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  • Effect of microcapsules of chia oil on Ω-3 fatty acids, antioxidant characteristics and oxidative stability of butter
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Rahman Ullah; Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Imran; Muhammad Kamran Khan; Zarina Mushtaq; Muhammad Asif; Ahmad Din

    Ω-3 fatty acids perform several therapeutic functions in the body, however, their applications are limited due to the inferior oxidative stability. To improve the oxidative stability and release properties of Ω-3 fatty acids, microencapsulation is performed. Butter is a good source of fat-soluble vitamins and antioxidant systems however, it is not a good source of Ω-3 fatty acids. Supplementation of butter with microcapsules of vegetable oils rich in Ω-3 fatty acids is not reported in literature. Microcapsules of chia oil (MCO) were prepared using chitosan as encapsulating material by spray drying at lower temperature. Unsalted butter prepared from cultured cream using Lactococcus lactis ssp. Lactis at 21 °C for 16 Hrs. Cream was churned at 12 °C and microcapsules of chia oil were added to the butter during the working stage at four different concentrations i.e. 2, 4, 6 and 8% (T1, T2, T3 and T4, respectively). Butter without supplementation of MCO were kept as control. Butter samples were stored for 90 days at -10 °C. Butter composition, antioxidant capacity, fatty acid profile, induction period, free fatty acids, peroxide value and sensory evaluation were performed at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. Addition of MCO in butter did not have any effect on standards of identity of butter. Microencapsulation had no effect on fatty acid profile of microcapsules of chia oil. Concentration of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) in control, T1, T2, T3 and T4 were 0.49, 4.29, 8.41, 13.21 and 17.44%, respectively. Concentration of ALA in fresh and 90 days stored butter samples were 17.44 and 17.11%, respectively. After 90 days of storage, loss of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) were 0.07%, 0.05 and 0.03%, respectively. At 0, 45 and 90 days of storage, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity of free chia oil was 39.81, 71.22 and 62.18%, respectively. However, microcapsules of chia oil had superior antioxidant activity. DPPH free radical scavenging activity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 36.51, 36.43 and 35.96%, respectively (p > 0.05). Total antioxidant capacity of microcapsules at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage was 70.53, 69.88 and 68.52%, respectively (p > 0.05). It was recorded that induction period of free chia oil and microcapsules was only 2.86 h and 8.55 h. Among the butter samples, control revealed the lowest induction period. While, induction period of experimental samples was not different from each other. Peroxide value and free fatty acids of the butter samples at the end of storage period (90 days) was less than the European Union standards limit (10MeqO2/kg and 0.2%). Sensory characteristics of experimental samples were similar to the control. MCO can be added in butter to improve its functional value. Concentration of Ω-3 fatty acids in butter up to 8% can be increased through microcapsules of chia oil with reasonable oxidative stability and no effect on sensory characteristics.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Functional interaction between plasma phospholipid fatty acids and insulin resistance in leucocyte telomere length maintenance
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Yi Zhao; Binxia Wang; Guoqi Wang; Lixia Huang; Ting Yin; Xiaoxia Li; Xiuying Liu; Qingan Wang; Jinyun Jing; Jianjun Yang; Yuhong Zhang

    Previous evidence suggests that plasma phospholipid fatty acids (PPFAs) and HOMA insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) are independently related to leukocyte telomere length (LTL). However, there is limited evidence of regarding the effect of their interaction on relative LTL (RLTL). Therefore, here, we aimed to determine the effect of the interaction between PPFAs and HOMA-IR on RLTL. We conducted a cross-sectional study, involving a total of 1246 subjects aged 25–74 years. PPFAs and RLTL were measured, and HOMA-IR was calculated. The effect of the interaction between PPFAs and HOMA-IR on RLTL was assessed by univariate analysis, adjusting for potential confounders. In age-adjusted analyses, multivariate linear regression revealed a significant association of the levels of elaidic acid, HOMA-IR, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and omega-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) with RLTL. After adjustment of age and gender, race, smoking, drinking, tea, and exercise, elaidic acid, and omega-3 (n-3) PUFA were negatively associated with RLTL, and HOMA-IR and n-6 PUFA were positively associated with RLTL. These associations were not significantly altered upon further adjustment for anthropometric and biochemical indicators. Meanwhile, the effect of the interaction of elaidic acid and HOMA-IR on RLTL was significant, and remained unchanged even after adjusting for the aforementioned potential confounders. Interestingly, individuals who had the lowest HOMA-IR and the highest elaidic acid levels presented the shortest RLTL. Our findings indicated that shorter RLTL was associated with lower HOMA-IR and higher elaidic acid level. These findings might open a new avenue for exploring the potential role of the interaction between elaidic acid and HOMA-IR in maintaining RLTL.

    更新日期:2020-01-17
  • Correlation between 12α-hydroxylated bile acids and insulin secretion during glucose tolerance tests in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Reika Yoshitsugu; Keidai Kikuchi; Shota Hori; Hitoshi Iwaya; Masahito Hagio; Hidehisa Shimizu; Tohru Hira; Satoshi Ishizuka

    Previously, we found a significant relationship in a rat study between energy intake and bile acid (BA) metabolism especially 12α-hydroxylated (12αOH) BAs. The present study was designed to reveal relationships among BA metabolism, glucose tolerance, and cecal organic acids in rats fed a high-fat and high-sucrose diet (HFS) by using multivariate and multiple regression analyses in two types of glucose tolerance tests (GTTs). Male WKAH/HkmSlc rats were fed with a control or a HFS for 13 weeks. Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) were performed at week 9 and 11, respectively. BAs were analyzed by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Organic acid concentrations in cecal contents were analyzed by using ultra high-performance liquid chromatography with post-column pH buffered electric conductivity method. A positive correlation of aortic 12αOH BA concentration was observed with energy intake and visceral adipose tissue weight. We found that an increase of 12αOH BAs in enterohepatic circulation, intestinal contents and feces in the HFS-fed rats compared to those in control rats regardless of no significant increase of total BA concentration in the feces in the test period. Fecal 12αOH BA concentration was positively correlated with maximal insulin level in OGTT and area under curve of insulin in IPGTT. There was a positive correlation between aortic 12αOH BAs concentration and changes in plasma glucose level in both OGTT and IPGTT. In contrast, a decrease in the concentration of organic acids was observed in the cecal contents of the HFS-fed rats. Multiple linear regression analysis in the IPGTT revealed that the concentrations of aortic 12αOH BA and cecal acetic acid were the predictors of insulin secretion. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between concentration of portal 12αOH BAs and change in insulin concentration of peripheral blood in the IPGTT. The distribution analysis of BA compositions accompanied by GTTs revealed a close relationship between 12αOH BA metabolism and insulin secretion in GTTs in rats.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Triglyceride glucose index is a useful marker for predicting subclinical coronary artery disease in the absence of traditional risk factors
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Gyung-Min Park; Young-Rak Cho; Ki-Bum Won; Yu Jin Yang; Sangwoo Park; Soe Hee Ann; Yong-Giun Kim; Eun Ji Park; Shin-Jae Kim; Sang-Gon Lee; Dong Hyun Yang; Joon-Won Kang; Tae-Hwan Lim; Hong-Kyu Kim; Jaewon Choe; Seung-Whan Lee; Young-Hak Kim

    Atherosclerotic cardiovascular (CV) events commonly occur in individuals with a low CV risk burden. This study evaluated the ability of the triglyceride glucose (TyG) index to predict subclinical coronary artery disease (CAD) in asymptomatic subjects without traditional CV risk factors (CVRFs). This retrospective, cross-sectional, and observational study evaluated the association of TyG index with CAD in 1250 (52.8 ± 6.5 years, 46.9% male) asymptomatic individuals without traditional CVRFs (defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥ 140/90 mmHg; fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL; total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dL; low-density lipoprotein cholesterol ≥160 mg/dL; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol < 40 mg/dL; body mass index ≥25.0 kg/m2; current smoking; and previous medical history of hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidemia). CAD was defined as the presence of any coronary plaque on coronary computed tomographic angiography. The participants were divided into three groups based on TyG index tertiles. The prevalence of CAD increased with elevating TyG index tertiles (group I: 14.8% vs. group II: 19.3% vs. group III: 27.6%; P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression models showed that TyG index was associated with an increased risk of CAD (odds ratio [OR] 1.473, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.026–2.166); especially non-calcified (OR 1.581, 95% CI 1.002–2.493) and mixed plaques (OR 2.419, 95% CI 1.051–5.569) (all P < 0.05). The optimal TyG index cut-off for predicting CAD was 8.44 (sensitivity 47.9%; specificity 68.5%; area under the curve 0.600; P < 0.001). The predictive value of this cut-off improved after considering the non-modifiable factors of old age and male sex. TyG index is an independent marker for predicting subclinical CAD in individuals conventionally considered healthy.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • The relationship between blood lipids and plasma amyloid beta is depend on blood pressure: a population-based cross-sectional study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Ningwei Hu; Ling Gao; Yu Jiang; Shan Wei; Suhang Shang; Chen Chen; Liangjun Dang; Jin Wang; Kang Huo; Meiying Deng; Jingyi Wang; Qiumin Qu

    It is believed that deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ) in the brain is the central pathological changes of Alzheimer’s disease (AD), which triggers a series of pathological processes. However, the relationship between dyslipidemia and AD is uncertain. Considering the peripheral Aβ levels are related to brain Aβ deposition, we explore the relationships between blood lipids and plasma Aβ. Participants who lived in the selected village of Xi’an for more than 3 years were enrolled, aged 40–85 years (n = 1282, 37.9% male). Fasting blood lipid, plasma Aβ levels, basic information and living habits were measured. Multiple linear regressions were used. In total population, blood lipids were not associated with plasma Aβ. After stratified by blood pressure, serum total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-c) were positively associated with plasma Aβ42 levels (βTC = 0.666, PTC = 0.024; βLDL-c = 0.743, PLDL-c = 0.011, respectively) in normal blood pressure. LDL-c was negatively associated with plasma Aβ40 levels (β = − 0.986, P = 0.037) in high blood pressure. Elevated plasma Aβ42 levels are associated with higher TC and LDL-c in normal blood pressure. Elevated plasma Aβ40 levels are associated with lower LDL-c in high blood pressure. This indicated that the relationships between blood lipids and plasma Aβ were confounded by blood pressure.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Phytoconstituents of an ethanolic pod extract of Prosopis cineraria triggers the inhibition of HMG-CoA reductase and the regression of atherosclerotic plaque in hypercholesterolemic rabbits
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Heera Ram; Noopur Jaipal; Jaykaran Charan; Priya Kashyap; Suresh Kumar; Rashmi Tripathi; Bhim Pratap Singh; Chandra Nayaka Siddaiah; Abeer Hashem; Baby Tabassum; Elsayed Fathi Abd_Allah

    The HMG-CoA reductase is key enzyme of cholesterol biosynthesis which potentially contributes in management of hypercholesterolemia. The present study was designed to assess the inhibitory effect of phytoconstituents of an ethanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria pods on HMG – CoA reductase and regression potential of atherosclerotic plaque. Healthy, adult male, albino rabbits in which hypercholesterolemia was induced by supplying the high fat diet and a supplement of cholesterol powder with coconut oil (500 mg/5 ml/Day/kg body weight) for 15 days, were used as a disease model. Phytochemical analysis of an ethanolic extract Prosopis cineraria pods was conducted using LCMS, GCMS and FTIR analysis. Further, in-vitro, in-vivo and in-silico assessments were performed. The in-vitro assessment of HMG -CoA reductase activity indicated a 67.1 and 97.3% inhibition by the extract and a standard drug (Pravastatin), respectively. Additionally, an in-silico evaluation was made using appropriate docking software and results also indicated as significant interactions of the identified compounds with the target enzyme. Treatment of rabbits with the ethanolic extract of P. cineraria pod resulted in significant (P ≤ 0.001) reductions in total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol, and triglyceride. Accordingly, reductions were occurred in atherosclerotic plaque, intima and media of aortal wall along with lumen volume of the aorta significantly increased (P ≤ 0.001). It can be illustrating that the ethanolic extract of Prosopis cineraria pod contains potent bioactive phytocompounds might be inhibit HMG – CoA reductase and have regression potential of atherosclerotic plaque.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol goal attainment rates in high-risk patients with cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in Korea: a retrospective cohort study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-11
    Ye Seul Yang; Bo Ram Yang; Mi-Sook Kim; Yunji Hwang; Sung Hee Choi

    Real-world evidence of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goal attainment rates for Asian patients is deficient. The objective of this study was to assess the status of dyslipidemia management, especially in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) including stroke and acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This was a retrospective cohort study of 514,866 subjects from the National Health Insurance Service-National Health Screening Cohort database in Korea. Participants were followed up from 2002 to 2015. Subjects with a high-risk of CVD prior to LDL-C measurement and subjects who were newly-diagnosed for high-risk of CVD following LDL-C measurement were defined as known high-risk patients (n = 224,837) and newly defined high-risk patients (n = 127,559), respectively. Data were analyzed by disease status: stroke, ACS, coronary heart disease (CHD), peripheral artery disease (PAD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and atherosclerotic artery disease (AAD). Overall, less than 50% of patients in each disease category achieved LDL-C goals (LDL-C < 70 mg/dL in patients with stroke, ACS, CHD and PAD; and LDL-C < 100 mg/dL in patients with DM and AAD). Statin use was observed in relatively low proportions of subjects (21.5% [known high-risk], 34.4% [newly defined high-risk]). LDL-C goal attainment from 2009 to 2015 steadily increased but the goal-achiever proportion of newly defined high-risk patients with ACS remained reasonably constant (38.7% in 2009; 38.1% in 2015). LDL-C goal attainment rates in high-risk patients with CVD and DM in Korea demonstrate unmet medical needs. Proactive management is necessary to bridge the gap between the recommendations of clinical guidelines and actual clinical practice.

    更新日期:2020-01-13
  • Antidepressant activity of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ovariectomized rats: role of neuroinflammation and microglial polarization
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Bin Wu; Qingen Song; Yongkang Zhang; Changshui Wang; Mengqi Yang; Jun Zhang; Wenxiu Han; Pei Jiang

    Menopause predisposes individuals to affective disorders, such as depression, which is tightly related to neuroinflammation. While the neuroinflammatory condition has been demonstrated in ovariectomized (OVX) rodents, there is limited evidence concerning microglial polarization, a key process in brain immune activation, in menopause-related brain. Therefore, the present study aims to evaluate the polarized microglia in long-term OVX rats and we further explored whether supplementation of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the pleiotropic bioactive nutrient, is effective in the neurobehavioral changes caused by OVX. Our data showed that OVX-induced anxiety and depression-like behaviors in rats, accompanied with increased neural apoptosis and microglial activation in the hippocampus. Additionally, OVX enhanced proinflammatory cytokines expression and suppressed the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. Correspondingly, OVX reinforced NFκB signaling and shifted the microglia from immunoregulatory M2 phenotype to proinflammatory M1 phenotype. Meanwhile, daily supplementation with PUFA suppressed microglial M1 polarization and potentiated M2 polarization in OVX rats. In parallel, PUFA also exerted antidepressant and neuroprotective activities, accompanied with neuroimmune-modulating actions. Collectively, the present study firstly demonstrated the disturbed microglial polarization in the OVX brain and provide novel evidence showing the association between the antidepressant actions of PUFA and the restraint neuroinflammatory progression.

    更新日期:2020-01-08
  • Hypertriglyceridemia triggered acute pancreatitis in pregnancy – diagnostic approach, management and follow-up care
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Gheorghe Cruciat; Georgiana Nemeti; Iulian Goidescu; Stefan Anitan; Andreea Florian

    Acute pancreatitis is a pregnancy complication potentially lethal for both the mother and fetus, occurring most frequently in the third trimester or early postpartum. Hypertriglyceridemia may be the cause of important disease in pregnant patients. Patients with triglyceride levels exceeding 1000 mg/dL are at increased risk of developing severe pancreatitis. Diagnostic criteria and management protocols are not specific for pancreatitis complicating pregnancy. Other causes of acute abdominal pain must be considered in the differential diagnosis. Decision-making in the obstetric context is challenging and bears potential legal implications. Pre-pregnancy preventive measures and prenatal antilipemic treatment are mandatory in high risk patients.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Beneficial effect of ezetimibe-atorvastatin combination therapy in patients with a mutation in ABCG5 or ABCG8 gene
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Hayato Tada; Hirofumi Okada; Akihiro Nomura; Masayuki Takamura; Masa-aki Kawashiri

    Use of ezetimibe on top of statin therapy has been shown to be effective to reduce LDL cholesterol level in hypercholesterolemic patients. However, little is known regarding the individual variety of the effectiveness of ezetimibe. We hypothesized that hypercholesterolemic patients with a mutation in ABCG5 or ABCG8 gene exhibit better response to ezetimibe than those without, based on the fact that ezetimibe is hyper-effective for in patients with sitosterolemia caused by ABCG5 or ABCG8 genetic mutations. Electronical medical record were reviewed in a total of 321 hypercholesterolemic patients (baseline LDL cholesterol = 192 ± 46 mg/dl) prescribed ezetimibe 10 mg daily on top of atorvastatin 10 mg daily who had undergone genetic analysis of ABCG5 or ABCG8 gene in our institute since 2006 to 2017. Pathogenicity of the variants were determined using standard variant filtering schema, including minor allele frequency, in silico annotation tools. Patients were divided into 2 groups based on the presence of ABCG5 or ABCG8 mutation. We compared the percent reduction of LDL cholesterol as well as the achieved LDL cholesterol levels between these 2 groups. We found 26 (8%) individuals who exhibit deleterious mutations in ABCG5 or ABCG8 gene. Baseline characteristics under the atorvastatin 10 mg therapy were comparable in age, gender, and LDL cholesterol level between 2 groups. Under these conditions, percent reduction of LDL cholesterol in mutation positive group was significantly larger than that of mutation negative group (28 ± 16% vs. 39 ± 21%, p < 0.05). As a result, the achieved LDL cholesterol level in mutation positive group was significantly lower than that of mutation negative group (87 ± 29 mg/dl vs. 72 ± 26% mg/dl, p < 0.05). These results suggest that ezetimibe-atorvastatin combination therapy might be more beneficial in hypercholesterolemic patients with a mutation in ABCG5 or ABCG8 gene.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • Efficacy of combination therapy with ezetimibe and statins versus a double dose of statin monotherapy in participants with hypercholesterolemia: a meta-analysis of literature
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Min Yu; Chunshui Liang; Qianran Kong; Yihan Wang; Minmin Li

    The aim of this study was to compare and summarize the lipid-altering effects of combination therapy with ezetimibe and statins (E/S) and a double dose of statin (D/S) monotherapy on patients with hypercholesterolemia. We conducted search on 2 medical databases, PubMed and EMBASE to identify all relevant studies. A meta-analysis was performed to clarify the efficacy in the two groups. Only double-blind Randomized controlled study (RCTs) of efficacy evaluation in the two groups with ezetimibe and statins and a double dose of statin in participants with hypercholesterolemia that examined low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), total cholesterol (TC) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) were included. Two reviewers extracted data from all primary studies independently. The primary data were the level of LDL-C, TC and HDL-C concentrations at the end point and are expressed as mean and standard deviation (SD). A total of 11 double-blind, active or placebo-controlled studies with 1926 hypercholesterolemia adults randomized to ezetimibe 10 mg added to ongoing statins (N = 994) or statin titration (doubling) (N = 932) were pooled for the global meta-analysis. The effect size between treatment groups within individual studies was assessed by weighted mean difference (MD) using a random- or fixed-effect model. The result showed that the participants in E/S group get obvious lower LDL-C [MD = -13.14 mg/dL, 95%CI (−16.83, -9.44), p = 0.00001] and TC concentration [MD = -23.79 mg/dL, 95%CI (−38.65, -8.93), p = 0.002] from baseline to follow-up, comparing to the D/S group. Besides, no significant between-group differences were observed for concentrations of HDL-C [MD = 0.46 mg/dL, 95%CI (− 1.14, 2.06), p = 0.57]. According to subgroup analysis, the combination of ezetimibe and atorvastatin (10 mg) [MD = -16.98 mg/dL, p < 0 .0001] or simvastatin (20 mg) [MD = -17.35 mg/dL, p < 0 .0001] showed stronger ability of reducing LDL-C than combination of ezetimibe and rosuvastatin (10 mg) [MD = -9.29 mg/dL, p = 0.05]. The efficacy of short-term (endpoint time between 6 to 16 week) and long-term (52 week) treatment in the LDL-C between two groups did not show significant differences. Besides, only participants from Asia treated with combination therapy were associated with a significant lower LDL-C concentration [MD = -14.7 mg/dL, p < 0 .0001]. The addition of ezetimibe to statin appears to be more effective on reducing LDL-C and TC concentrations than doubling the statin dose. Moreover, the ability to reduce cholesterol levels of combinations therapy with ezetimibe and different statins or to participants from different geographic location may vary, based on this meta-analysis, while more samples are needed to verify.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The association of metabolic syndrome components and chronic kidney disease in patients with hypertension
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Kun Xie; Liwen Bao; Xiaofei Jiang; Zi Ye; Jianping Bing; Yugang Dong; Danchen Gao; Xiaoping Ji; Tingbo Jiang; Jiehua Li; Yan Li; Suxin Luo; Wei Mao; Daoquan Peng; Peng Qu; Shangming Song; Hui Wang; Zhaohui Wang; Biao Xu; Xinhua Yin; Zaixin Yu; Xinjun Zhang; Zixin Zhang; Zhiming Zhu; Xiufang Gao; Yong Li

    Hypertension is a highly prevalent disease and the leading cause of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Metabolic syndrome could also be the risk factor for CKD. We sought to study the association between metabolic syndrome components and the prevalence of CKD in patients with hypertension. We carried out a multi-center cross-sectional study from Apr. 2017- Apr. 2018 in 15 cities in China. A total of 2484 patients with hypertension were enrolled. Among them, 56% were male and the average age was 65.12 ± 12.71 years. The systolic BP/diastolic BP was 142 ± 18/83 ± 12 mmHg. Metabolic syndrome components turned out to be highly prevalent in patients with hypertension, ranging from 40 to 58%. The prevalence of chronic kidney disease reached 22.0%. Multi-variate logistic analysis revealed that elevated triglyceride (TG) (OR = 1.81, 95% CI 1.28–2.57, p < 0.01), elevated fasting blood glucose (FBG) (OR = 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.07, p = 0.05) and hypertension grades (OR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.00–1.44, p = 0.05) were associated with the prevalence of CKD. In sub-group analysis, elevated TG remained strongly associated with CKD in both diabetes (OR = 2.10, 95%CI 1.22–3.61, p < 0.01) and non-diabetes (OR = 1.53, 95% CI 1.09–2.16, p = 0.01). In sub-group analysis of hypertension grades, there was also a graded trend between elevated TG and CKD from controlled blood pressure (BP) to hypertension grade 2 (OR = 1.81, 95%CI 1.06–3.11, p = 0.03; OR = 1.85, 95%CI 1.00–3.43, p = 0.05; OR = 2.81, 95% CI 1.09–7.28, p = 0.03, respectively). Elevated TG, elevated FBG and hypertension grades were significantly associated with the prevalence of CKD in patients with hypertension. Particularly, elevated TG was strongly associated with CKD, independent of diabetes and hypertension grades.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Oleic acid influences the adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells via DNA Methylation and may predispose to obesity and obesity-related disorders
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Malgorzata Malodobra-Mazur; Aneta Cierzniak; Tadeusz Dobosz

    Adipogenesis is the process of adipocytes formation from unspecialized progenitor cells called mesenchymal stromal cells. Numerous mechanisms including epigenetic regulation modulate the correct progress of this process. Dietary exposures occurring over a specific period of time might cause long-lasting and even permanent changes in gene expression regulated by epigenetic mechanisms. For that reason, we investigated the adipogenesis of 3 T3-L1 cells with the excess of saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids and their influence on global and site-specific DNA methylation in these cells. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured in vitro to obtain 100% of confluence, then the adipogenesis was induced by a differentiation cocktail with the addition of the excess of 0.25 mM and 0.5 mM of palmitic (16:0), stearic (18:0) and oleic (18:1n-9) acids. DNA and RNA were extracted at five-time points to assess the adipogenesis process. The phenotype of mature adipocytes (insulin sensitivity, adipokines secretion, fat content) was estimated in fully mature adipocytes. DNA methylation was investigated both during adipogenesis and in mature adipocytes. Oleic acids stimulated expression of C/ebpα and Pparγ, which was correlated with lower methylation levels at promoters sites. Furthermore, cells cultured with an excess of oleic acid were characterized by higher lipid accumulation rate, higher leptin, and lower adiponectin secretion. Moreover, in all experimental cells, insulin signaling and glucose utilization were impaired. Oleic acid affected the methylation of Pparγ and C/ebpα promoters, what correlated with higher expression. Furthermore, examined free fatty acids influenced the phenotype of mature adipocytes, especially insulin signaling pathway and adipokine secretion.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Evaluation of eight formulas for LDL-C estimation in Iranian subjects with different metabolic health statuses
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Azam Karkhaneh; Molood Bagherieh; Solmaz Sadeghi; Asma Kheirollahi

    Considering the crucial role of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration in determining cardiovascular risk, the accuracy of LDL-C estimation is essential. To date, various types of formulae have been introduced, albeit their accuracy has not been assessed in varied populations. In this study, the accuracy of eight formulae for LDL-C estimation was evaluated in an Iranian population. A data set of 2752 individuals was included in the study and all samples were analyzed in term of lipid profiles using direct homogeneous assay. The population was divided into various subgroups based on the triglyceride (TG), high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C), total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and age values and estimated LDL-C values by Friedewald, Chen, de Cordova, Vujovic, Anandaraja, Hattori, Ahmadi, and Puavillai equations were compared to the directly measured LDL-C in each subgroup. Estimated LDL-C values by Puavillai formulae showed an insignificant difference compared to the directly measured LDL-C in subjects with high level of TG. However, for TG range < 3.38 mmol/L and high levels of HDL-C, the difference between the means of estimated LDL-C by Hattori and de Cordova formulas, and directly measured LDL-C was relatively lower than other equations. In addition, estimated LDL-C by Hattori and de Cordova formulae had insignificant differences as compared to the direct LDL-C at some levels of cholesterol, the normal level of FBS and some age ranges. Therefore, it seems that Hattori and de Cordova formulas can be considered as the best alternatives for LDL-C direct measurement in the Iranian population, especially for healthy subjects.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • A novel mutation of ABHD5 gene in a Chanarin Dorfman patient with unusual dermatological findings
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Ali Haydar Eskiocak; Sara Missaglia; Laura Moro; Murat Durdu; Daniela Tavian

    Chanarin Dorfman Syndrome (CDS) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by the multisytemic accumulation of neutral lipids inside the cytoplasmic lipid droplets. This condition is caused by mutations in the abhydrolase domain containing 5 gene (ABHD5). In CDS the skin involvement is the prevalent and always observed clinical feature, consisting of a non-bullous congenital ichthyosiform erythroderma (NCIE). Moreover, a variable involvement of the liver and neuromuscular system can be also observed. In this report, we aimed to perform the clinical and genetic characterization of a patient affected by CDS with atypical dermatological findings, considering this rare inborn error of neutral lipid metabolism. Genomic DNA samples obtained from patient and his parents were used to perform the sequencing of the ABHD5 exons and their intron/exon boundaries. Bioinformatic analyses were performed to investigate the possible effect of the identified mutation on protein structure. Here we present the case of a 29-year-old male patient with CDS, who, for long time, has been misdiagnosed as pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP). He has a history of increasing hyperlipidemia; hepatomegaly associated with hepatosteatosis was also detected. ABHD5 molecular analysis revealed a novel missense mutation, the c.811G > A (p.G271R). Bioinformatic investigations showed that the variant has a deleterious effect on ABHD5 function, probably causing an incorrect folding of the mutant protein. These results highlihts the importance of genetic testing for ABHD5 in unresolved cases of patients presenting unusual skin lesions, that resemble PRP, associated with a history of hyperlipidemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Associations between GUCY1A3 genetic polymorphisms and large artery atherosclerotic stroke risk in Chinese Han population: a case-control study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Jian-li Li; Liu-yu Liu; Dong-dong Jiang; Yi-ying Jiang; Guo-qiu Zhou; Dong-can Mo; Man Luo

    Previous genome-wide association studies have found two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) rs7692387 and rs1842896 located on or near the GUCY1A3 gene were associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). GUCY1A3 was considered to be involved in the process of atherosclerosis, but there was little information about the association between genotypic polymorphisms of the GUCY1A3 and large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke. This study aimed to investigate the associations between the GUCY1A3 rs7692387, rs1842896 polymorphisms and LAA stroke susceptibility. A total of 298 LAA stroke patients and 300 control subjects from a southern Chinese Han population were included. SNaPshot technique was used for genotype analysis. Associations between genotypes and LAA stroke susceptibility were analyzed with logistic regression model. Our study found that under the recessive model (TT vs. GT + GG), the GUCY1A3 rs1842896 polymorphism was significantly correlated with LAA stroke (OR = 1.48, 95%CI: 1.07–2.04, P = 0.018). After adjustment for its effects on age, gender, cigarette smoking, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HbA1c, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and CAD, the rs1842896 TT genotype retained association with increased susceptibility to LAA stroke (recessive model: adjusted OR = 1.96, 95%CI: 1.22–3.17, P = 0.006). However, association between rs7692387 polymorphism with LAA stroke was not observed. Our results indicate that the GUCY1A3 rs1842896 polymorphism is an LAA stroke risk factor in Southern Han Chinese.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Pathophysiological importance of bile cholesterol reabsorption: hepatic NPC1L1-exacerbated steatosis and decreasing VLDL-TG secretion in mice fed a high-fat diet
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-28
    Yu Toyoda; Tappei Takada; Yoshihide Yamanashi; Hiroshi Suzuki

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is one of the most common liver diseases worldwide, although its pathogenesis remains to be elucidated. A recent study revealed that hepatic Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1), a cholesterol re-absorber from bile to the liver expressed on the bile canalicular membrane, is an exacerbation factor of NAFLD. Indeed, transgenic mice with hepatic expression of human NPC1L1 under a liver-specific promoter (L1-Tg mice) developed steatosis with a high-fat diet (HFD) containing cholesterol within a few weeks. However, the mechanism underlying diet-induced hepatic NPC1L1-mediated lipid accumulation is poorly defined. To achieve a deeper understanding of steatosis development in L1-Tg mice, the biochemical features of hepatic NPC1L1-mediated steatosis were investigated. Hemizygous L1-Tg mice and wild-type littermate controls fed a HFD or control-fat diet were used. At the indicated time points, the livers were evaluated for cholesterol and triglyceride (TG) contents as well as mRNA levels of hepatic genes involved in the maintenance of lipid homeostasis. The hepatic ability to secrete very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-TG was also investigated. Unlike the livers of wild-type mice that have little expression of hepatic Npc1l1, the livers of L1-Tg mice displayed time-dependent changes that indicated steatosis formation. In steatosis, there were three different stages of development: mild accumulation of hepatic cholesterol and TG (early stage), acceleration of hepatic TG accumulation (middle stage), and further accumulation of hepatic cholesterol (late stage). In the early stage, between WT and L1-Tg mice fed a HFD for 2 weeks, there were no significant differences in the hepatic expression of Pparα, Acox1, Fat/Cd36, Srebf1, and Srebf2; however, the hepatic ability to secrete VLDL-TG decreased in L1-Tg mice (P < 0.05). Furthermore, this decrease was completely prevented by administration of ezetimibe, an NPC1L1-selective inhibitor. Hepatic NPC1L1 exacerbates diet-induced steatosis, which was accompanied by decreased hepatic ability of VLDL-TG secretion. The obtained results provide a deeper understanding of L1-Tg mice as a promising NAFLD animal model that is able to re-absorb biliary-secreted cholesterol similar to humans. Furthermore, this work supports further studies of the pathophysiological impact of re-absorbed biliary cholesterol on the regulation of hepatic lipid homeostasis.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Age-related changes of cholestanol and lathosterol plasma concentrations: an explorative study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-30
    Monica Gelzo; Maria Donata Di Taranto; Concetta Sica; Antonio Boscia; Francesco Papagni; Giuliana Fortunato; Gaetano Corso; Antonio Dello Russo

    Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) and Lathosterolosis represent two treatable inherited disorders of cholesterol metabolism that are characterized by the accumulation of cholestanol and lathosterol, respectively. The age of the patients suspected of having these disorders is highly variable due to the very different phenotypes. The early diagnosis of these disorders is important because specific therapeutic treatment could prevent the disease progression. The biochemical diagnosis of these defects is generally performed analyzing the sterol profile. Since age-related levels of these sterols are lacking, this study aims to determine a preliminary comparison of plasma levels of cholestanol and lathosterol among Italian unaffected newborns, children and healthy adults. The sterols were extracted from 130 plasma samples (24 newborns, 33 children and 73 adults) by a liquid-liquid separation method and quantified by gas chromatography coupled with a flame ionization detector. Cholesterol, cholestanol and lathosterol levels together with the cholestanol/cholesterol and lathosterol/cholesterol ratios are statistically different among the three groups. Cholesterol levels progressively increased from newborns to children and to adults, whereas cholestanol/cholesterol and cholestanol/lathosterol ratios progressively decreased from newborns to children and to adults. Lathosterol levels were higher in adults than in both newborns and children. In the total population a positive correlation was observed between cholesterol levels and both cholestanol (correlation coefficient = 0.290, p = 0.001) and lathosterol levels (correlation coefficient = 0.353, p < 0.0001). Although this study can only be considered an explorative experience due to the low number of analyzed samples, we revealed several differences of plasma cholestanol and lathosterol levels and their ratios to cholesterol levels among newborns, children and adults. These evidences indicate the need of age-related reference values of cholestanol and lathosterol concentrations, including also newborns and children.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Prognostic value of adiponectin level in patients with coronary artery disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Lili Yang; Bin Li; Yuan Zhao; Zhengyi Zhang

    Conflicting results on the prognostic value of blood adiponectin level in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have been reported. This meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prognostic value of elevated adiponectin level in CAD patients. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed and Embase databases up to May 10, 2019. Studies evaluating the association between adiponectin level and major adverse cardiovascular events (death, stroke, acute coronary syndrome or coronary revascularisation), cardiovascular mortality, and all-cause mortality in CAD patients were included. Pooled multivariable adjusted risk ratios (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) was calculated for the highest vs the lowest category of adiponectin level. Twelve studies including 10,974 CAD patients were included. Elevated adiponectin level was independently associated with higher risk of cardiovascular (RR 1.93; 95% CI 1.55–2.42; p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality (RR 1.96; 95% CI 1.64–2.34; p < 0.001) in CAD patients. However, CAD patients with higher adiponectin level did not significantly increase major cardiovascular events risk (RR 1.12; 95% CI 0.86–1.45; p = 0.407) after adjustment for potential confounders. This meta-analysis indicates that elevated adiponectin level is an independent predictor of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in CAD patients. Measurement of blood adiponectin level has potential to identify CAD patients who have high risk of death.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Effect of atorvastatin treatment on circulating adiponectin: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Xiaoyu Liu; Wei Zhang; Ming Zhao; Guowei Jia; Rongguo Sun

    Influences of atorvastatin on atherosclerosis and glycemic metabolism may be related to its potential impact on circulating adiponectin, an adipocyte that exerts anti-inflammatory, ant-atherosclerotic, and anti-oxidative effects. However, results of previous randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were not consistent. We performed a meta-analysis of RCTs to systematic evaluate the influence of atorvastatin on circulating adiponectin. Relevant studies were identified via search of electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane’s Library. A random-effect model was applied to pool the results via incorporating the potential heterogeneity. Predefined meta-regression and subgroup analyses were used to evaluate the influences of study characteristics on the outcome. Fourteen datasets from ten RCTs including 931 patients were included. Pooled results showed that atorvastatin did not significantly affect circulating adiponectin as compared with controls (weighed mean difference = − 0.27 μg/mL, 95% confidence interval: − 0.89 to 0.35 μg/mL, p = 0.39). Results of univariate meta-regression analyses showed that study characteristics including number of patients, mean age, proportion of male patients, body mass index, dose of atorvastatin, or treatment duration did not significantly affect the outcome (p all > 0.05). Moreover, subgroup analyses showed that atorvastatin did not significantly affect circulating adiponectin in studies stratified according to these study characteristics (p all > 0.05). Atorvastatin treatment does not significantly affect circulating adiponectin. Influences of atorvastatin on atherosclerosis and glycemic metabolism are not likely to be mediated by modulation of circulating adiponectin.

    更新日期:2019-12-25
  • Sex hormones affect endothelial lipase-mediated lipid metabolism and atherosclerosis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Chuan Wang; Manabu Niimi; Shuji Kitajima; Fumikazu Matsuhisa; Haizhao Yan; Sijun Dong; Jingyan Liang; Jianglin Fan

    Endothelial lipase (EL) plays an important role in lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. To study the functional roles of EL, we recently generated transgenic (Tg) rabbits and reported that increased hepatic expression of EL in male Tg rabbits significantly reduced diet-induced hypercholesterolemia compared with non-Tg controls. This gender difference suggests that sex hormones may mediate EL functions thereby influencing lipoprotein metabolism. To examine this hypothesis, we compared the effects of orchiectomy and ovariectomy on plasma lipids and diet-induced atherosclerosis in both Tg and non-Tg rabbits. Male rabbits were under orchiectomy whereas female rabbits were under ovariectomy. We compared plasma lipids, lipoproteins, and apolipoproteins of rabbits before and after surgery in each group fed either a chow diet or cholesterol-rich diet. On a chow diet, both male and female Tg rabbits showed lower plasma lipids than non-Tg counterparts and this lipid-lowering effect of EL was not affected by either orchiectomy in male or ovariectomy in female Tg rabbits. On a cholesterol diet; however, male Tg rabbits but not female Tg rabbits showed significant resistance to diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. The EL-mediated atheroprotective effect was eliminated after orchiectomy in male Tg rabbits. Female Tg rabbits showed similar levels of total cholesterol and lesion size of atherosclerosis compared with non-Tg rabbits and ovariectomy did not affect diet-induced hypercholesterolemia or atherosclerosis. These results suggest that increased EL protects against diet-induced hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis. The beneficial effect of EL was dependent upon the presence of androgenic hormones.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Altered HDL particle in sickle cell disease: decreased cholesterol content is associated with hemolysis, whereas decreased Apolipoprotein A1 is linked to inflammation
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Ahmet Yalcinkaya; Selma Unal; Yesim Oztas

    Hypocholesterolemia is the most frequently encountered lipid abnormality in sickle cell disease (SCD). We enrolled pediatric patients to determine the relationships between lipid profile and parameters of hemolysis, oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in SCD. The study involved 35 pediatric SCD patients and 19 healthy controls. Patients were crisis-free and had not received transfusions for the last 3 months. Total cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, apolipoprotein A1, apolipoprotein B, LCAT, LDH, bilirubin, haptoglobin, iron, ferritin, hemin, serum amyloid A (SAA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), uric acid, ALT and GGT levels were evaluated in patients’ blood. Patients had hypocholesterolemia depicted by lower levels of total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, as well as Apolipoprotein A1 and Apolipoprotein B compared to controls. The chronic hemolysis of SCD was evident in patients by higher LDH and bilirubin and almost undetectable haptoglobin levels. Hemin levels (as a measure of oxidized heme) were significantly increased in patients with SCD. Inflammation markers, SAA and MPO, were significantly increased in the patients as well. There were negative correlations between HDL-C and LDH, and Apo A1 and SAA. Hemin was positively correlated to MPO. Hemolysis was associated with decreased HDL –C, and Inflammation was linked to decreased apolipoprotein A1 levels in our SCD patients. Therefore, we suggest that the HDL particle is altered during the course of the disease. The altered HDL in SCD may become dysfunctional and result with a slowing down of the reverse cholesterol transport.

    更新日期:2019-12-20
  • Sequence analysis and variant identification at the APOC3 gene locus indicates association of rs5218 with BMI in a sample of Kuwaiti’s
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Zainab H. Malalla; Ahmad E. Al-Serri; Huda M. AlAskar; Wafaa Y. Al-Kandari; Suzanne A. Al-Bustan

    APOC3 is important in lipid transport and metabolism with limited studies reporting genetic sequence variations in specific ethnic groups. The present study aimed to analyze the full APOC3 sequence among Kuwaiti Arabs and test the association of selected variants with lipid levels and BMI. Variants were identified by Sanger sequencing the entire APOC3 gene in 100 Kuwaiti Arabs. Variants and their genotypes were fully characterized and used to construct haplotype blocks. Four variants (rs5128, rs2854117, rs2070668, KUAPOC3N3 g.5196 A > G) were selected for testing association with serum lipid levels and BMI in a cohort (n = 733). APOC3 sequence (4.3 kb) of a Kuwaiti Arab was deposited in Genbank (accession number KJ437193). Forty-two variants including 3 novels were identified including an “A” insertion at genomic positions 116,700,599–116,700,600 (promoter region) and two substitutions in intron 1 at genomic positions 116,700,819 and 116,701,159. Only three variants, (rs5128, rs2854117, and rs2070668) were analyzed for association of which rs5128 showed a trend for association with increased BMI, TG and VLDL levels that was further investigated using multivariate analysis. A significant association of rs5128 with BMI (p < 0.05) was observed following a dominant genetic model with increased risk by an OR of 4.022 (CI: 1.13–14.30). The present study is the first to report sequence analysis of APOC3 in an Arab ethnic group. This study supports the inclusion of rs5128 as a marker for assessing genetic risk to dyslipidemia and obesity and the inclusion of the novel variant g.5196 A > G for population stratification of Arabs.

    更新日期:2019-12-19
  • Potentially modifiable blood triglyceride levels by the control of conventional risk factors
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Bumjo Oh; Joohon Sung; Sohyun Chun

    Triglyceride (TG) is known to be regulated by multiple lifestyle factors rather than genetic factors. This cross-sectional and community-based study (Healthy Twin study in Korea) aimed to estimate the “modifiable TG level” by identifying non-genetic risk factors of TG. Participants were recruited between 2006 and 2011 who fulfilled health examinations and detail surveys: 3079 Korean adults including 949 monozygotic twins and 222 dizygotic twins. In order to investigate conventional risk factors, a mixed model accounting for family as a random effect was performed. In addition, we conducted a co-twin control analysis for 452 monozygotic twin (MZ) pairs, to examine non-genetic risk factors and potentially modifiable serum triglyceride levels. After excluding patients on dyslipidemia or diabetes medication, 2672 individuals (1029 men, with mean age of 43.9; and 1643 women with mean age of 43.3; 949 MZ pairs, 222 dizygotic twin pairs, and 1501sibling pairs) were analyzed. Fasting blood sugar (FBS), lipid panel, height, weight, waist (WC) and hip circumference, body mass index (BMI), amount of dietary intake and amount of physical activity was examined after adjusting for age and sex. For conventional analysis, WC, fat %, and BMI were identified as significant factors influencing serum triglyceride levels. Examination of non-genetic factors from the Co-twin control study revealed BMI (beta coefficient 9.94 with C.I. 3.42 to 16.46) and amount of alcohol intake (beta coefficient 0.08 with C.I. 0.02 to 0.14) as significant factors. Our findings suggest that controlling body weight and alcohol intake might be effective to control TG; moderate weight control (BMI 1 reduction) and reducing alcohol consumption by 50 g/week (about two glassed of beer) might reduce TG level by 9.94 and 4.0 mg/dL.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Interaction between adipocytes and high-density lipoprotein:new insights into the mechanism of obesity-induced dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Tianhua Zhang; Jin Chen; Xiaoyu Tang; Qin Luo; Danyan Xu; Bilian Yu

    Obesity is the most common nutritional disorder worldwide and is associated with dyslipidemia and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. The hallmark of dyslipidemia in obesity is low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (HDL-C) levels. Moreover, the quality of HDL is also changed in the obese setting. However, there are still some disputes on the explanations for this phenomenon. There is increasing evidence that adipose tissue, as an energy storage tissue, participates in several metabolism activities, such as hormone secretion and cholesterol efflux. It can influence overall reverse cholesterol transport and plasma HDL-C level. In obesity individuals, the changes in morphology and function of adipose tissue affect plasma HDL-C levels and HDL function, thus, adipose tissue should be the main target for the treatment of HDL metabolism in obesity. In this review, we will summarize the cross-talk between adipocytes and HDL related to cardiovascular disease and focus on the new insights of the potential mechanism underlying obesity and HDL dysfunction.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Emerging evidences for the opposite role of apolipoprotein C3 and apolipoprotein A5 in lipid metabolism and coronary artery disease
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Wen Dai; Ziyu Zhang; Chun Yao; Shuiping Zhao

    Apolipoprotein C3 (apoC3) and apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5), encoded by APOA1/C3/A4/A5 gene cluster, are two critical regulators of plasma triglyceride (TG) metabolism. Deficiency of apoC3 or apoA5 led to significant decreased or increased plasma TG levels, respectively. Recent studies indicated apoC3 and apoA5 also played roles in plasma remnant cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) and hepatic TG metabolisms. Moreover, large scale population genetic studies indicated that loss of function mutations in APOC3 and APOA5 gene conferred decreased and increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD), respectively. This manuscript mainly reviewed existing evidences suggesting the opposite role of apoC3 and apoA5 in lipid metabolism and CAD risk, and discussed the potential correlation between these two apolipoproteins.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Leptin, resistin and visfatin as useful predictors of gestational diabetes mellitus
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Ahmed Tijani Bawah; Mohammed Mustapha Seini; Albert Abaka-Yawason; Huseini Alidu; Salifu Nanga

    Lipids and adipokines including leptin, resistin and visfatin play various roles in the pathophysiology of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM). This study was aimed at determining whether serum leptin, resistin and visfatin are significantly altered during the first trimester of pregnancies that subsequently develop GDM and whether such changes are useful in predicting the disease. This was a case-case control study which compared first trimester biochemical and anthropometric parameters in 70 pregnant women who subsequently developed GDM and 70 pregnant women without GDM at the Volta Regional Hospital, Ho, Ghana. Lipid profile and some selected adipokines were analyzed and first trimester body mass index (BMI) was determined. There were significant differences (p < 0.05) in leptin, resistin, and visfatin as well as significant dyslipidemia among those with GDM compared to those without GDM. Furthermore, the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic Curves (AUCs) for leptin, resistin and visfatin were; 0.812, 0.836 and 0.799 respectively. Increased first trimester leptin (OR = 1.166; CI = 1.104–1.233; p < 0.0001), resistin (p < 0.0001) and visfatin (p < 0.0001) were associated with GDM. Hyperleptinemia, hyperesistinemia and hypervisfatinemia precede GDM and can serve as good predictive indices for gestational diabetes mellitus.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • HDL-C to hsCRP ratio is associated with left ventricular diastolic function in absence of significant coronary atherosclerosis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Lufan Sun; Xiaorui Liu; Wenna Li; Dalin Jia

    High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) is considered as a protective marker of coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD). It is still not clear if HDL-C is associated with left ventricular (LV) diastolic function in an inflammation-related manner in absence of significant coronary atherosclerosis. 392 patients who complained of chest pain and were suspected of CAD without heart failure were enrolled in this study. Coronary angiography or coronary artery CT scan was performed to detect coronary atherosclerosis. Transthoracic echocardiography was performed to evaluate cardiac function. Plasma level of HDL-C and high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were determined in each subject. Relationship between HDL-C/hsCRP ratio and LV diastolic function in subjects without significant coronary atherosclerosis was investigated. 204 subjects without significant coronary plaques were analyzed finally, including 84 males and 120 females whose ages ranged from 30 to 84 years old. When divided into HDL-C/hsCRP quartiles, those in the fourth quartile demonstrated the best diastolic function (E/e’ 10.14 ± 2.87, P = 0.02 ). HDL-C/hsCRP was the most significant factor correlated with E/e’ in univariate regression analysis (r = − 0.232, P < 0.001) and multiple regression analysis adjusted by other factors (standardized β = − 0.258 , P < 0.0005 ). In logistic regression, HDL-C/hsCRP was proved to be a protective factor of LV diastolic dysfunction E/e’ > 14 (OR = 0.649, 95%CI 0.444–0.948,P = 0.025 ). The sensitivity and specificity of using HDL-C/hsCRP < 0.98 to predict LV diastolic dysfunction were 64.3% and 56.2%, respectively. HDL-C/hsCRP ratio presented a reduced trend as increasing rate of CV risk factors. HDL-C/hsCRP ratio strongly correlates with LV diastolic function in absence of significant coronary atherosclerosis. Low HDL-C/hsCRP ratio tends to relate with LV diastolic dysfunction.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • Comparative efficacy between atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in the prevention of cardiovascular disease recurrence
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Sofía Perez-Calahorra; Martin Laclaustra; Victoria Marco-Benedi; Xavier Pinto; Rosa M. Sanchez-Hernandez; Núria Plana; Emilio Ortega; Francisco Fuentes; Fernando Civeira

    There is no randomized clinical trials with recurrence of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) as a major outcome with rosuvastatin. In order to analyze potential differences in the clinical response to atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in secondary ASCVD prevention, we have analyzed the clinical evolution of those subjects of the Dyslipemia Registry of the Spanish Society of Arteriosclerosis (SEA) who at the time of inclusion in the Registry had already suffered an ASCVD. This observational, retrospective, multicenter, national study was designed to determine potential differences between the use of atorvastatin and rosuvastatin in the ASCVD recurrence. Three different follow-up start-times were performed: time of inclusion in the registry; time of first event if this occurred after 2005, and time of first event without date restriction. Baseline characteristics were similar between treatment groups. Among atorvastatin or rosuvastatin users, 89 recurrences of ASCVD were recorded (21.9%), of which 85.4% were coronary. At the inclusion of the subject in the registry, 345 participants had not suffered a recurrence yet. These 345 subjects accumulated 1050 person-years in a mean follow-up of 3 years. Event rates were 2.73 (95% CI: 1.63, 4.25) cases/100 person-years and 2.34 (95% CI: 1.17, 4.10) cases/100 person-years in the atorvastatin and rosuvastatin groups, respectively. There were no statistically significant differences between the two groups independently of the follow-up start-time. This study does not find differences between high doses of rosuvastatin and atorvastatin in the recurrence of ASCVD, and supports their use as clinically equivalent in secondary prevention of ASCVD.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Complement C3 gene polymorphisms are associated with lipid levels, but not the risk of coronary artery disease: a case-control study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Gaojun Cai; Li Li; Yifei Chen; Haomin Huang; Lei Yu; Lianhong Xu

    Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. Previous studies have shown that complement component 3 (C3) is associated with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular risk factors. We conducted this study to evaluate the associations between tagSNPs in the C3 gene locus and the CAD susceptibility and lipid levels in the Chinese population. A hospital-based case-control study, including 1017 subjects (580 CAD patients and 437 non-CAD controls), was conducted. TagSNPs in the C3 gene were searched and genotyped by using the polymerase chain reaction-ligase detection reaction method. The C3 levels were positively associated with the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels (r = 0.269, P = 0.001). Compared with those in controls, the serum C3 levels in CAD patients were significantly higher (Control: 0.94 + 0.14 g/l; CAD: 1.10 + 0.19 g/l, P < 0.001). No significant differences in genotype or allele frequencies were observed between CAD patients and controls. The minor T allele of rs2287848 was associated with low apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) levels in controls (Bonferroni corrected P, Pc = 0.032). Linkage disequilibrium and haplotype analysis established two haplotype blocks (Block1: rs344555-rs2277984, Block 2: rs2287848-rs11672613) and six haplotypes. No significant associations between haplotypes and the risk of CAD were observed (all Pc > 0.05). The results revealed that C3 gene polymorphisms were associated with the lipid levels, but not CAD susceptibility in the Chinese population.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Pioglitazone prevents cholesterol gallstone formation through the regulation of cholesterol homeostasis in guinea pigs with a lithogenic diet
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Tao Han; Yangge Lv; Shijia Wang; Tao Hu; Hao Hong; Zan Fu

    The cholesterol gallstones diseases (CGD) is highly correlated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to investigate preventive effects of pioglitazone (PIO), an antidiabetic drug, on the CGD in guinea pigs fed with a lithogenic diet (LD). The guinea pigs were fed with the LD for 8 weeks. All guinea pigs were grouped as follows: low fat diet; LD; LD plus PIO (4 mg/kg); LD plus PIO (8 mg/kg); LD plus ezetimibe (EZE) (2 mg/kg). Gallbladder stones were observed using microscopy. The profile of biliary composition, and blood glucose, insulin and lipid were analyzed. The liver or ileum was harvested for determinations of hydroxyl-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase (HMGCR), sterol regulatory element-binding proteins 2 (SREBP2), 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1), adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette (ABC) sterol transporters G5 and G8 (ABCG5, ABCG8), bile salt export pump (BSEP), Niemann-Pick C1-Like 1 (NPC1L1) and acetyl-coenzyme A cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT2) by Western blot. The gallbladders were used for histological examination. The LD successfully induced gallstone. Both pioglitazone and ezetimibe prevented gallstone formation, as well as hepatic and cholecystic damages. Pioglitazone significantly decreased HMGCR and SREBP2, but increased CYP7A1, ABCG5, ABCG8, and BSEP in the liver. Pioglitazone also remarkably decreased NPC1L1 and ACAT2, while increased ABCG5/8 in the intestine. The beneficial alterations of cholesterol and bile acids in the bile, as well as profile of glucose, insulin and lipid in the blood were found in the guinea pigs treated with pioglitazone. Pioglitazone has a noticeable benefit towards the CGD, which is involved in changes of synthesis, transformation, absorption, and transportation of cholesterol.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • PUFAs, BDNF and lipoxin A4 inhibit chemical-induced cytotoxicity of RIN5F cells in vitro and streptozotocin-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus in vivo
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Siresha Bathina; Undurti N. Das

    To study whether minimal doses of arachidonic acid (AA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and lipoxin A4 (LXA4) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), when used in combination can protect RIN5F cells from chemical-induced cytotoxicity. As a corollary, to know whether plasma BDNF and LXA4 are altered in STZ-induced type 2 DM animals. RIN5F cells, alloxan (AL), streptozotocin (STZ), doxorubicin (DB), and benzo(a)pyrene (BP) were used in this study. Chemical-induced apoptosis and changes in antioxidants, lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) and LXA4 and BDNF levels in RIN5F cells were studied. Alterations in plasma concentrations of BDNF and LXA4 in STZ-induced type 2 diabetes animals was estimated. BDNF, LXA4 and AA, EPA and DHA protected (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01 respectively) against AL/STZ/DB/BP-induced toxicity to RIN5F cells in vitro. AL/ STZ/DB/BP inhibited BDNF and LXA4 production by RIN5F cells and were restored to normal by AA, EPA and DHA. Sub-optimal doses of BDNF, LXA4, AA and EPA when used in combination protected against cytotoxic action of AL/STZ/DB/BP on RIN5F cells in vitro by restoring LXA4/BDNF levels and altered antioxidant/lipid peroxides/NO levels (P < 0.01) to normal. STZ (65 mg/kg)-induced type 2 diabetes mellitus animals showed reduced plasma BDNF and LXA4 levels (P < 0.001). AL/STZ/DB/BP-induced cytotoxicity to RIN5F cells in vitro can be prevented by BDNF, LXA4 and AA. AL/STZ/DB/BP are cytotoxic, possibly, by suppressing the production of LXA4 and BDNF in RIN5F cells. STZ-induced type 2 DM animals have decreased plasma levels of LXA4 and BDNF. The results of the present study suggest that BDNF, LXA4, EPA, DHA, AA, GLA and BDNF protect pancreatic β cells from the cytotoxic action of various chemicals and prevent development of diabetes mellitus. LXA4 seems to be the mediator of these cytoprotective actions of BDNF and PUFAs suggesting a close interaction exists among these molecules (BDNF, PUFAs and LXA4). Hence, methods developed to deliver a combination of PUFAs (especially AA), LXA4 and BDNF may prevent development of diabetes mellitus (both type 1 and type 2).

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • CPT1a gene expression reverses the inflammatory and anti-phagocytic effect of 7-ketocholesterol in RAW264.7 macrophages
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Priscila Calle; Angeles Muñoz; Anna Sola; Georgina Hotter

    Macrophage are specialized cells that contributes to the removal of detrimental contents via phagocytosis. Lipid accumulation in macrophages, whether from phagocytosis of dying cells or from circulating oxidized low-density lipoproteins, alters macrophage biology and functionality. It is known that carnitine palmitoyl transferase 1-a (CPT1a) gene encodes an enzyme involved in fatty acid oxidation and, therefore, lipid content. However, the potential of CPT1a to activate macrophage phagocytic function have not been elucidated. Using a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, we determine if intracellular accumulation of 7-ketocholesterol (7-KC) modulates macrophage phagocytic function through CPT1a gene expression. In addition, the effects of CPT1a genetic modification on macrophage phenotype and phagocytosis has been studied. Our results revealed that CPT1a gene expression decreased by the accumulation of 7-KC at the higher dose of 7-KC. This was concomitant with an impair ability to phagocytize bioparticles and an inflammatory phenotype. GW3965 treatment, which have shown to facilitate the efflux of cholesterol, eliminated the intracellular lipid droplets of 7-KC-laden macrophages, increased the gene expression of CPT1a, diminished the gene expression of the inflammatory marker iNOS and restored macrophage phagocytosis. Furthermore, CPT1a Knockdown per se was detrimental for macrophage phagocytosis whereas transcriptional activation of CPT1a heightened the uptake of bioparticles. Altogether, our findings indicate that downregulation of CPT1a by lipid content modulates macrophage phagocytosis and inflammatory phenotype.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Changes in fatty acids composition, antioxidant potential and induction period of UHT-treated tea whitener, milk and dairy drink
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Muhammad Ajmal; Muhammad Nadeem; Muhammad Imran; Zarina Mushtaq; Muhammad Haseeb Ahmad; Muhammad Tayyab; Muhammad Kamran Khan; Nabila Gulzar

    In developing and developed countries, several versions of safe and shelf-stable Ultra High Temperature, UHT-treated products are manufactured. Terminologies and formulations of UHT-treated tea whitener, milk and dairy drink considerably vary. Comprehensive studies have been performed on UHT-treated milk; however, fatty acids compositional changes and oxidation status of UHT-treated tea whitener and dairy drink at different storage intervals have not been reported in literature. UHT-treated tea whitener, milk and dairy drink samples (450 each) of the same manufacturing date were purchased from the market and stored at ambient temperature (25-30 °C) for 90 days. At the time of collection, all the samples were only one week old. Samples of UHT-treated tea whitener, milk and dairy drink were regarded as treatments and every treatment was replicated five times. Chemical composition, fatty acid profile, 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid system and induction period were determined at 0, 45 and 90 days of storage. Fat content in freshly collected samples of UHT treated-tea whitener, milk and dairy drink were 6 and 3.5%. UHT treated milk had highest total antioxidant capacity, antioxidant activity in linoleic acid and 2, 2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyle (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity followed by UHT tea whitener and dairy drink. In freshly collected samples of UHT-treated milk, concentrations vitamin A and E were 0.46 μg/100 g and 0.63 mg/100 g, respectively. UHT-treated tea whitener had the lowest concentrations of vitamin A and E. With the progression of storage period, amount of vitamin A and E decreased. In freshly collected samples, amount of short, medium and unsaturated fatty acids in UHT-treated milk were 10.54, 59.71 and 27.44%, respectively. After 45 days of storage of UHT-treated milk, the loss of short, medium and unsaturated fatty acid was 7%, 7.1 and 5.8%, respectively. After 90 days of storage of UHT-treated milk, the loss of short, medium and unsaturated fatty acid was 8.53, 13.51 and 11.88%, accordingly. After 45 days of storage of UHT-treated tea whitener, the loss of medium and unsaturated fatty acid was 1.6 and 0.99%, respectively. After 90 days of storage, the loss of medium and unsaturated fatty acids were 8.2 and 6.6%, respectively. The induction period of fresh UHT-treated tea whitener, milk and dairy drink was 15.67, .74 and 7.27 h. Strong correlations were recorded between induction period and peroxide value of UHT-treated products. This investigation disclosed that UHT-treated tea whitener had 6% fat content with no short-chain fatty acids. Antioxidant capacity of UHT-treated milk was higher than dairy drink and tea whitener. Due to the presence of partially hydrogenated fat, oxidative stability of UHT-treated tea whitener was better than UHT-treated milk and dairy drink. Vitamin A and E was not found in UHT-treated tea whitener. For the anticipation of oxidative stability of UHT-treated milk, dairy drink and tea whitener, induction period/ Rancimat method can be used.

    更新日期:2019-12-07
  • Target genes associated with lipid and glucose metabolism in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-05
    Ting Li; Hua Yan; Yan Geng; Haitao Shi; Hong Li; Shenhao Wang; Yatao Wang; Jingyuan Xu; Gang Zhao; Xiaolan Lu

    Insulin resistance (IR) and lipid peroxidation are accepted as ‘two-hit’ hypothesis of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, there are few published research on identifying genes which connect lipid and glucose metabolism by gene microarray. To identify target genes related to lipid and glucose metabolism that might be responsible for the pathogenesis of NAFLD. A rat model of NAFLD was established by feeding male rats with high-fat diet and gene expression profiles of liver tissues were determined using Agilent DNA microarray. We then investigated differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and intersection of them by using Gene Ontology (GO) and Pathway Analyses. Target genes were verified by Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Compared with control, 932 genes, including 783 up-regulated and 149 down-regulated, exhibited differences in expression. The up-regulated genes were involved in biosynthesis, cell development, cell differentiation and down-regulated genes contributed to biological metabolic process, adipokine metabolic pathway and insulin signaling pathway. We identified genes involved in insulin signaling pathway, Notch signaling pathway and lipid synthetic process to be closely related to liver fat accumulation and insulin resistance. Among them, IGFBP7, Notch1 and HMGCR were up-regulated (2.85-fold, 3.22-fold, and 2.06-fold, respectively, all P < 0.05) and ACACB was down-regulated (2.08-fold, P < 0.01). These four genes supposed to connect lipid and glucose metabolism after GO and Pathway analyses. These findings provide innovative information on the whole genome expression profile due to high-fat diet feeding, and bring new insight into the regulating effects of genes on the lipid and glucose metabolism of NAFLD.

    更新日期:2019-12-05
  • Triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as a predictor of long-term mortality in patients with coronary artery disease after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention: a retrospective cohort study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Xin-Ya Dai; Ying-Ying Zheng; Jun-Nan Tang; Xu-Ming Yang; Qian-Qian Guo; Jian-Chao Zhang; Meng-Die Cheng; Feng-Hua Song; Zhi-Yu Liu; Kai Wang; Li-Zhu Jiang; Lei Fan; Xiao-Ting Yue; Yan Bai; Zeng-Lei Zhang; Ru-Jie Zheng; Jin-Ying Zhang

    It has been confirmed that the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (THR) is associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. However, to the best of our knowledge, only a few studies with small sample sizes have investigated the relationship between THR and coronary artery disease (CAD). Therefore, we aimed to assess the correlation between the THR and long-term mortality in patients with CAD after undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in our study that enrolled a large number of patients. A total of 3269 post-PCI patients with CAD were enrolled in the CORFCHD-ZZ study from January 2013 to December 2017. The mean follow-up time was 37.59 ± 22.24 months. Patients were divided into two groups according to their THR value: the lower group (THR < 2.84, n = 1232) and the higher group (THR ≥ 2.84, n = 2037). The primary endpoint was long-term mortality, including all-cause mortality (ACM) and cardiac mortality (CM). The secondary endpoints were major adverse cardiac events (MACEs) and major adverse cardiac and cerebrovascular events (MACCEs). In our study, ACM occurred in 124 patients: 30 (2.4%) in the lower group and 94 (4.6%) in the higher group (P = 0.002). MACEs occurred in 362 patients: 111 (9.0%) in the lower group and 251 (12.3%) in the higher group (P = 0.003). The number of MACCEs was 482: 152 (12.3%) in the lower group and 320 (15.7%) in the higher group (P = 0.008). Heart failure occurred in 514 patients: 89 (7.2%) in the lower group and 425 (20.9%) in the higher group (P < 0.001). Kaplan–Meier analyses showed that elevated THR was significantly related to long-term ACM (log-rank, P = 0.044) and the occurrence of heart failure (log-rank, P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses showed that the THR was an independent predictor of long-term ACM (adjusted HR = 2.042 [1.264–3.300], P = 0.004) and heart failure (adjusted HR = 1.700 [1.347–2.147], P < 0.001). An increased THR is an independent predictor of long-term ACM and heart failure in post-PCI patients with CAD.

    更新日期:2019-12-04
  • Correction to: Fat necrosis in the breast: a systematic review of clinical
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-01
    Narges Vasei; Azita Shishegar; Forouzan Ghalkhani; Mohammad Darvishi

    .

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Apolipoprotein A1 is associated with SYNTAX score in patients with a non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Bang-Dang Chen; Xiao-Cui Chen; Yi-Ning Yang; Xiao-Ming Gao; Xiang Ma; Ying Huang; Xiao-Mei Li; Min-Tao Gai; Fen Liu; Shuo Pan; Yi-Tong Ma

    The study was designed to investigate lipid profile and SYNTAX score in patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI). 311 patients with NSTEMI were enrolled. The demographic, clinical data, blood samples and SYNTAX score were documented. The Pearson linear correlation was used to detect confounding factors linearly correlated with SYNTAX score. The significantly correlated confounding factors were put into the multiple linear regressions. The Pearson linear correlation showed that high-density lipoprotein- cholesterol (HDL-C) and apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) were significantly correlated with Syntax Score (r = − 0.119, P = 0.044 and r = − 0.182, P = 0.002, respectively). The multiple linear regressions for Syntax Score were built using HDL-C and ApoA1, respectively. After the adjustment of other significantly correlated confounding factors such as white blood cell count (WBC), myohemoglobin (MB), glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase (AST) and creatinine, the ApoA1 still showed significant association with Syntax Score (β = − 0.151, P = 0.028). The area under curve was (AUC) 0.624 and the optimal cutoff value is 1.07 g/L when using ApoA1 to predict moderate and severe coronary artery lesions. The patients with ApoA1 ≥ 1.07 g/L and < 1.07 g/L have the Syntax Scores of 12.21 ± 11.58 and 16.33 ± 11.53, respectively (P = 0.001). The ApoA1 is the only lipid factor significantly associated with complexity of coronary artery lesion in patients with NSTEMI, the patients with ApoA1 < 1.07 g/L may have more complex coronary artery lesions.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Exposure to PM2.5 affects blood lipid levels in asthmatic rats through notch signaling pathway
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-07
    Tianrong Zhang; Yan Zheng; Yizhen Gao; Tianyang Zhao; Shuangyu Guo; Liwei Yang; Yanbin Shi; Liting Zhou; Lin Ye

    Epidemiological studies have confirmed atmospheric PM2.5 could affect asthma, and dyslipidemia may be related to pathogenesis of asthma. Recent studies show Notch ligands had lipid combination domains which are responsible for regulating lipid levels. However, the effect of PM2.5 on asthmatic rats’ lipid levels and the role of Notch signaling pathway is unclear. Rats were treat with ovalbumin (OVA) to establish asthma models. Notch signaling pathway inhibitor (DAPT) was injected intraperitoneally. Asthmatic and healthy rats were exposed to different concentrations of PM2.5. Lung tissues were collected and the expression of Hes1 protein was detected by Western Blot. Blood samples were collected to detect the serum lipid levels. Hes1 expression levels in healthy and asthma pathway inhibition groups were lower than those in control groups. Compared with control group, rats exposed to PM2.5 in middle and high dose, the levels of TG and TC were decreased. Similar results were observed after exposure to the same concentration of PM2.5 in asthmatic rats. Rats, which were exposed to PM2.5 after being established the asthma model successfully, could exhibit more significant dyslipidemia than those with direct exposure. After Notch signaling pathway inhibited, TC and LDL in asthma pathway inhibition group were lower than those in healthy group. PM2.5 can affect the lipid levels of asthmatic rats through the Notch signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms affecting changes in visceral fat, waist circumference and lipid profile in breast cancer survivors supplemented with vitamin D3
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Elham Kazemian; Atieh Amouzegar; Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari; Nariman Moradi; Safoora Gharibzadeh; Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini; Maryam Khademolmele; Atefeh As’habi; Sayed Hossein Davoodi

    We investigated whether vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphisms are associated with circulating metabolic biomarkers and anthropometric measures changes in breast cancer survivors supplemented with vitamin D3. One hundred sixty-eight breast cancer survivors admitted to Shohaday-e-Tajrish hospital received 4000 IU of daily vitamin D3 supplements for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurements as well dietary, physical activity and plasma metabolic biomarkers assessments were performed before and after intervention. VDR polymorphisms were considered as the main exposures. Multivariate multiple linear regression analyses were used to determine the association between the VDR single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and changes in metabolic and anthropometric measures in response to vitamin D3 supplementation. One hundred twenty-five (85%) women had insufficient and inadequate levels of plasma 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D) at baseline. Compared to the AA genotype of the ApaI, the aa category showed greater increase in muscle mass [71.3(10.7131.9)] and higher decrease in LDL-C [− 17.9(− 33.6, − 2.3)] levels after adjustment for potential confounders. In addition, the heterozygous genotype (Bb) of the BsmI VDR was associated with higher increase in WC following vitamin D3 supplementation, compared to BB [2.7(0.1,5.3)]. Haplotype score analyses indicate a significant association between inferred haplotypes from BsmI, ApaI, TaqI and FokI, BsmI and Cdx2 VDR polymorphisms and on-study visceral fat changes. Findings of this study showed that genetic variation in the VDR gene was associated with changes in cardio-metabolic parameters in breast cancer survivors, supplemented with vitamin D3, results could provide a novel insight into better understanding of which subset of individuals benefit most from normalization of vitamin D status. This trial has been registered on the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) under the identification code: IRCT2017091736244N1, registration date: 2017-11-10, http://www.irct.ir/trial/27153 and was approved by the ethics committees of the National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute (NNFTRI), Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU).

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correlation of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease among the non-obese Chinese population with normal blood lipid levels: a retrospective cohort research
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-09
    Zekai Chen; Hailun Qin; Shaobin Qiu; Guanzhi Chen; Youren Chen

    Although nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is commonly seen in metabolic abnormalities patients, NAFLD is also occurred in the non-obese individuals. The ratio of triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) is considered as a predictive factor of NAFLD. However, it is still difficult to confirm the correlation of TG/HDL-C ratio with NAFLD among non-obese Chinese people with normal blood lipid levels. In our study, it is aimed to analyze the correlation of TG/HDL-C ratio with NAFLD among non-obese Chinese population without dyslipidemia. In the retrospective cohort study, 9838 non-obese subjects who were free of NAFLD were enrolled. NAFLD was diagnosed by ultrasonography. During the median follow-up period of 2.9 years, cumulative incidence of NAFLD in non-obesity individuals was 8.69% among the overall population; meanwhile, its incidence was gradually enhanced across the quartiles of TG/HDL-C ratio (0.61, 1.28, 2.55 and 4.25% respectively). Then the multivariate factors were adjusted. The multivariate cox regression analysis results showed that the hazard ratio of NAFLD in higher quartiles (Q2-Q4) was 2.10 (1.33–3.32), 3.11 (2.03–4.75) and 3.40 (2.24–5.17), respectively. Besides, the area under receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) of TG/HDL-C ratio in the male was 0.70 (0.68–0.72) and 0.72 (0.70–0.75) in the female. The final values were dramatically larger than the other lipid index. There is an independent relationship between TG/HDL-C and NAFLD among non-obese Chinese population without dyslipidemia, and TG/HDL-C may be used as a better predictor for NAFLD.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • U-shaped association between low-density lipid cholesterol and diabetes mellitus in patients with hypertension
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-17
    Lin Liu; Geng Shen; Jia-yi Huang; Yu-ling Yu; Chao-lei Chen; Yu-qing Huang; Ying-qing Feng

    The magnitude and direction of association of low-density lipid cholesterol (LDL-C) with diabetes mellitus (DM) might differ by hypertensive status, but there is limited epidemiological evidence in China. We examined the association between LDL-C levels and DM in 9892 participants with hypertension using logistic regression. Participants were stratified into three groups according to LDL-C levels (desirable, borderline high or high), then further divided into quartiles. Restricted cubic spline regression models, subgroup analysis and interaction tests were also conducted to evaluate the shape of association. After adjusting for covariates, lower LDL-C had a significant and inverse association with the likelihood of DM in all participants (OR: 0.944, 95% CI = 0.893, 0.998). In participants with desirable LDL-C concentrations (< 3.4 mmol/L), LDL-C protected against DM (OR = 1.240, 95% CI = 1.076, 1.429 per 1 mmol/L decrease). In participants with higher LDL-C concentrations (> 4.1 mmol/L), LDL-C increased the DM likelihood (OR = 1.536, 95% CI = 1.126, 2.096 per 1 mmol/L increase). Restricted cubic spline regression also found a U-shaped association between LDL-C levels and DM prevalence. There was a U-shaped association between LDL-C levels and DM in Chinese patients with hypertension.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Lipid profiling of suction blister fluid: comparison of lipids in interstitial fluid and plasma
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Anders K. Nilsson; Ulrika Sjöbom; Karin Christenson; Ann Hellström

    Recent technical advances in the extraction of dermal interstitial fluid (ISF) have stimulated interest in using this rather unexploited biofluid as an alternative to blood for detection and prediction of disease. However, knowledge about the presence of useful biomarkers for health monitoring in ISF is still limited. In this study, we characterized the lipidome of human suction blister fluid (SBF) as a surrogate for pure ISF and compared it to that of plasma. Plasma and SBF samples were obtained from 18 healthy human volunteers after an overnight fast. Total lipids were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. One hundred ninety-three lipid species covering 10 complex lipid classes were detected and quantified in both plasma and SBF using multiple reaction monitoring. A fraction of the lipid extract was subjected to alkaline transesterification and fatty acid methyl esters were analyzed by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The total concentration of lipids in SBF was 17% of the plasma lipid concentration. The molar fraction of lipid species within lipid classes, as well as total fatty acids, showed a generally high correlation between plasma and SBF. However, SBF had larger fractions of lysophospholipids and diglycerides relative to plasma, and consequently less diacylphospholipids and triglycerides. Principal component analysis revealed that the interindividual variation in SBF lipid profiles was considerably larger than the within-subject variation between plasma and SBF. Plasma and SBF lipid profiles show high correlation and SBF could be used interchangeably with blood for the analysis of major lipids used in health monitoring.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • TRIB1 rs17321515 gene polymorphism increases the risk of coronary heart disease in general population and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease patients in Chinese Han population
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Qun Liu; Shou-Sheng Liu; Zhen-Zhen Zhao; Ben-Tian Zhao; Shui-Xian Du; Wen-Wen Jin; Yong-Ning Xin

    Present evidences suggested that TRIB1 rs17321515 polymorphism was tightly associated with the increased risk of NAFLD and CHD. CHD is one of the main complications of NAFLD, whether TRIB1 rs17321515 polymorphism could affect the risk of CHD in general population and NAFLD patients in Chinese Han population was remain unknown. The present study was designed to investigate the association between TRIB1 rs17321515 polymorphism and the risk of CHD in general population and NAFLD patients in Chinese Han population, and investigate the effect of TRIB1 rs17321515 polymorphism on serum lipid levels. TRIB1 rs17321515 gene polymorphism was genotyped using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in healthy controls (n = 175), CHD patients (n = 155), NAFLD patients (n = 146), and NAFLD+CHD patients (n = 156). Serum lipid profiles were determined using biochemical methods. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS 24.0 statistical software. The TRIB1 rs17321515 AA+GA genotypes were the significant risk factors for the CHD in general population (OR = 1.788; 95% CI: 1.104–2.897; P = 0.018) and in the NAFLD patients (OR = 1.760; 95% CI: 1.071–2.891; P = 0.026). After adjusted for age, gender, and body mass index, the risk for CHD in general population (OR = 1.857; 95% CI: 1.116–3.089; P = 0.017) and NAFLD patients was still significant (OR = 1.723; 95% CI: 1.033–2.873; P = 0.037). In addition, TRIB1 rs17321515 A carriers possess the higher lipid profiles in the included subjects. TRIB1 rs17321515 AA+GA genotypes were significant associated with the risk of CHD in general population and in NAFLD patients in Chinese Han population. The rs17321515 A allele increases the serum lipid profiles in included subjects.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Small size apolipoprotein(a) isoforms enhance inflammatory and proteolytic potential of collagen-primed monocytes
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Nadia Sabbah; Stéphane Jaisson; Roselyne Garnotel; Eduardo Anglés-Cano; Philippe Gillery

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process involving activation of monocytes recruited by various chemoattractant factors, among which lipoprotein(a) and its specific apolipoprotein apo(a). Lp(a) contains a specific apolipoprotein apo(a) which size is determined by a variable number of repeats of a specific structural domain, the kringle IV type 2 (IV-2). Lp(a) plasma concentration and apo(a) size is inversely correlated, and smaller apo(a) are major risk factors for coronary heart disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant apo(a) isoforms (containing 10, 18 or 34 kringles) on monocytes interacting with type I collagen. Apo(a) isoforms stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) production by monocytes, and not modified monocytes adhesion on type I collagen. This effect was specific of apo(a) since no effect was observed in the presence of plasminogen and was inversely related to apo(a) size. The lysine analogue 6-aminohexanoic acid which blocks the lysine binding sites (LBS), and carboxypeptidase B (CpB) which cleaves carboxy-terminal lysine residues, abolished apo(a)-induced ROS and MMP-9 production, highlighting an effect mediated by apo(a) lysing-binding sites. These results indicate that activation of collagen-primed monocytes stimulated with apo(a) is a Kringle number-dependent effect and reinforce the hypothesis of a role for small size apo(a) isoforms in atherothrombosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Metabolic-related markers and inflammatory factors as predictors of dyslipidemia among urban Han Chinese adults
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Ying Lian; Lingling Xie; Yafei Liu; Fang Tang

    Metabolic-related markers and inflammatory factors have been proved to be associated with increased risk of dyslipidemia. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying these associations might provide an important perspective for the prevention of dyslipidemia. In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of metabolic-related markers on dyslipidemia, and to assess what extent inflammation mediating these associations. A total of 25,130 participants without dyslipidemia at baseline were included in the present study during 2010–2015. A partial least squares path model was used to explore possible pathways from metabolic-related markers to dyslipidemia, and the mediation role of inflammation. Lipid metabolism factor, blood pressure factor, obesity condition factor, glucose metabolism factor, renal function factor and lifestyle factor had diverse impact on development of dyslipidemia, directly and (or) indirectly. Partial least squares path analysis revealed that the determination coefficient of the model (R2) was 0.52. Lipid metabolism factor, obesity condition factor, and glucose metabolism factor had both direct and indirect effect on dyslipidemia through inflammatory factor. Lipid metabolism factor was the most important risk factor (β = 0.68) in the prediction of dyslipidemia, followed by obesity condition factor (β = 0.06) and glucose metabolism factor (β = 0.03). Metabolic-related markers are strong risk factors for dyslipidemia. Inflammatory factors have significant mediating effect on these relationships. These findings suggested that comprehensive intervention strategies on metabolic biomarkers and inflammatory factors should be taken into consideration in prevention and treatment of dyslipidemia.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • 4-cholesten-3-one decreases breast cancer cell viability and alters membrane raft-localized EGFR expression by reducing lipogenesis and enhancing LXR-dependent cholesterol transporters
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Josiane Elia; Delphine Carbonnelle; Cédric Logé; Lucie Ory; Jean-Michel Huvelin; Mona Tannoury; Mona Diab-Assaf; Karina Petit; Hassan Nazih

    The alteration of lipid metabolism in cancer cells is recognized as one of the most important metabolic hallmarks of cancer. Membrane rafts defined as plasma membrane microdomains enriched in cholesterol and sphingolipids serve as platforms for signaling regulation in cancer. The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the cholesterol metabolite, 4-cholesten-3-one, on lipid metabolism and membrane raft integrity in two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Its ability to reduce cell viability and migration has also been investigated. RT-qPCR was performed to evaluate the expression of enzymes involved in lipogenesis and cholesterol synthesis, and ABCG1 and ABCA1 transporters involved in cholesterol efflux. Its effect on cell viability and migration was studied using the MTT assay, the wound healing assay and the Transwell migration assay, respectively. The effect of 4-cholesten-3-one on membrane rafts integrity was investigated by studying the protein expression of flotillin-2, a membrane raft marker, and raft-enriched EGFR by western blot. Interestingly, we found that 4-cholesten-3-one treatment decreased mRNA expression of different enzymes including ACC1, FASN, SCD1 and HMGCR. We further demonstrated that 4-cholesten-3-one increased the expression of ABCG1 and ABCA1. We also found that 4-cholesten-3-one decreased the viability of MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. This effect was neutralized after treatment with LXR inverse agonist or after LXRβ knockdown by siRNA. As a result, we also demonstrated that 4-cholesten-3-one disrupts membrane rafts and cell migration capacity. Our results show that 4-cholesten-3-one exerts promising antitumor activity by altering LXR-dependent lipid metabolism in breast cancer cells without increasing lipogenesis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phosphatidylcholine and its relation to apolipoproteins A-1 and B changes after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: a cohort study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-05
    Elin Rebecka Carlsson; Kristine H. Allin; Sten Madsbad; Mogens Fenger

    Phosphatidylcholine (PC), the most abundant of the phospholipids, has several metabolic functions in organs such as the liver and the intestine, important structural- and signaling functions in biological membranes, and might have a role in the effects of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), an operation known to ameliorate metabolic diseases, including type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that serum PC, as a reflection of phospholipid metabolism, changes after RYGB, and that changes are related to weight loss and possibly to changes in glucose metabolism (reflected in the HbA1c-level) as well as to changes in serum Apo A1, Apo B and Apo B/Apo A1 ratio. In a cohort of 220 RYGB patients, we studied changes in serum PC after RYGB in relation to serum Apo A1 and Apo B, the main apolipoproteins in HDL- and LDL/VLDL-particles, respectively, up to 2 years following RYGB-surgery. Serum PC reached its lowest levels 3 months postoperatively to later rebound to preoperative levels 24 months after RYGB. No difference was seen between patients with or without type 2 diabetes. Serum Apo A1 showed a similar pattern whereas serum Apo B concentrations stayed low after the initial decrease after RYGB. As a result, the Apo B / Apo A1 ratio constantly decreased during follow-up. There was a strong positive correlation between PC and Apo A1, and between PC and Apo B, but none between Apo A1 and Apo B. After RYGB surgery, both PC and Apo A1, but not Apo B, correlated positively to weight loss. In relation to total cholesterol, the molar ratio between serum PC and plasma cholesterol increased steadily after RYGB. We conclude that changes in PC and apolipoproteins after RYGB are highly dynamic, reflecting a large plasticity and capability of accommodating lipid metabolism including PC-, cholesterol- and apolipoprotein metabolism imposed by RYGB surgery, independent of glucose tolerance. We suggest that after RYGB and major weight loss, PC and Apo A1 might have a special role in the altered metabolism of lipoproteins.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Atherogenic index of plasma is a novel and strong predictor associated with fatty liver: a cross-sectional study in the Chinese Han population
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Fangfei Xie; Hong Zhou; Yun Wang

    Atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) has been reported to be an important predictor for coronary artery disease and obesity. However, few studies has yet systematically evaluated the association between AIP and Fatty Liver (FL) and its advantage in FL prediction compared with BMI, waist, SBP, DBP, BG, ALT and AST. A total of 7838 participants aged from 19 to 93 years were included in this study. Height, weight, waist, SBP, DBP, BG, ALT and AST were measured. Difference analyses, odds ratio calculation, logistic and predictive analyses were used to evaluate the association and discrimination ability between AIP, BMI, waist, SBP, DBP, BG, ALT, AST and FL. Compared with non-FL, AIP in FL people showed a significant increase. Subjects in the higher quartiles of AIP had a significantly increased risk of fatty liver compared with those in the lowest quartile (P < 0.01) after adjustment of gender and age. ORs were grown faster in female and youth group. AIP contributed most in the logistic eq. (B = 2.64, P < 0.01) and showed high ability in risk prediction for FL (AUC = 0.810, P < 0.01). AIP might be a novel and strong predictor associated with FL in Chinese Han population. Higher AIP level was positively and strongly associated with FL.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • New insights into different adipokines in linking the pathophysiology of obesity and psoriasis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Yi Kong; Suhan Zhang; Ruifang Wu; Xin Su; Daoquan Peng; Ming Zhao; Yuwen Su

    Psoriasis is a chronic, systemic, hyper-proliferative immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease. The results of epidemiological investigations have shown that psoriasis affects around 2% of the general population worldwide, and the total number of psoriasis patients is more than 6 million in China. Apart from the skin manifestations, psoriasis has been verified to associate with several metabolic comorbidities, such as insulin resistance, diabetes and obesity. However, the underlying mechanism is still not elucidated. Adipocytes, considered as the active endocrine cells, are dysfunctional in obesity which displays increased synthesis and secretion of adipokines with other modified metabolic properties. Currently, growing evidence has pointed to the central role of adipokines in adipose tissue and the immune system, providing new insights into the effect of adipokines in linking the pathophysiology of obesity and psoriasis. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the pathological role of adipokines and the potential mechanisms whereby different adipokines link obesity and psoriasis. Furthermore, we also provide evidence which identifies a potential therapeutic target aiming at adipokines for the management of these two diseases.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Variations in hepatic lipid species of age-matched male mice fed a methionine-choline-deficient diet and housed in different animal facilities
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Lisa Rein-Fischboeck; Elisabeth M. Haberl; Rebekka Pohl; Susanne Feder; Gerhard Liebisch; Sabrina Krautbauer; Christa Buechler

    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common disease and feeding mice a methionine-choline-deficient (MCD) diet is a frequently used model to study its pathophysiology. Genetic and environmental factors influence NASH development and liver lipid content, which was studied herein using C57BL/6 J mice bred in two different animal facilities. Age-matched male C57BL/6 J mice bred in two different animal facilities (later on referred to as WT1 and WT2) at the University Hospital of Regensburg were fed identical MCD or control chows for 2 weeks. Hepatic gene and protein expression and lipid composition were determined. NASH was associated with increased hepatic triglycerides, which were actually higher in WT1 than WT2 liver in both dietary groups. Cholesterol contributes to hepatic injury but was only elevated in WT2 NASH liver. Ceramides account for insulin resistance and cell death, and ceramide species d18:1/16:0 and d18:1/18:0 were higher in the NASH liver of both groups. Saturated sphingomyelins only declined in WT1 NASH liver. Lysophosphatidylcholine concentrations were quite normal in NASH and only one of the 12 altered phosphatidylcholine species declined in NASH liver of both groups. Very few phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylinositol species were comparably regulated in NASH liver of both animal groups. Seven of these lipid species declined and two increased in NASH. Notably, hepatic mRNA expression of proinflammatory (F4/80, CD68, IL-6, TNF and chemerin) and profibrotic genes (TGF beta and alpha SMA) was comparable in WT1 and WT2 mice. Mice housed and bred in different animal facilities had comparable disease severity of NASH whereas liver lipids varied among the groups. Thus, there was no specific lipid signature for NASH in the MCD model.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Sialic acid metabolism as a potential therapeutic target of atherosclerosis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Chao Zhang; Jingyuan Chen; Yuhao Liu; Danyan Xu

    Sialic acid (Sia), the acylated derivative of the nine-carbon sugar neuraminic acid, is a terminal component of the oligosaccharide chains of many glycoproteins and glycolipids. In light of its important biological and pathological functions, the relationship between Sia and coronary artery disease (CAD) has been drawing great attentions recently. Large-scale epidemiological surveys have uncovered a positive correlation between plasma total Sia and CAD risk. Further research demonstrated that N-Acetyl-Neuraminic Acid, acting as a signaling molecule, triggered myocardial injury via activation of Rho/ROCK-JNK/ERK signaling pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, there were some evidences showing that the aberrant sialylation of low-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein receptor and blood cells was involved in the pathological process of atherosclerosis. Significantly, the Sia regulates immune response by binding to sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin (Siglecs). The Sia-Siglecs axis is involved in the immune inflammation of atherosclerosis. The generation of Sia and sialylation of glycoconjugate both depend on many enzymes, such as sialidase, sialyltransferase and trans-sialidase. Abnormal activation or level of these enzymes associated with atherosclerosis, and inhibitors of them might be new CAD treatments. In this review, we focus on summarizing current understanding of Sia metabolism and of its relevance to atherosclerosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms affecting changes in visceral fat, waist circumference and lipid profile in breast cancer survivors supplemented with vitamin D3
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-14
    Elham Kazemian; Atieh Amouzegar; Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari; Nariman Moradi; Safoora Gharibzadeh; Yasaman Jamshidi-Naeini; Maryam Khademolmele; Atefeh As’habi; Sayed Hossein Davoodi

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that one of the co-authors has a mistake in the author name.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Long-term statin persistence is poor among high-risk patients with dyslipidemia: a real-world administrative claims analysis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-09-16
    Peter P. Toth; Craig Granowitz; Michael Hull; Amy Anderson; Sephy Philip

    A decade ago, statin persistence was < 50% after 1 year, and recent short-term analyses have revealed very little progress in improving statin persistence, even in patients with a prior cardiovascular (CV) event. Data on longer-term statin persistence are lacking. We measured long-term statin persistence in patients with high CV risk. This retrospective administrative claims analysis of the Optum Research Database included patients aged ≥ 45 years with diabetes and/or atherosclerotic CV disease (ASCVD) who had a statin prescription filled in 2010. It included an elevated triglycerides (TG) cohort of patients with index date in 2010 and TG ≥ 150 mg/dL (n = 23,181) and a propensity-matched comparator cohort with TG < 150 mg/dL and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol > 40 mg/dL (n = 23,181). Both cohorts were followed for ≥ 6 months up to March 2016. The probability of remaining on a prescription fill for index statin therapy was 47% after 1 year and 19% after 5 years in both cohorts. Statin persistence was worse among women than men, and among younger versus older patients (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). After 5 years, the probability of remaining on a prescription fill for index statin was < 25% across all subgroups assessed including patients with and without baseline revascularization, heart failure, peripheral artery disease and renal disease. Similar results were observed in a subcohort analysis of patients with TG 200–499 mg/dL. Long-term statin persistence after 5 years is alarmingly low (< 25%) and is a public health concern.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Elevated triglyceride-to-HDL cholesterol ratio is an indicator for insulin resistance in middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese population: a cross-sectional study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-11
    Wei-Chung Yeh; Yu-Chung Tsao; Wen-Cheng Li; I-Shiang Tzeng; Liang-Sien Chen; Jau-Yuan Chen

    Previous studies have reported that the triglyceride to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio could be a simple clinical indicator of insulin resistance (IR), but the results indicated that there were heterogeneities between different ethnicities. We aimed to investigate the association between TG/HDL-C and IR (as measured by homeostasis model assessment of IR [HOMA-IR]), and establish a clinical prediction rule for IR in middle-aged and elderly Taiwanese. A total of 398 subjects were recruited, and each subject completed a questionnaire that included personal and medical history data, and underwent anthropometric measurement and blood sampling. IR was defined as HOMA-IR index value ≥2.0. Chi-squared test, independent two-sample t-test, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, and multiple logistic regression were used to evaluate the association between IR and TG/HDL-C ratio. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was conducted to evaluate the ability of the developed clinical prediction rule to correctly discriminate between subjects of IR positive and IR negative groups. A significant association between IR and TG/HDL-C ratio was identified with a Pearson’s correlation coefficient of 0.35 (p-value< 0.001). In multiple logistic regression, high BMI (OR = 1.23; 95% C.I. = 1.13–1.33), hypertension (OR = 1.90; 95% C.I. = 1.12–3.21), diabetes mellitus (OR = 5.44; 95% C.I. = 2.93–10.08) and high TG/HDL ratio (OR = 1.45; 95% C.I. = 1.23–1.72) were significantly associated with the risk of elevated HOMA-IR. The area under ROC curves for TG/HDL-C ratio was 0.729 and the optimal threshold value was 2.197 where the corresponding of sensitivity and specificity were 72.4 and 65.1%. Our findings showed that the elevated TG/HDL-C ratio was significantly associated with IR and could be used as an indicator of IR among the middle-aged and elderly population in Taiwan. It is clinically available, thus eliminating any additional costs. Future research is warranted to investigate the use of TG/HDL-C ratio combined with other risk factors for predicting IR under diverse ethnic backgrounds.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Down-regulated of SREBP-1 in circulating leukocyte is a risk factor for atherosclerosis: a case control study
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Chunyan Peng; Pan Lei; Xiandong Li; Huaqiang Xie; Xiaowen Yang; Tao Zhang; Zheng Cao; Jicai Zhang

    Sterol regulatory-element binding proteins (SREBPs) and mir-33 (miR-33a, miR-33b), which are encoded by the introns of SREBPs, are key factors in the lipid metabolism pathway. SREBPs mRNA in circulating leucocyte and carotid plaques, along with various risk factors that associated with Coronary Atherosclerotic Disease (CAD) were investigated in a central Chinese cohort. A total of 218 coronary atherosclerotic disease (CAD) patients, and 178 non-CAD controls, were recruited to collect leukocytes. Carotid plaques and peripheral blood were obtained from CAD patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy (CEA) (n = 12) while THP-1 and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) to establish an in vitro foam cell formation model. SREBPs and miR-33 levels were quantified by qPCR. Routine biochemical markers were measured using standard procedures. SREBP-1 mRNA level of circulating leucocytes in CAD patients were significantly lower than in non-CAD controls (p = 0.005). After stratification coronary artery atherosclerotic complexity, we detected a significant reduction of SREBP-1 in high-risk complexity CAD patients (SYNTAX score > 23) (p = 0.001). Logistic regression analysis indicated that decreased expression of SREBP-1 was a risk factor of CAD (odds ratio (OR) =0.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.30~0.76, p = 0.002) after adjusting clinical confounders; the mRNA levels of SREBPs in carotid plaques correlated with the corresponding value in circulating leukocytes (SREBP-1 r = 0.717, p = 0.010; SREBP-2 r = 0.612, p = 0.034). Finally, there was no significant difference in serum miR-33 levels between CAD patients and controls. Our finding suggesting a potential role in the adjustment of established CAD risk. The future clarification of how SREBP-1 influence the pathogenesis of CAD might pave the way for the development of novel therapeutic methods.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Fatty acids, epigenetic mechanisms and chronic diseases: a systematic review
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    K. González-Becerra; O. Ramos-Lopez; E. Barrón-Cabrera; J. I. Riezu-Boj; F. I. Milagro; E. Martínez-López; J. A. Martínez

    Chronic illnesses like obesity, type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular diseases, are worldwide major causes of morbidity and mortality. These pathological conditions involve interactions between environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Recent advances in nutriepigenomics are contributing to clarify the role of some nutritional factors, including dietary fatty acids in gene expression regulation. This systematic review assesses currently available information concerning the role of the different fatty acids on epigenetic mechanisms that affect the development of chronic diseases or induce protective effects on metabolic alterations. A targeted search was conducted in the PubMed/Medline databases using the keywords “fatty acids and epigenetic”. The data were analyzed according to the PRISMA-P guidelines. Consumption fatty acids like n-3 PUFA: EPA and DHA, and MUFA: oleic and palmitoleic acid was associated with an improvement of metabolic alterations. On the other hand, fatty acids that have been associated with the presence or development of obesity, T2D, pro-inflammatory profile, atherosclerosis and IR were n-6 PUFA, saturated fatty acids (stearic and palmitic), and trans fatty acids (elaidic), have been also linked with epigenetic changes. Fatty acids can regulate gene expression by modifying epigenetic mechanisms and consequently result in positive or negative impacts on metabolic outcomes.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Therapeutic effect and autophagy regulation of myriocin in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Rui-Xu Yang; Qin Pan; Xiao-Lin Liu; Da Zhou; Feng-Zhi Xin; Ze-Hua Zhao; Rui-Nan Zhang; Jing Zeng; Liang Qiao; Chun-Xiu Hu; Guo-Wang Xu; Jian-Gao Fan

    Ceramide plays pathogenic roles in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) via multiple mechanisms, and as such inhibition of ceramide de novo synthesis in the liver may be of therapeutically beneficial in patients with NAFLD. In this study, we aimed to explore whether inhibition of ceramide signaling by myriocin is beneficial in animal model of NAFLD via regulating autophagy. Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: standard chow (n = 10), high-fat diet (HFD) (n = 10) or HFD combined with oral administration of myriocin (0.3 mg/kg on alternate days for 8 weeks) (n = 10). Liver histology and autophagy function were measured. HepG2 cells were incubated with fatty acid with or without myriocin treatment. Lipid accumulation and autophagy markers in the HepG2 cells were analyzed. Serum ceramide changes were studied in 104 subjects consisting healthy adults, liver biopsy-proven patients with NAFLD and liver biopsy-proven patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Myriocin reversed the elevated body weight and serum transaminases and alleviated dyslipidemia in HFD fed rats. Myriocin treatment significantly attenuated liver pathology including steatosis, lobular inflammation and ballooning. By qPCR analysis, it was revealed that myriocin corrected the expression pattern of fatty acid metabolism associated genes including Fabp1, Pparα, Cpt-1α and Acox-2. Further, myriocin also restored the impaired hepatic autophagy function in rats with HFD-induced NASH, and this has been verified in HepG2 cells. Among the sphingolipid species that we screened in lipidomic profiles, significantly increased ceramide was observed in NASH patients as compared to the controls and non-NASH patients, regardless of whether or not they have active CHB. Ceramide may play an important regulatory role in the autophagy function in the pathogenesis of NASH. Hence, blockade of ceramide signaling by myriocin may be of therapeutically beneficial in NASH. Registration ID: ChiCTR-DDT-13003983 . Data of registration: 13 May, 2013, retrospectively registered.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio as long-term prognostic marker in patients with coronary artery disease undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Ting-Ting Wu; Ying-Ying Zheng; You Chen; Zi-Xiang Yu; Yi-Tong Ma; Xiang Xie

    The relation between monocyte to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (MHR) and coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) remains controversial. The present study aims to assess the prognostic value of MHR in patients with CAD who underwent PCI. A total of 673 CAD patients were retrospectively enrolled and divided into four groups according to MHR values. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to study the effects of different variables to clinical outcomes reported as major adverse cardiac events (MACE) and all-cause mortality (ACM). In a multivariate Cox analysis, after adjustment of other confounders, MHR was found to be an independent predictor of ACM (HR: 3.655; 95% CI: 1.170–11.419, P = 0.026) and MACE (HR =2.390, 95% CI 1.379–4.143, p < 0.002). Having a MHR in the third and fourth quartile were associated with a 2.83-fold and 3.26 -flod increased risk of MACE. MHR is an independent predictor of ACM and MACE in CAD patients undergoing PCI.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Upregulation of FNDC5 gene expression in C2C12 cells after single and combined treatments of resveratrol and ATRA
    Lipids Health Dis. (IF 2.651) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Elahe Abedi-Taleb; Zahra Vahabi; Ehsan Sekhavati-Moghadam; Leila Khedmat; Shima Jazayeri; Ali Akbar Saboor-Yaraghi

    Irisin is a newly discovered myokine that secreted from skeletal muscle cells. Several studies showed that irisin involves in thermogenesis and increases the expression of browning markers such as uncoupling protein-1 that in turns induces the conversion of white adipose tissue to brown fat. Resveratrol (Res) and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) can also upregulate the expression of thermogenesis genes. In the present study, the effects of single and combined treatments of Res and ATRA on fibronectin type III domain containing 5 (FNDC5) gene expression was explored. The mouse myoblasts, C2C12 cells, were seeded in 6-well plastic plates and cultured in DMEM media. After differentiation, in a pilot study, C2C12 myotubes were treated with different concentrations of Res and ATRA for 12 h. The best result was obtained by treatment of 1and 25 μM of Res and 1 μM of ATRA. Then the main study was continued by single and combined treatment of these compounds at chosen concentration. After treatments, total RNA was extracted from C2C12 cells. Complementary DNA (cDNA) was generated by the cDNA synthesis kit and FNDC5 mRNA expression was evaluated by the real-time PCR method. The FNDC5 gene expression in C2C12 myotubes of alone-treated with 1 μM, 25 μM Res and 10 μM ATRA did not change compared to vehicle group. However, in combination-treated the expression of FNDC5 gene was significantly increased compared to vehicle group. This is the first evidence that Res and ATRA can regulate FNDC5 gene expression in C2C12 myotubes. More investigations are necessary to explore the therapeutic effects of these nutrients in obesity, diabetes, cardiac and neurovascular disease.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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