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  • Side Reactions Do Not Completely Disrupt Linear Self-Replicating Chemical Reaction Systems.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Yu Liu,Daniel Hjerpe,Torbjörn Lundh

    A crucial question within the fields of origins of life and metabolic networks is whether or not a self-replicating chemical reaction system is able to persist in the presence of side reactions. Due to the strong nonlinear effects involved in such systems, they are often difficult to study analytically. There are however certain conditions that allow for a wide range of these reaction systems to be

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Self-Organization and Artificial Life.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Carlos Gershenson,Vito Trianni,Justin Werfel,Hiroki Sayama

    Self-organization can be broadly defined as the ability of a system to display ordered spatiotemporal patterns solely as the result of the interactions among the system components. Processes of this kind characterize both living and artificial systems, making self-organization a concept that is at the basis of several disciplines, from physics to biology and engineering. Placed at the frontiers between

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Chemobrionics: From Self-Assembled Material Architectures to the Origin of Life.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-07-22
    Silvana S S Cardoso,Julyan H E Cartwright,Jitka Čejková,Leroy Cronin,Anne De Wit,Simone Giannerini,Dezső Horváth,Alírio Rodrigues,Michael J Russell,C Ignacio Sainz-Díaz,Ágota Tóth

    Self-organizing precipitation processes, such as chemical gardens forming biomimetic micro- and nanotubular forms, have the potential to show us new fundamental science to explore, quantify, and understand nonequilibrium physicochemical systems, and shed light on the conditions for life's emergence. The physics and chemistry of these phenomena, due to the assembly of material architectures under a

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Symbiosis Promotes Fitness Improvements in the Game of Life.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Peter D Turney

    We present a computational simulation of evolving entities that includes symbiosis with shifting levels of selection. Evolution by natural selection shifts from the level of the original entities to the level of the new symbiotic entity. In the simulation, the fitness of an entity is measured by a series of one-on-one competitions in the immigration game, a two-player variation of Conway's Game of

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Genetic Music System with Synthetic Biology.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-08-10
    Eduardo Reck Miranda

    This article introduces GeMS, a system for music composition informed by synthetic biology. GeMS generates music with simulations of genetic processes, such as transcription, translation, and protein folding, with which biological systems render chains of amino acids from DNA strands. The system comprises the following components: the Miranda machine, the rhythmator, and the pitch processor. The Miranda

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Erratum.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03

    Artificial Life, Volume 26, Issue 2, Page 314-314, Spring 2020.

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • The Surprising Creativity of Digital Evolution: A Collection of Anecdotes from the Evolutionary Computation and Artificial Life Research Communities.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Joel Lehman,Jeff Clune,Dusan Misevic,Christoph Adami,Lee Altenberg,Julie Beaulieu,Peter J Bentley,Samuel Bernard,Guillaume Beslon,David M Bryson,Nick Cheney,Patryk Chrabaszcz,Antoine Cully,Stephane Doncieux,Fred C Dyer,Kai Olav Ellefsen,Robert Feldt,Stephan Fischer,Stephanie Forrest,Antoine Fŕenoy,Christian Gagńe,Leni Le Goff,Laura M Grabowski,Babak Hodjat,Frank Hutter,Laurent Keller,Carole Knibbe

    Evolution provides a creative fount of complex and subtle adaptations that often surprise the scientists who discover them. However, the creativity of evolution is not limited to the natural world: Artificial organisms evolving in computational environments have also elicited surprise and wonder from the researchers studying them. The process of evolution is an algorithmic process that transcends the

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • MetaChem: An Algebraic Framework for Artificial Chemistries.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Penelope Faulkner Rainford,Angelika Sebald,Susan Stepney

    We introduce MetaChem, a language for representing and implementing artificial chemistries. We motivate the need for modularization and standardization in representation of artificial chemistries. We describe a mathematical formalism for Static Graph MetaChem, a static-graph-based system. MetaChem supports different levels of description, and has a formal description; we illustrate these using StringCatChem

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Report on Workshop: Planning the Future of Agent Simulation.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Fiona Polack,Steffen Zschaler

    In May 2019, a workshop on principled development of future agent-based simulations was held at Keele University. Participants spanned companies and academia, and a range of domains of interest, as well as participant career stages. This report summarizes the discussions and main outcomes from this workshop.

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Decentralized Control for Swarm Robots That Can Effectively Execute Spatially Distributed Tasks.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Takeshi Kano,Eiichi Naito,Takenobu Aoshima,Akio Ishiguro

    A swarm robotic system is a system in which multiple robots cooperate to fulfill a macroscopic function. Many swarm robots have been developed for various purposes. This study aims to design swarm robots capable of executing spatially distributed tasks effectively, which can be potentially used for tasks such as search-and-rescue operation and gathering scattered garbage in rooms. We propose a simple

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Alteration of (Frequency-Dependent) Fitness in Time-Shift Experiments Reveals Cryptic Coevolution and Uncoordinated Stasis in a Virtual Jurassic Park.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Tian-Tong Luo,Jian-Long Zhu,Trond Reitan,Gabriel Yedid

    Among the major unresolved questions in ecosystem evolution are whether coevolving multispecies communities are dominated more by biotic or by abiotic factors, and whether evolutionary stasis affects performance as well as ecological profile; these issues remain difficult to address experimentally. Digital evolution, a computer-based instantiation of Darwinian evolution in which short self-replicating

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Evolving Connectionist Models to Capture Population Variability across Language Development: Modeling Children's Past Tense Formation.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Maitrei Kohli,George D Magoulas,Michael S C Thomas

    Children's acquisition of the English past tense has been widely studied as a testing ground for theories of language development, mostly because it comprises a set of quasi-regular mappings. English verbs are of two types: regular verbs, which form their past tense based on a productive rule, and irregular verbs, which form their past tenses through exceptions to that rule. Although many connectionist

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Engineering Life: A Review of Synthetic Biology.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Martin M Hanczyc

    Synthetic biology is a field of scientific research that applies engineering principles to living organisms and living systems. It is a field that is increasing in scope with respect to organisms engineered, practical outcomes, and systems integration. There is a commercial dimension as well, where living organisms are engineered as green technologies that could offer alternatives to industrial standards

    更新日期:2020-06-03
  • Interpreting the Tape of Life: Ancestry-Based Analyses Provide Insights and Intuition about Evolutionary Dynamics.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Emily Dolson,Alexander Lalejini,Steven Jorgensen,Charles Ofria

    Fine-scale evolutionary dynamics can be challenging to tease out when focused on the broad brush strokes of whole populations over long time spans. We propose a suite of diagnostic analysis techniques that operate on lineages and phylogenies in digital evolution experiments, with the aim of improving our capacity to quantitatively explore the nuances of evolutionary histories in digital evolution experiments

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • The Complexity Ratchet: Stronger than Selection, Stronger than Evolvability, Weaker than Robustness.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Vincent Liard,David P Parsons,Jonathan Rouzaud-Cornabas,Guillaume Beslon

    Using the in silico experimental evolution platform Aevol, we have tested the existence of a complexity ratchet by evolving populations of digital organisms under environmental conditions in which simple organisms can very well thrive and reproduce. We observed that in most simulations, organisms become complex although such organisms are a lot less fit than simple ones and have no robustness or evolvability

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Artificial Life Next Generation Perspectives: Echoes from the 2018 Conference in Tokyo.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Olaf Witkowski,Takashi Ikegami,Nathaniel Virgo,Mizuki Oka,Hiroyuki Iizuka

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Neural Autopoiesis: Organizing Self-Boundaries by Stimulus Avoidance in Biological and Artificial Neural Networks.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Atsushi Masumori,Lana Sinapayen,Norihiro Maruyama,Takeshi Mita,Douglas Bakkum,Urs Frey,Hirokazu Takahashi,Takashi Ikegami

    Living organisms must actively maintain themselves in order to continue existing. Autopoiesis is a key concept in the study of living organisms, where the boundaries of the organism are not static but dynamically regulated by the system itself. To study the autonomous regulation of a self-boundary, we focus on neural homeodynamic responses to environmental changes using both biological and artificial

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Death and Progress: How Evolvability is Influenced by Intrinsic Mortality.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Frank Veenstra,Pablo González de Prado Salas,Kasper Stoy,Josh Bongard,Sebastian Risi

    Many factors influence the evolvability of populations, and this article illustrates how intrinsic mortality (death induced through internal factors) in an evolving population contributes favorably to evolvability on a fixed deceptive fitness landscape. We test for evolvability using the hierarchical if-and-only-if (h-iff) function as a deceptive fitness landscape together with a steady state genetic

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Autonomously Moving Pine-Cone Robots: Using Pine Cones as Natural Hygromorphic Actuators and as Components of Mechanisms.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Juntaro Tamaru,Toshiya Yui,Tomoko Hashida

    We have developed autonomously moving pine-cone robots, which are made of multiple joined pine-cone scales for outdoor natural environments. We achieved these natural robots by using pine cones as both natural hygromorphic actuators and components of the mechanisms. When they are put in outdoor places where moist periods (e.g., rain) and dry periods repeatedly occur, they can move up and down on the

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Evolution Towards Criticality in Ising Neural Agents.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Sina Khajehabdollahi,Olaf Witkowski

    Criticality is thought to be crucial for complex systems to adapt at the boundary between regimes with different dynamics, where the system may transition from one phase to another. Numerous systems, from sandpiles to gene regulatory networks to swarms to human brains, seem to work towards preserving a precarious balance right at their critical point. Understanding criticality therefore seems strongly

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • How Computational Experiments Can Improve Our Understanding of the Genetic Architecture of Common Human Diseases.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Jason H Moore,Randal S Olson,Peter Schmitt,Yong Chen,Elisabetta Manduchi

    Susceptibility to common human diseases such as cancer is influenced by many genetic and environmental factors that work together in a complex manner. The state of the art is to perform a genome-wide association study (GWAS) that measures millions of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) throughout the genome followed by a one-SNP-at-a-time statistical analysis to detect univariate associations. This

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • An Investigation into the Origin of Autopoiesis.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-02-06
    Randall D Beer

    Using a glider in the Game of Life cellular automaton as a toy model of minimal persistent individuals, this article explores how questions regarding the origin of life might be approached from the perspective of autopoiesis. Specifically, I examine how the density of gliders evolves over time from random initial conditions and then develop a statistical mechanics of gliders that explains this time

    更新日期:2020-02-06
  • Erratum.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2020-01-01

    更新日期:2020-01-01
  • Evolving Complexity in Cooperative and Competitive Noisy Prediction Games.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Nick Moran,Jordan Pollack

    We examine the effect of cooperative and competitive interactions on the evolution of complex strategies in a prediction game. We extend previous work to the domain of noisy games, defining a new organism and mutation model, and an accompanying novel complexity metric. We find that a mix of cooperation and competition is the most effective in driving complexity growth, confirming prior results. We

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Reinforcement Learning for Improving Agent Design.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    David Ha

    In many reinforcement learning tasks, the goal is to learn a policy to manipulate an agent, whose design is fixed, to maximize some notion of cumulative reward. The design of the agent's physical structure is rarely optimized for the task at hand. In this work, we explore the possibility of learning a version of the agent's design that is better suited for its task, jointly with the policy. We propose

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Measuring Time with Minimal Clocks.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Andrei D Robu,Christoph Salge,Chrystopher L Nehaniv,Daniel Polani

    Being able to measure time, whether directly or indirectly, is a significant advantage for an organism. It allows for timely reaction to regular or predicted events, reducing the pressure for fast processing of sensory input. Thus, clocks are ubiquitous in biology. In the present article, we consider minimal abstract pure clocks in different configurations and investigate their characteristic dynamics

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Introduction to the ECAL 2017 Special Issue.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Carole Knibbe,Guillaume Beslon,Dusan Misevic

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Circular Causation, Circular Cognition: A Tour Around Some Common Confusions.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Inman Harvey

    Life and cognition are inherently circular dynamical processes, and people have difficulty understanding circular causation. I give case studies illustrating some resulting confusions, and propose that the problems may lie in failing to properly distinguish between similar concepts used to describe both local and global features of a system. I analyze how explanations in terms of circular causation

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Can Signal Delay be Functional? Including Delay in Evolved Robot Controllers.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Matthew Egbert,Andrew Keane,Claire Postlethwaite,Nelson Wong

    Engineers, control theorists, and neuroscientists often view the delay imposed by finite signal propagation velocities as a problem that needs to be compensated for or avoided. In this article, we consider the alternative possibility that in some cases, signal delay can be used functionally, that is, as an essential component of a cognitive system. To investigate this idea, we evolve a minimal robot

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Artificial Gene Regulatory Networks-A Review.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    Sylvain Cussat-Blanc,Kyle Harrington,Wolfgang Banzhaf

    In nature, gene regulatory networks are a key mediator between the information stored in the DNA of living organisms (their genotype) and the structural and behavioral expression this finds in their bodies, surviving in the world (their phenotype). They integrate environmental signals, steer development, buffer stochasticity, and allow evolution to proceed. In engineering, modeling and implementations

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Examining Community Stability in the Face of Mass Extinction in Communities of Digital Organisms.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    Tian-Tong Luo,Lise Heier,Zaki Ahmad Khan,Faraz Hasan,Trond Reitan,Abdool S Yasseen,Zi-Xuan Xie,Jian-Long Zhu,Gabriel Yedid

    Digital evolution is a computer-based instantiation of Darwinian evolution in which short self-replicating computer programs compete, mutate, and evolve. It is an excellent platform for addressing topics in long-term evolution and paleobiology, such as mass extinction and recovery, with experimental evolutionary approaches. We evolved model communities with ecological interdependence among community

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Moderate Environmental Variation Across Generations Promotes the Evolution of Robust Solutions.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-27
    Nicola Milano,Jônata Tyska Carvalho,Stefano Nolfi

    Previous evolutionary studies demonstrated how robust solutions can be obtained by evaluating agents multiple times in variable environmental conditions. Here we demonstrate how agents evolved in environments that vary across generations outperform agents evolved in environments that remain fixed. Moreover, we demonstrate that best performance is obtained when the environment varies at a moderate rate

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Spatial Structure Can Decrease Symbiotic Cooperation.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-25
    Anya E Vostinar,Charles Ofria

    Mutualisms occur when at least two species provide a net fitness benefit to each other. These types of interactions are ubiquitous in nature, with more being discovered regularly. Mutualisms are vital to humankind: Pollinators and soil microbes are critical in agriculture, bacterial microbiomes regulate our health, and domesticated animals provide us with food and companionship. Many hypotheses exist

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Open-Ended Technological Innovation.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Mark A Bedau,Nicholas Gigliotti,Tobias Janssen,Alec Kosik,Ananthan Nambiar,Norman Packard

    We detect ongoing innovation in empirical data about human technological innovations. Ongoing technological innovation is a form of open-ended evolution, but it occurs in a nonbiological, cultural population that consists of actual technological innovations that exist in the real world. The change over time of this population of innovations seems to be quite open-ended. We take patented inventions

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolved Open-Endedness, Not Open-Ended Evolution.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Howard H Pattee,Hiroki Sayama

    Open-endedness is often considered a prerequisite property of the whole evolutionary system and its dynamical behaviors. In the actual history of evolution on Earth, however, there are many examples showing that open-endedness is rather a consequence of evolution. We suggest that this view, which we call evolved open-endedness (EOE), be incorporated more into research on open-ended evolution. This

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Escalation of Memory Length in Finite Populations.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Kyle Harrington,Jordan Pollack

    The escalation of complexity is a commonly cited benefit of coevolutionary systems, but computational simulations generally fail to demonstrate this capacity to a satisfactory degree. We draw on a macroevolutionary theory of escalation to develop a set of criteria for coevolutionary systems to exhibit escalation of strategic complexity. By expanding on a previously developed model of the evolution

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Two Modes of Evolution: Optimization and Expansion.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Steen Rasmussen,Paolo Sibani

    We document and discuss two different modes of evolution across multiple systems, optimization and expansion. The former suffices in systems whose size and interactions do not change substantially over time, while the latter is a key property of open-ended evolution, where new players and interaction types enter the game. We first investigate systems from physics, biology, and engineering and argue

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Open-Ended Evolution and Open-Endedness: Editorial Introduction to the Open-Ended Evolution I Special Issue.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Norman Packard,Mark A Bedau,Alastair Channon,Takashi Ikegami,Steen Rasmussen,Kenneth Stanley,Tim Taylor

    Nature's spectacular inventiveness, reflected in the enormous diversity of form and function displayed by the biosphere, is a feature of life that distinguishes living most strongly from nonliving. It is, therefore, not surprising that this aspect of life should become a central focus of artificial life. We have known since Darwin that the diversity is produced dynamically, through the process of evolution;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolving Complexity in Prediction Games.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Nick Moran,Jordan Pollack

    To study open-ended coevolution, we define a complexity metric over interacting finite state machines playing formal language prediction games, and study the dynamics of populations under competitive and cooperative interactions. In the past purely competitive and purely cooperative interactions have been studied extensively, but neither can successfully and continuously drive an arms race. We present

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The MODES Toolbox: Measurements of Open-Ended Dynamics in Evolving Systems.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Emily L Dolson,Anya E Vostinar,Michael J Wiser,Charles Ofria

    Building more open-ended evolutionary systems can simultaneously advance our understanding of biology, artificial life, and evolutionary computation. In order to do so, however, we need a way to determine when we are moving closer to this goal. We propose a set of metrics that allow us to measure a system's ability to produce commonly-agreed-upon hallmarks of open-ended evolution: change potential

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Towards Computational Models and Applications of Insect Visual Systems for Motion Perception: A Review.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Qinbing Fu,Hongxin Wang,Cheng Hu,Shigang Yue

    Motion perception is a critical capability determining a variety of aspects of insects' life, including avoiding predators, foraging, and so forth. A good number of motion detectors have been identified in the insects' visual pathways. Computational modeling of these motion detectors has not only been providing effective solutions to artificial intelligence, but also benefiting the understanding of

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Why Open-Endedness Matters.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Kenneth O Stanley

    Rather than acting as a review or analysis of the field, this essay focuses squarely on the motivations for investigating open-endedness and the opportunities it opens up. It begins by contemplating the awesome accomplishments of evolution in nature and the profound implications if such a process could be ignited on a computer. Some of the milestones in our understanding so far are then discussed,

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Nanoscale Robots Exhibiting Quorum Sensing.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Yaniv Amir,Almogit Abu-Horowitz,Justin Werfel,Ido Bachelet

    Multi-agent systems demonstrate the ability to collectively perform complex tasks (e.g., construction, search, and locomotion) with greater speed, efficiency, or effectiveness than could a single agent alone. Direct and indirect coordination methods allow agents to collaborate to share information and adapt their activity to fit dynamic situations. A well-studied example is quorum sensing (QS), a mechanism

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Mapping the Peaks: Fitness Landscapes of the Fittest and the Flattest.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Joshua Franklin,Thomas LaBar,Christoph Adami

    Populations exposed to a high mutation rate harbor abundant deleterious genetic variation, leading to depressed mean fitness. This reduction in mean fitness presents an opportunity for selection to restore fitness through the evolution of mutational robustness. In extreme cases, selection for mutational robustness can lead to flat genotypes (with low fitness but high robustness) outcompeting fit genotypes

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Exploring Bipedal Hopping through Computational Evolution.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Jared M Moore,Catherine L Shine,Craig P McGowan,Philip K McKinley

    Bipedal hopping is an efficient form of locomotion, yet it remains relatively rare in the natural world. Previous research has suggested that the tail balances the angular momentum of the legs to produce steady state bipedal hopping. In this study, we employ a 3D physics simulation engine to optimize gaits for an animat whose control and morphological characteristics are subject to computational evolution

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Open-Ended Evolution and a Mechanism of Novelties in Web Services.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Takashi Ikegami,Yasuhiro Hashimoto,Mizuki Oka

    Web services are analogous to living ecosystems in nature, in that they form an artificial ecosystem consisting of many tags and their associated media, such as photographs, movies, and web pages created by human users. In biological ecosystems, we view a tag as a species and a human as a hidden environmental resource. Our study examines the evolution of web services, in particular social tagging systems

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • On the Potential for Open-Endedness in Neural Networks.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Nicholas Guttenberg,Nathaniel Virgo,Alexandra Penn

    Natural evolution gives the impression of leading to an open-ended process of increasing diversity and complexity. If our goal is to produce such open-endedness artificially, this suggests an approach driven by evolutionary metaphor. On the other hand, techniques from machine learning and artificial intelligence are often considered too narrow to provide the sort of exploratory dynamics associated

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Open-Endedness for the Sake of Open-Endedness.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Arend Hintze

    Natural evolution keeps inventing new complex and intricate forms and behaviors. Digital evolution and genetic algorithms fail to create the same kind of complexity, not just because we still lack the computational resources to rival nature, but because (it has been argued) we have not understood in principle how to create open-ended evolving systems. Much effort has been made to define such open-endedness

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • How to Make Swarms Open-Ended? Evolving Collective Intelligence Through a Constricted Exploration of Adjacent Possibles.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Olaf Witkowski,Takashi Ikegami

    We propose an approach to open-ended evolution via the simulation of swarm dynamics. In nature, swarms possess remarkable properties, which allow many organisms, from swarming bacteria to ants and flocking birds, to form higher-order structures that enhance their behavior as a group. Swarm simulations highlight three important factors to create novelty and diversity: (a) communication generates combinatorial

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Cardinality Leap for Open-Ended Evolution: Theoretical Consideration and Demonstration by Hash Chemistry.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Hiroki Sayama

    Open-ended evolution requires unbounded possibilities that evolving entities can explore. The cardinality of a set of those possibilities thus has a significant implication for the open-endedness of evolution. I propose that facilitating formation of higher-order entities is a generalizable, effective way to cause a cardinality leap in the set of possibilities that promotes open-endedness. I demonstrate

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Maximum Individual Complexity is Indefinitely Scalable in Geb.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Alastair Channon

    Geb was the first artificial life system to be classified as exhibiting open-ended evolutionary dynamics according to Bedau and Packard's evolutionary activity measures and is the only one to have been classified as such according to the enhanced version of that classification scheme. Its evolution is driven by biotic selection, that is (approximately), by natural selection rather than artificial selection

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Toward Open-Ended Fraternal Transitions in Individuality.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Matthew Andres Moreno,Charles Ofria

    The emergence of new replicating entities from the union of simpler entities characterizes some of the most profound events in natural evolutionary history. Such transitions in individuality are essential to the evolution of the most complex forms of life. Thus, understanding these transitions is critical to building artificial systems capable of open-ended evolution. Alas, these transitions are challenging

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Evolutionary Innovations and Where to Find Them: Routes to Open-Ended Evolution in Natural and Artificial Systems.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Tim Taylor

    This article presents a high-level conceptual framework to help orient the discussion and implementation of open-endedness in evolutionary systems. Drawing upon earlier work by Banzhaf et al. (2016), three different kinds of open-endedness are identified: exploratory, expansive, and transformational. These are characterized in terms of their relationship to the search space of phenotypic behaviors

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • An Overview of Open-Ended Evolution: Editorial Introduction to the Open-Ended Evolution II Special Issue.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2019-01-01
    Norman Packard,Mark A Bedau,Alastair Channon,Takashi Ikegami,Steen Rasmussen,Kenneth O Stanley,Tim Taylor

    Nature's spectacular inventiveness, reflected in the enormous diversity of form and function displayed by the biosphere, is a feature of life that distinguishes living most strongly from nonliving. It is, therefore, not surprising that this aspect of life should become a central focus of artificial life. We have known since Darwin that the diversity is produced dynamically, through the process of evolution;

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Measuring Fitness Effects of Agent-Environment Interactions.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Simon McGregor,Pedro A M Mediano

    One important sense of the term "adaptation" is the process by which an agent changes appropriately in response to new information provided by environmental stimuli. We propose a novel quantitative measure of this phenomenon, which extends a little-known definition of adaptation as "increased robustness to repeated perturbation" proposed by Klyubin (2002). Our proposed definition essentially corresponds

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Adaptation Is Not Just Improvement over Time.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Simon McGregor,Pedro A M Mediano

    The idea that an agent's actions can impact its actual long-term survival is a very appealing one, underlying influential treatments such as Di Paolo's (2005). However, this presents a tension with understanding the agent and environment as possessing specific objective physical microstates. More specifically, we show that such an approach leads to undesirable outcomes, for example, all organisms being

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Bringing ALife and Complex Systems Science to Population Health Research.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Eric Silverman

    Despite tremendous advancements in population health in recent history, human society currently faces significant challenges from wicked health problems. These are problems where the causal mechanisms at play are obscured and difficult to address, and consequently they have defied efforts to develop effective interventions and policy solutions using traditional population health methods. Systems-based

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • 更新日期:2019-11-01
  • The Emergence of Canalization and Evolvability in an Open-Ended, Interactive Evolutionary System.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2018-11-30
    Joost Huizinga,Kenneth O Stanley,Jeff Clune

    Many believe that an essential component for the discovery of the tremendous diversity in natural organisms was the evolution of evolvability, whereby evolution speeds up its ability to innovate by generating a more adaptive pool of offspring. One hypothesized mechanism for evolvability is developmental canalization, wherein certain dimensions of variation become more likely to be traversed and others

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Erratum.
    Artif. Life (IF 1.186) Pub Date : 2018-11-30

    更新日期:2019-11-01
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