当前期刊: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry Go to current issue    加入关注   
显示样式:        排序: 导出
  • Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E is a novel effector of mTORC1 signaling pathway in cross talk with Mnk1.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Asiya Batool,Sheikh Tahir Majeed,Sabreena Aashaq,Rabiya Majeed,Nadiem Nazir Bhat,Khurshid Iqbal Andrabi

    Cellular signals that influence Cap-dependent translation have assumed significant relevance in the backdrop of their enforced dysregulation during oncogenesis. Eukaryotic initiation factor 4E(eIF4E), the mRNA cap-binding protein, has emerged as a key player to facilitate tumor progression through upregulated cap-dependent translation synchronized with enhanced cell division. We provide evidence that eIF4E phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 by virtue of its interaction with Raptor through a novel TPTPNPP motif and consequent phosphorylation invitro and in vivo in a Rapamycin-sensitive manner. While we show that phosphorylation pattern of eIF4E responds faithfully to Rapamycin inhibition, the prolonged exposure to Rapamycin rescues the loss of eIF4E phosphorylation through Mnk1 activation. We also present evidence that eIF4E interacts with the amino terminal domain of S6K1 in a phospho-dependent manner, and this interaction is instrumental in overriding Rapamycin inhibition of S6K1. The data endorses eIF4E as a regulatory subunit that modulates the functional attributes of mTOR effectors to synchronize cap-dependent translation with growth assertion.

  • Inhibition of polo-like kinase 1 suppresses microtubule dynamics in MCF-7 cells.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Aijaz Rashid,Afsana Naaz,Ankit Rai,Biswa Prasun Chatterji,Dulal Panda

    Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is a mitotic serine/threonine kinase implicated in spindle formation and cytokinesis in mammalian cells. Here, purified Plk1 was found to bind to reconstituted microtubules in vitro. Further, Plk1 was found to co-localize with interphase microtubules in MCF-7 cells and to co-immunoprecipitate with polymerized tubulin. The binding of Plk1 to interphase microtubules appeared to increase with an increase in the level of tubulin acetylation in MCF-7 cells. Interestingly, Plk1 inhibitor III, an inhibitor of Plk1 kinase activity, treatment increased the association of Plk1 with the interphase microtubules in MCF-7 cells. Therefore, the effect of inhibition of Plk1 kinase activity on the dynamic instability of microtubules was determined by time-lapse imaging in MCF-7 cells. Plk1 inhibitor III dampened the dynamic instability of microtubules. For example, Plk1 inhibitor III (3 μM) reduced the rate and extent of the growing phase by 28 and 48%, respectively, and inhibited the dynamicity of microtubules by 53% as compared to the microtubules in control MCF-7 cells. Plk1 inhibitor III treatment also increased the level of acetylated microtubules, indicating that it stabilizes microtubules. The findings indicated that Plk1 interacts with microtubules and Plk1 may have a role in the regulation of microtubule dynamics.

  • MALAT1 affects hypoxia-induced vascular endothelial cell injury and autophagy by regulating miR-19b-3p/HIF-1α axis
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Huzi Liu, Chunli Shi, Yongzhi Deng

    Abstract Cardiovascular disease has become the leading cause of death in the world. Metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1 (MALAT1) plays an important role in cardiovascular disease, such as stroke. However, the role of MALAT1 in hypoxia (HYP)-induced vascular endothelial cells (VECs) remains unclear. In the present study, HYP-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were utilized to simulate HYP-induced VEC injury. It was found that after HYP treatment, the levels of MALAT1 and hypoxia-induced factor-1 (HIF-1α) in HUVECs were upregulated, while the level of miR-19b-3p was downregulated. Knockdown of MALAT1 with siRNA significantly reduced the HIF-1α level induced by HYP. In addition, MALAT1 knockdown inhibited HYP-induced HUVECs apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation. The overexpression of HIF-1α overcame the effect of MALAT1 knockdown. Mechanism analysis showed that MALAT1-targeted miR-19b-3p and then regulated downstream HIF-1α. MALAT1 knockdown increased the level of miR-19b-3p in cells, and increased miR-19b-3p further inhibited the expression of HIF-1α, thereby reducing the HYP-induced HUVECs apoptosis, autophagy and inflammation. Taken together, these results suggest that MALAT1 may be a potential target for mitigating HYP-induced endothelial cell injury.

  • Understanding the role of key amino acids in regulation of proline dehydrogenase/proline oxidase (prodh/pox)-dependent apoptosis/autophagy as an approach to targeted cancer therapy
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Thi Yen Ly Huynh, Ilona Zareba, Weronika Baszanowska, Sylwia Lewoniewska, Jerzy Palka

    In stress conditions, as neoplastic transformation, amino acids serve not only as nutrients to maintain the cell survival but also as mediators of several regulatory pathways which are involved in apoptosis and autophagy. Especially, under glucose deprivation, in order to maintain the cell survival, proline and glutamine together with other glutamine-derived products such as glutamate, alpha-ketoglutarate, and ornithine serve as alternative sources of energy. They are substrates for production of pyrroline-5-carboxylate which is the product of conversion of proline by proline dehydrogenase/ proline oxidase (PRODH/POX) to produce ATP for protective autophagy or reactive oxygen species for apoptosis. Interconversion of proline, ornithine, and glutamate may therefore regulate PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy. The key amino acid is proline, circulating between mitochondria and cytoplasm in the proline cycle. This shuttle is known as proline cycle. It is coupled to pentose phosphate pathway producing nucleotides for DNA biosynthesis. PRODH/POX is also linked to p53 and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent pathways. Proline availability for PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy is regulated at the level of collagen biosynthesis (proline utilizing process) and prolidase activity (proline supporting process). In this review, we suggest that amino acid metabolism linking TCA and Urea cycles affect PRODH/POX-dependent apoptosis/autophagy and the knowledge might be useful to targeted cancer therapy.

  • Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α enhanced the antifibrotic effect of empagliflozin in an animal model with renal insulin resistance
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Hoda E. Mohamed, Mervat E. Asker, Mohammed M. Keshawy, Rehab A. Hasan, Yasmin K. Mahmoud

    Insulin resistance (IR) has emerged as one of the main risk factors for renal fibrosis (RF) that represents a common stage in almost all chronic kidney disease. The present study aims to investigate the inhibitory effect of empagliflozin (EMPA “a sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor”) and infliximab [IFX “a tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) antibody”] on RF in rats with induced IR. IR was induced by adding 10% fructose in drinking water for 20 weeks. Thereafter, fructose-induced IR rats were concurrently treated with EMPA (30 mg/kg), IFX (1 dose 5 mg/kg), or EMPA + IFX for 4 weeks, in addition to IR control group (received 10% fructose in water) and normal control (NC) group. Rats with IR displayed hyperglycemia, deterioration in kidney functions, glomerulosclerosis, and collagen fiber deposition in renal tissues as compared to NC. This was associated with downregulation of the renal sirtuin 1 (Sirt 1) expression along with higher renal tissue TNF-α and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) levels. Both EMPA and IFX significantly modulated the aforementioned fibrotic cytokines, upregulated the renal Sirt 1 expression, and attenuated RF compared to IR control group. Of note, IFX effect was superior to that of EMPA. However, the combination of EMPA and IFX alleviated RF to a greater extent surpassing the monotherapy. This may be attributed to the further upregulation of renal Sirt 1 in addition to the downregulation of fibrotic cytokines. These findings suggest that the combination of EMPA and IFX offers additional benefits and may represent a promising therapeutic option for RF.

  • Effect of high doses of vitamin D supplementation on dengue virus replication, Toll-like receptor expression, and cytokine profiles on dendritic cells.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Jahnnyer Martínez-Moreno,Juan C Hernandez,Silvio Urcuqui-Inchima

    Dengue, caused by dengue virus (DENV) infection, is a public health problem worldwide. Although DENV pathogenesis has not yet been fully elucidated, the inflammatory response is a hallmark feature in severe DENV infection. Although vitamin D (vitD) can promote the innate immune response against virus infection, no studies have evaluated the effects of vitD on DENV infection, dendritic cells (DCs), and inflammatory response regulation. This study aimed to assess the impact of oral vitD supplementation on DENV-2 infection, Toll-like receptor (TLR) expression, and both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine production in monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs). To accomplish this, 20 healthy donors were randomly divided into two groups and received either 1000 or 4000 international units (IU)/day of vitD for 10 days. During pre- and post-vitD supplementation, peripheral blood samples were taken to obtain MDDCs, which were challenged with DENV-2. We found that MDDCs from donors who received 4000 IU/day of vitD were less susceptible to DENV-2 infection than MDDCs from donors who received 1000 IU/day of vitD. Moreover, these cells showed decreased mRNA expression of TLR3, 7, and 9; downregulation of IL-12/IL-8 production; and increased IL-10 secretion in response to DENV-2 infection. In conclusion, the administration of 4000 IU/day of vitD decreased DENV-2 infection. Our findings support a possible role of vitD in improving the innate immune response against DENV. However, further studies are necessary to determine the role of vitD on DENV replication and its innate immune response modulation in MDDCs.

  • Analysis of transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) genes polymorphisms with HIV-1 infection.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Abaineh Munshea Abitew,Ranbir Chander Sobti,Vijay Lakshmi Sharma,Ajay Wanchu

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules of the human major histocompatibility complex (MHC) play an important role in modulating immune response. HLA class I molecules present antigenic peptides to CD8+ T cells and thereby play a role in the immune surveillance of cells infected with viruses. TAP1 and TAP2 are MHC-II-encoded genes necessary for the generation of a cellular immune response and polymorphism of these genes can influence the specificity of peptides preferentially presented by the MHC class I molecules and the outcome of the immune response. Several studies implicated genetic variation in TAP genes to various immune-mediated and infectious diseases. To determine the correlation between HIV-1 infection and the TAP1 and TAP2 genes polymorphisms, we performed PCR-RFLP assay of these genes in 500 HIV-1 seropositives and the matched seronegative individuals. Statistical analysis of the data disclosed no correlation between TAP1 (C/T intron 7) gene polymorphism and HIV-1/AIDS disease. However, the current results demonstrated that the heterozygous A/G [OR (95% CI) 1.39 (1.06-1.83), P = 0.0171] and homozygous G/G [OR (95% CI) 3.38(1.56-7.46), P = 0.0010] variants of TAP2 (A/G exon 11) (T665A) gene are positively associated with an increased risk of HIV-1/AIDS infection. This case-control analysis might suggest a possible role of TAP2 (A/G exon 11) (T665A) gene in the susceptibility to HIV-1 infection and disease outcome among North Indian patients.

  • Bifidobacterium plays a protective role in TNF-α-induced inflammatory response in Caco-2 cell through NF-κB and p38MAPK pathways.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Nana Nie,Cui Bai,Shanai Song,Yanyan Zhang,Benzhen Wang,Zipu Li

    Kawasaki disease is an immune-mediated acute, systemic vasculitis and is the leading cause of acquired heart disease in children in the developed world. Bifidobacterium (BIF) is one of the dominant bacteria in the intestines of humans and many mammals and is able to adjust the intestinal flora disorder. The Caco-2 cell monolayers were treated with tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) at 10 ng/ml for 24 h to induce the destruction of intestinal mucosal barrier system. Cells viability was detected through Cell Counting Kit-8 assay. Cell apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and the expression of apoptosis related proteins was also detected through Western blot. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 was detected through ELISA, Western blot and qRT-PCR, respectively. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) assay was conducted to value the barrier function of intestinal mucosa. Cell autophagy and NF-κB and p38MAPK pathways associated proteins were examined through Western blot. In the absence of TNF-α treatment, cell viability and apoptosis showed no significant change. TNF-α decreased cell viability and increased cell apoptosis and BIF treatment mitigated the TNF-α-induced change. Then, we found that BIF treatment effectively suppressed TNF-α-induced overexpression of IL-6 and IL-8. Besides, the results of TEER assay showed that barrier function of intestinal mucosa which was destroyed by TNF-α was effectively recovered by BIF treatment. In addition, TNF-α induced autophagy was also suppressed by BIF. Moreover, TNF-α activated NF-κB and p38MAPK signal pathways were also blocked by BIF, SN50 and SB203580. Our present study reveals that BIF plays a protective role in TNF-α-induced inflammatory response in Caco-2 cells through NF-κB and p38MAPK pathways.

  • Role of oxidative stress-related biomarkers in heart failure: galectin 3, α1-antitrypsin and LOX-1: new therapeutic perspective?
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Valter Lubrano,Silvana Balzan

    Heart failure (HF) is considered one of the most common diseases and one of the major causes of death. The latest studies show that HF is associated with an increase in oxidative stress. The use of antioxidants as therapy is effective in animal models, but not in humans. In this review, we analyse some emerging markers related to oxidative stress, evaluating their possible use as therapeutic targets: galectin-3, a β galactoside associated with myocardial fibrosis, α1-antitrypsin, an antiprotease and lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1, the major receptor for ox-LDL. The up-regulation of galectin-3 appears to be associated with HF, atrial fibrillation, dilated cardiomyopathy, fibrogenesis and mortality, while in other cases it seems that galectin-3 may be protective in ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Serum α1-antitrypsin protein levels may increase in the presence of high concentrations of serum proteases, which are over expressed during reperfusion. The overexpression of α1-antitrypsin or the exogenous α1-antitrypsin treatment exhibits an anti-oxidative stress role, evaluated by increased eNOS expression and by decreased MMP9 expression, implicated in HF. The cardiac lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 is activated by oxidative stress in ischaemia-reperfusion injury, inducing apoptosis in cardiomyocytes through the deleterious NF-kB pathway, while the administration of anti-lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 antibody suppresses apoptosis and reduces the extent of myocardial infarction. In conclusion, α1-antitrypsin and lectin-like oxidized low-density-lipoprotein receptor-1 seem to represent two good markers in HF and therapeutic targets, whereas galectin-3 does not.

  • The effect of myeloperoxidase isoforms on biophysical properties of red blood cells.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Ekaterina V Shamova,Irina V Gorudko,Daria V Grigorieva,Alexey V Sokolov,Anatoli U Kokhan,Galina B Melnikova,Nikolai A Yafremau,Sergey A Gusev,Anastasia N Sveshnikova,Vadim B Vasilyev,Sergey N Cherenkevich,Oleg M Panasenko

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an oxidant-producing enzyme, stored in azurophilic granules of neutrophils has been recently shown to influence red blood cell (RBC) deformability leading to abnormalities in blood microcirculation. Native MPO is a homodimer, consisting of two identical protomers (monomeric MPO) connected by a single disulfide bond but in inflammatory foci as a result of disulfide cleavage monomeric MPO (hemi-MPO) can also be produced. This study investigated if two MPO isoforms have distinct effects on biophysical properties of RBCs. We have found that hemi-MPO, as well as the dimeric form, bind to the glycophorins A/B and band 3 protein on RBC's plasma membrane, that lead to reduced cell resistance to osmotic and acidic hemolysis, reduction in cell elasticity, significant changes in cell volume, morphology, and the conductance of RBC plasma membrane ion channels. Furthermore, we have shown for the first time that both dimeric and hemi-MPO lead to phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure on the outer leaflet of RBC membrane. However, the effects of hemi-MPO on the structural and functional properties of RBCs were lower compared to those of dimeric MPO. These findings suggest that the ability of MPO protein to influence RBC's biophysical properties depends on its conformation (dimeric or monomeric isoform). It is intriguing to speculate that hemi-MPO appearance in blood during inflammation can serve as a regulatory mechanism addressed to reduce abnormalities on RBC response, induced by dimeric MPO.

  • LncRNA MEG3 inhibits the inflammatory response of ankylosing spondylitis by targeting miR-146a
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Yehong Li, Shanshan Zhang, Cunxin Zhang, Meihong Wang

    Abstract Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a progressive systemic disease characterized by chronic inflammation response of the sacroiliac joint and spine. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are widely involved in the regulation of various diseases. However, the role of lncRNA maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) in the inflammatory response of AS has not been studied. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to detect the levels of inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in tissues and cells. The expression levels of MEG3, microRNA-146a (miR-146a), and inflammatory cytokines were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Correlation between MEG3 or miR-146a and inflammatory cytokines was analyzed by Pearson analysis. Dual-luciferase reporter and RNA immunoprecipitation (RIP) assays were used to clarify the interaction between MEG3 and miR-146a. MEG3 was downregulated in AS patients, negatively correlated with the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, and blocked the inflammatory response of AS. MiR-146a was upregulated in AS patients and could interact with MEG3. The expression of miR-146a was positively correlated with IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α levels. Overexpression of miR-146a reversed the inhibitory effect of abnormal MEG3 expression on inflammatory cytokines. LncRNA MEG3 plays an anti-inflammatory role in AS partially through targeting miR-146a, which provides a potential new means for the treatment of AS patients.

  • Curcumin amends Ca 2+ dysregulation in microglia by suppressing the activation of P2X7 receptor
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Zhen Wang, Weihua Ren, Fucheng Zhao, Yanru Han, Caili Liu, Kui Jia

    Abstract Curcumin (Cur) is widely used as an anti-inflammation agent and has anti-depression potential. Neuroinflammation mediated by Ca2+ channel activation is closely associated with the progression of post-stroke depression (PSD). In the current study, the role of P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in the anti-PSD function of Cur was explored. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) surgery and chronic mild stress administration to induce PSD symptoms and then treated with Cur. The behaviors of rats were assessed with sucrose preference and forced swim tests. The accumulation of Ca2+ and the systemic inflammatory response in rats were detected. To determine the role of P2X7R in the anti-PSD function of curcumin, the PSD mice were further administrated with P2X7R agonist and antagonist. The administration of Cur attenuated behavior disorders associated with PSD. Moreover, the Ca2+ accumulation and the inflammatory response associated with PSD were also blocked by Cur. Cur also inhibited the activation of Ca2+ channel. The induced activity of P2X7R blocked the function of Cur by maintaining the symptoms of PSD in Cur-treated rats. Collectively, the anti-PSD function of Cur was dependent on the inhibition of P2X7R, which then deactivated Ca2+ channel-mediated inflammatory response associated with PSD progression.

  • MicroRNA-9119 regulates cell viability of granulosa cells in polycystic ovarian syndrome via mediating Dicer expression
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Yang Ding, Pei He, Zhiling Li

    Abstract Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a hormonal disorder common among women of reproductive age. Although much is understood concerning the pathology of PCOS, further investigation into the influence of microribonucleic acids (miRNAs) on the proliferation of ovarian granulosa cells (GCs) is needed. This study investigated the role of specific miRNAs in ovarian dysfunction of PCOS and its effect on the proliferation of GCs. Initially, miRNA profiling was performed on the ovarian cortexes of 15 rats in which PCOS had been induced and 15 rats without PCOS (non-PCOS). This mechanical study was performed on ovarian GCs extracted from human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG)-induced rats. Insulin was used to treat GCs to establish the PCOS cell model. Increased Equus caballus mir-9119 expression was observed and confirmed in the insulin-induced model of PCOS in GCs (GC-PCOS) as well as in the hCG-induced rats when compared to non-PCOS rats and cells. Observation and confirmation were carried out through both miRNA array and quantitative PCR. In contrast, downregulation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) p65 was observed in the PCOS cell model. Additionally, annexin V, FITC, and propidium iodide flow cytometry showed overexpression of miR-9119-induced apoptosis. In this study, we revealed that miR-9119 inhibition regulates p65 expression levels in insulin-treated GCs by binding to the 3′-untranslated of p65. Additionally, regulation of p65 expression was positively correlated with the expression of the double-stranded RNA endoribonuclease DICER. Moreover, RNA silencing/overexpression of p65 affected the functional role of miR-9119. In conclusion, GCs of PCOS, the expression of miR-9119, and targeted NFκB/p65-DICER axis are upregulated in order to maintain cell viability and prevent apoptosis, thereby promoting Anti-Müllerian hormone production in GCs. This study may provide a new understanding of the mechanism of GC dysfunction.

  • Chemosensory bitter taste receptors T2R4 and T2R14 activation attenuates proliferation and migration of breast cancer cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2020-01-01
    Nisha Singh, Feroz Ahmed Shaik, Yvonne Myal, Prashen Chelikani

    Abstract The emerging significance of the bitter taste receptors (T2Rs) role in the extraoral tissues alludes to their potential role in many pathophysiological conditions. The dysregulation of T2R expression and function in disease conditions has now been demonstrated in airways diseases, neurological disorders, and in some cancers. However, the role of T2Rs in the pathophysiology of breast cancer is unexplored thus far. Previously, we demonstrated differential expression of the 25 T2Rs in breast cancer (BC) cells. Based on our previous findings we selected two T2Rs, T2R4 and T2R14 for this work. The objective of the current study is to investigate the expression of T2R4 and T2R14 in BC clinical samples and to examine their physiological role using highly metastatic BC and non-cancerous cell lines. Using approaches, which involve receptor knockdown, pharmacological activation and biochemical assays we report that (i) T2R4 and T2R14 expression patterns are dissimilar, with decreased levels of T2R4 and increased levels of T2R14 in BC clinical samples compared to non-cancerous controls. (ii) Activation of T2Rs with their respective agonist elicited physiological responses in metastatic breast cancer cells, and no responses were seen in non-tumorigenic breast epithelial cells. (iii) Agonist activation of T2Rs (irrespective of T2R subtype) induced anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, and anti-migratory responses in highly metastatic breast cancer cells. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that the chemosensory T2R signaling network is involved in evoking physiological responses in the metastatic breast cancer cell line.

  • Hypoxia induces the activation of hepatic stellate cells through the PVT1-miR-152-ATG14 signaling pathway
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-21
    Fujun Yu, Buyuan Dong, Peihong Dong, Yanghuan He, Jianjian Zheng, Ping Xu

    Increasing studies have indicated that hypoxia serves as a pivotal microenvironmental factor that facilitates activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). However, the mechanism by which hypoxia activates HSCs is not clear. Here, we demonstrated that plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 (PVT1) and autophagy were overexpressed in liver fibrotic specimens. In primary mouse HSCs, both PVT1 and autophagy were induced by hypoxia. Further study showed that hypoxia-induced autophagy depended on expression of PVT1 and miR-152 in HSCs. Luciferase reporter assay indicated that autophagy-related gene 14 (ATG14) was a direct target of miR-152. In addition, inhibition of autophagy by 3‐methyladenine and Beclin-1 siRNA impeded activation of HSCs cultured in 1% O2. Taken together, autophagy induction via the PVT1-miR-152-ATG14 signaling pathway contributes to activation of HSCs under hypoxia condition.

  • Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-secreted exosomes carrying microRNA-125b protect against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury via targeting SIRT7
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-19
    Qi Chen, Yu Liu, Xueyan Ding, Qinfeng Li, Fuyu Qiu, Meihui Wang, Zhida Shen, Hao Zheng, Guosheng Fu

    MicroRNA-125b (miR-125b) reduces myocardial infarct area and restrains myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury (I/R). In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (BMSC)-derived exosomes carrying miR-125b on I/R rats. The myocardial I/R model in rats was constructed by ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD). Rats were randomly divided into I/R and Sham group. Lv-cel-miR-67 (control) or Lv-miR-125b was transfected into BMSCs. Exosomes were extracted from transfected BMSCs, and separately named BMSC-Exo-67, BMSC-Exo-125b, and BMSC-Exo. MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to detect the viability and apoptosis of I/R myocardium cells, respectively. The expression of cell apoptosis proteins and the levels of inflammatory factors were examined by Western blot and ELISA assay, respectively. The target relationship between miR-125b and SIRT7 was predicted by using StarBase3.0, and was confirmed by using dual-luciferase reporter gene assay. qRT-PCR, immunohistochemistry staining, and Western blot were used to evaluate the expression of SIRT7 in myocardium tissues in I/R rats. BMSC-derived exosomes were successfully isolated and identified by TEM and positive expression of CD9 and CD63. The expression of miR-125b was down-regulated in I/R myocardium tissues and cells. BMSC-Exo-125b significantly up-regulated miR-125b in I/R myocardium cells. The intervention of BMSC-Exo-125b significantly increased the cell viability, decreased the apoptotic ratio, down-regulated Bax and caspase-3, up-regulated Bcl-2, and decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in I/R myocardium cells. SIRT7 was a target of miR-125b, and BMSC-Exo-125b significantly down-regulated SIRT7 in myocardium cells. In addition, the injection of BMSC-Exo-125b alleviated the pathological damages and down-regulated SIRT7 in myocardium tissues of I/R rats. BMSC-derived exosomes carrying miR-125b protected against myocardial I/R by targeting SIRT7.

  • LncRNA nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 regulates hypoxia-evoked apoptosis and autophagy via mediation of microRNA-181b
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Ying Lv, Zhaoming Liu, Jiancheng Huang, Jie Yu, Yanbo Dong, Jun Wang

    Nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 1 (NEAT1), a vital long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), exhibits the functions in disparate cancers. Nevertheless, the influences of NEAT1 in congenital heart disease (CHD) remain unreported. The research delves into whether NEAT1 affects H9c2 cells apoptosis and autophagy under the hypoxia condition. Overexpressed NEAT1 vector was transfected into H9c2 cells; then, functions of NEAT1 in cell viability, apoptosis, autophagy, PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were detected in H9c2 cells under hypoxia condition. Expression of NEAT1 and miR-181b in hypoxia and blood samples from CHD was evaluated. After miR-181b inhibitor transfection, functions of miR-181b repression in the above-mentioned cell behavior and PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways were reassessed. Overexpressed NEAT1 clearly allayed hypoxia-triggered H9c2 cells apoptosis and autophagy. The decreased NEAT1 and miR-181b were showcased in hypoxia and blood samples from CHD; meanwhile, elevated miR-181b evoked by overexpressed NEAT1 was observed in hypoxia-managed H9c2 cells. More importantly, miR-181b inhibition obviously overturned the influences of NEAT1 in hypoxia-affected H9c2 cells apoptosis and autophagy. Besides, overexpressed NEAT1 facilitated PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 activations via enhancing miR-181b. The research exposed that NEAT1 eased hypoxia-triggered H9c2 cells apoptosis and autophagy by expediting PI3K/AKT/mTOR and JAK1/STAT3 pathways via elevating miR-181b.

  • Substance P receptor blocker, aprepitant, inhibited cutaneous and other neurogenic inflammation side effects of the EGFR1-TKI, erlotinib
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-18
    Joanna J. Chmielinska, Jay H. Kramer, I-Tong Mak, Christopher F. Spurney, William B. Weglicki

    Cutaneous changes like rash and hair loss, as well as other neurogenic inflammation side effects, occur frequently during anticancer treatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI), erlotinib. These adverse events may be so severe that they impair the patient’s compliance with the treatment or even cause its discontinuation. In the current preclinical study, rats (9.2 weeks) were treated with erlotinib (10 mg/kg/day) ± aprepitant (2 mg/kg/day) for 12 weeks. Visual changes in the development of facial skin lesions/hair loss and SP-receptor expression (immunohistochemically) in facial skin tissue were assessed; also changes in plasma magnesium, 8-isoprostane, substance P (SP), neutrophil superoxide production, and cardiac function (echocardiography) were measured. Erlotinib lowered plasma magnesium 14%, elevated SP 65%, caused 3.7-fold higher basal superoxide production, 2.5-fold higher 8-isoprostane levels, 11.6% lower cardiac systolic, and 10.9% lower diastolic function. Facial dermatological changes (alopecia, skin reddening, scabbing, nose crusting) occurred by 4 weeks (± + to ++) in erlotinib-treated rats, and progressively worsened (±++ to +++) by week 12. Facial skin SP-receptor upregulation (78% higher) occurred in epidermal and hair follicle cells. All adverse effects were substantially and significantly mitigated by aprepitant, including a 62% lowering of skin SP-receptors (p < 0.05). Elevated SP levels mediated the side effects of erlotinib treatment, but aprepitant’s significant prevention of the systemic and cutaneous adverse events indicates a novel potential therapy against the side effects of this anticancer treatment.

  • Transforming growth factor-β1 enhances proliferative and metastatic potential by up-regulating lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1/integrin αMβ2 in human renal cell carcinoma
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Yuting Liu, Donghao Shang

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a kind of malignant tumor with high recurrence, and it is urgent to find molecular markers for diagnosis and prognosis of RCC. Our study investigated the expression and function of integrin αMβ2 in RCC cells, aiming to understand the role of integrin αMβ2 in RCC and develop new therapeutic target for RCC. Overexpression and knockdown of lymphoid enhancer-binding factor 1 (LEF1) were performed using vector containing full-length cDNA and via siRNA technology, respectively. The expressions of mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Proliferation of RCC cell was analyzed using WST-1 assay, and metastasis of RCC cell was evaluated using the transwell system. Our results demonstrated that LEF1 and integrin αMβ2 were up-regulated in RCC cells via TGF-β1-dependent mechanism, and LEF1 together with β-catenin directly increased integrin αMβ2 level. On the other hand, TGF-β1-induced proliferation, migration and invasion were suppressed by function-blocking antibody against integrin αMβ2 in RCC cells. In addition, integrin αMβ2 is crucial for LEF1 mediated cell invasion by regulating MMP-2, MMP-9 and calpain-2 secretion in RCC cells. LEF1/integrin αMβ2 expression was regulated by TGF-β1, and LEF1/integrin αMβ2 was involved in TGF-β1’s improvement effects on the proliferation and metastasis of RCC. Blocking integrin αMβ2 activity could be a therapeutic option for patients with advanced RCC.

  • The functional impact of the C/N-terminal extensions of the mouse retinal IMPDH1 isoforms: a kinetic evaluation
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Behnaz Andashti, Razieh Yazdanparast, Ebrahim Barzegari, Hamid Galehdari

    Mutations in the retinal inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase1 (IMPDH1) gene is believed to be one cause of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). The main structural difference between the mutation-susceptible retinal isoforms with canonical one resides in the C- and N-terminal extensions. There are limited studies on the structure and function of terminal peptide extensions of the IMPDH1 retinal isoforms. Using recombinant murine IMPDH1 (mH1), we evaluated the kinetics of the retinal isoforms along with inhibition by some of the purine nucleotides. Molecular modeling tools were also applied to study the probable effect(s) of the terminal peptide tails on the function of the retinal isoforms. Molecular dynamic simulations indicated the possible impact of the end-terminal segments on the enzyme function through interactions with the enzyme’s finger domain, affecting its critical pseudo barrel structure. The higher experimentally-determined Km and Ki values of the retinal mIMPDH1 (546) and mIMPDH1 (603) relative to that of the canonical isoform, mIMPDH1 (514), might clearly be due to these interactions. Furthermore and despite of the canonical isoform, the retinal isoforms of mH1 exhibited no NAD+ substrate inhibition. The resent data would certainly provide the ground for future evaluation of the physiological significance of these variations.

  • The impact of PSRC1 overexpression on gene and transcript expression profiling in the livers of ApoE −/− mice fed a high-fat diet
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-14
    Mengqiu Wei, Peng Li, Kai Guo

    Our previous studies have confirmed that proline/serine-rich coiled-coil 1 (PSRC1) overexpression can regulate blood lipid levels and inhibit atherosclerosis (AS) development. In the current study, the gene and transcript expression profiles in the livers of ApoE−/− mice overexpressing PSRC1 were investigated. HiSeq X Ten RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) analysis was used to examine the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed transcripts in the livers of PSRC1-overexpressing ApoE−/− and control mice. Then, Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed on these DEGs and on long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) predicted target genes. A total of 1892 significant DEGs were identified: 1431 were upregulated (e.g., Cyp2a4, Obp2a, and Sertad4), and 461 were downregulated (e.g., Moxd1, Egr1, and Elovl3). In addition, 8184 significant differentially expressed transcripts were identified, 4908 of which were upregulated and 3276 of which were downregulated. Furthermore, 1106 significant differentially expressed lncRNAs were detected, 713 of which were upregulated and 393 of which were downregulated. Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) verified changes in 10 randomly selected DEGs. GO analyses showed that the DEGs and predicted lncRNA target genes were mostly enriched for actin binding and lipid metabolism. KEGG biological pathway analyses showed that the DEGs in the livers of PSRC1-overexpressing ApoE−/− mice were enriched in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway. These findings reveal that PSRC1 may affect liver actin polymerization and cholesterol metabolism-related genes or pathways. These mRNAs and lncRNAs may represent new biomarkers and targets for the diagnosis and therapy of lipid metabolism disturbance and AS.

  • Characterization of IRE1α in Neuro2a cells by pharmacological and CRISPR/Cas9 approaches
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-13
    Kentaro Oh-hashi, Hiroki Kohno, Mahmoud Kandeel, Yoko Hirata

    IRE1 is the most conserved endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident stress sensor. Its activation not only splices XBP1 but also participates in a variety of cell signaling. We elucidated the role of IRE1α in Neuro2a cells by establishing IRE1α-deficient cells and applying four IRE1 inhibitors. IRE1α deficiency prevented almost all spliced XBP1 (sXBP1) protein expression by treatment with thapsigargin (Tg) and tunicamycin (Tm); these phenomena paralleled the values measured by our two Nanoluciferase-based IRE1 assays. However, cell viability and protein expression of other ER stress-responsive factors in the IRE1α-deficient cells were comparable to those in the parental wild-type cells with or without Tm treatment. Next, we elucidated the IRE1 inhibitory actions and cytotoxicity of four compounds: STF083010, KIRA6, 4μ8C, and toyocamycin. KIRA6 attenuated IRE1 activity in a dose-dependent manner, but it showed severe cytotoxicity even in the IRE1α-deficient cells at a low concentration. The IRE1α-deficient cells were slightly resistant to KIRA6 at 0.1 μM in both the presence and absence of ER stress; however, resistance was not observed at 0.02 μM. Treatment with only KIRA6 at 0.1 μM for 12 h remarkably induced LC3 II, an autophagic marker, in both parental and IRE1α-deficient cells. Co-treatment with KIRA6 and Tm induced LC3 II, cleaved caspase-9, and cleaved caspase-3; however, IRE1α-deficiency did not abolish the expression of these two cleaved caspases. On the other hand, KIRA6 prohibited Tm-induced ATF4 induction in an IRE1-independent manner; however, co-treatment with KIRA6 and Tm also induced LC3 II and two cleaved caspases in the ATF4-deficient Neuro2a cells. Thus, we demonstrate that IRE1α deficiency has little impact on cell viability and expression of ER stress-responsive factors in Neuro2a cells, and the pharmacological actions of KIRA6 include IRE1-independent ways.

  • Role of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) in modulating the molecular mechanism adopted by melanocytes of Bos indicus under UVR stress
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Renuka Choudhary, Anil Sharma, Sudarshan Kumar, Ramesh Chandra Upadhyay, Sohan Vir Singh, Ashok Mohanty

    Ultraviolet radiations (UVR) are responsible for a wide variety of acute and chronic effects on the animal skin. However, the effect of UVR-induced oxidative stress and protection through paracrine factors on animal skin has received little attention. We previously demonstrated how heat stress-induced adaptation in Bos indicus melanocytes was dependent on the level of melanin and reduction of apoptosis. Therefore, in the present investigation, the survival mechanisms adopted by melanocytes under UV stress and the role of α-MSH in cell survival under in vitro conditions were studied. After the treatment of melanocyte cells with UVR (using Osram ultravitalux 300 W lamp), analysis of Gene expression using Real-Time PCR was done to study the adopted molecular pathways under stressful conditions. In addition, α-MSH was used to assess its modulating role in cell survival under stress. This study revealed the increase in the expression of genes related to melanogenesis, cell cycle, heat shock proteins, and apoptosis of the cells after UVR stress and demonstrated the role of paracrine factor (α-MSH) in elevating the protection response to stressful conditions like UVR stress by increasing the melanogenesis and decreasing the mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Based on the results of the present study, it can be stated that α-MSH can play a pivotal role in the protection of animal skin cells under stressful conditions in climate-changing scenario.

  • Potential therapeutic effects of antagonizing adenosine A 2A receptor, curcumin and niacin in rotenone-induced Parkinson’s disease mice model
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-09
    Tarek K. Motawi, Nermin A. H. Sadik, Manal A. Hamed, Sanaa A. Ali, Wagdy K. B. Khalil, Yomna R. Ahmed

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is the second common age-related neurodegenerative disease. It is characterized by control loss of voluntary movements control, resting tremor, postural instability, bradykinesia, and rigidity. The aim of the present work is to evaluate curcumin, niacin, dopaminergic and non-dopaminergic drugs in mice model of Parkinson’s disease through behavioral, biochemical, genetic and histopathological observations. Mice treated with rotenone rerecorded significant increase in adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR) gene expression, α synuclein, acetylcholinesterase (AchE), malondialdehyde (MDA), angiotensin-II (Ang-II), c-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), caspase-3 (Cas-3) and DNA fragmentation levels as compared with the control group. While, significant decrease in dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (NE), serotonin (5-HT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), ATP, succinate and lactate dehydrogenases (SDH &LDH) levels were detected. Treatment with curcumin, niacin, adenosine A2AR antagonist; ZM241385 and their combination enhanced the animals’ behavior and restored all the selected parameters with variable degrees of improvement. The brain histopathological features of hippocampal and substantia nigra regions confirmed our results. In conclusion, the combination of curcumin, niacin and ZM241385 recorded the most potent treatment effect in Parkinsonism mice followed by ZM241385, as a single treatment. ZM241385 succeeded to antagonize adenosine A2A receptor by diminishing its gene expression and ameliorating all biochemical parameters under investigation. The newly investigated agent; ZM241385 has almost the same pattern of improvement as the classical drug; Sinemet®. This could shed the light to the need of detailed studies on ZM241385 for its possible role as a promising treatment against PD. Additionally, food supplements such as curcumin and niacin were effective in Parkinson’s disease eradication.

  • ROS and diseases: role in metabolism and energy supply
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-07
    Shenshu Yang, Gaojian Lian

    Researches dedicated to reactive oxygen species (ROS) had been performed for decades, yet the outcomes remain controversial. With the relentless effort of studies, researchers have explored the role of ROS in biosystem and various diseases. ROS are beneficial for biosystem presenting as signalling molecules and enhancing immunologic defence. However, they also have harmful effects such as causing tissue and organ damages. The results are controversial in studies focusing on ROS and ROS-related diseases by regulating ROS with inhibitors or promotors. These competing results hindered the process for further investigation of the specific mechanisms lying behind. The opinions presented in this review interpret the researches of ROS from a different dimension that might explain the competing results of ROS introduced so far from a broader perspective. This review brings a different thinking to researchers, with the neglected features and potentials of ROS, to relate their works with ROS and to explore the mechanisms between their subject and ROS.

  • Ephx2 -gene deletion affects acetylcholine-induced relaxation in angiotensin-II infused mice: role of nitric oxide and CYP-epoxygenases
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-04
    Ahmad Hanif, Matthew L. Edin, Darryl C. Zeldin, Mohammed A. Nayeem

    Previously, we showed that adenosine A2A receptor induces relaxation independent of NO in soluble epoxide hydrolase-null mice (Nayeem et al. in Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 304:R23–R32, 2013). Currently, we hypothesize that Ephx2-gene deletion affects acetylcholine (Ach)-induced relaxation which is independent of A2AAR but dependent on NO and CYP-epoxygenases. Ephx2−/− aortas showed a lack of sEH (97.1%, P < 0.05) but an increase in microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH, 37%, P < 0.05) proteins compared to C57Bl/6 mice, and no change in CYP2C29 and CYP2J protein (P > 0.05). Ach-induced response was tested with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) NO-inhibitor; 10−4 M), N-(methylsulfonyl)-2-(2-propynyloxy)-benzenehexanamide (MS-PPOH) (CYP-epoxygenase inhibitor; 10−5 M), 14,15-epoxyeicosa-5(Z)-enoic acid (14,15-EEZE, an epoxyeicosatrienoic acid-antagonist; 10−5 M), SCH-58261 (A2AAR-antagonist; 10−6 M), and angiotensin-II (Ang-II, 10−6 M). In Ephx2−/− mice, Ach-induced relaxation was not different from C57Bl/6 mice except at 10−5 M (92.75 ± 2.41 vs. 76.12 ± 3.34, P < 0.05). However, Ach-induced relaxation was inhibited with l-NAME (Ephx2−/−: 23.74 ± 3.76% and C57Bl/6: 11.61 ± 2.82%), MS-PPOH (Ephx2−/−: 48.16 ± 6.53% and C57Bl/6: 52.27 ± 7.47%), and 14,15-EEZE (Ephx2−/−: 44.29 ± 8.33% and C57Bl/6: 39.27 ± 7.47%) vs. non-treated (P < 0.05). But, it did not block with SCH-58261 (Ephx2−/−: 68.75 ± 11.41% and C57Bl/6: 66.26 ± 9.43%, P > 0.05) vs. non-treated (P > 0.05). Interestingly, Ang-II attenuates less relaxation in Ehx2−/− vs. C57Bl/6 mice (58.80 ± 7.81% vs. 45.92 ± 7.76, P < 0.05). Our data suggest that Ach-induced relaxation in Ephx2−/− mice depends on NO and CYP-epoxygenases but not on A2A AR, and Ephx2-gene deletion attenuates less Ach-induced relaxation in Ang-II-infused mice.

  • Matrix regeneration proteins in the hypoxia-triggered exosomes of shoulder tenocytes and adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-03
    Finosh G. Thankam, Isaiah Chandra, Connor Diaz, Matthew F. Dilisio, Jonathan Fleegel, R. Michael Gross, Devendra K. Agrawal

    Regenerative functions of exosomes rely on their contents which are influenced by pathological stimuli, including hypoxia, in rotator cuff tendon injuries (RCTI). The hypoxic environment triggers tenocytes and adjacent adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) to release regenerative mediators to the ECM via the exosomes which elicit autocrine/paracrine responses to protect the tendon matrix from injury. We investigated the exosomal protein contents from tenocytes and subcutaneous ADMSCs from the shoulder of Yucatan microswine cultured under hypoxic conditions (2% O2). The exosomal proteins were detected using high-resolution mass spectrometry nano-LC–MS/MS Tribrid system and were compiled using ‘Scaffold’ software. Hypoxic exosomes from tenocytes and ADMSCs carried 199 and 65 proteins, respectively. The key proteins identified by mass spectrometry and associated with ECM homeostasis from hypoxic ADMSCs included MMP2, COL6A, CTSD and TN-C and those from hypoxic tenocytes were THSB1, NSEP1, ITIH4 and TN-C. These findings were confirmed at the mRNA and protein level in the hypoxic ADMSCs and tenocytes. These proteins are involved in multiple signaling pathways of ECM repair/regeneration. This warrants further investigations for their translational significance in the management of RCTI.

  • Catestatin reverses the hypertrophic effects of norepinephrine in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts by modulating the adrenergic signaling
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Md. Jahangir Alam, Richa Gupta, Nitish R. Mahapatra, Shyamal K. Goswami

    Catestatin (CST) is a catecholamine release-inhibitory peptide secreted from the adrenergic neurons and the adrenal glands. It regulates the cardiovascular functions and it is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Though its mechanisms of actions are not known, there are evidences of cross-talk between the adrenergic and CST signaling. We hypothesized that CST moderates the adrenergic overdrive and studied its effects on norepinephrine-mediated hypertrophic responses in H9c2 cardiac myoblasts. CST alone regulated the expression of a number of fetal genes that are induced during hypertrophy. When cells were pre-treated CST, it blunted the modulation of those genes by norepinephrine. Norepinephrine (2 µM) treatment also increased cell size and enhanced the level of Troponin T in the sarcomere. These effects were attenuated by the treatment with CST. CST attenuated the immediate generation of ROS and the increase in glutathione peroxidase activity induced by norepinephrine treatment. Expression of fosB and AP-1 promoter–reporter constructs was used as the endpoint readout for the interaction between the CST and adrenergic signals at the gene level. It showed that CST largely attenuates the stimulatory effects of norepinephrine and other mitogenic signals through the modulation of the gene regulatory modules in a characteristic manner. Depending upon the dose, the signaling by CST appears to be disparate, and at 10–25 nM doses, it primarily moderated the signaling by the β1/2-adrenoceptors. This study, for the first time, provides insights into the modulation of adrenergic signaling in the heart by CST.

  • LncRNA SNHG1 alleviates hypoxia-reoxygenation-induced vascular endothelial cell injury as a competing endogenous RNA through the HIF-1α/VEGF signal pathway
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-12-02
    Shuangchao Liang, Kai Ren, Buying Li, Fangkuan Li, Zhuowen Liang, Jiqiong Hu, Bei Xu, Andong Zhang

    Long noncoding ribonucleic acids (lncRNAs) are critical regulators in various biological processes. In the present study, we aimed to explore whether miR140-3p was involved in the underlying molecular mechanisms of small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1) in myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. A mouse model of I/R injury and hypoxia-reoxygenation (H/R)-stimulated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was used in this study. Cell proliferation was detected by MTT. The mRNA and protein levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VE-cadherin, and MMP2 were detected by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. The angiogenesis was assessed by tube formation assay. Cell migration was assessed using wound-healing assay. Results showed that SNHG1 expression was increased in the cardiac microvasculature of a mouse model of I/R injury and in H/R-stimulated HUVECs. H/R stimulation significantly reduced cell proliferation, tube formation, and cell migration, but increased expression of VEGF, VE-cadherin, and MMP2. SNHG1 upregulation under H/R increased HUVECs proliferation, tube formation, and cell migration, and upregulated expression of VEGF, VE-cadherin, and MMP2, compared with the H/R group. SNHG1 knockdown exhibited the opposite effect. SNHG1 functioned as a competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) of miR-140-3p. HIF-1α was identified as a target of miR-140-3p. SNHG1 upregulation enhanced cell proliferation, tube formation, and expression of VEGF, VE-cadherin, and MMP2 through HIF-1α/VEGF signaling. This process could be offset by miR-140-3p mimic or VEGF inhibitor. Our results reveal a novel protective function of SNHG1 that furthers understanding of cardiac I/R injury and provides experimental evidence for future therapy.

  • Cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects of thymoquinone on rat C6 glioma cells depend on oxidative stress
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    N. G. Krylova, M. S. Drobysh, G. N. Semenkova, T. A. Kulahava, S. V. Pinchuk, O. I. Shadyro

    Thymoquinone (TQ) is a highly perspective chemotherapeutic agent against gliomas and glioblastomas because of its ability to cross the blood–brain barrier and its selective cytotoxicity for glioblastoma cells compared to primary astrocytes. Here, we tested the hypothesis that TQ-induced mild oxidative stress provokes C6 glioma cell apoptosis through redox-dependent alteration of MAPK proteins. We showed that low concentrations of TQ (20–50 μM) promoted cell-cycle arrest and induced hydrogen peroxide generation as a result of NADH-quinone oxidoreductase 1-catalyzed two-electron reduction of this quinone. Similarly, low concentrations of TQ efficiently conjugated intracellular GSH disturbing redox state of glioma cells and provoking mitochondrial dysfunction. We demonstrated that high concentrations of TQ (70–100 μM) induced reactive oxygen species generation due to its one-electron reduction. TQ provoked apoptosis in C6 glioma cells through mitochondrial potential dissipation and permeability transition pore opening. The identified TQ modes of action on C6 glioma cells open up the possibility of considering it as a promising agent to enhance the sensitivity of cancer cells to standard chemotherapeutic drugs.

  • Differential expression of novel MicroRNAs from developing fetal heart of Gallus gallus domesticus implies a role in cardiac development
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-09-07
    Sharad Saxena, Priyanka Mathur, Vaibhav Shukla, Vibha Rani

    Heart development is a complex process regulated by multi-layered genetic as well epigenetic regulators many of which are still unknown. Besides their critical role during cardiac development, these molecular regulators emerge as key modulators of cardiovascular pathologies, where fetal cardiac genes’ re-expression is witnessed. MicroRNAs have recently emerged as a crucial part of signalling cascade in both development and diseases. We aimed to identify, validate, and perform functional annotation of putative novel miRNAs using chicken as a cardiac development model system. Novel miRNAs were obtained through deep sequencing of small RNAs extracted from chicken embryonic cardiac tissue of different developmental stages. After filtering out real pre-miRNAs, their expression analysis, potential target gene’s prediction and functional annotations were performed. Expression analysis revealed that miRNAs were differentially expressed during different developmental stages of chicken heart. The expression of selected putative novel miRNAs was further validated by real-time PCR. Our analysis indicated the presence of novel cardiac miRNAs that might be regulating critical cardiac development events such as cardiac cell growth, differentiation, cardiac action potential generation and signal transduction.

  • The stimulatory impact of d -δ-Tocotrienol on the differentiation of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Anureet Kaur Shah, Hoda Yeganehjoo

    Osteoblasts and osteoclasts play essential and opposite roles in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoblasts fill cavities excavated by osteoclasts. The mevalonate pathway provides essential prenyl pyrophosphates for the activities of GTPases that promote differentiation of osteoclasts but suppress that of osteoblasts. Preclinical and clinical studies suggest that mevalonate suppressors such as statins increase bone mineral density and reduce risk of bone fracture. Tocotrienols down-regulate 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the mevalonate pathway. In vivo studies have shown the bone-protective activity of tocotrienols. We hypothesize that d-δ-tocotrienol, a mevalonate suppressor, induces differentiation of murine MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. Alizarin staining showed that d-δ-tocotrienol (0–25 μmol/L) induced mineralized nodule formation in a concentration-dependent manner in MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts. d-δ-Tocotrienol (0–25 μmol/L), but not d-α-tocopherol (25 μmol/L), significantly induced alkaline phosphatase activity, an indicator of preosteoblast differentiation. The expression of differentiation marker genes including BMP-2 and VEGFα was stimulated dose dependently by d-δ-tocotrienol (0–25 μmol/L). Concomitantly, Western blot analysis showed that d-δ-tocotrienol down-regulated HMG CoA reductase. d-δ-Tocotrienol (0–25 μmol/L) had no impact on the viability of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblasts following 48-h incubation, suggesting lack of cytotoxicity at these doses. Tocotrienols and other mevalonate suppressors have potential in maintaining bone health.

  • A novel compound, ferulic acid-bound resveratrol, induces the tumor suppressor gene p15 and inhibits the three-dimensional proliferation of colorectal cancer cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-22
    Yuuga Sawata, Taiji Matsukawa, Satoshi Doi, Toshiyuki Tsunoda, Nagisa Arikawa, Natsumi Matsunaga, Koichiro Ohnuki, Senji Shirasawa, Yojiro Kotake

    Resveratrol, a phytoalexin present in grapes and other edible foods, has been reported to have beneficial effects against various diseases including cancer. We previously reported that resveratrol and its derivative, caffeic acid-adducted resveratrol, selectively inhibit the three-dimensional (3D) proliferation of a human colorectal cancer cell line, HCT116 with activating KRAS mutation. Herein, we demonstrated that a novel compound, ferulic acid-bound resveratrol, also represses the 3D proliferation of HCT116 cells. We observed that resveratrol conjugated to two ferulic acids represses the 3D proliferation of HCT116 cells more strongly than resveratrol and resveratrol conjugated to one ferulic acid. Resveratrol conjugated to two ferulic acids also inhibited the 3D proliferation of MCF7 human breast cancer cells. We further uncovered that the resveratrol derivative increases the mRNA level of the tumor suppressor p15, a CDK inhibitor that functions as a brake of cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. These results imply that the resveratrol derivative represses 3D proliferation via increasing p15 expression in HCT116 cells.

  • Exosome-mediated transfer of CLIC1 contributes to the vincristine-resistance in gastric cancer
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Kun Zhao, Zhen Wang, Xin Li, Jin-lu Liu, Lei Tian, Jun-qiang Chen

    Our previous study shows that high Chloride intracellular channel 1 (CLIC1) expression can efficiently enhance invasion and migration of gastric cancer (GC) cells in vitro. Growing evidences have found that exosomes are involved in chemotherapy resistance in several cancers including GC. We aimed to evaluate the effect of the exosome-mediated transfer of CLIC1 in the vincristine-resistance of GC. The effect of exosome-mediated transfer of CLIC1 on the development of resistance to vincristine in GC cell line SGC-7901 and the potential underlying mechanisms were investigated by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8), RT-PCR, and Western blotting. Exosomes were isolated from cell supernatants by differential ultracentrifugation. Comparing with SGC-7901, the expression level of CLIC1 is higher in vincristine‑resistant cell line SGC-7901/VCR (P < 0.05). After silencing the expression of CLIC1 by RNA interference, the half inhibition concentration (IC50) to vincristine decreased significantly in SGC-7901/VCR, and the expression of CLIC1 decreased significantly in exosomes from SGC-7901/VCR. After 48 h co-culturing with exosomes from SGC-7901/VCR, the IC50 to vincristine in SGC-7901 increased significantly, and the expression of CLIC1, P-gp, and Bcl-2 were significantly up-regulated. CLIC1 was closely associated with the resistance to vincristine in GC, and exosome-mediated transfer of CLIC1 could induce the development of resistance to vincristine in vitro. The possible mechanism was related to up-regulated P-gp and Bcl-2. However, in vivo study was needed to confirm the results in future.

  • Exosomes derived from cardiac parasympathetic ganglionic neurons inhibit apoptosis in hyperglycemic cardiomyoblasts
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-29
    Reetish Singla, Kaley H. Garner, Mohtashem Samsam, Zixi Cheng, Dinender K. Singla

    Diabetic cardiomyopathy is known to involve two forms of cardiac cell death: apoptosis and necrosis. However, it remains unknown whether hyperglycemia-induced apoptosis in the H9c2 cell culture system is inhibited by parasympathetic ganglionic neurons (PGN) derived exosomes (exos). We isolated PGN and sympathetic ganglionic neurons (SGN) from the right stellate ganglion in rats, and derived exos from these sources. H9c2 cells were divided into 4 groups: (1) Control, (2) H9c2 + Glucose (100 mmol/L), (3) H9c2 + Glucose + PGN-exos, and (4) H9c2 + Glucose + SGN-exos. We determined cell proliferation and viability with an MTT assay kit, and assessed apoptotic cell death with TUNEL staining and ELISA. Data were further confirmed by analyzing the presence of pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase-3 and Bax, and anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Glucose exposed H9c2 cells significantly reduced cell viability, which was improved by PGN-exos, but not by SGN-exos. Furthermore, increased apoptosis in hyperglycemia in H9c2 cells was confirmed with TUNEL staining and cell death ELISA which demonstrated significantly (p < 0.05) reduction with PGN-exos treatment, but not with SGN-exos. Moreover, high expression of pro-apoptotic proteins Caspase-3 and Bax was reduced following treatment with PGN-exos; however, SGN-exos were unable to reduce the expression. Significantly reduced anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 following glucose treatment was improved with PGN-exos. Therefore, our data suggest that hyperglycemia induces apoptosis in H9c2 cells and decreases cell viability, and that PGN-exos are able to inhibit apoptosis, improve cell viability, and restore levels of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2.

  • Up-regulation of interferon-stimulated gene 15 and its conjugation machinery, UbE1L and UbcH8 expression by tumor necrosis factor-α through p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in human lung carcinoma
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-19
    Wannee Lertsooksawat, Ariyaphong Wongnoppavich, Kongthawat Chairatvit

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a member of the family of ubiquitin-like proteins. Similar to ubiquitin, conjugation of ISG15 to cellular proteins requires cascade reactions catalyzed by at least 2 enzymes, UbE1L and UbcH8. Expression of ISG15 and its conjugates is up-regulated in many cancer cells, yet the underlying mechanism of up-regulation is still unclear. In this study, we showed that TNF-α, similar to the response by IFN-β, could directly induce expression of ISG15 and its conjugation machinery, UbE1L and UbcH8, in human lung carcinoma, A549. The early response of their expression was effectively blocked by specific inhibitors of p38 MAPK (SB202190) and JNK (SP600125), but not by B18R, a soluble type-I IFN receptor. In addition, luciferase reporter assay together with serial deletions and site-directed mutagenesis identified a putative C/EBPβ binding element in the ISG15 promoter, which is necessary to the response by TNF-α. Taken together, expression of ISG15 and ISG15 conjugation machinery in cancer cells is directly up-regulated by TNF-α via p38 MAPK and JNK pathways through the activation of C/EBPβ binding element in the ISG15 promoter. This study provides a new insight toward understanding the molecular mechanism of ISG15 system and inflammatory response in cancer progression.

  • Let-7d modulates the proliferation, migration, tubulogenesis of endothelial cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-21
    Ximeng Ji, Hao Hua, Yinying Shen, Shoushan Bu, Sheng Yi

    Endothelial cells are important components of peripheral nerve stumps that contribute to Schwann cell migration and peripheral nerve regeneration. Let-7d modulates the phenotype of Schwann cells and affected peripheral nerve regeneration. However, the regulatory roles of let-7d on endothelial cells remain undetermined. In this study, by transfecting cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with let-7d mimic or let-7d inhibitor, we investigated the biological effects of let-7d on endothelial cells. EdU proliferation assay showed that upregulated let-7d decreased the proliferation rates of HUVECs while downregulated let-7d increased the proliferation rates of HUVECs. Transwell-based migration assay and wound-healing assay demonstrated that let-7d inhibited the migration ability of HUVECs. Matrigel assay suggested that let-7d decreased the numbers of formed meshes and suppressed the tubulogenesis of HUVECs. RNA sequencing, bioinformatic analysis, gene expression validation, and luciferase assay suggested that let-7d directly targeted interferon-induced protein 44 like (IFI44L) gene and negatively regulated the expression of IFI44L. Taken together, our study illuminated the inhibitory roles of let-7d on the proliferation, migration, and tubulogenesis of endothelial cells, identified the target gene of let-7d, and deepened the understanding of the biological effects of let-7d on key elements of peripheral nerve regeneration.

  • The protective effect of cannabinoid type 2 receptor activation on renal ischemia–reperfusion injury
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Murat Çakır, Suat Tekin, Züleyha Doğanyiğit, Pınar Çakan, Emin Kaymak

    Kidney ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury is an important health problem resulting in acute renal failure. After IR, the inflammatory and apoptotic process is triggered. The relation of Cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptor with inflammatory and apoptotic process has been determined. The CB2 receptor has been shown to be localized in glomeruli and tubules in human and rat kidney. Activation of CB2 receptor with JWH-133 has been shown to reduce apoptosis and inflammation. In this study, it was investigated whether CB2 activation with selective CB2 receptor agonist JWH-133 was protective against renal IR injury. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups (n = 45). Bilateral ischemia was treated to the IR group rat’s kidneys for 45 min and then reperfusion was performed for 24 h. Three different doses of JWH-133 (0.2, 1 and 5 mg/kg) were administered to the treatment groups at the onset of ischemia. The JWH-133 application at three different doses decreased the glomerular and tubular damage. Additionally, in the renal tissue, nuclear factor-κB, tumour necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1beta, and caspase-3 levels decreased immunohistochemically. Similarly, JWH-133 application decreased the serum tumour necrosis factor alpha, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, kidney injury molecule-1, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, Cystatin C, interleukin-18, interleukin-1beta, interleukin-6, and interleukin-10 levels. We found that JWH-133 and CB2 receptor activation had a curative effect against kidney IR damage. JWH-133 may be a new therapeutic agent in preventing kidney IR damage.

  • Neuraminidase 1 regulates proliferation, apoptosis and the expression of Cadherins in mammary carcinoma cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-09-12
    Padmamalini Thulasiraman, Kelbie Kerr, Kathleen McAlister, Samantha Hardisty, Albany Wistner, Ian McCullough

    The link between Neuraminidase 1 (Neu1) and cancer development has been highlighted in numerous studies. In an effort to understand the role of Neu1 in mammary carcinoma cells, we evaluated the effect of Neu1 on controlling cell proliferation and apoptosis, as well as regulating the expression of cadherins. By blocking the activity of Neu1 with oseltamivir phosphate or using siRNA to silence the Neu1 protein, we observed suppression of cell growth in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Enhanced cleaved caspase 3 expression was demonstrated in breast cancer cells treated with oseltamivir phosphate or in Neu1 knockdown mammary carcinoma cells. We also provided evidence of Neu1 reversing the epithelial-mesenchymal properties with associated changes to the respective cadherin family. Additional observations indicated that the phytochemical, honokiol downregulates the expression of Neu1. As a consequence of blocking Neu1, honokiol reduced the levels of sialic acid in the two subtypes of breast cancer. These findings provide evidence that Neu1 regulates cell growth and death, and facilitates cancer progression by modulating the expression levels of cadherins.

  • MicroRNA signature of human blood mononuclear cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Qiuwang Zhang, Anthony Cannavicci, Si-Cheng Dai, Chenxi Wang, Michael J. B. Kutryk

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) regulate a wide range of cellular processes and functions. Blood mononuclear cells (BMNCs) participate in the immune response, inflammatory reaction and angiogenesis. In 2010, a total of 157 miRNAs were quantified by RT-qPCR and a miRNA signature was determined for human peripheral BMNCs. With the advent of technologies such as RNA sequencing, many new miRNAs have been identified. This study was designed to provide an up-to-date miRNA signature for human BMNCs. Peripheral BMNCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Using the qPCR array assay, we identified 108 highly expressed miRNAs (Ct value < 30) in human BMNCs. Further validation of the array results by quantifying select miRNAs with RT-qPCR revealed a strong correlation between Ct values derived from array analysis and RT-qPCR, suggesting the array results presented in this study are accurate and reliable. Of note, the function of the majority of the highly expressed miRNAs we have identified has not yet been studied. Our findings may help direct further studies of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in BMNC function.

  • Overexpression LINC01082 suppresses the proliferation, migration and invasion of colon cancer
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Wei Xiong, Jiyong Qin, Xinyi Cai, Wei Xiong, Qiuyan Liu, Cheng Li, Yunhe Ju, Qiaoli Wang, Yunfeng Li, Yi Yang

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are emerging as pivotal regulators in human cancer. LINC01082 was expressed as decreased in colon cancer by previous lncRNA-seq result and TCGA database, however, the role and function of LINC0182 is not clear in colon cancer. Here, we aimed to explore the role of LINC01082 in colon cancer for exploring the etiopathogenesis of colon cancer. RT-qPCR for LINC01082 expression in tissues (colon cancer vs. their matched adjacent non-cancerous tissues, ANT, n = 39) and cells (colon cancer cells vs. normal colon cells, n = 4) were performed. CCK-8 assay for proliferation of colon cancer, Transwell assay for migration and invasion were carried out in sw480 and sw620 cells. The results revealed that LINC01082 was significantly decreased in tissues and cell lines of colon cancer. Overexpressed LINC01082 significantly suppressed the proliferation ability of colon cancer cells. The migration and invasion of colon cancer cells were also suppressed after LINC01082 overexpression. These findings demonstrated that LINC01082 may act in suppressing the incidence and development of colon cancer via suppressing cell proliferation, migration and invasion, indicating that LINC01082 may act as a new tumor suppressor and may be a promising therapy target for colon cancer.

  • Vaspin protects mouse mesenchymal stem cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis through the MAPK/p38 pathway
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Xiao Zhu, Lingyan Zhang, Youming Chen, Bo Chen, Haifeng Huang, Jicheng Lv, Shidi Hu, Jie Shen

    The aim of the work was to study the influence of vaspin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of mouse mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). MSCs originated from bone marrow of C57BL/6 mouse were treated with vaspin and/or H2O2 in a dose-dependent manner. Cellular viability detected by CCK-8 and cell apoptosis studied by flow cytometry and TUNEL assay were observed in these cells. The protein expressions of PI3K, p-PI3K, Akt, p-Akt, T-ERK1/2, p-ERK1/2, p38, p-p38, JNK, and p-JNK were tested by Western blot. Vaspin had no significant effect on cellular viability, but significantly reduced H2O2-induced apoptosis. Western blot assay showed that pretreatment with vaspin promoted the activation of p-p38. Inhibition of p38 by SB203580 suppressed the protective effect of vaspin on oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Vaspin inhibits oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of MSCs via the activation of MAPK/p38 signaling pathway. These findings indicate that vaspin is prone to osteoporosis protection.

  • Silencing circular RNA circ_0010729 protects human cardiomyocytes from oxygen–glucose deprivation-induced injury by up-regulating microRNA-145-5p
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-09-03
    Qifeng Jin, Yuanyuan Chen

    Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are effector molecules that exert functions in cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the effects of circRNAs on myocardial ischemia remain uninvestigated. This paper aimed to explore the functions of circ_0010729 in oxygen–glucose–deprivation (OGD)-caused injury of human cardiomyocytes (HCM). HCM were exposed to OGD environment for 4 h. Then the expression of circ_0010729 was evaluated by RT-qPCR. After transfection, cell viability, apoptosis, and migration were examined to evaluate the impact of overexpression and knockdown of circ_0010729 on OGD-induced cell injury. The regulation between circ_0010729 and microRNA-145-5p (miR-145-5p) was verified. After miR-145-5p inhibitor transfection, whether aberrant miR-145-5p expression affected the modulation of circ_0010729 in OGD-induced cell injury was measured. Western blot was utilized to analyze mTOR and MEK/ERK pathway-related proteins. OGD treatment enhanced circ_0010729 expression and evoked cell injury in HCM. Moreover, OGD-induced injury was aggrandized by circ_0010729 overexpression via suppressing cell growth and migration in HCM. Knockdown of circ_0010729 attenuated OGD-induced injury. In addition, circ_0010729 negatively regulated miR-145-5p expression. MiR-145-5p inhibition reversed the effects of silencing circ_0010729 on OGD-induced injury and mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways. We demonstrated that silencing circ_0010729 activated mTOR and MEK/ERK pathways by up-regulating miR-145-5p, thereby protecting HCM from OGD-induced injury.

  • The effect of propofol on hypoxia-modulated expression of heat shock proteins: potential mechanism in modulating blood–brain barrier permeability
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Xia Sun, YueHao Yin, Lingchao Kong, Wei Chen, Changhong Miao, Jiawei Chen

    Heat shock proteins (HSPs) may be induced by hypoxia and alleviate blood–brain barrier (BBB) damage. The neuroprotective effect of propofol has been reported. We aimed to identify whether propofol induced HSPs expression and protected BBB integrity. Mouse astrocytes and microglia cells were cultured and exposed to hypoxia and propofol. The expression of HSP27, HSP32, HSP70, and HSP90, and the translocation of heat shock factor 1 (HSF1) and Nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were investigated. Mouse brain microvascular endothelial cells, astrocytes, and microglial cells were co-cultured to establish in vitro BBB model, and the effects of hypoxia and propofol as well as HSPs knockdown/overexpression on BBB integrity were measured. Hypoxia (5% O2, 5% CO2, 90% humidity) treatment for 6 h and 12 h induced HSP27, HSP32, and HSP70 expression. Propofol (25 μΜ) increased HSP27 and HSP32 expression, starting with exposure to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol induced HSF1 translocation from cytoplasmic to nuclear compartment, and blockade of HSF1 inhibited HSP27 expression in mouse astrocytes when they were exposed to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol induced Nrf2 translocation, and blockade of Nrf2 inhibited HSP32 expression in mouse microglial cells when they were exposed to hypoxia for 3 h. Propofol protected hypoxia-impaired BBB integrity, and the effects were abolished by blockade of HSF1 and Nrf2. Overexpression of HSP27 and HSP32 alleviated hypoxia-impaired BBB integrity, and blockade of HSP27 and HSP32 expression ameliorated propofol-mediated protection against BBB impairment. Propofol may protect hypoxia-mediated BBB impairment. The mechanisms may involve HSF1-mediated HSP27 expression and Nrf2-mediated HSP32 expression.

  • Melatonin and its ubiquitous anticancer effects
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-26
    Sankha Bhattacharya, Krishna Kumar Patel, Deepa Dehari, Ashish Kumar Agrawal, Sanjay Singh

    Melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxy-tryptamine), which is generally considered as pleiotropic and multitasking molecule, secretes from pineal gland at night under normal light or dark conditions. Apart from circadian regulations, Melatonin also has antioxidant, anti-ageing, immunomodulation and anticancer properties. From the epidemiological research, it was postulated that Melatonin has significant apoptotic, angiogenic, oncostatic and anti-proliferative effects on various oncological cells. In this review, the underlying anticancer mechanisms of Melatonin such as stimulation of apoptosis, Melatonin receptors (MT1 and MT2) stimulation, paro-survival signal regulation, the hindering of angiogenesis, epigenetic alteration and metastasis have been discussed with recent findings. The Melatonin utilization as an adjuvant with chemotherapeutic drugs for the reinforcement of therapeutic effects was also discussed. This review precisely emphasizes the anticancer effect of Melatonin on various cancer cells. This review exemplifies the epidemiology and anticancer efficiency of Melatonin with prior attention to the mechanisms of actions.

  • BRCA-1 depletion impairs pro-inflammatory polarization and activation of RAW 264.7 macrophages in a NF-κB-dependent mechanism
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Maurilio da Silva Morrone, Nauana Somensi, Lucas Franz, Vitor de Miranda Ramos, Juciano Gasparotto, Helen Taís da Rosa, Marcelo Sartori, Fabrício Figueiró, Daniel Pens Gelain, Alfeu Zanotto-Filho, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira

    BRCA-1 is a nuclear protein involved in DNA repair, transcriptional regulation, and cell cycle control. Its involvement in other cellular processes has been described. Here, we aimed to investigate the role of BRCA-1 in macrophages M(LPS), M(IL-4), and tumor cell-induced differentiation. We used siRNAs to knockdown BRCA-1 in RAW 264.7 macrophages exposed to LPS, IL-4, and C6 glioma cells conditioned medium (CMC6), and evaluated macrophage differentiation markers and functional phagocytic activity as well as DNA damage and cell survival in the presence and absence of BRCA-1. LPS and CMC6, but not by IL-4, increased DNA damage in macrophages, and this effect was more pronounced in BRCA-1-depleted cells, including M(IL-4). BRCA-1 depletion impaired expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, TNF-α and IL-6, and reduced the phagocytic activity of macrophages in response to LPS. In CMC6-induced differentiation, BRCA-1 knockdown inhibited TNF-α and IL-6 expression which was accompanied by upregulation of the anti-inflammatory markers IL-10 and TGF-β and reduced phagocytosis. In contrast, M(IL-4) phenotype was not affected by BRCA-1 status. Molecular docking predicted that the conserved BRCA-1 domain BRCT can interact with the p65 subunit of NF-κB. Immunofluorescence assays showed that BRCA-1 and p65 co-localize in the nucleus of LPS-treated macrophages and reporter gene assay showed that depletion of BRCA-1 decreased LPS and CMC6-induced NF-κB transactivation. IL-4 had no effect upon NF-κB. Taken together, our findings suggest a role of BRCA-1 in macrophage differentiation and phagocytosis induced by LPS and tumor cells secretoma, but not IL-4, in a mechanism associated with inhibition of NF-κB.

  • The effects of MAPK p38α on AZT resistance against reactivating HIV-1 replication in ACH2 cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-20
    Xue Wang, Jiangqin Zhao, Viswanath Ragupathy, Indira Hewlett

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has remarkably decreased HIV-related mortality. However, drug-resistant HIV variants pose a potential threat to the long-term success of ART. Both HIV mutants and host factors can cause HIV drug resistance. Using susceptible ACH2 cells chronically infected with HIV-1, we examined the effects of MAPK p38α on AZT resistance against reactivating HIV-1 replication that can be activated by HIV-1 superinfection. We found that HIV-1 superinfection induced more viral production, which was diminished by p38 inhibitor, SB203580, and by AZT in cells infected with non-AZT-resistant HIV-1 strain MN. p38α expression can resist action of AZT in inhibition of HIV-1 replication with increased expression of transcription factor, NF-ĸBp65, SP1, and c-Fos through activation of TCR-related pathways with upregulation of CD3, TCRα, TCRβ, Zap-70, PKC, PLCγ1, GRB2, and PI3K/Akt expression. In HIV-1 MN superinfection under AZT treatment, expression of p38α led to HIV vif expression and inhibited APOBEC3G expression. We also investigated effects of p38α on gp130/JAK-STAT pathways, in which p38α increased expression of protein, gp130, EGFR, Jak2, STAT1, STAT3, STAT5, ras, and TF. p38α could induce apoptotic pathways with upregulation of Fas, FADD, Caspase-8, p53, and Bax, and downregulation of Bcl2 expression. These results indicate that p38α plays a positive role in reactivation of viral replication from HIV-1 latent infection and leads to HIV-1 AZT resistance. In conclusion, MAPKp38α can activate HIV-1 replication inhibited by AZT from HIV-1 latent infection and may be used as a latency reversal agent. The activation involves induction of several cell signaling pathways that are required for HIV-1 replication, which may be integrated into future viral remission strategies.

  • Systematic analysis of long non-coding RNA and mRNA expression changes in ApoE-deficient mice during atherosclerosis
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-24
    Xiaoqian Lou, Xiaoyan Ma, Dawei Wang, Xiangjun Li, Bo Sun, Tong Zhang, Meng Qin, Liqun Ren

    Atherosclerosis plays an important role in the pathology of coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and systemic vascular disease. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in most biological processes and are deregulated in many human diseases. However, the expression alteration and precise role of lncRNAs during atherosclerosis are unknown. We report here the systematic profiling of lncRNAs and mRNAs in an ApoE-deficient (ApoE−/−) mouse model of atherosclerosis. Clariom D solutions for the mouse Affymetrix Gene Chip were employed to analyze the RNAs from control and ApoE−/− mice. The functions of the differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs and the relationships of their expression with atherosclerosis were analyzed by gene ontology, co-expression network, pathway enrichment, and lncRNA target pathway network analyses. Quantitative real-time PCR (QRT-PCR) was used to determine the expression of mRNAs and lncRNAs. A total of 2212 differentially expressed lncRNAs were identified in ApoE−/− mice, including 1186 up-regulated and 1026 down-regulated lncRNAs (|FC| ≥ 1.1, p < 0.05). A total of 1190 differentially expressed mRNAs were found in the ApoE−/− mice with 384 up-regulated and 806 down-regulated (|FC| ≥ 1.1, p < 0.05). Bioinformatics analyses demonstrated extensive co-expression of lncRNAs and mRNAs and concomitant deregulation of multiple signaling pathways associated with the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. The identified differentially expressed mRNAs and lncRNAs as well as the related signaling pathways may provide systematic information for understanding the pathogenesis and identifying biomarkers for the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of atherosclerosis.

  • Rasal2 suppresses breast cancer cell proliferation modulated by secretory autophagy
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-08-31
    Xuan Wang, Xuzhi Yin, Yonghua Yang

    Rasal2, a Ras-GTPase-activating protein (RasGAP), is a tumor suppressor in Luminal B breast cancer, frequently metastatic and recurrent. Exosomes (Exos) are small membrane vesicles secreted by various cell types, including tumor cells, recognized as vehicles for cell-to-cell communication. Our study aimed to investigate whether Rasal2 regulates breast cancer cell growth via affecting this process. In this paper, we described that Rasal2 knockout (KO) in MCF-7 cells enhanced exosomal release and increased autophagy-related proteins in exosomal fraction, while attenuated by exosome release inhibitor GW4869. Moreover, MCF-7 cells with chloroquine (CQ) treatment boosted Rasal2 KO-induced secretory autophagy. In addition, we presented that exosomes derived from KO MCF-7 cells (KO-exo) significantly promoted breast cancer cell proliferation compared to those from MCF-7 cells transfected with an empty crispr-cas9 plasmid serving as controls (sgNT-exo); however, exosomes purified from KO MCF-7 cells co-cultured with 3-methyladenine ((3-MA + KO)-exo)/CQ ((CQ + KO)-exo) dramatically inhibited/facilitated MCF-7 cell proliferation in contrast to KO-exo group, separately. In conclusion, our findings revealed a new mechanism of Rasal2 in the regulation of breast cancer cell proliferation via autophagy-exo-mediated pathway.

  • Long non-coding RNA LINC00504 regulates the Warburg effect in ovarian cancer through inhibition of miR-1244
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ya Liu, Xiaocui He, Yuli Chen, Dan Cao

    Ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal gynecologic malignancy and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been acknowledged as important regulators in human OC. This study aimed to investigate the function and underlying mechanisms of LINC00504 in OC. The expression levels of LINC00504 in human OC tissues and cell lines were investigated by qRT-PCR analysis. The OC cell proliferation, and apoptosis were evaluated by MTT assay, colony-formation assay, Caspase-3 activity assay, and nucleosome ELISA assay, respectively. The metabolic shift in OC cells was examined by aerobic glycolysis analysis. Dual-luciferase activity reporter assay and mRNA–miRNA pull-down assay were conducted to validate the interaction between LINC00504 and miR-1244. LINC00504 was upregulated in OC cell lines and specimens. Knockdown of LINC00504 inhibited cell proliferation, enhanced apoptosis, decreased glycolysis-related gene (PKM2, HK2, and PDK1) expression, and altered aerobic glycolysis in OC cells and vice versa. LINC00504 downregulated miR-1244 expression levels by acting as an endogenous sponge of miR-1244. Inhibition of miR-1244 diminished the effects of LINC00504 on OC cells. Our study shows that LINC00504 promotes OC cell progression and stimulates aerobic glycolysis by interacting with miR-1244, which indicates that LINC00504 might act as a promising therapeutic target for OC treatment.

  • CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) knockdown reduces inflammation, ER stress, and apoptosis, and promotes autophagy in oxLDL-treated RAW264.7 macrophage cells
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-11-04
    MD Khurshidul Zahid, Michael Rogowski, Christopher Ponce, Mahua Choudhury, Naima Moustaid-Moussa, Shaikh M. Rahman

    Atherosclerosis is associated with deregulated cholesterol metabolism and formation of macrophage foam cells. CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPβ) is a transcription factor, and its inhibition has recently been shown to prevent atherosclerosis development and foam cell formation. However, whether C/EBPβ regulates inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, and apoptosis, in macrophage foam cells and its underlying molecular mechanism remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effect of C/EBPβ knockdown on proteins and genes implicated in inflammation, ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy in macrophage foam cells. RAW264.7 macrophage cells were transfected with control and C/EBPβ-siRNA and then treated with nLDL and oxLDL. Key proteins and genes involved in inflammation, ER stress, apoptosis, and autophagy were analyzed by western blot and qPCR. We found that short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of C/EBPβ attenuated atherogenic lipid-mediated induction of proteins and genes implicated in inflammation (P-NFkB-p65, NFkB-p65, and TNFα), ER stress (ATF4 and ATF6), and apoptosis (CHOP, caspase 1, 3, and 12). Interestingly, C/EBPβ knockdown upregulated the expression of autophagy proteins (LC3A/B-II, ATG5) and genes (LC3B, ATG5) but decreased the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) protein phosphorylation and mTORC1 gene expression in oxLDL-loaded RAW264.7 macrophage cells. More importantly, treatment with rapamycin (inhibitor of mTOR) increased expression of proteins implicated in autophagy and cholesterol efflux in oxLDL-loaded RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. The present results suggest that C/EBPβ inactivation regulates macrophage foam cell formation in atherogenesis by reducing inflammation, ER stress, and apoptosis and by promoting autophagy and inactivating mTOR.

  • In vitro cellular uptake and neuroprotective efficacy of poly-arginine-18 (R18) and poly-ornithine-18 (O18) peptides: critical role of arginine guanidinium head groups for neuroprotection
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-11-02
    Gabriella MacDougall, Ryan S. Anderton, Eden Ouliel, Junjie Gao, Sharon L. Redmond, Neville W. Knuckey, Bruno P. Meloni

    We have previously demonstrated that Cationic Arginine-Rich Peptides (CARPs) and in particular poly-arginine-18 (R18; 18-mer of arginine) exhibit potent neuroprotective properties in both in vitro and in vivo neuronal injury models. Based on the current literature, there is a consensus that arginine residues by virtue of their positive charge and guanidinium head group is the critical element for imparting CARP neuroprotective properties and their ability to traverse cell membranes. This study examined the importance of guanidinium head groups in R18 for peptide cellular uptake, localization, and neuroprotection. This was achieved by using poly-ornithine-18 (O18; 18-mer of ornithine) as a control, which is structurally identical to R18, but possesses amino head groups rather than guanidino head groups. Epifluorescence and confocal fluorescence microscopy was used to examine the cellular uptake and localization of the FITC-conjugated R18 and O18 in primary rat cortical neurons and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cell cultures. An in vitro cortical neuronal glutamic acid excitotoxicity model was used to compare the effectiveness of R18 and O18 to inhibit cell death and intracellular calcium influx, as well as caspase and calpain activation. Fluorescence imaging studies revealed cellular uptake of both FITC-R18 and FITC-O18 in neuronal and SH-SY5Y cells; however, intracellular localization of the peptides differed in neurons. Following glutamic acid excitotoxicity, only R18 was neuroprotective, prevented caspases and calpain activation, and was more effective at reducing neuronal intracellular calcium influx. Overall, this study demonstrated that for long chain cationic poly-arginine peptides, the guanidinium head groups provided by arginine residues are an essential requirement for neuroprotection but are not required for entry into neurons.

  • SIRT3 promotes the invasion and metastasis of cervical cancer cells by regulating fatty acid synthase
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Li Xiu Xu, Li Jun Hao, Jun Qi Ma, Jing Kun Liu, Ayshamgul Hasim

    Sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) modulates mitochondria-localized processes and is implicated in the metabolic reprogramming of cancer cells, especially fatty acid (FA) synthesis. However, the relationship between SIRT3 and aberrant lipid synthesis in cervical cancer remains unclear. Here, we investigated the clinical relevance of SIRT3 expression in cervical squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC), cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), and normal tissues. To analyze the role of SIRT3 in CCSC in vitro, endogenous SIRT3 levels were up- and down-regulated in SiHa and C33a cells, respectively, via lentiviral-based transfection. Levels were quantified using qRT-PCR. Acetylation levels for acetyl-coA carboxylase (ACC1) were measured with the anti-acetyllysine antibody. Knockdown of SIRT3 reduced levels of cellular lipid content in cells. To investigate the role of SIRT3 in cell proliferation, nude mice were xenografted with SIRT3-overexpressing or SIRT3-knockdown CCSC cells. Overall, the results demonstrate that SIRT3 significantly contributed to the reprogramming of FA synthesis in CCSC by up-regulating ACC1 to promote de novo lipogenesis by SIRT3 deacetylation. Moreover, the findings show that the SIRT3-mediated regulation of FA synthesis played a critical role in the proliferation and metastasis of CCSC cells, suggesting that SIRT3 has therapeutic potential in CCSC treatment.

  • Heat shock proteins and their expression in primary murine cardiac cell populations during ischemia and reperfusion
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Sreejit Parameswaran Nair, Rajendra K. Sharma

    A tight quality control system over protein folding, turnover and synthesis, involving molecular chaperones and co-chaperones, maintains the balance of cardiac proteins. Various cardiac pathologies, including myocardial infarction, increase stresses and post-translational modifications favoring misfolding due to an overwhelmed quality control system. The toxic nature of accumulated misfolded proteins further worsens the condition. The important molecular chaperones which act as quality control proteins are involved in protecting the heart, these include heat shock protein70 (HSP70) and HSP90. Here, we review the emerging roles of heat shock proteins in the maintenance of cardiac cell populations in experimental models of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Furthermore, we discuss the expression of HSP70 and HSP90 with therapeutic and diagnostic considerations. Although there is only a partial understanding of these important HSPs in I/R injury, there is an immense therapeutic potential of modulating these HSPs to counteract the imbalance between misfolding and endogenous protein quality control systems.

  • Non-genomic effects of thyroid hormone in adult cardiac myocytes: relevance to gene expression and cell growth.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2010-03-17
    Anna Iordanidou,Margarita Hadzopoulou-Cladaras,Antigone Lazou

    Besides the well-characterized genomic action of thyroid hormone (TH), mediated by thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), accumulating data support the so-called non-genomic action of TH, which is often related to activation of signalling pathways. In this study, we sought to determine whether TH activates intracellular signalling pathways in the adult cardiac myocytes and whether such activation modulates cell growth and the expression of target proteins important in cardiac function. We demonstrate that TH promotes a rapid increase in the phosphorylation of several kinases, ERK1/2, PKCdelta, p38-MAPK and Akt. This activation is inhibited by triiodothyroacetic acid (triac), which is a TH analogue known to displace the hormone from membrane bound receptors, indicating that this TH effect is mediated through a cell membrane-initiated mechanism. Furthermore, using specific inhibitors of the TH-activated kinases, we show that the long-term effects of TH on the expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), alpha- and beta-myosin heavy chain (MHC) and cell growth are reverted, implying that what is initiated as a non-genomic action of the hormone interfaces with genomic effects. These data provide further insights into the underlying mechanisms of TH action in the heart with potentially important implications in the management of cardiac pathology.

  • DNA methylation regulates bromodomain-containing protein 2 expression during adipocyte differentiation.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2015-01-13
    Ruixin Sun,Yi Wu,Yuxiong Wang,Kun Zang,Huanhuan Wei,Fangnian Wang,Min Yu

    Obesity is characterized by excessive accumulation of white adipose tissue. Bromodomain-containing protein 2 (Brd2), which belongs to the bromodomain and extraterminal domain family of proteins, suppresses adipocyte differentiation. DNA methylation is critical for several differentiation processes and possibly in adipocyte differentiation. However, whether DNA methylation regulates the expression of Brd2 is not clear. In our study, we demonstrated that DNA methylation contributes to the regulation of Brd2 expression during pre-adipocyte differentiation. Brd2 mRNA levels were low in pre-adipocytes, increased in early adipocytes, and declined in mature adipocytes. To test whether and how Brd2 expression is regulated by DNA methylation during the differentiation of 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes to adipocytes, cells were cultured in the presence of the methylation inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza). Pre-adipocytes and adipocytes exposed to 5-Aza exhibited a dose-dependent increase in Brd2 transcription levels, while only mature adipocytes exhibited increased expression of Brd2 protein. Subsequently, we tested the DNA methylation status of the Brd2 promoter region. Bisulfite-sequencing analysis revealed that six CpG sites in two predicted promoters of Brd2 were demethylated in early adipocytes and highly methylated in mature adipocytes. Digestion of bisulfite-converted PCR products of the Brd2 promoter region from 3T3-L1 cells with BstU1 (CGGC) revealed that the demethylation rate of the Brd2 promoter was consistent with Brd2 mRNA expression in differentiating 3T3-L1 cells. In conclusion, DNA demethylation of the Brd2 promoter region induced Brd2 expression during differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells into adipocytes.

  • Brd2 is a TBP-associated protein and recruits TBP into E2F-1 transcriptional complex in response to serum stimulation.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2006-11-18
    Jinhong Peng,Wei Dong,Lu Chen,Tingting Zou,Yipeng Qi,Yingle Liu

    Brd2 is a novel protein kinase and plays a role in cell cycle-responsive transcription. Recent studies show that Brd2 contributes to E2F-1 regulated cell cycle progression. In this process, Brd2 exhibits scaffold or transcriptional adapter functions and mediates recruitment of both E2F-1 transcription factors and chromatin-remodelling activity to the E2F-1-resposive promoter. In the present study, we show that Brd2 is also a TBP-associated protein and a 26 amino acids peptide in the first bromodomain of Brd2 is essential for Brd2-TBP interaction. We found that serum stimulation of serum starved NIH/3T3 cells efficiently induces the formation of the Brd2-E2F-1-TBP complex in vivo. In this process, Brd2 plays a pivotal role in the recruitment of TBP into a E2F-1 transcriptional complex, as tested in overexpression assay and at the endogenous level. Furthermore, the 26 amino acid peptide that mediates Brd2-TBP interaction is proved to be critical for Brd2-dependent transactivation on E2F-1-responsive promoters, and moreover, Brd2 and E2F-1 may cooperatively participate in various serum-induced transactivation processes in Luciferase-reporter assays. Thus taken together, because Brd2 may recruit a HAT in its transactivational complex and E2F-1 has been found to stimulate transcription by recruiting acetyltransferase and cofactors GCN5, we predict that Brd2 and E2F-1 may act in a cooperative way to introduce an optimal environment for TBP binding to the TATA-element of gene promoters.

  • BRD2 is one of BRD7-interacting proteins and its over-expression could initiate apoptosis.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2006-06-21
    Ming Zhou,Xiao-Jie Xu,Hou-De Zhou,Hua-Ying Liu,Jia-Jin He,Xiao-Ling Li,Cong Peng,Wei Xiong,Song-Qing Fan,Jian-Hong Lu,Jue Ouyang,Shou-Rong Shen,Bo Xiang,Gui-Yuan Li

    BRD7 is a potential nuclear transcription regulation factor related to nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). BRD2, a putative BRD7-interacting protein, has been screened from human fetal brain cDNA library by yeast two-hybrid system. This study was to further identify the interaction between BRD7 and BRD2 in mammalian cells, and to investigate the subcellular localization of BRD2, as well as the effect on the functions of cell biology. Both immunoprecipitation and subcellular colocalization were performed together to identify the interaction of BRD7 with full-length BRD2, as well as C-terminal truncated BRD2 or N-terminal truncated BRD2. GFP direct fluorescence and Hochest 33258 staining were used to investigate the cellular localization pattern of BRD2 and the roles in initiating cell apoptosis in COS7 and HNE1. The results showed that BRD7 could interact with BRD2 and the region from amino acid 430 to 798 of BRD2 was critical for the interaction of BRD2 with BRD7. BRD2 mainly localizes in nucleus in two distribution patterns, diffused and dotted, and BRD2 has distinct roles in initiating apoptosis, and the dotted distribution pattern of BRD2 in nucleus may be a morphologic marker of cell apoptosis.

  • Identification of the inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING4) as a potential target in prostate cancer therapy.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : null
    Aymen Shatnawi,Sridhar A Malkaram,Tamer Fandy,Efrosini Tsouko

    INhibitor of Growth protein 4 (ING4) is a potential chromatin modifier that has been implicated in several cancer-related processes. However, the role of ING4 in prostate cancer (PC) is largely unknown. This study aimed to assess ING4's role in global transcriptional regulation in PC cells to identify potential cellular processes associated with ING4 loss. RNA-Seq using next-generation sequencing (NGS) was used to identify altered genes in LNCaP PC cells following ING4 depletion. Ingenuity pathways analysis (IPA®) was applied to the data to highlight candidates, ING4-regulated pathways, networks and cellular processes. Selected genes were validated using RT-qPCR. RNA-Seq of LNCaP cells revealed a total of 159 differentially expressed genes (fold change ≥ 1.5 or ≤ - 1.5, FDR ≤ 0.05) following ING4 knockdown. RT-qPCR used to validate the expression level of selected genes was in agreement with RNA-Seq results. Key genes, unique pathways, and biological networks were identified using IPA® analysis. This is the first report of global gene regulation in PC cells by ING4. The resultant differential expression profile revealed the potential role of ING4 in PC pathogenesis possibly through modulation of key genes, pathways and biological networks that are central drivers of the disease. Collectively, these findings shed light on a novel transcriptional regulator of PC that ultimately may influence the disease progression and as a potential target in the disease therapy.

  • Mode of treatment governs curcumin response on doxorubicin-induced toxicity in cardiomyoblasts.
    Mol. Cell. Biochem. (IF 2.884) Pub Date : 2017-09-21
    Aditi Jain,Vibha Rani

    Doxorubicin (Dox) is an effective anti-cancer drug with severe reported cardiotoxicity. Cardiovascular risks associated with present cancer therapeutics demand urgent attention. There has been a growing interest in naturally occurring compounds to improve the therapeutic index as well as prevent non-tumour tissues from sustaining chemotherapy-induced damages. In the present study, the effects of curcumin, a polyphenol isolated from Curcuma longa and well known for its anti-oxidative, anti-cancerous and anti-inflammatory properties, was studied in relation to the Dox-induced cardiotoxicity. As literature suggests conflicting role of curcumin in Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, concentration- and time-dependent studies were conducted to study the different curcumin effects. H9C2 cardiomyoblasts were used in the study and cell viability assays were done to study Dox-induced cellular death. Drug uptake assay for Dox was performed followed by cellular growth inhibition analysis by FACS Calibur. Morphological alterations, intracellular ROS levels and mitochondrial integrity were observed by fluorescent-based microscopic studies. Catalases and superoxide dismutase-inbuilt anti-oxidant enzyme activities were studied, and it was observed that Dox-dependent cardiotoxicity occurs through ROS overproduction by exaggerating the inbuilt anti-oxidant mechanism. Expression analysis for cell death and ROS markers-BCl2, Bax, SOD, catalase-was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR, and the Dox-induced stress on cardiac cells was confirmed. Initiator and effector caspases activity analysis also confirmed these findings. Our study proposes that curcumin exerts time-dependent responses on Dox-induced cardiotoxicity, where parallel treatment potentiates and pre-treatment suppresses the Dox-induced toxicity in H9C2 cardiomyoblasts. In conclusion, pre-treatment of curcumin suppresses the Dox-induced cardiotoxicity and holds a great potential as future cardio-oncological therapeutics.

Contents have been reproduced by permission of the publishers.
上海纽约大学William Glover