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  • Centrosome-centric view of asymmetric stem cell division
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Cuie Chen; Yukiko M. Yamashita

    The centrosome is a unique organelle: the semi-conservative nature of its duplication generates an inherent asymmetry between ‘mother’ and ‘daughter’ centrosomes, which differ in their age. This asymmetry has captivated many cell biologists, but its meaning has remained enigmatic. In the last two decades, many stem cell types have been shown to display stereotypical inheritance of either the mother

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Progress towards non-small-cell lung cancer models that represent clinical evolutionary trajectories
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2021-01-13
    Robert E. Hynds; Kristopher K. Frese; David R. Pearce; Eva Grönroos; Caroline Dive; Charles Swanton

    Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although advances are being made towards earlier detection and the development of impactful targeted therapies and immunotherapies, the 5-year survival of patients with advanced disease is still below 20%. Effective cancer research relies on pre-clinical model systems that accurately reflect the evolutionary

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Bringing the Ca2+ sensitivity of myristoylated recoverin into the physiological range
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    Valerio Marino; Matteo Riva; Davide Zamboni; Karl-Wilhelm Koch; Daniele Dell'Orco

    The prototypical Ca2+-sensor protein recoverin (Rec) is thought to regulate the activity of rhodopsin kinase (GRK1) in photoreceptors by switching from a relaxed (R) disc membrane-bound conformation in the dark to a more compact, cytosol-diffusing tense (T) conformation upon cell illumination. However, the apparent affinity for Ca2+ of its physiologically relevant form (myristoylated recoverin) is

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • Temperature modulates immune gene expression in mosquitoes during arbovirus infection
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2021-01-06
    B. M. C. Randika Wimalasiri-Yapa; Roberto A. Barrero; Liesel Stassen; Louise M. Hafner; Elizabeth A. McGraw; Alyssa T. Pyke; Cassie C. Jansen; Andreas Suhrbier; Laith Yakob; Wenbiao Hu; Gregor J. Devine; Francesca D. Frentiu

    The principal vector of dengue, Zika and chikungunya viruses is the mosquito Aedes aegypti, with its ability to transmit pathogens influenced by ambient temperature. We use chikungunya virus (CHIKV) to understand how the mosquito transcriptome responds to arbovirus infection at different ambient temperatures. We exposed CHIKV-infected mosquitoes to 18, 28 and 32°C, and found that higher temperature

    更新日期:2021-01-06
  • ADAMTS proteases in cardiovascular physiology and disease
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Salvatore Santamaria; Rens de Groot

    The a disintegrin-like and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motif (ADAMTS) family comprises 19 proteases that regulate the structure and function of extracellular proteins in the extracellular matrix and blood. The best characterized cardiovascular role is that of ADAMTS-13 in blood. Moderately low ADAMTS-13 levels increase the risk of ischeamic stroke and very low levels (less than 10%) can cause

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • HIV Rev-isited
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Catherine Toni-Sue Truman; Aino Järvelin; Ilan Davis; Alfredo Castello

    The human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) proteome is expressed from alternatively spliced and unspliced genomic RNAs. However, HIV-1 RNAs that are not fully spliced are perceived by the host machinery as defective and are retained in the nucleus. During late infection, HIV-1 bypasses this regulatory mechanism by expression of the Rev protein from a fully spliced mRNA. Once imported into the

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • The evolutionary origins of the vertebrate olfactory system
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Guillaume Poncelet; Sebastian M. Shimeld

    Vertebrates develop an olfactory system that detects odorants and pheromones through their interaction with specialized cell surface receptors on olfactory sensory neurons. During development, the olfactory system forms from the olfactory placodes, specialized areas of the anterior ectoderm that share cellular and molecular properties with placodes involved in the development of other cranial senses

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • The role of disorder in RNA binding affinity and specificity
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Diana S. M. Ottoz; Luke E. Berchowitz

    Most RNA-binding modules are small and bind few nucleotides. RNA-binding proteins typically attain the physiological specificity and affinity for their RNA targets by combining several RNA-binding modules. Here, we review how disordered linkers connecting RNA-binding modules govern the specificity and affinity of RNA–protein interactions by regulating the effective concentration of these modules and

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Senescent cells and macrophages: key players for regeneration?
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Sonia S. Elder; Elaine Emmerson

    Over the last decade, our understanding of the physiological role of senescent cells has drastically evolved, from merely indicators of cellular stress and ageing to having a central role in regeneration and repair. Increasingly, studies have identified senescent cells and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) as being critical in the regenerative process following injury; however, the

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Alzheimer's disease-like perturbations in HIV-mediated neuronal dysfunctions: understanding mechanisms and developing therapeutic strategies
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Niraj Kumar Jha; Ankur Sharma; Saurabh Kumar Jha; Shreesh Ojha; Dinesh Kumar Chellappan; Gaurav Gupta; Kavindra Kumar Kesari; Shanu Bhardwaj; Shakti D. Shukla; Murtaza M. Tambuwala; Janne Ruokolainen; Kamal Dua; Sandeep Kumar Singh

    Excessive exposure to toxic substances or chemicals in the environment and various pathogens, including viruses and bacteria, is associated with the onset of numerous brain abnormalities. Among them, pathogens, specifically viruses, elicit persistent inflammation that plays a major role in Alzheimer's disease (AD) as well as dementia. AD is the most common brain disorder that affects thought, speech

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Mechanism and regulation of P element transposition
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    George E. Ghanim; Donald C. Rio; Felipe Karam Teixeira

    P elements were first discovered in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster as the causative agents of a syndrome of aberrant genetic traits called hybrid dysgenesis. This occurs when P element-carrying males mate with females that lack P elements and results in progeny displaying sterility, mutations and chromosomal rearrangements. Since then numerous genetic, developmental, biochemical and structural

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Novel perspectives of target-binding by the evolutionarily conserved PP4 phosphatase
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-23
    Zoltan Karman; Zsuzsanna Rethi-Nagy; Edit Abraham; Lilla Fabri-Ordogh; Akos Csonka; Peter Vilmos; Janusz Debski; Michal Dadlez; David M. Glover; Zoltan Lipinszki

    Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4) is an evolutionarily conserved and essential Ser/Thr phosphatase that regulates cell division, development and DNA repair in eukaryotes. The major form of PP4, present from yeast to human, is the PP4c-R2-R3 heterotrimeric complex. The R3 subunit is responsible for substrate-recognition via its EVH1 domain. In typical EVH1 domains, conserved phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan

    更新日期:2020-12-23
  • Trypanosoma cruzi amastigotes that persist in the colon during chronic stage murine infections have a reduced replication rate
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Alexander I. Ward; Francisco Olmo; Richard L. Atherton; Martin C. Taylor; John M. Kelly

    Chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections are typically lifelong, with small numbers of parasites surviving in restricted tissue sites, which include the gastrointestinal tract. There is considerable debate about the replicative status of these persistent parasites and whether there is a role for dormancy in long-term infection. Here, we investigated T. cruzi proliferation in the colon of chronically infected

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Identification of FoxP circuits involved in locomotion and object fixation in Drosophila
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Ottavia Palazzo; Mathias Rass; Björn Brembs

    The FoxP family of transcription factors is necessary for operant self-learning, an evolutionary conserved form of motor learning. The expression pattern, molecular function and mechanisms of action of the Drosophila FoxP orthologue remain to be elucidated. By editing the genomic locus of FoxP with CRISPR/Cas9, we find that the three different FoxP isoforms are expressed in neurons, but not in glia

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Cellular sociology regulates the hierarchical spatial patterning and organization of cells in organisms
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-16
    Shambavi Ganesh; Beliz Utebay; Jeremy Heit; Ahmet F. Coskun

    Advances in single-cell biotechnology have increasingly revealed interactions of cells with their surroundings, suggesting a cellular society at the microscale. Similarities between cells and humans across multiple hierarchical levels have quantitative inference potential for reaching insights about phenotypic interactions that lead to morphological forms across multiple scales of cellular organization

    更新日期:2020-12-16
  • Metarhizium: jack of all trades, master of many
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Raymond J. St. Leger; Jonathan B. Wang

    The genus Metarhizium and Pochonia chlamydosporia comprise a monophyletic clade of highly abundant globally distributed fungi that can transition between long-term beneficial associations with plants to transitory pathogenic associations with frequently encountered protozoans, nematodes or insects. Some very common ‘specialist generalist’ species are adapted to particular soil and plant ecologies,

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • What determines eukaryotic translation elongation: recent molecular and quantitative analyses of protein synthesis
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Nagammal Neelagandan; Irene Lamberti; Hugo J. F. Carvalho; Cédric Gobet; Felix Naef

    Protein synthesis from mRNA is an energy-intensive and tightly controlled cellular process. Translation elongation is a well-coordinated, multifactorial step in translation that undergoes dynamic regulation owing to cellular state and environmental determinants. Recent studies involving genome-wide approaches have uncovered some crucial aspects of translation elongation including the mRNA itself and

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • The interesting relationship between APOBEC3 deoxycytidine deaminases and cancer: a long road ahead
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Milaid Granadillo Rodríguez; Ben Flath; Linda Chelico

    Cancer is considered a group of diseases characterized by uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells and is propelled by somatic mutations. Apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) family of enzymes are endogenous sources of somatic mutations found in multiple human cancers. While these enzymes normally act as an intrinsic immune defence against viruses, they

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Walking the tight wire between cell adhesion and WNT signalling: a balancing act for β-catenin
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Tanne van der Wal; Renée van Amerongen

    CTNNB1 (catenin β-1, also known as β-catenin) plays a dual role in the cell. It is the key effector of WNT/CTNNB1 signalling, acting as a transcriptional co-activator of TCF/LEF target genes. It is also crucial for cell adhesion and a critical component of cadherin-based adherens junctions. Two functional pools of CTNNB1, a transcriptionally active and an adhesive pool, can therefore be distinguished

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Adipose tissue in health and disease
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Innocence Harvey; Anik Boudreau; Jacqueline M. Stephens

    Adipose, or fat, tissue (AT) was once considered an inert tissue that primarily existed to store lipids, and was not historically recognized as an important organ in the regulation and maintenance of health. With the rise of obesity and more rigorous research, AT is now recognized as a highly complex metabolic organ involved in a host of important physiological functions, including glucose homeostasis

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Planar cell polarity in the larval epidermis of Drosophila and the role of microtubules
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Stefano Pietra; KangBo Ng; Peter A. Lawrence; José Casal

    We investigate planar cell polarity (PCP) in the Drosophila larval epidermis. The intricate pattern of denticles depends on only one system of PCP, the Dachsous/Fat system. Dachsous molecules in one cell bind to Fat molecules in a neighbour cell to make intercellular bridges. The disposition and orientation of these Dachsous–Fat bridges allows each cell to compare two neighbours and point its denticles

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • The role of antioxidants in restoring MAPK 14 and a DNA damage marker level following autophagy suppression
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Abdalla Elbialy

    Autophagy is a lysosomal degradation mechanism for elimination and recycling of damaged intracellular organelles and proteins. Recent studies have shown that autophagy could help reduce oxidative stress by removing oxidized proteins and damaged mitochondria. Autophagy deficiency is associated with the disruption of many intracellular biological processes. Using bioinformatics tools and fibroblast immunostaining

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Tweedle proteins form extracellular two-dimensional structures defining body and cell shape in Drosophila melanogaster
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Renata Zuber; Yiwen Wang; Nicole Gehring; Slawomir Bartoszewski; Bernard Moussian

    Tissue function and shape rely on the organization of the extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by the respective cells. Our understanding of the underlying molecular mechanisms is limited. Here, we show that extracellular Tweedle (Twdl) proteins in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster form two adjacent two-dimensional sheets underneath the cuticle surface and above a distinct layer of dityrosinylated

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Haloferax volcanii—a model archaeon for studying DNA replication and repair
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Patricia Pérez-Arnaiz; Ambika Dattani; Victoria Smith; Thorsten Allers

    The tree of life shows the relationship between all organisms based on their common ancestry. Until 1977, it comprised two major branches: prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Work by Carl Woese and other microbiologists led to the recategorization of prokaryotes and the proposal of three primary domains: Eukarya, Bacteria and Archaea. Microbiological, genetic and biochemical techniques were then needed to

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Bronchoconstriction: a potential missing link in airway remodelling
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-12-02
    Michael J. O'Sullivan; Thien-Khoi N. Phung; Jin-Ah Park

    In asthma, progressive structural changes of the airway wall are collectively termed airway remodelling. Despite its deleterious effect on lung function, airway remodelling is incompletely understood. As one of the important causes leading to airway remodelling, here we discuss the significance of mechanical forces that are produced in the narrowed airway during asthma exacerbation, as a driving force

    更新日期:2020-12-02
  • Phosphoglycerate kinase: structural aspects and functions, with special emphasis on the enzyme from Kinetoplastea
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Maura Rojas-Pirela; Diego Andrade-Alviárez; Verónica Rojas; Ulrike Kemmerling; Ana J. Cáceres; Paul A. Michels; Juan Luis Concepción; Wilfredo Quiñones

    Phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK) is a glycolytic enzyme that is well conserved among the three domains of life. PGK is usually a monomeric enzyme of about 45 kDa that catalyses one of the two ATP-producing reactions in the glycolytic pathway, through the conversion of 1,3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3BPGA) to 3-phosphoglycerate (3PGA). It also participates in gluconeogenesis, catalysing the opposite reaction

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • The FBXL family of F-box proteins: variations on a theme
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Bethany Mason; Heike Laman

    The ubiquitin–proteasome system (UPS) is responsible for the rapid targeting of proteins for degradation at 26S proteasomes and requires the orchestrated action of E1, E2 and E3 enzymes in a well-defined cascade. F-box proteins (FBPs) are substrate-recruiting subunits of Skp1-cullin1-FBP (SCF)-type E3 ubiquitin ligases that determine which proteins are ubiquitinated. To date, around 70 FBPs have been

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Understanding and exploiting interactions between cellular proteostasis pathways and infectious prion proteins for therapeutic benefit
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Unekwu M. Yakubu; Celso S. G. Catumbela; Rodrigo Morales; Kevin A. Morano

    Several neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals are caused by the misfolded prion protein (PrPSc), a self-propagating protein infectious agent that aggregates into oligomeric, fibrillar structures and leads to cell death by incompletely understood mechanisms. Work in multiple biological model systems, from simple baker's yeast to transgenic mouse lines, as well as in vitro studies, has illuminated

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Signalling through cerebral cavernous malformation protein networks
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Valerie L. Su; David A. Calderwood

    Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are neurovascular abnormalities characterized by thin, leaky blood vessels resulting in lesions that predispose to haemorrhages, stroke, epilepsy and focal neurological deficits. CCMs arise due to loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding one of three CCM complex proteins, KRIT1, CCM2 or CCM3. These widely expressed, multi-functional adaptor proteins can assemble

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Unravelling the distinct contribution of cell shape changes and cell intercalation to tissue morphogenesis: the case of the Drosophila trachea
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Sandra Casani; Jordi Casanova; Marta Llimargas

    Intercalation allows cells to exchange positions in a spatially oriented manner in an array of diverse processes, spanning convergent extension in embryonic gastrulation to the formation of tubular organs. However, given the co-occurrence of cell intercalation and changes in cell shape, it is sometimes difficult to ascertain their respective contribution to morphogenesis. A well-established model to

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • The application of rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry in the analysis of Drosophila species—a potential new tool in entomology
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Iris Wagner; Natalie I. Koch; Joscelyn Sarsby; Nicola White; Tom A. R. Price; Sam Jones; Jane L. Hurst; Robert J. Beynon

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of new analytical approaches in subject analysis and classification, particularly in respect to minimal sample preparation. Here, we demonstrate that rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometry (REIMS), a method that captures metabolite mass spectra after rapid combustive degradation of an intact biological specimen, generates informative mass spectra from

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Cytoplasmic mRNA recapping has limited impact on proteome complexity
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-25
    Bernice A. Agana; Vicki H. Wysocki; Daniel R. Schoenberg

    The m7G cap marks the 5′ end of all eukaryotic mRNAs, but there are also capped ends that map downstream within spliced exons. A portion of the mRNA transcriptome undergoes a cyclical process of decapping and recapping, termed cap homeostasis, which impacts the translation and stability of these mRNAs. Blocking cytoplasmic capping results in the appearance of uncapped 5′ ends at native cap sites but

    更新日期:2020-11-26
  • Biochemical evidence for diverse strategies in the inner kinetochore
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    G. E. Hamilton; T. N. Davis

    The kinetochore is a complex structure whose function is absolutely essential. Unlike the centromere, the kinetochore at first appeared remarkably well conserved from yeast to humans, especially the microtubule-binding outer kinetochore. However, recent efforts towards biochemical reconstitution of diverse kinetochores challenge the notion of a similarly conserved architecture for the constitutively

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Viral macrodomains: a structural and evolutionary assessment of the pharmacological potential
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-18
    Johannes Gregor Matthias Rack; Valentina Zorzini; Zihan Zhu; Marion Schuller; Dragana Ahel; Ivan Ahel

    Viral macrodomains possess the ability to counteract host ADP-ribosylation, a post-translational modification implicated in the creation of an antiviral environment via immune response regulation. This brought them into focus as promising therapeutic targets, albeit the close homology to some of the human macrodomains raised concerns regarding potential cross-reactivity and adverse effects for the

    更新日期:2020-11-18
  • Interaction interface in the C-terminal parts of centriole proteins Sas6 and Ana2
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Agnieszka Fatalska; Nikola S. Dzhindzhev; Michal Dadlez; David M. Glover

    The centriole is a ninefold symmetrical structure found at the core of centrosomes and, as a basal body, at the base of cilia, whose conserved duplication is regulated by Plk4 kinase. Plk4 phosphorylates a single serine residue at the N-terminus of Ana2 to promote Ana2's loading to the site of procentriole formation. Four conserved serines in Ana2's STAN motif are then phosphorylated by Plk4, enabling

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • Age separation dramatically reduces COVID-19 mortality rate in a computational model of a large population
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-11
    Liron Mizrahi; Huda Adwan Shekhidem; Shani Stern

    COVID-19 pandemic has caused a global lockdown in many countries throughout the world. Faced with a new reality, and until a vaccine or efficient treatment is found, humanity must figure out ways to keep the economy going, on one hand, while keeping the population safe, on the other hand, especially those that are susceptible to this virus. Here, we use a Watts–Strogatz network simulation, with parameters

    更新日期:2020-11-12
  • The utility of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy in assisted reproduction
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Gitanjali Asampille; Aswathi Cheredath; David Joseph; Satish K. Adiga; Hanudatta S. Atreya

    Infertility affects approximately 15–20% of individuals of reproductive age worldwide. Over the last 40 years, assisted reproductive technology (ART) has helped millions of childless couples. However, ART is limited by a low success rate and risk of multiple gestations. Devising methods for selecting the best gamete or embryo that increases the ART success rate and prevention of multiple gestation

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • Modelling population dynamics in a unicellular social organism community using a minimal model and evolutionary game theory
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-11-04
    Ravindra Garde; Jan Ewald; Ákos T. Kovács; Stefan Schuster

    Most unicellular organisms live in communities and express different phenotypes. Many efforts have been made to study the population dynamics of such complex communities of cells, coexisting as well-coordinated units. Minimal models based on ordinary differential equations are powerful tools that can help us understand complex phenomena. They represent an appropriate compromise between complexity and

    更新日期:2020-11-04
  • The structure and function of deubiquitinases: lessons from budding yeast
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Harsha Garadi Suresh; Natasha Pascoe; Brenda Andrews

    Protein ubiquitination is a key post-translational modification that regulates diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic cells. The specificity of ubiquitin (Ub) signalling for different bioprocesses and pathways is dictated by the large variety of mono-ubiquitination and polyubiquitination events, including many possible chain architectures. Deubiquitinases (DUBs) reverse or edit Ub signals with high

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Human intestinal models to study interactions between intestine and microbes
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Arturo Aguilar-Rojas; Jean-Christophe Olivo-Marin; Nancy Guillen

    Implementations of suitable in vitro cell culture systems of the human intestine have been essential tools in the study of the interaction among organs, commensal microbiota, pathogens and parasites. Due to the great complexity exhibited by the intestinal tissue, researchers have been developing in vitro/ex vivo systems to diminish the gap between conventional cell culture models and the human intestine

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The aerobic mitochondrial ATP synthesis from a comprehensive point of view
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Alessandro Maria Morelli; Silvia Ravera; Isabella Panfoli

    Most of the ATP to satisfy the energetic demands of the cell is produced by the F1Fo-ATP synthase (ATP synthase) which can also function outside the mitochondria. Active oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) was shown to operate in the photoreceptor outer segment, myelin sheath, exosomes, microvesicles, cell plasma membranes and platelets. The mitochondria would possess the exclusive ability to assemble

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The role of Wnt signalling in development of coronary artery disease and its risk factors
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Ya Liu; Arpita Neogi; Arya Mani

    The Wnt signalling pathways are composed of a highly conserved cascade of events that govern cell differentiation, apoptosis and cell orientation. Three major and distinct Wnt signalling pathways have been characterized: the canonical Wnt pathway (or Wnt/β-catenin pathway), the non-canonical planar cell polarity pathway and the non-canonical Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. Altered Wnt signalling pathway has been

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • AMPA receptor auxiliary subunits emerged during early vertebrate evolution by neo/subfunctionalization of unrelated proteins
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-28
    David Ramos-Vicente; Àlex Bayés

    In mammalian synapses, the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors is critically modulated by auxiliary subunits. Most of these specifically regulate the synaptic localization and electrophysiological properties of AMPA-type glutamate receptors (AMPARs). Here, we comprehensively investigated the animal evolution of the protein families that contain AMPAR auxiliary subunits (ARASs). We observed that

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • PGE2 upregulates gene expression of dual oxidase in a lepidopteran insect midgut via cAMP signalling pathway
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Seyedeh Minoo Sajjadian; Yonggyun Kim

    In insect midgut, prostaglandins (PGs) play a crucial role in defending bacterial and malarial pathogens. However, little is known about the PG signalling pathway in the midgut. A dual oxidase (Se-Duox) with presumed function of catalysing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in the midgut was identified in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Se-Duox was expressed in all developmental stages, exhibiting

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • The efficiency of insulin production and its content in insulin-expressing model β-cells correlate with their Zn2+ levels
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Petra Dzianová; Seiya Asai; Martina Chrudinová; Lucie Kosinová; Pavlo Potalitsyn; Pavel Šácha; Romana Hadravová; Irena Selicharová; Jan Kříž; Johan P. Turkenburg; Andrzej Marek Brzozowski; Jiří Jiráček; Lenka Žáková

    Insulin is produced and stored inside the pancreatic β-cell secretory granules, where it is assumed to form Zn2+-stabilized oligomers. However, the actual storage forms of this hormone and the impact of zinc ions on insulin production in vivo are not known. Our initial X-ray fluorescence experiment on granules from native Langerhans islets and insulinoma-derived INS-1E cells revealed a considerable

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Reprogramming of human cells to pluripotency induces CENP-A chromatin depletion
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Inês Milagre; Carolina Pereira; Raquel A. Oliveira; Lars E. T. Jansen

    Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are central to development as they are the precursors of all cell types in the embryo. Therefore, maintaining a stable karyotype is essential, both for their physiological role as well as for their use in regenerative medicine. Karyotype abnormalities in PSCs in culture are common but the underlying causes remain unknown. To gain insight, we explore the composition of

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Slc39a5-mediated zinc homeostasis plays an essential role in venous angiogenesis in zebrafish
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-21
    Zhidan Xia; Xinying Bi; Jia Lian; Wei Dai; Xuyan He; Lu Zhao; Junxia Min; Fudi Wang

    Angiogenesis is a precise process mediated by a variety of signals and the environmental niche. Although the essential trace element zinc and its homeostasis are essential for maintaining proper cellular functions, whether zinc plays a role in angiogenesis is currently unknown. Using zebrafish embryos as a model system, we found that zinc treatment significantly increased the expression of the slc39a5

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • RNA editing in mesothelioma: a look forward
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Ananya Hariharan; Suna Sun; Martin Wipplinger; Emanuela Felley-Bosco

    RNA editing is a post-transcriptional process increasing transcript diversity, thereby regulating different biological processes. We recently observed that mutations resulting from RNA editing due to hydrolytic deamination of adenosine increase during the development of mesothelioma, a rare cancer linked to chronic exposure to asbestos. This review gathers information from the published literature

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Establishment and function of chromatin modification at enhancers
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Amanuel Tafessu; Laura A. Banaszynski

    How a single genome can give rise to distinct cell types remains a fundamental question in biology. Mammals are able to specify and maintain hundreds of cell fates by selectively activating unique subsets of their genome. This is achieved, in part, by enhancers—genetic elements that can increase transcription of both nearby and distal genes. Enhancers can be identified by their unique chromatin signature

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Endothelial cells, neutrophils and platelets: getting to the bottom of an inflammatory triangle
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Tima Dehghani; Alyssa Panitch

    Severe fibrotic and thrombotic events permeate the healthcare system, causing suffering for millions of patients with inflammatory disorders. As late-state consequences of chronic inflammation, fibrosis and thrombosis are the culmination of pathological interactions of activated endothelium, neutrophils and platelets after vessel injury. Coupling of these three cell types ensures a pro-coagulant, cytokine-rich

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Polo-like kinase in trypanosomes: an odd member out of the Polo family
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Yasuhiro Kurasawa; Tai An; Ziyin Li

    Polo-like kinases (Plks) are evolutionarily conserved serine/threonine protein kinases playing crucial roles during multiple stages of mitosis and cytokinesis in yeast and animals. Plks are characterized by a unique Polo-box domain, which plays regulatory roles in controlling Plk activation, interacting with substrates and targeting Plk to specific subcellular locations. Plk activity and protein abundance

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Release from cell cycle arrest with Cdk4/6 inhibitors generates highly synchronized cell cycle progression in human cell culture
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-14
    Eleanor Wendy Trotter; Iain Michael Hagan

    Each approach used to synchronize cell cycle progression of human cell lines presents a unique set of challenges. Induction synchrony with agents that transiently block progression through key cell cycle stages are popular, but change stoichiometries of cell cycle regulators, invoke compensatory changes in growth rate and, for DNA replication inhibitors, damage DNA. The production, replacement or manipulation

    更新日期:2020-10-15
  • Molecular mechanisms of olfactory detection in insects: beyond receptors
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Hayden R. Schmidt; Richard Benton

    Insects thrive in diverse ecological niches in large part because of their highly sophisticated olfactory systems. Over the last two decades, a major focus in the study of insect olfaction has been on the role of olfactory receptors in mediating neuronal responses to environmental chemicals. In vivo, these receptors operate in specialized structures, called sensilla, which comprise neurons and non-neuronal

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Vulpeculin: a novel and abundant lipocalin in the urine of the common brushtail possum, Trichosurus vulpecula
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-10-07
    Grace M. Loxley; David O. Hooks; Aristotelis Antonopoulos; Anne Dell; Stuart M. Haslam; Wayne L. Linklater; Jane L. Hurst; Robert J. Beynon

    Lipocalins are a family of secreted proteins. They are capable of binding small lipophilic compounds and have been extensively studied for their role in chemosignalling in rodent urine. Urine of the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) contains a prominent glycoprotein of 20 kDa, expressed in both sexes. We have isolated this protein and determined its primary sequence by mass spectrometry

    更新日期:2020-10-07
  • Cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate mammalian digit tip regeneration
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Mekayla A. Storer; Freda D. Miller

    Digit tip regeneration is one of the few examples of true multi-tissue regeneration in an adult mammal. The key step in this process is the formation of the blastema, a transient proliferating cell mass that generates the different cell types of the digit to replicate the original structure. Failure to form the blastema results in a lack of regeneration and has been postulated to be the reason why

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Wound healing: cellular mechanisms and pathological outcomes
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Holly N. Wilkinson; Matthew J. Hardman

    Wound healing is a complex, dynamic process supported by a myriad of cellular events that must be tightly coordinated to efficiently repair damaged tissue. Derangement in wound-linked cellular behaviours, as occurs with diabetes and ageing, can lead to healing impairment and the formation of chronic, non-healing wounds. These wounds are a significant socioeconomic burden due to their high prevalence

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Global distribution of single amino acid polymorphisms in Plasmodium vivax Duffy-binding-like domain and implications for vaccine development efforts
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-30
    Payal Mittal; Siddhartha Mishra; Sonalika Kar; Veena Pande; Abhinav Sinha; Amit Sharma

    Plasmodium vivax (Pv) malaria continues to be geographically widespread with approximately 15 million worldwide cases annually. Along with other proteins, Duffy-binding proteins (DBPs) are used by plasmodium for RBC invasion and the parasite-encoded receptor binding regions lie in their Duffy-binding-like (DBL) domains—thus making it a prime vaccine candidate. This study explores the sequence diversity

    更新日期:2020-09-30
  • Prader-Willi syndrome: reflections on seminal studies and future therapies.
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Michael S Chung,Maéva Langouët,Stormy J Chamberlain,Gordon G Carmichael

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) is caused by the loss of function of the paternally inherited 15q11-q13 locus. This region is governed by genomic imprinting, a phenomenon in which genes are expressed exclusively from one parental allele. The genomic imprinting of the 15q11-q13 locus is established in the germline and is largely controlled by a bipartite imprinting centre. One part, termed the Prader-Willi

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Molecular mechanisms behind mRNA localization in axons.
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Benita Turner-Bridger,Cinzia Caterino,Jean-Michel Cioni

    Messenger RNA (mRNA) localization allows spatiotemporal regulation of the proteome at the subcellular level. This is observed in the axons of neurons, where mRNA localization is involved in regulating neuronal development and function by orchestrating rapid adaptive responses to extracellular cues and the maintenance of axonal homeostasis through local translation. Here, we provide an overview of the

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Cytokine storm and COVID-19: a chronicle of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
    Open Biol. (IF 4.931) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Antonella Fara,Zan Mitrev,Rodney Alexander Rosalia,Bakri M Assas

    Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has swept the world, unlike any other pandemic in the last 50 years. Our understanding of the disease has evolved rapidly since the outbreak; disease prognosis is influenced mainly by multi-organ involvement. Acute respiratory distress syndrome, heart failure, renal failure, liver damage, shock and multi-organ failure are strongly associated with morbidity and mortality

    更新日期:2020-09-23
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