vedotin, brolucizumab, and crizanlizumab) had been granted a first approval in either the US or EU, and marketing applications for 13 novel antibody therapeutics (eptinezumab, teprotumumab, enfortumab vedotin, isatuximab, [fam-]trastuzumab deruxtecan, inebilizumab, leronlimab, sacituzumab govitecan, satralizumab, narsoplimab, tafasitamab, REGNEB3 and naxituximab) were undergoing review in these regions, which represent the major markets for antibody therapeutics. Also as of November 2019, 79 novel antibodies were undergoing evaluation in late-stage clinical studies. Of the 79 antibodies, 39 were undergoing evaluation in late-stage studies for non-cancer indications, with 2 of these (ublituximab, pamrevlumab) also in late-stage studies for cancer indications. Companies developing 7 (tanezumab, aducanumab, evinacumab, etrolizumab, sutimlimab, anifrolumab, and teplizumab) of the 39 drugs have indicated that they may submit a marketing application in either the US or EU in 2020. Of the 79 antibodies in late-stage studies, 40 were undergoing evaluation as treatments for cancer, and potentially 9 of these (belantamab mafodotin, oportuzumab monatox, margetuximab, dostarlimab, spartalizumab, 131I-omburtamab, loncastuximab tesirine, balstilimab, and zalifrelimab) may enter regulatory review in late 2019 or in 2020. Overall, the biopharmaceutical industry’s clinical pipeline of antibody therapeutics is robust, and should provide a continuous supply of innovative products for patients in the future. *Note on key updates through December 18, 2019: 1) the US Food and Drug Administration granted accelerated approval to enfortumab vedotin-ejfv (Padcev) on December 18, 2019, bringing the total number of novel antibody therapeutics granted a first approval in either the US or EU during 2019 to 6; 2) the European Commission approved romosozumab on December 9, 2019; 3) the European Medicines Agency issued a positive opinion for brolucizumab; 4) Sesen Bio initiated a rolling biologics license application (BLA) on December 6, 2019; 5) GlaxoSmithKline submitted a BLA for belantamab mafodotin; and 6) the status of the Phase 3 study (NCT04128696) of GSK3359609, a humanized IgG4 anti-ICOS antibody, in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma was updated to recruiting from not yet recruiting.

  • Design and characterization of mouse IgG1 and IgG2a bispecific antibodies for use in syngeneic models
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Feng Wang; Jordan C. Tsai; Jonathan H. Davis; Bryant Chau; Jia Dong; Sean M. West; Jason M. Hogan; Matthew L. Wheeler; Christine Bee; Winse Morishige; Thomas Cayton; Donata David-brown; Chengyue Zhang; Alexander Kozhich; Tim Sproul; Gavin Dollinger; Arvind Rajpal; Pavel Strop

    ABSTRACT The development of antibody therapeutics relies on animal models that accurately recapitulate disease biology. Syngeneic mouse models are increasingly used with new molecules to capture the biology of complex cancers and disease states, and to provide insight into the role of the immune system. The establishment of syngeneic mouse models requires the ability to generate surrogate mouse counterparts to antibodies designed for humans. In the field of bispecific antibodies, there remains a dearth of technologies available to generate native IgG-like mouse bispecific antibodies. Thus, we engineered a simple co-expression system for one-step purification of intact mouse IgG1 and IgG2a bispecific antibodies from any antibody pair. We demonstrated proof of concept with CD3/CD20 bispecific antibodies, which highlighted both the quality and efficacy of materials generated by this technology.

  • Harnessing MerTK agonism for targeted therapeutics
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Vivekananda Kedage; Diego Ellerman; Yongmei Chen; Wei-Ching Liang; Joven Borneo; Yan Wu; Minhong Yan

    ABSTRACT Phagocytosis plays important roles both in homeostasis and under pathological conditions. Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis has been exploited as an integral mechanism for antibody-based therapies. Unlike Fcγ receptor-mediated phagocytosis, MerTK-mediated phagocytic clearance is immunologically silent. Here, we describe a bispecific antibody approach to harness MerTK for targeted clearance without inducing proinflammatory cytokine release associated with Fcγ receptor engagement. We generated bispecific antibodies targeting live B cells or amyloid beta aggregates to demonstrate the feasibility and versatility of this new approach.

  • Development of a quantitative relationship between CAR-affinity, antigen abundance, tumor cell depletion and CAR-T cell expansion using a multiscale systems PK-PD model
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Aman P. Singh; Xirong Zheng; Xiefan Lin-Schmidt; Wenbo Chen; Thomas J. Carpenter; Alice Zong; Weirong Wang; Donald L. Heald

    ABSTRACT The development of mechanism-based, multiscale pharmacokinetic–pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-T cells is needed to enable investigation of in vitro and in vivo correlation of CAR-T cell responses and to facilitate preclinical-to-clinical translation. Toward this goal, we first developed a cell-level in vitro PD model that quantitatively characterized CAR-T cell-induced target cell depletion, CAR-T cell expansion and cytokine release. The model accounted for key drug-specific (CAR-affinity, CAR-densities) and system-specific (antigen densities, E:T ratios) variables and was able to characterize comprehensive in vitro datasets from multiple affinity variants of anti-EGFR and anti-HER2 CAR-T cells. Next, a physiologically based PK (PBPK) model was developed to simultaneously characterize the biodistribution of untransduced T-cells, anti-EGFR CAR-T and anti-CD19 CAR-T cells in xenograft -mouse models. The proposed model accounted for the engagement of CAR-T cells with tumor cells at the site of action. Finally, an integrated PBPK-PD relationship was established to simultaneously characterize expansion of CAR-T cells and tumor growth inhibition (TGI) in xenograft mouse model, using datasets from anti-BCMA, anti-HER2, anti-CD19 and anti-EGFR CAR-T cells. Model simulations provided potential mechanistic insights toward the commonly observed multiphasic PK profile (i.e., rapid distribution, expansion, contraction and persistence) of CAR-T cells in the clinic. Model simulations suggested that CAR-T cells may have a steep dose-exposure relationship, and the apparent Cmax upon CAR-T cell expansion in blood may be more sensitive to patient tumor-burden than CAR-T dose levels. Global sensitivity analysis described the effect of other drug-specific parameters toward CAR-T cell expansion and TGI. The proposed modeling framework will be further examined with the clinical PK and PD data, and the learnings can be used to inform design and development of future CAR-T therapies.

  • Clinical pharmacology of vc-MMAE antibody–drug conjugates in cancer patients: learning from eight first-in-human Phase 1 studies
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Chunze Li; Cindy Zhang; Zao Li; Divya Samineni; Dan Lu; Bei Wang; Shang-Chiung Chen; Rong Zhang; Priya Agarwal; Bernard M. Fine; Sandhya Girish

    ABSTRACT vc-MMAE antibody–drug conjugates (ADCs) consist of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) covalently bound with a potent anti-mitotic toxin (MMAE) through a protease-labile valine-citrulline (vc) linker. The objective of this study was to characterize the pharmacokinetics (PK) and explore exposure–response relationships of eight vc-MMAE ADCs, against different targets and for diverse tumor indications, using data from eight first-in-human Phase 1 studies. PK parameters of the three analytes, namely antibody-conjugated MMAE (acMMAE), total antibody, and unconjugated MMAE, were estimated using non-compartmental approaches and compared across the eight vc-MMAE ADCs. Relationships between analytes were assessed by linear regression. Exposure–response relationships were explored with key efficacy (objective response rate) and safety (Grade 2+ peripheral neuropathy) endpoints. PK profiles of acMMAE, total antibody and unconjugated MMAE following the first dose of 2.4 mg/kg were comparable across the eight ADCs; the exposure differences between molecules were small relative to the inter-subject variability. acMMAE exposure was strongly correlated with total antibody exposure for all the eight ADCs, but such correlation was less evident between acMMAE and unconjugated MMAE exposure. For multiple ADCs evaluated, efficacy and safety endpoints appeared to correlate well with acMMAE exposure, but not with unconjugated MMAE over the doses tested. PK of vc-MMAE ADCs was well characterized and demonstrated remarkable similarity at 2.4 mg/kg across the eight ADCs. Results from analyte correlation and exposure–response relationship analyses suggest that measurement of acMMAE analyte alone might be adequate for vc-MMAE ADCs to support the clinical pharmacology strategy used during late-stage clinical development.

  • Monitoring glycation levels of a bispecific monoclonal antibody at subunit level by ultrahigh-resolution MALDI FT-ICR mass spectrometry
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Christoph Gstöttner; Dietmar Reusch; Markus Haberger; Irina Dragan; Peter Van Veelen; David P. A. Kilgour; Yury O. Tsybin; Yuri E. M. van der Burgt; Manfred Wuhrer; Simone Nicolardi

    ABSTRACT Bispecific monoclonal antibodies (BsAbs) are engineered proteins with multiple functionalities and properties. The “bi-specificity” of these complex biopharmaceuticals is a key characteristic for the development of novel and more effective therapeutic strategies. The high structural complexity of BsAbs poses a challenge to the analytical methods needed for their characterization. Modifications of the BsAb structure, resulting from enzymatic and non-enzymatic processes, further complicate the analysis. An important example of the latter type of modification is glycation, which can occur in the manufacturing process, during storage in the formulation or in vivo after application of the drug. Glycation affects the structure, function, and stability of monoclonal antibodies, and consequently, a detailed analysis of glycation levels is required. Mass spectrometry (MS) plays a key role in the structural characterization of monoclonal antibodies and top-down, middle-up and middle-down MS approaches are increasingly used for the analysis of modifications. Here, we apply a novel middle-up strategy, based on IdeS digestion and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) MS, to analyze all six different BsAb subunits in a single high-resolution mass spectrum, namely two light chains, two half fragment crystallizable regions and two Fd’ regions, thus avoiding upfront chromatography. This method was used to monitor glycation changes during a 168 h forced-glycation experiment. In addition, hot spot glycation sites were localized using top-down and middle-down MALDI-in-source decay FT-ICR MS, which provided complementary information compared to standard bottom-up MS.

  • Regulation of antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity by modulating the intrinsic affinity and binding valency of IgG for target antigen
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Bo Wang; Chunning Yang; Xiaofang Jin; Qun Du; Herren Wu; William Dall’Acqua; Yariv Mazor

    ABSTRACT Complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) is a potent effector mechanism, engaging both innate and adaptive immunity. Although strategies to improve the CDC activity of antibody therapeutics have primarily focused on enhancing the interaction between the antibody crystallizable fragment (Fc) and the first subcomponent of the C1 complement complex (C1q), the relative importance of intrinsic affinity and binding valency of an antibody to the target antigen is poorly understood. Here we show that antibody binding affinity to a cell surface target antigen evidently affects the extent and efficacy of antibody-mediated complement activation. We further report the fundamental role of antibody binding valency in the capacity to recruit C1q and regulate CDC. More specifically, an array of affinity-modulated variants and functionally monovalent bispecific derivatives of high-affinity anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) therapeutic immunoglobulin Gs (IgGs), previously reported to be deficient in mediating complement activation, were tested for their ability to bind C1q by biolayer interferometry using antigen-loaded biosensors and to exert CDC against a panel of EGFR and HER2 tumor cells of various histological origins. Significantly, affinity-reduced variants or monovalent derivatives, but not their high-affinity bivalent IgG counterparts, induced near-complete cell cytotoxicity in tumor cell lines that had formerly been shown to be resistant to complement-mediated attack. Our findings suggest that monovalent target engagement may contribute to an optimal geometrical positioning of the antibody Fc to engage C1q and deploy the complement pathway.

  • An engineered human IgG1 CH2 domain with decreased aggregation and nonspecific binding
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Guangcan Cao, Xinyu Gao, Yancheng Zhan, Qingguang Wang, Zhe Zhang, Dimiter S. Dimitrov, Rui Gong

    ABSTRACT The immunoglobulin (Ig) CH2 domain is a promising scaffold for the development of candidate therapeutics. We have previously shown that the stability of isolated CH2 could be increased by the introduction of an additional disulfide bond and removal of seven N-terminal residues (m01s). However, both isolated CH2 and m01s aggregate, likely due to the existence of aggregation-prone regions (APRs) that we identified by using computational methods. This knowledge was used to generate a phage display library of mutants. The library was incubated at high temperature to remove aggregating CH2 domains, and then panned against a mouse anti-human CH2 monoclonal antibody targeting a conformational epitope to remove misfolded CH2s. After two rounds of panning, one clone, m01s5, with smaller APRs, was identified. After additional mutagenesis one clone, m01s5.4, which aggregated much less than m01s as measured by a turbidity assay and dynamic light scattering, was identified. m01s5.4 also exhibited much lower nonspecific binding than m01s. Engineering of a previously identified m01s-based tumor antigen-specific binder led to a dramatic reduction of its aggregation without affecting its binding. In summary, we describe a new approach for reducing aggregation based on a combination of computational and phage display methodologies, and show that aggregation of CH2-based scaffolds can be significantly reduced by the newly identified mutants, which can improve the developability of potential CH2-based therapeutics.

  • Dissecting the molecular basis of high viscosity of monospecific and bispecific IgG antibodies
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Cholpon Tilegenova, Saeed Izadi, Jianping Yin, Christine S. Huang, Jiansheng Wu, Diego Ellerman, Sarah G. Hymowitz, Benjamin Walters, Cleo Salisbury, Paul J. Carter

    ABSTRACT Some antibodies exhibit elevated viscosity at high concentrations, making them poorly suited for therapeutic applications requiring administration by injection such as subcutaneous or ocular delivery. Here we studied an anti-IL-13/IL-17 bispecific IgG4 antibody, which has anomalously high viscosity compared to its parent monospecific antibodies. The viscosity of the bispecific IgG4 in solution was decreased by only ~30% in the presence of NaCl, suggesting electrostatic interactions are insufficient to fully explain the drivers of viscosity. Intriguingly, addition of arginine-HCl reduced the viscosity of the bispecific IgG4 by ~50% to its parent IgG level. These data suggest that beyond electrostatics, additional types of interactions such as cation-π and/or π-π may contribute to high viscosity more significantly than previously understood. Molecular dynamics simulations of antibody fragments in the mixed solution of free arginine and explicit water were conducted to identify hotspots involved in self-interactions. Exposed surface aromatic amino acids displayed an increased number of contacts with arginine. Mutagenesis of the majority of aromatic residues pinpointed by molecular dynamics simulations effectively decreased the solution’s viscosity when tested experimentally. This mutational method to reduce the viscosity of a bispecific antibody was extended to a monospecific anti-GCGR IgG1 antibody with elevated viscosity. In all cases, point mutants were readily identified that both reduced viscosity and retained antigen-binding affinity. These studies demonstrate a new approach to mitigate high viscosity of some antibodies by mutagenesis of surface-exposed aromatic residues on complementarity-determining regions that may facilitate some clinical applications.

  • Structure-based engineering of pH-dependent antibody binding for selective targeting of solid-tumor microenvironment
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Traian Sulea, Nazanin Rohani, Jason Baardsnes, Christopher R. Corbeil, Christophe Deprez, Yuneivy Cepero-Donates, Alma Robert, Joseph D. Schrag, Marie Parat, Mélanie Duchesne, Maria L. Jaramillo, Enrico O. Purisima, John C. Zwaagstra

    ABSTRACT Recent development of monoclonal antibodies as mainstream anticancer agents demands further optimization of their safety for use in humans. Potent targeting and/or effector activities on normal tissues is an obvious toxicity concern. Optimization of specific tumor targeting could be achieved by taking advantage of the extracellular acidity of solid tumors relative to normal tissues. Here, we applied a structure-based computational approach to engineer anti-human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (Her2) antibodies with selective binding in the acidic tumor microenvironment. We used an affinity maturation platform in which dual-pH histidine-scanning mutagenesis was implemented for pH selectivity optimization. Testing of a small set of designs for binding to the recombinant Her2 ectodomain led to the identification of antigen-binding fragment (Fab) variants with the desired pH-dependent binding behavior. Binding selectivity toward acidic pH was improved by as much as 25-fold relative to the parental bH1-Fab. In vitro experiments on cells expressing intact Her2 confirmed that designed variants formatted as IgG1/k full-size antibodies have high affinity and inhibit the growth of tumor spheroids at a level comparable to that of the benchmark anti-Her2 antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin®) at acidic pH, whereas these effects were significantly reduced at physiological pH. In contrast, both Herceptin and the parental bH1 antibody exhibited strong cell binding and growth inhibition irrespective of pH. This work demonstrates the feasibility of computational optimization of antibodies for selective targeting of the acidic environment such as that found in many solid tumors.

  • Development of a high yielding expression platform for the introduction of non-natural amino acids in protein sequences
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Gargi Roy, Jason Reier, Andrew Garcia, Tom Martin, Megan Rice, Jihong Wang, Meagan Prophet, Ronald Christie, William Dall’Acqua, Sanjeev Ahuja, Michael A Bowen, Marcello Marelli

    ABSTRACT The ability to genetically encode non-natural amino acids (nnAAs) into proteins offers an expanded tool set for protein engineering. nnAAs containing unique functional moieties have enabled the study of post-translational modifications, protein interactions, and protein folding. In addition, nnAAs have been developed that enable a variety of biorthogonal conjugation chemistries that allow precise and efficient protein conjugations. These are being studied to create the next generation of antibody-drug conjugates with improved efficacy, potency, and stability for the treatment of cancer. However, the efficiency of nnAA incorporation, and the productive yields of cell-based expression systems, have limited the utility and widespread use of this technology. We developed a process to isolate stable cell lines expressing a pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase/tRNApyl pair capable of efficient nnAA incorporation. Two different platform cell lines generated by these methods were used to produce IgG-expressing cell lines with normalized antibody titers of 3 g/L using continuous perfusion. We show that the antibodies produced by these platform cells contain the nnAA functionality that enables facile conjugations. Characterization of these highly active and robust platform hosts identified key parameters that affect nnAA incorporation efficiency. These highly efficient host platforms may help overcome the expression challenges that have impeded the developability of this technology for manufacturing proteins with nnAAs and represents an important step in expanding its utility.

  • Defining the right diluent for intravenous infusion of therapeutic antibodies
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Shen Luo, Keisha Melodi McSweeney, Tao Wang, Silvia M. Bacot, Gerald M. Feldman, Baolin Zhang

    ABSTRACT Therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are commonly administered to patients through intravenous (IV) infusion, which involves diluting the medication into an infusion solution (e.g., saline and 5% dextrose). Using the wrong diluent can cause product aggregation, which may compromise patient safety. We and others have shown that Herceptin® (trastuzumab) and Avastin® (bevacizumab) undergo rapid aggregation upon mixing with dextrose and human plasma in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the compatibility of a panel of 11 therapeutic mAbs with dextrose or saline and human serum. These mAbs were randomly selected for their distinct formulations and IgG isotypes (IgG1, IgG2, IgG4, and Fc-fusion protein). All the mAbs appeared to be compatible with saline and human serum. However, mAbs that were formulated at acidic pH (≤ 6.5) exclusively formed insoluble aggregates upon mixing with dextrose and serum. Such aggregation was not detected for the mAbs that are at neutral pH (7.2–7.5) or in buffers containing sodium chloride. Mass spectrometric analysis revealed that the insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb molecules and several serum proteins (e.g., complement proteins, apolipoprotein, fibronectin) that are characterized by an isoelectric point of pH 5.4–6.7. At proximate pH to the isoelectric point values, those abundant serum proteins appeared to undergo isoelectric precipitation with mAb molecules. Our observations highlight a potential risk of protein aggregation at the blood-IV interface if a diluent is incompatible with a specific mAb formulation. This information has implications in guiding the design of product formulations and the selection of the right diluent for intravenous infusion of therapeutic mAbs. Abbreviations: ADC: antibody-drug conjugate; D5W: 5% dextrose in water; IM: intramuscular; IV: intravenous; LC-MS/MS: liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; mAb: monoclonal antibody; SC: subcutaneous; pI: isoelectric point

  • Native size-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry: suitability for antibody–drug conjugate drug-to-antibody ratio quantitation across a range of chemotypes and drug-loading levels
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Jay Jones, Laura Pack, Joshua H. Hunter, John F. Valliere-Douglass

    ABSTRACT Native size-exclusion chromatography-mass spectrometry (nSEC-MS) is an analytical methodology that is appropriate for accurately quantitating the drug-to-antibody ratio (DAR) on a wide variety of interchain cysteine-linked antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), irrespective of chemotype. In the current preclinical environment, novel ADCs conjugated with unique drug-linkers need to progress toward the clinic as quickly as possible. Platform analytical approaches can reduce time-to-clinic because key process development and optimization activities can be decoupled from the development of bespoke, molecule-specific analytical methods. In this work, we assessed the potential of nSEC-MS as a platformable, quantitative DAR method. The nSEC-MS method was evaluated according to performance characteristics and parameters described in the ICH guideline Validation of Analytical Procedures: Text and Methodology Q2(R1). In order to comprehensively assess the accuracy and bias of nSEC-MS DAR quantitation, ADCs were generated using three different drug-linker chemotypes with DARs ranging from 2 to 8. These molecules were tested by hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) and nSEC-MS, and DARs obtained from both methods were compared to assess the degree to which nSEC-MS quantitation aligned with the HIC release assay. Our results indicated that there is no bias introduced by nSEC-MS quantitation of DAR and that SEC-MS data can be bridged to HIC data without the need for a correction factor or offset. nSEC-MS was also found to be suitable for unbiased DAR quantitation in the other ADC chemotypes that were evaluated. Based on the totality of our work, we conclude that, used as intended, nSEC-MS is well suited for quantitating DAR on a variety of interchain cysteine-linked ADCs in an accurate, unbiased manner.

  • Heparin chromatography as an in vitro predictor for antibody clearance rate through pinocytosis
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Thomas E. Kraft, Wolfgang F. Richter, Thomas Emrich, Alexander Knaupp, Michaela Schuster, Andreas Wolfert, Hubert Kettenberger

    ABSTRACT The pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of therapeutic antibodies directly affect efficacy, dose and dose intervals, application route and tissue penetration. In indications where health-care providers and patients can choose between several efficacious and safe therapeutic options, convenience (determined by dosing interval or route of application), which is mainly driven by PK properties, can affect drug selection. Therapeutic antibodies can have greatly different PK even if they have identical Fc domains and show no target-mediated drug disposition. Biophysical properties like surface charge or hydrophobicity, and binding to surrogates for high abundant off-targets (e.g., baculovirus particles, Chinese hamster ovary cell membrane proteins) were proposed to be responsible for these differences. Here, we used heparin chromatography to separate a polyclonal mix of endogenous human IgGs (IVIG) into fractions that differ in their PK properties. Heparin was chosen as a surrogate for highly negatively charged glycocalyx components on endothelial cells, which are among the main contributors to nonspecific clearance. By directly correlating heparin retention time with clearance, we identified heparin chromatography as a tool to assess differences in unspecific cell–surface interaction and the likelihood for increased pinocytotic uptake and degradation. Building on these results, we combined predictors for FcRn-mediated recycling and cell–surface interaction. The combination of heparin and FcRn chromatography allow identification of antibodies with abnormal PK by mimicking the major root causes for fast, non-target-mediated, clearance of therapeutic, Fc-containing proteins.

  • In vivo safety profile of a CSPG4-directed IgE antibody in an immunocompetent rat model
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2019-11-26
    Iwan P. Williams, Silvia Crescioli, Heng Sheng Sow, Heather J. Bax, Carl Hobbs, Kristina M. Ilieva, Elise French, Giulia Pellizzari, Vivienne Cox, Debra H. Josephs, James F. Spicer, Sophia N. Karagiannis, Silvia Mele

    ABSTRACT IgE monoclonal antibodies hold great potential for cancer therapy. Preclinical in vivo systems, particularly those in which the antibody recognizes the host species target antigen and binds to cognate Fc receptors, are often the closest approximation to human exposure and represent a key challenge for evaluating the safety of antibody-based therapies. We sought to develop an immunocompetent rat system to assess the safety of a rodent anti-tumor IgE, as a surrogate for the human therapeutic candidate. We generated a rat IgE against the human tumor-associated antigen chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4) and cross-reactive for the rat antigen. We analyzed CSPG4 distribution in normal rat and human tissues and investigated the in vivo safety of the antibody by monitoring clinical signs and molecular biomarkers after systemic administration to immunocompetent rats. Human and rat CSPG4 expression in normal tissues were comparable. Animals receiving antibody exhibited transient mild to moderate adverse events accompanied by mild elevation of serum tryptase, but not of angiotensin II or cytokines implicated in allergic reactions or cytokine storm. In the long term, repeated antibody administration was well tolerated, with no changes in animal body weight, liver and kidney functions or blood cell counts. This model provides preclinical support for the safety profiling of IgE therapeutic antibodies. Due to the comparable antigen tissue distribution in human and rat, this model may also comprise an appropriate tool for proof-of-concept safety evaluations of different treatment approaches targeting CSPG4.

  • Comprehensive characterisation of the heterogeneity of adalimumab via charge variant analysis hyphenated on-line to native high resolution Orbitrap mass spectrometry.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-10-09
    Florian Füssl,Anne Trappe,Ken Cook,Kai Scheffler,Oliver Fitzgerald,Jonathan Bones

    Charge variant analysis is a widely used tool to monitor changes in product quality during the manufacturing process of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). Although it is a powerful technique for revealing mAb heterogeneity, an unexpected outcome, for example the appearance of previously undetected isoforms, requires further, time-consuming analysis. The process of identifying these unknowns can also result in unwanted changes to the molecule that are not attributable to the manufacturing process. To overcome this, we recently reported a method combining highly selective cation exchange chromatography-based charge variant analysis with on-line mass spectrometric (MS) detection. We further explored and adapted the chromatographic buffer system to expand the application range. Moreover, we observed no salt adducts on the native protein, also supported by the optimal choice of MS parameters, resulting in increased data quality and mass accuracy. Here, we demonstrate the utility of this improved method by performing an in-depth analysis of adalimumab before and after forced degradation. By combining molecular mass and retention time information, we were able to identify multiple modifications on adalimumab, including lysine truncation, glycation, deamidation, succinimide formation, isomerisation, N-terminal aspartic acid loss or C-terminal proline amidation and fragmentation along with the N-glycan distribution of each of these identified proteoforms. Host cell protein (HCP) analysis was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry that verified the presence of the protease Cathepsin L. Based on the presence of trace HCPs with catalytic activity, it can be questioned if fragmentation is solely driven by spontaneous hydrolysis or possibly also by enzymatic degradation.

  • Expression vector-derived heterogeneity in a therapeutic IgG4 monoclonal antibody.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-10-27
    Douglas S Rehder,Chris J Wisniewski,Denfeng Liu,Diya Ren,Dell Farnan,Matthew R Schenauer

    While characterizing a therapeutic IgG4 monoclonal antibody (mAb), we observed a variant with a mass 1177 Da larger than the predominant mAb form that could not be ascribed to previously described modifications. Through successive rounds of experimentation, we localized the mass addition to the C-terminus of the heavy chain (HC). During this process we observed that when the mAb was broken down into separate domains, the Fc and the 1177 Da-modified Fc could be chromatographically separated. Separation allowed collection of native and modified Fc fractions for LC/MS peptide mapping. A unique peptide present in the modified fraction was de novo sequenced and demonstrated to be a modified form of the HC C-terminus lacking two native residues (GK) and gaining twelve additional non-native residues (EAEAASASELFQ). Aware of other mAb variants with genetic origins, we sought to understand whether this modification too had a genetic basis. In silico translation of the expression vector encoding the mAb demonstrated that a normally non-coding section of nucleotides in the + 1 reading frame relative to the HC C-terminal coding region could have led to a transcript with the non-native C-terminal extension. Two potential mechanisms for how this nucleotide sequence might have fused to the native HC coding region and led to expression of the extension product are presented.

  • Antibodies targeting cancer stem cells: a new paradigm in immunotherapy?
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2010-01-05
    Mahendra P Deonarain,Christina A Kousparou,Agamemnon A Epenetos

    Antibody targeting of cancer is showing clinical and commercial success after much intense research and development over the last 30 years. They still have the potential to delivery long-term cures but a shift in thinking towards a cancer stem cell (CSC) model for tumor development is certain to impact on how antibodies are selected and developed, the targets they bind to and the drugs used in combination with them. CSCs have been identified from many human tumors and share many of the characteristics of normal stem cells. The ability to renew, metabolically or physically protect themselves from xenobiotics and DNA damage and the range of locomotory-related receptors expressed could explain the observations of drug resistance and radiation insensitivity leading to metastasis and patient relapse.Targeting CSCs could be a strategy to improve the outcome of cancer therapy but this is not as simple as it seems. Targets such as CD133 and EpCAM/ESA could mark out CSCs from normal cells enabling specific intervention but indirect strategies such as interfering with the establishment of a supportive niche through anti-angiogenic or anti-stroma therapy could be more effective.This review will outline the recent discoveries for CSCs across the major tumor types highlighting the possible molecules for intervention. Examples of antibody-directed CSC therapies and the outlook for the future development of this emerging area will be given.

  • Functional domain analysis of SOX18 transcription factor using a single-chain variable fragment-based approach.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-04-13
    Frank R Fontaine,Stephen Goodall,Jeremy W Prokop,Christopher B Howard,Mehdi Moustaqil,Sumukh Kumble,Daniel T Rasicci,Geoffrey W Osborne,Yann Gambin,Emma Sierecki,Martina L Jones,Johannes Zuegg,Stephen Mahler,Mathias Francois

    Antibodies are routinely used to study the activity of transcription factors, using various in vitro and in vivo approaches such as electrophoretic mobility shift assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, genome-wide method analysis coupled with next generation sequencing, or mass spectrometry. More recently, a new application for antibodies has emerged as crystallisation scaffolds for difficult to crystallise proteins, such as transcription factors. Only in a few rare cases, antibodies have been used to modulate the activity of transcription factors, and there is a real gap in our knowledge on how to efficiently design antibodies to interfere with transcription. The molecular function of transcription factors is underpinned by complex networks of protein-protein interaction and in theory, setting aside intra-cellular delivery challenges, developing antibody-based approaches to modulate transcription factor activity appears a viable option. Here, we demonstrate that antibodies or an antibody single-chain variable region fragments are powerful molecular tools to unravel complex protein-DNA and protein-protein binding mechanisms. In this study, we focus on the molecular mode of action of the transcription factor SOX18, a key modulator of endothelial cell fate during development, as well as an attractive target in certain pathophysiological conditions such as solid cancer metastasis. The engineered antibody we designed inhibits SOX18 transcriptional activity, by interfering specifically with an 8-amino-acid motif in the C-terminal region directly adjacent to α-Helix 3 of SOX18 HMG domain, thereby disrupting protein-protein interaction. This new approach establishes a framework to guide the study of transcription factors interactomes using antibodies as molecular handles.

  • Evidence of disulfide bond scrambling during production of an antibody-drug conjugate.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-10-20
    Lily Pei-Yao Liu-Shin,Adam Fung,Arun Malhotra,Gayathri Ratnaswamy

    Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) that are formed using thiol-maleimide chemistry are commonly produced by reactions that occur at or above neutral pHs. Alkaline environments can promote disulfide bond scrambling, and may result in the reconfiguration of interchain disulfide bonds in IgG antibodies, particularly in the IgG2 and IgG4 subclasses. IgG2-A and IgG2-B antibodies generated under basic conditions yielded ADCs with comparable average drug-to-antibody ratios and conjugate distributions. In contrast, the antibody disulfide configuration affected the distribution of ADCs generated under acidic conditions. The similarities of the ADCs derived from alkaline reactions were attributed to the scrambling of interchain disulfide bonds during the partial reduction step, where conversion of the IgG2-A isoform to the IgG2-B isoform was favored.

  • Comprehensive manipulation of glycosylation profiles across development scales.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Sven Loebrich,Elisa Clark,Kristina Ladd,Stefani Takahashi,Anna Brousseau,Seth Kitchener,Robert Herbst,Thomas Ryll

    The extent and pattern of glycosylation on therapeutic antibodies can influence their circulatory half-life, engagement of effector functions, and immunogenicity, with direct consequences to efficacy and patient safety. Hence, controlling glycosylation patterns is central to any drug development program, yet poses a formidable challenge to the bio-manufacturing industry. Process changes, which can affect glycosylation patterns, range from manufacturing at different scales or sites, to switching production process mode, all the way to using alternative host cell lines. In the emerging space of biosimilars development, often times all of these aspects apply. Gaining a deep understanding of the direction and extent to which glycosylation quality attributes can be modulated is key for efficient fine-tuning of glycan profiles in a stage appropriate manner, but establishment of such platform knowledge is time consuming and resource intensive. Here we report an inexpensive and highly adaptable screening system for comprehensive modulation of glycans on antibodies expressed in CHO cells. We characterize 10 media additives in univariable studies and in combination, using a design of experiments approach to map the design space for tuning glycosylation profile attributes. We introduce a robust workflow that does not require automation, yet enables rapid process optimization. We demonstrate scalability across deep wells, shake flasks, AMBR-15 cell culture system, and 2 L single-use bioreactors. Further, we show that it is broadly applicable to different molecules and host cell lineages. This universal approach permits fine-tuned modulation of glycan product quality, reduces development costs, and enables agile implementation of process changes throughout the product lifecycle.

  • Affinity of human IgG subclasses to mouse Fc gamma receptors.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2017-05-04
    Gillian Dekkers,Arthur E H Bentlage,Tamara C Stegmann,Heather L Howie,Suzanne Lissenberg-Thunnissen,James Zimring,Theo Rispens,Gestur Vidarsson

    Human IgG is the main antibody class used in antibody therapies because of its efficacy and longer half-life, which are completely or partly due to FcγR-mediated functions of the molecules. Preclinical testing in mouse models are frequently performed using human IgG, but no detailed information on binding of human IgG to mouse FcγRs is available. The orthologous mouse and human FcγRs share roughly 60-70% identity, suggesting some incompatibility. Here, we report binding affinities of all mouse and human IgG subclasses to mouse FcγR. Human IgGs bound to mouse FcγR with remarkably similar binding strengths as we know from binding to human ortholog receptors, with relative affinities IgG3>IgG1>IgG4>IgG2 and FcγRI>>FcγRIV>FcγRIII>FcγRIIb. This suggests human IgG subclasses to have similar relative FcγR-mediated biological activities in mice.

  • A minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to investigate FcRn-mediated monoclonal antibody salvage: Effects of Kon, Koff, endosome trafficking, and animal species.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Brian M Maas,Yanguang Cao

    Manipulation of binding affinity between monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) has been leveraged to extend mAb half-life; however, the steps required for success remain ambiguous and experimental observations are inconsistent. Recent models have considered the time course of endosomal transit a major contributor to the relationship between FcRn affinity and antibody half-life. Our objective was to develop a minimal physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to explain how changes in IgG-FcRn association rate constant (Kon), dissociation rate constant (Koff), and endosomal transit time [T(w)] translate to improved IgG clearance across mice, monkeys and humans. By simulating mAb clearance across physiological values of Kon, Koff, and T(w), we found that lowering Koff improves clearance only until the dissociation half-life reaches endosomal transit time. In contrast, Kon influenced clearance independently of T(w).The model was then applied to fit 66 mAb plasma profiles across species digitized from the literature, and clearance of mAb (CLIgG) and vascular fluid-phase endocytosis rate (CLup) were estimated. We found that CLIgG scaled well with body weight (allometric exponent of 0.90). After accounting for mAbs with significant FcRn binding at physiological pH, CLup was allometrically scalable (exponent 0.72). For the antibodies surveyed, Kon was more highly correlated with CLIgG across all species. The relationship between Koff and KD with CLIgG was largely inconsistent. Taken together, this model provides a parsimonious approach to evaluate endosomal transit kinetics using only mAb plasma concentrations. These findings reinforce the idea that endosomal transit kinetics should be considered when modeling FcRn salvage.

  • Recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2014-12-23
    Fortunato Ferrara,Sara D'Angelo,Tiziano Gaiotto,Leslie Naranjo,Hongzhao Tian,Susanne Gräslund,Elena Dobrovetsky,Peter Hraber,Fridtjof Lund-Johansen,Silvia Saragozza,Daniele Sblattero,Csaba Kiss,Andrew R M Bradbury

    Only a small fraction of the antibodies in a traditional polyclonal antibody mixture recognize the target of interest, frequently resulting in undesirable polyreactivity. Here, we show that high-quality recombinant polyclonals, in which hundreds of different antibodies are all directed toward a target of interest, can be easily generated in vitro by combining phage and yeast display. We show that, unlike traditional polyclonals, which are limited resources, recombinant polyclonal antibodies can be amplified over one hundred million-fold without losing representation or functionality. Our protocol was tested on 9 different targets to demonstrate how the strategy allows the selective amplification of antibodies directed toward desirable target specific epitopes, such as those found in one protein but not a closely related one, and the elimination of antibodies recognizing common epitopes, without significant loss of diversity. These recombinant renewable polyclonal antibodies are usable in different assays, and can be generated in high throughput. This approach could potentially be used to develop highly specific recombinant renewable antibodies against all human gene products.

  • Selective killing of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus lytically infected cells with a recombinant immunotoxin targeting the viral gpK8.1A envelope glycoprotein.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2012-03-02
    Deboeeta Chatterjee,Bala Chandran,Edward A Berger

    Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV, human herpesvirus 8) is etiologically associated with three neoplastic syndromes: Kaposi sarcoma and the uncommon HIV-associated B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders primary effusion lymphoma and multicentric Castleman disease. The incidence of the latter B-cell pathology has been increasing in spite of antiretroviral therapy; its association with lytic virus replication has prompted interest in therapeutic strategies aimed at this phase of the virus life cycle. We designed and expressed a recombinant immunotoxin (2014-PE38) targeting the gpK8.1A viral glycoprotein expressed on the surface of the virion and infected cells. We show that this immunotoxin selectively kills KSHV-infected cells in dose-dependent fashion, resulting in major reductions of infectious virus release. The immunotoxin and ganciclovir, an inhibitor of viral DNA replication, showed marked reciprocal potentiation of antiviral activities. These results suggest that the immunotoxin, alone or in combination, may represent a new approach to treat diseases associated with KSHV lytic replication.

  • Monovalent TNF receptor 1-selective antibody with improved affinity and neutralizing activity.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-27
    Fabian Richter,Kirstin A Zettlitz,Oliver Seifert,Andreas Herrmann,Peter Scheurich,Klaus Pfizenmaier,Roland E Kontermann

    Selective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF) signaling through the proinflammatory axis of TNF-receptor 1 (TNFR1) while leaving pro-survival and regeneration-promoting signals via TNFR2 unaffected is a promising strategy to circumvent limitations of complete inhibition of TNF action by the approved anti-TNF drugs. A previously developed humanized antagonistic TNFR1-specific antibody, ATROSAB, showed potent inhibition of TNFR1-mediated cellular responses. Because the parental mouse antibody H398 possesses even stronger inhibitory potential, we scrutinized the specific binding parameters of the two molecules and revealed a faster dissociation of ATROSAB compared to H398. Applying affinity maturation and re-engineering of humanized variable domains, we generated a monovalent Fab derivative (13.7) of ATROSAB that exhibited increased binding to TNFR1 and superior inhibition of TNF-mediated TNFR1 activation, while lacking any agonistic activity even in the presence of cross-linking antibodies. In order to improve its pharmacokinetic properties, several Fab13.7-derived molecules were generated, including a PEGylated Fab, a mouse serum albumin fusion protein, a half-IgG with a dimerization-deficient Fc, and a newly designed Fv-Fc format, employing the knobs-into-holes technology. Among these derivatives, the Fv13.7-Fc displayed the best combination of improved pharmacokinetic properties and antagonistic activity, thus representing a promising candidate for further clinical development.

  • Systematic development of temperature shift strategies for Chinese hamster ovary cells based on short duration cultures and kinetic modeling.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-20
    Jianlin Xu,Peifeng Tang,Andrew Yongky,Barry Drew,Michael C Borys,Shijie Liu,Zheng Jian Li

    Temperature shift (TS) to a hypothermic condition has been widely used during protein production processes that use Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. The effect of temperature on cell growth, metabolites, protein titer and quality depends on cell line, product, and other bioreactor conditions. Due to the large numbers of experiments, which typically last 2-3 weeks each, limited systematic TS studies have been reported with multiple shift temperatures and steps at different times. Here, we systematically studied the effect of temperature on cell culture performance for the production of two monoclonal antibodies by industrial GS and DG44 CHO cell lines. Three 2-8 day short-duration methods were developed and validated for researching the effect of many different temperatures on CHO cell culture and quality attributes. We found that minor temperature differences (1-1.5 °C) affected cell culture performance. The kinetic parameters extracted from the short duration data were subsequently used to compute and predict cell culture performance in extended duration of 10-14 days with multiple TS conditions for both CHO cell lines. These short-duration culture methods with kinetic modeling tools may be used for effective TS optimization to achieve the best profiles for cell growth, metabolites, titer and quality attributes. Although only three short-duration methods were developed with two CHO cell lines, similar short-duration methods with kinetic modeling may be applied for different hosts, including both microbial and other mammalian cells.

  • Establishment of peripheral blood mononuclear cell-derived humanized lung cancer mouse models for studying efficacy of PD-L1/PD-1 targeted immunotherapy.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-12
    Shouheng Lin,Guohua Huang,Lin Cheng,Zhen Li,Yiren Xiao,Qiuhua Deng,Yuchuan Jiang,Baiheng Li,Simiao Lin,Suna Wang,Qiting Wu,Huihui Yao,Su Cao,Yang Li,Pentao Liu,Wei Wei,Duanqing Pei,Yao Yao,Zhesheng Wen,Xuchao Zhang,Yilong Wu,Zhenfeng Zhang,Shuzhong Cui,Xiaofang Sun,Xueming Qian,Peng Li

    Animal models used to evaluate efficacies of immune checkpoint inhibitors are insufficient or inaccurate. We thus examined two xenograft models used for this purpose, with the aim of optimizing them. One method involves the use of peripheral blood mononuclear cells and cell line-derived xenografts (PBMCs-CDX model). For this model, we implanted human lung cancer cells into NOD-scid-IL2Rg-/- (NSI) mice, followed by injection of human PBMCs. The second method involves the use of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells and CDX (HSPCs-CDX model). For this model, we first reconstituted the human immune system by transferring human CD34+ hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs-derived humanized model) and then transplanted human lung cancer cells. We found that the PBMCs-CDX model was more accurate in evaluating PD-L1/PD-1 targeted immunotherapies. In addition, it took only four weeks with the PBMCs-CDX model for efficacy evaluation, compared to 10-14 weeks with the HSPCs-CDX model. We then further established PBMCs-derived patient-derived xenografts (PDX) models, including an auto-PBMCs-PDX model using cancer and T cells from the same tumor, and applied them to assess the antitumor efficacies of anti-PD-L1 antibodies. We demonstrated that this PBMCs-derived PDX model was an invaluable tool to study the efficacies of PD-L1/PD-1 targeted cancer immunotherapies. Overall, we found our PBMCs-derived models to be excellent preclinical models for studying immune checkpoint inhibitors.

  • MHC-associated peptide proteomics enabling highly sensitive detection of immunogenic sequences for the development of therapeutic antibodies with low immunogenicity.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-11
    Nobuo Sekiguchi,Chiyomi Kubo,Ayako Takahashi,Kumiko Muraoka,Akira Takeiri,Shunsuke Ito,Mariko Yano,Futa Mimoto,Atsuhiko Maeda,Yuki Iwayanagi,Tetsuya Wakabayashi,Shotaro Takata,Naoaki Murao,Shuichi Chiba,Masaki Ishigai

    Immunogenicity is a key factor capable of influencing the efficacy and safety of therapeutic antibodies. A recently developed method called MHC-associated peptide proteomics (MAPPs) uses liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry to identify the peptide sequences derived from a therapeutic protein that are presented by major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II) on antigen-presenting cells, and therefore may induce immunogenicity. In this study, we developed a MAPPs technique (called Ab-MAPPs) that has high throughput and can efficiently identify the MHC II-presented peptides derived from therapeutic antibodies using magnetic nanoparticle beads coated with a hydrophilic polymer in the immunoprecipitation process. The magnetic beads could identify more peptides and sequence regions originating from infliximab and adalimumab in a shorter measurement time than Sepharose beads, which are commonly used for MAPPs. Several sequence regions identified by Ab-MAPPs from infliximab corresponded to immunogenic sequences reported by other methods, which suggests the method's high potential for identifying significant sequences involved in immunogenicity. Furthermore, our study suggests that the Ab-MAPPs method can recognize the difference of a single amino acid residue between similar antibody sequences with different levels of T-cell proliferation activity and can identify potentially immunogenic peptides with high binding affinity to MHC II. In conclusion, Ab-MAPPs is useful for identifying the immunogenic sequences of therapeutic antibodies and will contribute to the design of therapeutic antibodies with low immunogenicity during the drug discovery stage.

  • A synthetic anti-Frizzled antibody engineered for broadened specificity exhibits enhanced anti-tumor properties.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-09-06
    Zvezdan Pavlovic,Jarrett J Adams,Levi L Blazer,Amandeep K Gakhal,Nick Jarvik,Zachary Steinhart,Mélanie Robitaille,Keith Mascall,James Pan,Stephane Angers,Jason Moffat,Sachdev S Sidhu

    Secreted Wnt ligands play a major role in the development and progression of many cancers by modulating signaling through cell-surface Frizzled receptors (FZDs). In order to achieve maximal effect on Wnt signaling by targeting the cell surface, we developed a synthetic antibody targeting six of the 10 human FZDs. We first identified an anti-FZD antagonist antibody (F2) with a specificity profile matching that of OMP-18R5, a monoclonal antibody that inhibits growth of many cancers by targeting FZD7, FZD1, FZD2, FZD5 and FZD8. We then used combinatorial antibody engineering by phage display to develop a variant antibody F2.A with specificity broadened to include FZD4. We confirmed that F2.A blocked binding of Wnt ligands, but not binding of Norrin, a ligand that also activates FZD4. Importantly, F2.A proved to be much more efficacious than either OMP-18R5 or F2 in inhibiting the growth of multiple RNF43-mutant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cell lines, including patient-derived cells.

  • Discovery, characterization, and remediation of a C-terminal Fc-extension in proteins expressed in CHO cells.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-28
    Christopher S Spahr,Mark E Daris,Kevin C Graham,Brian D Soriano,Jennitte L Stevens,Stone D-H Shi

    Protein-based biotherapeutics are produced in engineered cells through complex processes and may contain a wide variety of variants and post-translational modifications that must be monitored or controlled to ensure product quality. Recently, a low level (~1-5%) impurity was observed in a number of proteins derived from stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells using mass spectrometry. These molecules include antibodies and Fc fusion proteins where Fc is on the C-terminus of the construct. By liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), the impurity was found to be ~1177 Da larger than the expected mass. After tryptic digestion and analysis by LC-MS/MS, the impurity was localized to the C-terminus of Fc in the form of an Fc sequence extension. Targeted higher-energy collision dissociation was performed using various normalized collision energies (NCE) on two charge states of the extended peptide, resulting in nearly complete fragment ion coverage. The amino acid sequence, SLSLSPEAEAASASELFQ, obtained by the de novo sequencing effort matches a portion of the vector sequence used in the transfection of the CHO cells, specifically in the promoter region of the selection cassette downstream of the protein coding sequence. The modification was the result of an unexpected splicing event, caused by the resemblance of the commonly used GGU codon of the C-terminal glycine to a consensus splicing donor. Three alternative codons for glycine were tested to alleviate the modification, and all were found to completely eliminate the undesirable C-terminal extension, thus improving product quality.

  • The mechanism of GM-CSF inhibition by human GM-CSF auto-antibodies suggests novel therapeutic opportunities.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-07-04
    Urmi Dhagat,Timothy R Hercus,Sophie E Broughton,Tracy L Nero,Karen S Cheung Tung Shing,Emma F Barry,Christy A Thomson,Steve Bryson,Emil F Pai,Barbara J McClure,John W Schrader,Angel F Lopez,Michael W Parker

    Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is a hematopoietic growth factor that can stimulate a variety of cells, but its overexpression leads to excessive production and activation of granulocytes and macrophages with many pathogenic effects. This cytokine is a therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases, and several anti-GM-CSF antibodies have advanced to Phase 2 clinical trials in patients with such diseases, e.g., rheumatoid arthritis. GM-CSF is also an essential factor in preventing pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP), a disease associated with GM-CSF malfunction arising most typically through the presence of GM-CSF neutralizing auto-antibodies. Understanding the mechanism of action for neutralizing antibodies that target GM-CSF is important for improving their specificity and affinity as therapeutics and, conversely, in devising strategies to reduce the effects of GM-CSF auto-antibodies in PAP. We have solved the crystal structures of human GM-CSF bound to antigen-binding fragments of two neutralizing antibodies, the human auto-antibody F1 and the mouse monoclonal antibody 4D4. Coordinates and structure factors of the crystal structures of the GM-CSF:F1 Fab and the GM-CSF:4D4 Fab complexes have been deposited in the RCSB Protein Data Bank under the accession numbers 6BFQ and 6BFS, respectively. The structures show that these antibodies bind to mutually exclusive epitopes on GM-CSF; however, both prevent the cytokine from interacting with its alpha receptor subunit and hence prevent receptor activation. Importantly, identification of the F1 epitope together with functional analyses highlighted modifications to GM-CSF that would abolish auto-antibody recognition whilst retaining GM-CSF function. These results provide a framework for developing novel GM-CSF molecules for PAP treatment and for optimizing current anti-GM-CSF antibodies for use in treating inflammatory disorders.

  • T-DM1-resistant cells gain high invasive activity via EGFR and integrin cooperated pathways.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Yukinori Endo,Yi Shen,Lamis Abou Youssef,Nishant Mohan,Wen Jin Wu

    Ado-trastuzumab emtansine (Kadcyla®; T-DM1) is an antibody-drug conjugate developed to treat trastuzumab-resistant disease. Despite initial favorable outcomes, most patients eventually cease to respond due to developing acquired resistance to T-DM1. Currently, there is no targeted therapy to treat T-DM1-resistant disease. To explore novel therapeutic targets to improve therapeutic efficacy of T-DM1, we generated T-DM1-resistant cells using trastuzumab-resistant JIMT1 cells. We found that the loss of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 confers T-DM1 resistance, which in turn activates a compensatory mechanism that increases epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression. Upregulation of EGFR increases the protein levels of α5β1 and αVβ3 integrins, resulting in enhanced motility and invasion of T-DM1-resistant cells. This study delineates previously unappreciated relationships between α5β1 and αVβ3 and suggests that specific integrins should be carefully selected as therapeutic targets to treat T-DM1-resistant disease. Specifically, silencing β1 integrin expression by siRNA in T-DM1-resistant cells destabilizes α5, but increases expression of αV, a critical integrin mediating the invasion and metastases in many different cancers. As a consequence, T-DM1-resistant cells gain metastatic potential and become more invasive. This finding is underscored by the fact that β1 integrin blockage induced by an inhibitory antibody, MAB 13, significantly increases invasion of T-DM1-resistant cells. However, the increased cell invasion induced by β1 integrin blockage can be significantly reduced by either EGFR inhibitor or specific siRNA against αV integrin. The discovery of functional cooperation between EGFR and αV integrin in regulating cell growth and invasion provides an opportunity to develop novel therapeutic strategy by dual-targeting EGFR and specific integrin to overcome T-DM1 resistance.

  • Antibody characterization using novel ERLIC-MS/MS-based peptide mapping.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-22
    Jing Zhen,John Kim,Ying Zhou,Ervinas Gaidamauskas,Shyamsundar Subramanian,Ping Feng

    Electrostatic repulsion hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) coupled with mass spectrometry (MS) is a technique that is increasingly being used as a trapping/enrichment tool for glycopeptides/phosphorylated peptides or sample fractionation in proteomics research. Here, we describe a novel ERLIC-MS/MS-based peptide mapping method that was successfully used for the characterization of denosumab, in particular the analysis of sequence coverage, terminal peptides, methionine oxidation, asparagine deamidation and glycopeptides. Compared to reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC)-MS/MS methods, ERLIC demonstrated unique advantages in the retention of small peptides, resulting in 100% sequence coverage for both the light and heavy chains. It also demonstrated superior performance in the separation and characterization of asparagine deamidated peptides, which is known to be challenging by RPLC-MS/MS. The developed method can be used alone for peptide mapping-based characterization of monoclonal antibodies, or as an orthogonal method to complement the RPLC-MS/MS method. This study extends the applications of ERLIC from that of a trapping/fractioning column to biologic therapeutics characterization. The ERLIC-MS/MS method can enhance biologic therapeutics analysis with more reliability and confidence for bottom-up peptide mapping-based characterization.

  • Intracellular displacement of p53 using transactivation domain (p53 TAD) specific nanobodies.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-17
    Anneleen Steels,Adriaan Verhelle,Olivier Zwaenepoel,Jan Gettemans

    The tumor suppressor p53 is of crucial importance in the prevention of cellular transformation. In the presence of cellular stress signals, the negative feedback loop between p53 and Mdm2, its main negative regulator, is disrupted, which results in the activation and stabilization of p53. Via a complex interplay between both transcription-dependent and - independent functions of p53, the cell will go through transient cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence or apoptosis. However, it remains difficult to completely fathom the mechanisms behind p53 regulation and its responses, considering the presence of multiple layers involved in fine-tuning them. In order to take the next step forward, novel research tools are urgently needed. We have developed single-domain antibodies, also known as nanobodies, that specifically bind with the N-terminal transactivation domain of wild type p53, but that leave the function of p53 as a transcriptional transactivator intact. When the nanobodies are equipped with a mitochondrial-outer-membrane (MOM)-tag, we can capture p53 at the mitochondria. This nanobody-induced mitochondrial delocalization of p53 is, in specific cases, associated with a decrease in cell viability and with morphological changes in the mitochondria. These findings underpin the potential of nanobodies as bona fide research tools to explore protein function and to unravel their biochemical pathways.

  • Structure and characterization of a high affinity C5a monoclonal antibody that blocks binding to C5aR1 and C5aR2 receptors.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2017-09-28
    Caroline S Colley,Bojana Popovic,Sudharsan Sridharan,Judit E Debreczeni,David Hargeaves,Michael Fung,Ling-Ling An,Bryan Edwards,Joanne Arnold,Elizabeth England,Laura Eghobamien,Ulf Sivars,Liz Flavell,Jonathan Renshaw,Kate Wickson,Paul Warrener,Jingying Zha,Jessica Bonnell,Rob Woods,Trevor Wilkinson,Claire Dobson,Tristan J Vaughan

    C5a is a potent anaphylatoxin that modulates inflammation through the C5aR1 and C5aR2 receptors. The molecular interactions between C5a-C5aR1 receptor are well defined, whereas C5a-C5aR2 receptor interactions are poorly understood. Here, we describe the generation of a human antibody, MEDI7814, that neutralizes C5a and C5adesArg binding to the C5aR1 and C5aR2 receptors, without affecting complement-mediated bacterial cell killing. Unlike other anti-C5a mAbs described, this antibody has been shown to inhibit the effects of C5a by blocking C5a binding to both C5aR1 and C5aR2 receptors. The crystal structure of the antibody in complex with human C5a reveals a discontinuous epitope of 22 amino acids. This is the first time the epitope for an antibody that blocks C5aR1 and C5aR2 receptors has been described, and this work provides a basis for molecular studies aimed at further understanding the C5a-C5aR2 receptor interaction. MEDI7814 has therapeutic potential for the treatment of acute inflammatory conditions in which both C5a receptors may mediate inflammation, such as sepsis or renal ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  • Improved in vitro and in vivo activity against CD303-expressing targets of the chimeric 122A2 antibody selected for specific glycosylation pattern.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Nathalie Fournier,Emilie Jacque,Alexandre Fontayne,Delphine Derache,Gilles Dupont,Lucie Verhaeghe,Linda Baptista,Aurélie Dehenne,Anne-Sophie Dezetter,Aurélie Terrier,Alain Longue,Virginie Pochet-Beghin,Cecile Beghin,Sami Chtourou,Christophe de Romeuf

    Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) play a central role for both innate and adaptive antiviral responses, as they direct immune responses through their unique ability to produce substantial concentrations of type I interferon (IFNs) upon viral encounter while also activating multiple immune cells, including macrophages, DCs, B, natural killer and T cells. Recent evidence clearly indicates that pDCs also play a crucial role in some cancers and several auto-immune diseases. Although treatments are currently available to patients with such pathologies, many are not fully efficient. We are proposing here, as a new targeted-based therapy, a novel chimeric monoclonal antibody (mAb) that mediates a strong cellular cytotoxicity directed against a specific human pDC marker, CD303. This antibody, ch122A2 mAb, is characterized by low fucose content in its human IgG1 constant (Fc) region, which induces strong in vitro and in vivo activity against human pDCs. We demonstrated that this effect relates in part to its specific Fc region glycosylation pattern, which increased affinity for CD16/FcγRIIIa. Importantly, ch122A2 mAb induces the down-modulation of CpG-induced IFN-α secretion by pDCs. Additionally, ch122A2 mAb shows in vitro high pDC depletion mediated by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis. Remarkably, in vivo ch122A2 mAb efficacy is also demonstrated in humanized mice, resulting in significant pDC depletion in bloodstream and secondary lymphoid organs such as spleen. Together, our data indicates that ch122A2 mAb could represent a promising cytotoxic mAb candidate for pathologies in which decreasing type I IFNs or pDCs depleting may improve patient prognosis.

  • Analytical and functional similarity of Amgen biosimilar ABP 215 to bevacizumab.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-20
    Neungseon Seo,Alla Polozova,Mingxuan Zhang,Zachary Yates,Shawn Cao,Huimin Li,Scott Kuhns,Gwendolyn Maher,Helen J McBride,Jennifer Liu

    ABP 215 is a biosimilar product to bevacizumab. Bevacizumab acts by binding to vascular endothelial growth factor A, inhibiting endothelial cell proliferation and new blood vessel formation, thereby leading to tumor vasculature normalization. The ABP 215 analytical similarity assessment was designed to assess the structural and functional similarity of ABP 215 and bevacizumab sourced from both the United States (US) and the European Union (EU). Similarity assessment was also made between the US- and EU-sourced bevacizumab to assess the similarity between the two products. The physicochemical properties and structural similarity of ABP 215 and bevacizumab were characterized using sensitive state-of-the-art analytical techniques capable of detecting small differences in product attributes. ABP 215 has the same amino acid sequence and exhibits similar post-translational modification profiles compared to bevacizumab. The functional similarity assessment employed orthogonal assays designed to interrogate all expected biological activities, including those known to affect the mechanisms of action for ABP 215 and bevacizumab. More than 20 batches of bevacizumab (US) and bevacizumab (EU), and 13 batches of ABP 215 representing unique drug substance lots were assessed for similarity. The large dataset allows meaningful comparisons and garners confidence in the overall conclusion for the analytical similarity assessment of ABP 215 to both US- and EU-sourced bevacizumab. The structural and purity attributes, and biological properties of ABP 215 are demonstrated to be highly similar to those of bevacizumab.

  • Modification of the kinetic stability of immunoglobulin G by solvent additives.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-15
    Jonas V Schaefer,Erik Sedlák,Florian Kast,Michal Nemergut,Andreas Plückthun

    Biophysical properties of antibody-based biopharmaceuticals are a critical part of their release criteria. In this context, finding the appropriate formulation is equally important as optimizing their intrinsic biophysical properties through protein engineering, and both are mutually dependent. Most previous studies have empirically tested the impact of additives on measures of colloidal stability, while mechanistic aspects have usually been limited to only the thermodynamic stability of the protein. Here we emphasize the kinetic impact of additives on the irreversible denaturation steps of immunoglobulins G (IgG) and their antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), as these are the key committed steps preceding aggregation, and thus especially informative in elucidating the molecular parameters of activity loss. We examined the effects of ten additives on the conformational kinetic stability by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), using a recently developed three-step model containing both reversible and irreversible steps. The data highlight and help to rationalize different effects of the additives on the properties of full-length IgG, analyzed by onset and aggregation temperatures as well as by kinetic parameters derived from our model. Our results further help to explain the observation that stabilizing mutations in the antigen-binding fragment (Fab) significantly affect the kinetic parameters of its thermal denaturation, but not the aggregation properties of the full-length IgGs. We show that the proper analysis of DSC scans for full-length IgGs and their corresponding Fabs not only helps in ranking their stability in different formats and formulations, but provides important mechanistic insights for improving the conformational kinetic stability of IgGs.

  • Analytical comparability study of recombinant monoclonal antibody therapeutics.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-08
    Alexandre Ambrogelly,Stephen Gozo,Amit Katiyar,Shara Dellatore,Yune Kune,Ram Bhat,Joanne Sun,Ning Li,Dongdong Wang,Christine Nowak,Alyssa Neill,Gomathinayagam Ponniah,Cory King,Bruce Mason,Alain Beck,Hongcheng Liu

    Process changes are inevitable in the life cycle of recombinant monoclonal antibody therapeutics. Products made using pre- and post-change processes are required to be comparable as demonstrated by comparability studies to qualify for continuous development and commercial supply. Establishment of comparability is a systematic process of gathering and evaluating data based on scientific understanding and clinical experience of the relationship between product quality attributes and their impact on safety and efficacy. This review summarizes the current understanding of various modifications of recombinant monoclonal antibodies. It further outlines the critical steps in designing and executing successful comparability studies to support process changes at different stages of a product's lifecycle.

  • A multiplatform strategy for the discovery of conventional monoclonal antibodies that inhibit the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-02
    Janna Bednenko,Rian Harriman,Lore Mariën,Hai M Nguyen,Alka Agrawal,Ashot Papoyan,Yelena Bisharyan,Joanna Cardarelli,Donna Cassidy-Hanley,Ted Clark,Darlene Pedersen,Yasmina Abdiche,William Harriman,Bas van der Woning,Hans de Haard,Ellen Collarini,Heike Wulff,Paul Colussi

    Identifying monoclonal antibodies that block human voltage-gated ion channels (VGICs) is a challenging endeavor exacerbated by difficulties in producing recombinant ion channel proteins in amounts that support drug discovery programs. We have developed a general strategy to address this challenge by combining high-level expression of recombinant VGICs in Tetrahymena thermophila with immunization of phylogenetically diverse species and unique screening tools that allow deep-mining for antibodies that could potentially bind functionally important regions of the protein. Using this approach, we targeted human Kv1.3, a voltage-gated potassium channel widely recognized as a therapeutic target for the treatment of a variety of T-cell mediated autoimmune diseases. Recombinant Kv1.3 was used to generate and recover 69 full-length anti-Kv1.3 mAbs from immunized chickens and llamas, of which 10 were able to inhibit Kv1.3 current. Select antibodies were shown to be potent (IC50<10 nM) and specific for Kv1.3 over related Kv1 family members, hERG and hNav1.5.

  • Automated high throughput microscale antibody purification workflows for accelerating antibody discovery.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-03-02
    Peng Luan,Sophia Lee,Tia A Arena,Maciej Paluch,Joe Kansopon,Sharon Viajar,Zahira Begum,Nancy Chiang,Gerald Nakamura,Philip E Hass,Athena W Wong,Greg A Lazar,Avinash Gill

    To rapidly find "best-in-class" antibody therapeutics, it has become essential to develop high throughput (HTP) processes that allow rapid assessment of antibodies for functional and molecular properties. Consequently, it is critical to have access to sufficient amounts of high quality antibody, to carry out accurate and quantitative characterization. We have developed automated workflows using liquid handling systems to conduct affinity-based purification either in batch or tip column mode. Here, we demonstrate the capability to purify >2000 antibodies per day from microscale (1 mL) cultures. Our optimized, automated process for human IgG1 purification using MabSelect SuRe resin achieves ∼70% recovery over a wide range of antibody loads, up to 500 µg. This HTP process works well for hybridoma-derived antibodies that can be purified by MabSelect SuRe resin. For rat IgG2a, which is often encountered in hybridoma cultures and is challenging to purify via an HTP process, we established automated purification with GammaBind Plus resin. Using these HTP purification processes, we can efficiently recover sufficient amounts of antibodies from mammalian transient or hybridoma cultures with quality comparable to conventional column purification.

  • When monoclonal antibodies are not monospecific: Hybridomas frequently express additional functional variable regions.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-02-28
    Andrew R M Bradbury,Nathan D Trinklein,Holger Thie,Ian C Wilkinson,Atul K Tandon,Stephen Anderson,Catherine L Bladen,Brittany Jones,Shelley Force Aldred,Marco Bestagno,Oscar Burrone,Jennifer Maynard,Fortunato Ferrara,James S Trimmer,Janina Görnemann,Jacob Glanville,Philipp Wolf,Andre Frenzel,Julin Wong,Xin Yu Koh,Hui-Yan Eng,David Lane,Marie-Paule Lefranc,Mike Clark,Stefan Dübel

    Monoclonal antibodies are commonly assumed to be monospecific, but anecdotal studies have reported genetic diversity in antibody heavy chain and light chain genes found within individual hybridomas. As the prevalence of such diversity has never been explored, we analyzed 185 random hybridomas, in a large multicenter dataset. The hybridomas analyzed were not biased towards those with cloning difficulties or known to have additional chains. Of the hybridomas we evaluated, 126 (68.1%) contained no additional productive chains, while the remaining 59 (31.9%) contained one or more additional productive heavy or light chains. The expression of additional chains degraded properties of the antibodies, including specificity, binding signal and/or signal-to-noise ratio, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunohistochemistry. The most abundant mRNA transcripts found in a hybridoma cell line did not necessarily encode the antibody chains providing the correct specificity. Consequently, when cloning antibody genes, functional validation of all possible VH and VL combinations is required to identify those with the highest affinity and lowest cross-reactivity. These findings, reflecting the current state of hybridomas used in research, reiterate the importance of using sequence-defined recombinant antibodies for research or diagnostic use.

  • Evaluation of analytical similarity between trastuzumab biosimilar CT-P6 and reference product using statistical analyses.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-02-28
    Jihun Lee,Hyun Ah Kang,Jin Soo Bae,Kyu Dae Kim,Kyoung Hoon Lee,Ki Jung Lim,Min Joo Choo,Shin Jae Chang

    The evaluation of analytical similarity has been a challenging issue for the biosimilar industry because the number of lots for reference and biosimilar products available at the time of development are limited, whilst measurable quality attributes of target molecule are numerous, which can lead to potential bias or false negative/positive conclusions regarding biosimilarity. Therefore, appropriate statistical analyses are highly desirable to achieve a high level of confidence in the similarity evaluation. A recent guideline for the risk-based statistical approaches recommended by the US Food and Drug Administration provides useful tools to systematically evaluate analytical similarity of biosimilar products compared with reference products. Here, we evaluated analytical similarity of CT-P6, a biosimilar product of trastuzumab, with the reference products (EU-Herceptin® or US-Herceptin®) following these statistical approaches. Various quality attributes of trastuzumab were first ranked based on the clinical impact of each attribute and subsequently adjusted to one of three tiers (Tier 1, Tier 2 and Tier 3) considering the characteristics of the assay, the level of attribute present and the feasibility of statistical analysis. Two biological activities with highest potential clinical impact were evaluated by an equivalent test (Tier 1), and other bioactivities and structural/physicochemical properties relevant to the clinical impact were evaluated by a quality range approach (Tier 2). The attributes with low risk ranking or qualitative assay were evaluated by visual comparison (Tier 3). Analytical similarity assessment analyzed by the three tiers clearly demonstrated that CT-P6 exhibits highly similar structural and physicochemical properties, as well as functional activities, compared with the reference products. There were small differences observed in a few quality attributes between CT-P6 and the reference products, but the differences were very minor, and unlikely to impact on clinical outcome. The recently reported equivalent clinical efficacy of CT-P6 with the reference product further supports that CT-P6 is highly similar compared with the reference product in the view of totality-of-evidence.

  • Direct mass spectrometric characterization of disulfide linkages.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-02-23
    Xiaoyan Guan,Le Zhang,Jette Wypych

    Disulfide linkage is critical to protein folding and structural stability. The location of disulfide linkages for antibodies is routinely discovered by comparing the chromatograms of the reduced and non-reduced peptide mapping with location identification confirmed by collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS)/MS. However, CID product spectra of disulfide-linked peptides can be difficult to interpret, and provide limited information on the backbone region within the disulfide loop. Here, we applied an electron-transfer dissociation (ETD)/CID combined fragmentation method that identifies the disulfide linkage without intensive LC comparison, and yet maps the disulfide location accurately. The native protein samples were digested using trypsin for proteolysis. The method uses RapiGest SF Surfactant and obviates the need for reduction/alkylation and extensive sample manipulation. An aliquot of the digest was loaded onto a C4 analytical column. Peptides were gradient-eluted and analyzed using a Thermo Scientific LTQ Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer for the ETD-triggered CID MS 3 experiment. Survey MS scans were followed by data-dependent scans consisting of ETD MS2 scans on the most intense ion in the survey scan, followed by 5 MS3 CID scans on the 5 most intense ions in the ETD MS2 scan. We were able to identify the disulfide-mediated structural variants A and A/B forms and their corresponding disulfide linkages in an immunoglobulin G2 monoclonal antibody with λ light chain (IgG2λ), where the location of cysteine linkages were unambiguously determined.

  • An anti-TL1A antibody for the treatment of asthma and inflammatory bowel disease.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-02-14
    Adam W Clarke,Lynn Poulton,Doris Shim,David Mabon,Danyal Butt,Matthew Pollard,Vanya Pande,Jean Husten,Jacquelyn Lyons,Chen Tian,Anthony G Doyle

    TL1A is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of mucosal inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and asthma. Blockade of the TL1A pathway has been shown to reduce inflammatory responses while leaving baseline immunity intact, and to be beneficial in animal models of colitis and asthma. Given the therapeutic potential of blocking this pathway in IBD and asthma, we developed C03V, a human antibody that binds with high affinity to soluble and membrane-bound TL1A. In an assay measuring apoptosis induced by exogenous TL1A, C03V was 43-fold more potent than the next most potent anti-TL1A antibody analyzed. C03V also potently inhibited endogenous TL1A activity in a primary cell-based assay. This potency was linked to the C03V-binding epitope on TL1A, encompassing the residue R32. This residue is critical for the binding of TL1A to its signaling receptor DR3 but not to its decoy receptor DcR3, and explains why C03V inhibited TL1A-DR3 binding to a much greater extent than TL1A-DcR3 binding. This characteristic may be advantageous to preserve some of the homeostatic functions of DcR3, such as TL1A antagonism. In colitis models, C03V significantly ameliorated microscopic, macroscopic and clinical aspects of disease pathology, and in an asthma model it significantly reduced airways inflammation. Notable in both types of disease model was the reduction in fibrosis observed after C03V treatment. C03V has the potential to address unmet medical needs in asthma and IBD.

  • Influence of disulfide bond isoforms on drug conjugation sites in cysteine-linked IgG2 antibody-drug conjugates.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-02-14
    Lily Liu-Shin,Adam Fung,Arun Malhotra,Gayathri Ratnaswamy

    Cysteine-linked antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) produced from IgG2 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are more heterogeneous than ADCs generated from IgG1 mAbs, as IgG2 ADCs are composed of a wider distribution of molecules, typically containing 0 - 12 drug-linkers per antibody. The three disulfide isoforms (A, A/B, and B) of IgG2 antibodies confer differences in solvent accessibilities of the interchain disulfides and contribute to the structural heterogeneity of cysteine-linked ADCs. ADCs derived from either IgG2-A or IgG2-B mAbs were compared to better understand the role of disulfide isoforms on attachment sites and distribution of conjugated species. Our characterization of these ADCs demonstrated that the disulfide configuration affects the kinetics of disulfide bond reduction, but has minimal effect on the primary sites of reduction. The IgG2-A mAbs yielded ADCs with higher drug-to-antibody ratios (DARs) due to the easier reduction of its interchain disulfides. However, hinge-region cysteines were the primary conjugation sites for both IgG2-A and IgG2-B mAbs.

  • Selective targeting of the IL23 pathway: Generation and characterization of a novel high-affinity humanized anti-IL23A antibody.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2015-04-24
    Sanjaya Singh,Rachel R Kroe-Barrett,Keith A Canada,Xiang Zhu,Eliud Sepulveda,Helen Wu,Yaqin He,Ernest L Raymond,Jennifer Ahlberg,Lee E Frego,Laura M Amodeo,Katrina M Catron,David H Presky,Jeffrey H Hanke

    Herein, we describe the generation and characterization of BI 655066, a novel, highly potent neutralizing anti-interleukin-23 (IL23) monoclonal antibody in clinical development for autoimmune conditions, including psoriasis and Crohn's disease. IL23 is a key driver of the differentiation, maintenance, and activity of a number of immune cell subsets, including T helper 17 (Th17) cells, which are believed to mediate the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders. Thus, IL23 neutralization is an attractive therapeutic approach. Designing an antibody for clinical activity and convenience for the patient requires certain properties, such as high affinity, specificity, and solubility. These properties were achieved by directed design of the immunization, lead identification, and humanization procedures. Favorable substance and pharmacokinetic properties were established by biophysical assessments and studies in cynomolgus monkeys.

  • Minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic modeling of DSTA4637A, A novel THIOMAB™ antibody antibiotic conjugate against Staphylococcus aureus, in a mouse model.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-08-08
    Shun Xin Wang-Lin,Chenguang Zhou,Amrita V Kamath,Kyu Hong,Neelima Koppada,Ola M Saad,Montserrat Carrasco-Triguero,Cyrus Khojasteh,Rong Deng

    DSTA4637A, a THIOMAB™ antibody-antibiotic conjugate targeting Staphylococcus aureus, has shown promising bactericidal activity in a mouse model. DSTA4637A consists of a monoclonal anti-S. aureus antibody with an average of two rifalogue antibiotic molecules, dmDNA31, linked to its light chains. The goal of this study was to develop a minimal physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (mPBPK) model to characterize the pharmacokinetic (PK) properties of three analytes of DSTA4637A (i.e., total antibody, antibody-conjugated dmDNA31, and unconjugated dmDNA31) in mice, and to predict pharmacokinetics of DSTA4637A analytes in humans, as well as to provide an initial assessment for potential PK drug-drug interactions (DDI) in clinical trials via cross-species scaling of the mPBPK model. In the proposed model, selected organs, including heart, liver, and kidney, were connected anatomically with plasma and lymph flows. Mouse plasma and tissue concentrations of the three analytes of DSTA4637A were fitted simultaneously to estimate the PK parameters. Cross-species scaling of the model was performed by integrating allometric scaling and human physiological parameters. The final mPBPK model was able to successfully capture PK profiles of three DSTA4637A analytes in mouse plasma and in investigated organs. The model predicted a steady-state peak unbound dmDNA31 concentration lower than 5% of the IC50 of dmDNA31 towards cytochrome P450 following 100 mg/kg weekly intravenous dose, which suggests a low risk of PK DDI in humans for DSTA4637A with co-administered cytochrome P450 substrates. The proposed mPBPK modeling and cross-species scaling approaches provide valuable tools that facilitate the understanding and translation of DSTA4637A disposition from preclinical species to humans.

  • Design, selection and optimization of an anti-TRAIL-R2/anti-CD3 bispecific antibody able to educate T cells to recognize and destroy cancer cells.
    mAbs (IF 4.405) Pub Date : 2018-07-12
    Alessandro Satta,Delia Mezzanzanica,Francesco Caroli,Barbara Frigerio,Massimo Di Nicola,Roland E Kontermann,Federico Iacovelli,Alessandro Desideri,Andrea Anichini,Silvana Canevari,Alessandro Massimo Gianni,Mariangela Figini

    Recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) or TRAIL-receptor agonistic monoclonal antibodies promote apoptosis in most cancer cells, and the differential expression of TRAIL-R2 between tumor and normal tissues allows its exploitation as a tumor-associated antigen. The use of these antibodies as anticancer agents has been extensively studied, but the results of clinical trials were disappointing. The observed lack of anticancer activity could be attributed to intrinsic or acquired resistance of tumor cells to this type of treatment. A possible strategy to circumvent drug resistance would be to strike tumor cells with a second modality based on a different mechanism of action. We therefore set out to generate and optimize a bispecific antibody targeting TRAIL-R2 and CD3. After the construction of different bispecific antibodies in tandem-scFv or single-chain diabody formats to reduce possible immunogenicity, we selected a humanized bispecific antibody with very low aggregates and long-term high stability and functionality. This antibody triggered TRAIL-R2 in an agonistic manner and its anticancer activity proved dramatically potentiated by the redirection of cytotoxic T cells against both sensitive and resistant melanoma cells. The results of our study show that combining the TRAIL-based antitumor strategy with an immunotherapeutic approach in a single molecule could be an effective addition to the anticancer armamentarium.

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
上海纽约大学William Glover