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  • IFNB/interferon-β regulates autophagy via a MIR1-TBC1D15-RAB7 pathway
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Patrick Ejlerskov; David C. Rubinsztein; Roger Pocock

    Loss of IFNB/interferon-β in mice causes a Parkinson disease-like phenotype where many features, including SNCA/α-synuclein and MAPT/tau accumulation, can be attributed to a late-stage block in autophagic flux. Recently, we identified a mechanism that can explain this phenotype. We found that IFNB induces expression of Mir1, a microRNA that can reduce the levels of TBC1D15, a RAB GTPase-activating protein. Induction of this pathway decreases RAB7 activity and thereby stimulates macroautophagy/autophagy. The relevance of these key players is deeply conserved from humans to Caenorhabditis elegans, highlighting the importance of this ancient autophagy regulatory pathway.

  • ESCRTing endoplasmic reticulum to microautophagic degradation
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Jasmin A. Schäfer; Sebastian Schuck

    Changing conditions necessitate cellular adaptation, which frequently entails adjustment of organelle size and shape. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle of exceptional morphological plasticity. In budding yeast, ER stress triggers the de novo formation of ER subdomains called ER whorls. These whorls are selectively degraded by a poorly defined type of microautophagy. We recently showed that ESCRT proteins are essential for microautophagic uptake of ER whorls into lysosomes, likely by mediating the final scission of the lysosomal membrane. Furthermore, ER-selective microautophagy acts in parallel with ER-selective macroautophagy. The molecular machineries for these two types of autophagy are distinct and their contributions to ER turnover vary according to conditions, suggesting that they serve different functions. Our study provides evidence for a direct role of ESCRTs in microautophagy and extends our understanding of how autophagy promotes organelle homeostasis.

  • Targeting selective autophagy by AUTAC degraders
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-20
    Daiki Takahashi; Hirokazu Arimoto

    Targeted degradation is a promising new modality in drug discovery that makes it possible to reduce intracellular protein levels with small molecules. It is a complementary approach to the conventional protein knockdown typically used in laboratories and may offer a way to approach the currently undruggable human proteome. Recently, the first autophagy-mediated degraders, called AUTACs, were developed based on observations in a xenophagy study.

  • Cytosolic domain of SIDT2 carries an arginine-rich motif that binds to RNA/DNA and is important for the direct transport of nucleic acids into lysosomes
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Katsunori Hase; Viorica Raluca Contu; Chihana Kabuta; Ryohei Sakai; Masayuki Takahashi; Naoyuki Kataoka; Fumihiko Hakuno; Shin-Ichiro Takahashi; Yuuki Fujiwara; Keiji Wada; Tomohiro Kabuta

    RNautophagy and DNautophagy (RDA) are unconventional autophagic pathways where nucleic acids are directly transported through the lysosomal membrane, then degraded inside lysosomes. We have previously shown that bitopic protein LAMP2C and putative RNA transporter SIDT2, both lysosomal membrane proteins, mediate the direct transport of nucleic acids into lysosomes and that LAMP2C interacts with the nucleic acids and functions as a receptor during RDA. Because SIDT2-mediated RDA occurs in isolated lysosomes that lack LAMP2C, in this study, we tested the hypothesis that SIDT2 itself could also interact with the nucleic acids. Our results show that SIDT2 directly binds RNA and DNA through an arginine-rich motif (ARM) located within its main cytosolic domain, and disruption of this motif dramatically impairs SIDT2-mediated RNautophagic activity. We also found that SIDT2 interacts with exon 1 of HTT (huntingtin) transcript through the ARM in a CAG-dependent manner. Moreover, overexpression of SIDT2 promoted degradation of HTT mRNA and reduced the levels of polyglutamine-expanded HTT aggregates, hallmarks of Huntington disease. In addition, a comparative analysis of LAMP2C and SIDT2 functions at the cellular level revealed that the two proteins exert a synergistic effect on RNautophagic activity and that the ARMs which mediate the interactions of SIDT2 and LAMP2C with RNA are essential for the synergy. Together, our results point out the importance of nucleic acid-binding capacity of SIDT2 for its function in translocating nucleic acids through the lipid bilayer and suggests a potential application of RNautophagy activation to reduce the expression levels of disease-causing toxic proteins. Abbreviations: ACTB/β-actin: actin beta; ARM: arginine-rich motif; CBB: Coomassie Brilliant Blue; CD: cytosolic domain; COX4I1/COX4: cytochrome c oxidase subunit 4I1; E. coli: Escherichia coli; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; EtBr: ethidium bromide; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GOLGA2/GM130: golgin A2; GST: glutathione S-transferase; HRP: horseradish peroxidase; HSPA5/GRP78: heat shock protein family A (Hsp70) member 5; HTT: huntingtin; HTTex1: exon 1 of the HTT gene; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LMNA: lamin A/C; PAGE: polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PEI: polyethyleneimine; polyQ: polyglutamine; qPCR: quantitative PCR; RAB5A: RAB5A, member RAS oncogene family; RDA: RNautophagy and DNautophagy; SCARB2/LIMP2: scavenger receptor class B member 2; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate; SID-1: systemic RNA interference deficient-1; SIDT2: SID1 transmembrane family member 2; WT: wild type.

  • Metabolic effects of RUBCN/Rubicon deficiency in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Jun Matsuda; Atsushi Takahashi; Yoshitsugu Takabatake; Shinsuke Sakai; Satoshi Minami; Takeshi Yamamoto; Ryuta Fujimura; Tomoko Namba-Hamano; Hiroaki Yonishi; Jun Nakamura; Tomonori Kimura; Jun-Ya Kaimori; Isao Matsui; Masatomo Takahashi; Motonao Nakao; Yoshihiro Izumi; Takeshi Bamba; Taiji Matsusaka; Fumio Niimura; Motoko Yanagita; Tamotsu Yoshimori; Yoshitaka Isaka

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a lysosomal degradation system which plays a protective role against kidney injury. RUBCN/Rubicon (RUN domain and cysteine-rich domain containing, Beclin 1-interacting protein) inhibits the fusion of autophagosomes and lysosomes. However, its physiological role in kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTECs) remains uncertain. In the current study, we analyzed the phenotype of newly generated PTEC-specific rubcn-deficient (KO) mice. Additionally, we investigated the role of RUBCN in lipid metabolism using isolated rubcn-deficient PTECs. Although KO mice exhibited sustained high autophagic flux in PTECs, they were not protected from acute ischemic kidney injury. Unexpectedly, KO mice exhibited hallmark features of metabolic syndrome accompanied by expanded lysosomes containing multi-layered phospholipids in PTECs. RUBCN deficiency in cultured PTECs promoted the mobilization of phospholipids from cellular membranes to lysosomes via enhanced autophagy. Treatment of KO PTECs with oleic acid accelerated fatty acids transfer to mitochondria. Furthermore, KO PTECs promoted massive triglyceride accumulation in hepatocytes (BNL-CL2 cells) co-cultured in transwell, suggesting accelerated fatty acids efflux from the PTECs contributes to the metabolic syndrome in KO mice. This study shows that sustained high autophagic flux by RUBCN deficiency in PTECs leads to metabolic syndrome concomitantly with an accelerated mobilization of phospholipids from cellular membranes to lysosomes. Abbreviations: ABC: ATP binding cassette; ACADM: acyl-CoA dehydrogenase medium chain; ACTB: actin, beta; ATG: autophagy related; AUC: area under the curve; Baf: bafilomycin A1; BAT: brown adipose tissue; BODIPY: boron-dipyrromethene; BSA: bovine serum albumin; BW: body weight; CAT: chloramphenicol acetyltransferase; CM: complete medium; CPT1A: carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a, liver; CQ: chloroquine; CTRL: control; EGFP: enhanced green fluorescent protein; CTSD: cathepsin D; EAT: epididymal adipose tissue; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; EIF4EBP1: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E binding protein 1; FA: fatty acid; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GTT: glucose tolerance test; HE: hematoxylin and eosin; HFD: high-fat diet; I/R: ischemia-reperfusion; ITT: insulin tolerance test; KAP: kidney androgen regulated protein; KO: knockout; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; LD: lipid droplet; LRP2: low density lipoprotein receptor related protein 2; MAP1LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAT: mesenteric adipose tissue; MS: mass spectrometry; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; NDRG1: N-myc downstream regulated 1; NDUFB5: NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B5; NEFA: non-esterified fatty acid; OA: oleic acid; OCT: optimal cutting temperature; ORO: Oil Red O; PAS: Periodic-acid Schiff; PFA: paraformaldehyde; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PPARA: peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha; PPARGC1A: PPARG coactivator 1 alpha; PTEC: proximal tubular epithelial cell; RAB7A: RAB7A, member RAS oncogene family; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase B1; RT: reverse transcription; RUBCN: rubicon autophagy regulator; SAT: subcutaneous adipose tissue; SFC: supercritical fluid chromatography; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; SREBF1: sterol regulatory element binding transcription factor 1; SV-40: simian virus-40; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TG: triglyceride; TS: tissue specific; TUNEL: terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling; UN: urea nitrogen; UQCRB: ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; VPS: vacuolar protein sorting; WAT: white adipose tissue.

  • Transgenic expression of GFP-LC3 perturbs autophagy in exocrine pancreas and acute pancreatitis responses in mice
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Olga A. Mareninova; Wenzhuo Jia; Sophie R. Gretler; Conner L. Holthaus; Diana D. H. Thomas; Michael Pimienta; Dustin L. Dillon; Anna S. Gukovskaya; Ilya Gukovsky; Guy E. Groblewski

    Pancreatitis is a common, sometimes fatal, disease of exocrine pancreas, initiated by damaged acinar cells. Recent studies implicate disordered macroautophagy/autophagy in pancreatitis pathogenesis. ATG8/LC3 protein is critical for autophagosome formation and a widely used marker of autophagic vacuoles. Transgenic GFP-LC3 mice are a valuable tool to investigate autophagy ; however, comparison of homeostatic and disease responses between GFP-LC3 and wild-type (WT) mice has not been done. We examined the effects of GFP-LC3 expression on autophagy, acinar cell function, and experimental pancreatitis. Unexpectedly, GFP-LC3 expression markedly increased endogenous LC3-II level in pancreas, caused by downregulation of ATG4B, the protease that deconjugates/delipidates LC3-II. By contrast, GFP-LC3 expression had lesser or no effect on autophagy in liver, lung and spleen. Autophagic flux analysis showed that autophagosome formation in GFP-LC3 acinar cells increased 3-fold but was not fully counterbalanced by increased autophagic degradation. Acinar cell (ex vivo) pancreatitis inhibited autophagic flux in WT and essentially blocked it in GFP-LC3 cells. In vivo pancreatitis caused autophagy impairment in WT mice, manifest by upregulation of LC3-II and SQSTM1/p62, increased number and size of autophagic vacuoles, and decreased level of TFEB, all of which were exacerbated in GFP-LC3 mice. GFP-LC3 expression affected key pancreatitis responses; most dramatically, it worsened increases in serum AMY (amylase), a diagnostic marker of acute pancreatitis, in several mouse models. The results emphasize physiological importance of autophagy for acinar cell function, demonstrate organ-specific effects of GFP-LC3 expression, and indicate that application of GFP-LC3 mice in disease models should be done with caution.Abbreviations: AP: acute pancreatitis; Arg-AP: L-arginine-induced acute pancreatitis; ATG: autophagy-related (protein); AVs: autophagic vacuoles; CCK: cholecystokinin-8; CDE: choline-deficient, D,L-ethionine supplemented diet; CER: caerulein (ortholog of CCK); CTSB: cathepsin B; CTSD: cathepsin D; CTSL: cathepsin L; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; LAMP: lysosomal-associated membrane protein; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; TEM: transmission electron microscopy; TFEB: transcription factor EB; ZG: zymogen granule(s).

  • Atg38-Atg8 interaction in fission yeast establishes a positive feedback loop to promote autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-16
    Zhong-Qiu Yu; Ling-Ling Sun; Zhao-Di Jiang; Xiao-Man Liu; Dan Zhao; Hai-Tao Wang; Wan-Zhong He; Meng-Qiu Dong; Li-Lin Du

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is driven by the coordinated actions of core autophagy-related (Atg) proteins. Atg8, the core Atg protein generally considered acting most downstream, has recently been shown to interact with other core Atg proteins via their Atg8-family-interacting motifs (AIMs). However, the extent, functional consequence, and evolutionary conservation of such interactions remain inadequately understood. Here, we show that, in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Atg38, a subunit of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PtdIns3K) complex I, interacts with Atg8 via an AIM, which is highly conserved in Atg38 proteins of fission yeast species, but not conserved in Atg38 proteins of other species. This interaction recruits Atg38 to Atg8 on the phagophore assembly site (PAS) and consequently enhances PAS accumulation of the PtdIns3K complex I and Atg proteins acting downstream of the PtdIns3K complex I, including Atg8. The disruption of the Atg38-Atg8 interaction leads to the reduction of autophagosome size and autophagic flux. Remarkably, the loss of this interaction can be compensated by an artificial Atg14-Atg8 interaction. Our findings demonstrate that the Atg38-Atg8 interaction in fission yeast establishes a positive feedback loop between Atg8 and the PtdIns3K complex I to promote efficient autophagosome formation, underscore the prevalence and diversity of AIM-mediated connections within the autophagic machinery, and reveal unforeseen flexibility of such connections.

  • The bifunctional role of TP53INP2 in transcription and autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Yinfeng Xu; Wei Wan

    Cells integrate intracellular and extracellular cues to precisely control the balance of anabolic and catabolic processes, which is essential for cells to maintain homeostasis. The nuclear protein TP53INP2 (tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2) has emerged as one of the key players participating in both anabolic and catabolic processes. In the nucleus including the nucleolus, TP53INP2 binds to multiple transcription-related factors to modulate transcription, such as the transcription of thyroid hormone-related genes and ribosomal DNA. Interestingly, upon nutrient deprivation, TP53INP2 rapidly moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm and participates in the regulation of autophagy. By acting as a nutrient status sensor, TP53INP2 switches its role between transcription and autophagy by changing its subcellular localization and helps the cell to cope with environmental changes. Abbreviations: Atg: autophagy related; DOR: diabetes and obesity related gene; LIR: LC3-interacting region; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1; rDNA: ribosomal DNA; TP53INP2: tumor protein p53 inducible nuclear protein 2; UIM: ubiquitin-interacting motif

  • Autophagy drives fibroblast senescence through MTORC2 regulation
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-13
    Monique Bernard; Bing Yang; Francis Migneault; Julie Turgeon; Mélanie Dieudé; Marc-Alexandre Olivier; Guillaume B Cardin; Mostafa El-Diwany; Katy Underwood; Francis Rodier; Marie-Josée Hébert

    Sustained macroautophagy/autophagy favors the differentiation of fibroblasts into myofibroblasts. Cellular senescence, another means of responding to long-term cellular stress, has also been linked to myofibroblast differentiation and fibrosis. Here, we evaluate the relationship between senescence and myofibroblast differentiation in the context of sustained autophagy. We analyzed markers of cell cycle arrest/senescence in fibroblasts in vitro, where autophagy was triggered by serum starvation (SS). Autophagic fibroblasts expressed the senescence biomarkers CDKN1A/p21 and CDKN2A/p16 and exhibited increased senescence-associated GLB1/beta-galactosidase activity. Inhibition of autophagy in serum-starved fibroblasts with 3-methyladenine, LY294002, or ATG7 (autophagy related 7) silencing prevented the expression of senescence-associated markers. Similarly, suppressing MTORC2 activation using rapamycin or by silencing RICTOR also prevented senescence hallmarks. Immunofluorescence microscopy showed that senescence and myofibroblast differentiation were induced in different cells, suggesting mutually exclusive activation of senescence and myofibroblast differentiation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are known inducers of senescence and exposing fibroblasts to ROS scavengers decreased ROS production during SS, inhibited autophagy, and significantly reduced the expression of senescence and myofibroblast differentiation markers. ROS scavengers also curbed the AKT1 phosphorylation at Ser473, an MTORC2 target, establishing the importance of ROS in fueling MTORC2 activation. Inhibition of senescence by shRNA to TP53/p53 and shRNA CDKN2A/p16 increased myofibroblast differentiation, suggesting a negative feedback loop of senescence on autophagy-induced myofibroblast differentiation. Collectively, our results identify ROS as central inducers of MTORC2 activation during chronic autophagy, which in turn fuels senescence activation and myofibroblast differentiation in distinct cellular subpopulations. Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; ACTA2: actin, alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; AKT1: AKT serine/threonine kinase 1; p-AKT1: AKT1 Ser473 phosphorylation; t-AKT1: total AKT serine/threonine kinase 1; ATG4A: autophagy related 4A cysteine peptidase; ATG7: autophagy gene 7; C12FDG: 5-dodecanoylaminofluorescein Di-β-D-Galactopyranoside; CDKN1A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CDKN2A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; Ctl: control; DAPI: 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, dilactate; ECM: extracellular matrix; GSH: L-glutathione reduced; H2O2: hydrogen peroxide; HLF: adult human lung fibroblasts; Ho: Hoechst 33342 (2′‐[4‐ethoxyphenyl]‐5‐[4‐methyl‐1‐piperazinyl]‐2.5′‐bi‐1H‐benzimidazole); HSC: hepatic stellate cells; LY: LY294002; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MTORC1/2: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1/2; N: normal growth medium; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PDGFA: platelet derived growth factor subunit A; PRKCA/PKCα: protein kinase C alpha; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; R: rapamycin; RICTOR: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1; SA-GLB1/β-gal: senescence-associated galactosidase beta 1; SGK1: serum/glucocorticoid regulated kinase 1; shRNA: short hairpin RNA; siCtl: control siRNA; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; SS: serum-free (serum starvation) medium; TP53: tumor protein p53; TUBA: tubulin alpha; V: vehicle.

  • Autophagy-Dependent Ferroptosis Drives Tumor-Associated Macrophage Polarization via Release and Uptake of Oncogenic KRAS Protein
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Enyong Dai; Leng Han; Jiao Liu; Yangchun Xie; Guido Kroemer; Daniel J. Klionsky; Herbert J. Zeh; Rui Kang; Jing Wang; Daolin Tang

    KRAS is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human neoplasia. Despite a large investment to understand the effects of KRAS mutation in cancer cells, the direct effects of the oncogenetic KRAS activation on immune cells remain elusive. Here, we report that extracellular KRASG12D is essential for pancreatic tumor-associated macrophage polarization. Oxidative stress induces KRASG12D protein release from cancer cells succumbing to autophagy-dependent ferroptosis. Extracellular KRASG12D packaged into exosomes then is taken up by macrophages through an AGER-dependent mechanism. KRASG12D causes macrophages to switch to an M2-like pro-tumor phenotype via STAT3-dependent fatty acid oxidation. Consequently, the disruption of KRASG12D release and uptake can abolish the macrophage-mediated stimulation of pancreatic adenocarcinomas in mouse models. Importantly, the level of KRASG12D expression in macrophages correlates with poor survival in pancreatic cancer patients. These findings not only identify extracellular KRASG12D as a key mediator of cancer cell-macrophage communication, but also provide a novel KRAS-targeted anticancer strategy.

  • Age-dependent autophagy induction after injury promotes axon regeneration by limiting NOTCH
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Su-Hyuk Ko; Ellen C. Apple; Zhijie Liu; Lizhen Chen

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis through the degradation of organelles and proteins. It also has a prominent role in modulating aging. However, the role of autophagy in the neuronal response to axon injury and axon regeneration, particularly in the context of aging, remains largely unknown. Our candidate genetic screen for axon regeneration regulators has identified genes in the autophagy pathway. Using a reporter that monitors autophagosomes and autolysosomes, we were able to monitor the dynamics of autophagy during axon regeneration. In response to axon injury, there was a significant increase in the number of autophagic vesicles. Injury-triggered autophagy activation and axon regeneration capacity undergo an age-dependent decline, and autophagy-activating agents partially rescued these declines. We found that DLK-1 was both required and sufficient for injury-induced autophagy activation. Autophagic vesicles co-localized with the NOTCH4 ortholog, LIN-12 receptor, a previously identified inhibitor of axon regeneration. Epistasis analyses indicate that LIN-12 might be a target of autophagy in axon regeneration. Together, our data suggest that DLK-mediated injury signaling can activate autophagy, which might limit the level of LIN-12 and NOTCH proteins to promote axon regeneration. Our findings reveal that autophagy activation can promote axon regeneration in neurons that lack maximal regrowth capacity, providing a promising therapeutic strategy for axon injury.

  • SQSTM1/p62 activates NFE2L2/NRF2 via ULK1-mediated autophagic KEAP1 degradation and protects mouse liver from lipotoxicity
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-08
    Da Hyun Lee; Jeong Su Park; Yu Seol Lee; Jisu Han; Dong-Kyu Lee; Sung Won Kwon; Dai Hoon Han; Yong-ho Lee; Soo Han Bae

    Lipotoxicity, induced by saturated fatty acid (SFA)-mediated cell death, plays an important role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The KEAP1 (kelch like ECH associated protein 1)-NFE2L2/NRF2 (nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2) pathway is a pivotal defense mechanism against lipotoxicity. We previously reported that SQSTM1/p62 has a cytoprotective role against lipotoxicity through activation of the noncanonical KEAP1- NFE2L2 pathway in hepatocytes. However, the underlying mechanisms and physiological relevance of this pathway have not been clearly defined. Here, we demonstrate that NFE2L2-mediated induction of SQSTM1 activates the noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway under lipotoxic conditions. Furthermore, we identified that SQSTM1 induces ULK1 (unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1) phosphorylation by facilitating the interaction between AMPK (AMP-activated protein kinase) and ULK1, leading to macroautophagy/autophagy induction, followed by KEAP1 degradation and NFE2L2 activation. Accordingly, the activity of this SQSTM1-mediated noncanonical KEAP1-NFE2L2 pathway conferred hepatoprotection against lipotoxicity in the livers of conventional sqstm1- and liver-specific sqstm1-knockout mice. Moreover, this pathway activity was evident in the livers of patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver. This axis could thus represent a novel target for NAFLD treatment.

  • UVRAG in autophagy, inflammation, and cancer
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Ying Song; Christine Quach; Chengyu Liang

    Macroautophagy/autophagy deregulation has been observed in perpetuated inflammation and the proliferation of tumor cells. However, the mechanisms underlying these changes have yet to be well-identified. UVRAG is one of the key players of autophagy, but its role in vivo remained puzzling. Our recent study utilized a mouse model with inducible expression of a cancer-derived frameshift (FS) mutation in UVRAG that dominant-negatively inhibits wild-type UVRAG, resulting in impaired stimulus-induced autophagy. The systemically compromised autophagy, particularly mitophagy, notably increases inflammation and associated pathologies. Furthermore, our discovery indicates that time-dependent autophagy suppression and ensuing CTNNB1/β-catenin activation may serve as one tumor-promoting mechanism underpinning age-related cancer susceptibility.

  • Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus Replication Imposes Hyper-Lipidation of MAP1LC3 in Epithelial Cells.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2020-01-04
    Marie Moroso; Pauline Verlhac; Olivier Ferraris; Aurore Rozières; Caroline Carbonnelle; Stéphane Mély; Hubert P. Endtz; Christophe N. Peyrefitte; Glaucia Paranhos-Baccalà; Christophe Viret; Mathias Faure

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is a virus that causes severe liver dysfunctions and hemorrhagic fever, with high mortality rate. Here, we show that CCHFV infection caused a massive lipidation of LC3 in hepatocytes. This lipidation was not dependent on ATG5, ATG7 or BECN1, and no signs for recruitment of the alternative ATG12–ATG3 pathway for lipidation was found. Both virus replication and protein synthesis were required for the lipidation of LC3. Despite an augmented transcription of SQSTM1, the amount of proteins did not show a massive and sustained increase in infected cells, indicating that degradation of SQSTM1 by macroautophagy/autophagy was still occurring. The genetic alteration of autophagy did not influence the production of CCHFV particles demonstrating that autophagy was not required for CCHFV replication. Thus, the results indicate that CCHFV multiplication imposes an overtly elevated level of LC3 mobilization that involves a possibly novel type of non-canonical lipidation.

  • Binding of Avibirnavirus VP3 to the PIK3C3-PDPK1 complex inhibits autophagy by activating the AKT-MTOR pathway
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Yina Zhang; Boli Hu; Yahui Li; Tingjuan Deng; Yuting Xu; Jing Lei; Jiyong Zhou

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a host natural defense response. Viruses have developed various strategies to subvert autophagy during their life cycle. Recently, we revealed that autophagy was activated by binding of Avibirnavirus to cells. In the present study, we report the inhibition of autophagy initiated by PIK3C3/VPS34 via the PDPK1-dependent AKT-MTOR pathway. Autophagy detection revealed that viral protein VP3 triggered inhibition of autophagy at the early stage of Avibirnavirus replication. Subsequent interaction analysis showed that the CC1 domain of VP3 disassociated PIK3C3-BECN1 complex by direct interaction with BECN1 and blocked autophagosome formation, while the CC3 domain of VP3 disrupted PIK3C3-PDPK1 complex via directly binding to PIK3C3 and inhibited both formation and maturation of autophagosome. Furthermore, we found that PDPK1 activated AKT-MTOR pathway for suppressing autophagy via binding to AKT. Finally, we proved that CC3 domain was critical for role of VP3 in regulating replication of Avibirnavirus through autophagy. Taken together, our study identified that Avibirnavirus VP3 links PIK3C3-PDPK1 complex to AKT-MTOR pathway and inhibits autophagy, a critical step for controlling virus replication. Abbreviations: ATG14/Barkor: autophagy related 14; BECN1: beclin 1; CC: coiled-coil; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; hpi: hours post-infection; IBDV: infectious bursal disease virus; IP: co-immunoprecipitation; mAb: monoclonal antibody; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MOI: multiplicity of infection; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; PDPK1: 3-phosphoinositid-dependent protein kinase-1; PIK3C3/VPS34: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PtdIns3K: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; PtdIns3P: phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; vBCL2: viral BCL2 apoptosis regulator.

  • TGFB-INHB/activin signaling regulates age-dependent autophagy and cardiac health through inhibition of MTORC2
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-29
    Kai Chang; Ping Kang; Ying Liu; Kerui Huang; Ting Miao; Antonia P. Sagona; Ioannis P. Nezis; Rolf Bodmer; Karen Ocorr; Hua Bai

    ABSTRACT Age-related impairment of macroautophagy/autophagy and loss of cardiac tissue homeostasis contribute significantly to cardiovascular diseases later in life. MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) signaling is the most well-known regulator of autophagy, cellular homeostasis, and longevity. The MTOR signaling consists of two structurally and functionally distinct multiprotein complexes, MTORC1 and MTORC2. While MTORC1 is well characterized but the role of MTORC2 in aging and autophagy remains poorly understood. Here we identified TGFB-INHB/activin signaling as a novel upstream regulator of MTORC2 to control autophagy and cardiac health during aging. Using Drosophila heart as a model system, we show that cardiac-specific knockdown of TGFB-INHB/activin-like protein daw induces autophagy and alleviates age-related heart dysfunction, including cardiac arrhythmias and bradycardia. Interestingly, the downregulation of daw activates TORC2 signaling to regulate cardiac autophagy. Activation of TORC2 alone through overexpressing its subunit protein rictor promotes autophagic flux and preserves cardiac function with aging. In contrast, activation of TORC1 does not block autophagy induction in daw knockdown flies. Lastly, either daw knockdown or rictor overexpression in fly hearts prolongs lifespan, suggesting that manipulation of these pathways in the heart has systemic effects on longevity control. Thus, our studies discover the TGFB-INHB/activin-mediated inhibition of TORC2 as a novel mechanism for age-dependent decreases in autophagic activity and cardiac health. Abbreviations: AI: arrhythmia index; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BMP: bone morphogenetic protein; CQ: chloroquine; CVD: cardiovascular diseases; DI: diastolic interval; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; HP: heart period; HR: heart rate; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NGS: normal goat serum; PBST: PBS with 0.1% Triton X-100; PDPK1: 3-phosphoinositide dependent protein kinase 1; RICTOR: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2; ROI: region of interest; ROUT: robust regression and outlier removal; ROS: reactive oxygen species; R-SMAD: receptor-activated SMAD; SI: systolic interval; SOHA: semi-automatic optical heartbeat analysis; TGFB: transformation growth factor beta; TSC1: TSC complex subunit 1

  • Regulation of LC3B levels by ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Rui Jia; Juan S. Bonifacino

    Like other biological processes, macroautophagy/autophagy must be tightly controlled for maintenance of cellular homeostasis and for proper response to changing cellular conditions. To gain insights into the regulation of autophagy, we recently conducted a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 knockout screen using cells expressing endogenous LC3B tagged with GFP-mCherry as a reporter. This approach allowed us to identify the ubiquitin-activating enzyme UBA6 and the hybrid ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme/ubiquitin ligase BIRC6 as novel autophagy regulators. We found that these enzymes cooperate to mediate monoubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of LC3B, thus limiting the pool of LC3B available for autophagy. Depletion of UBA6 or BIRC6 increased the level of cytosolic LC3B, enhancing the degradation of autophagy adaptors and the clearance of intracellular proteins aggregates. This finding could be the basis for the development of pharmacological inhibitors of UBA6 or BIRC6 for the treatment of protein aggregation disorders. Recent work by another group showed that BIRC6 itself is subject to ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation, highlighting the existence of a complex regulatory network for the control of LC3B levels.

  • ATG7 is essential for secretion of iron from ameloblasts and normal growth of murine incisors during aging
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Supawadee Sukseree; Uwe Yacine Schwarze; Reinhard Gruber; Florian Gruber; Maria Quiles del Rey; Joseph D. Mancias; John D. Bartlett; Erwin Tschachler; Leopold Eckhart

    The incisors of rodents comprise an iron-rich enamel and grow throughout adult life, making them unique models of iron metabolism and tissue homeostasis during aging. Here, we deleted Atg7 (autophagy related 7) in murine ameloblasts, i.e. the epithelial cells that produce enamel. The absence of ATG7 blocked the transport of iron from ameloblasts into the maturing enamel, leading to a white instead of yellow surface of maxillary incisors. In aging mice, lack of ATG7 was associated with the growth of ectopic incisors inside severely deformed primordial incisors. These results suggest that 2 characteristic features of rodent incisors, i.e. deposition of iron on the enamel surface and stable growth during aging, depend on autophagic activity in ameloblasts.

  • The protease activity of human ATG4B is regulated by reversible oxidative modification
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Xueping Zheng; Zuolong Yang; Qianqian Gu; Fan Xia; Yuanyuan Fu; Peiqing Liu; Xiao-Ming Yin; Min Li

    Macroautophagy/autophagy plays a pivotal role in cytoplasmic material recycling and metabolic turnover, in which ATG4B functions as a “scissor” for processing pro-LC3 and lipidated LC3 to drive the autophagy progress. Mounting evidence has demonstrated the tight connection between ROS and autophagy during various pathological situations. Coincidentally, several studies have shown that ATG4B is potentially regulated by redox modification, but the underlying molecular mechanism and its relationship with autophagy is ambiguous. In this study, we verified that ATG4B activity was definitely regulated in a reversible redox manner. We also determined that Cys292 and Cys361 are essential sites of ATG4B to form reversible intramolecular disulfide bonds that respond to oxidative stress. Interestingly, we unraveled a new phenomenon that ATG4B concurrently formed disulfide-linked oligomers at Cys292 and Cys361, and that both sites underwent redox modifications thereby modulating ATG4B activity. Finally, increased autophagic flux and decreased oxidation sensitivity were observed in Cys292 and Cys361 double site-mutated cells under normal growth conditions. In conclusion, our research reveals a novel molecular mechanism that oxidative modification at Cys292 and Cys361 sites regulates ATG4B function, which modulates autophagy.

  • Autophagic degradation of KAT2A/GCN5 promotes directional migration of vascular smooth muscle cells by reducing TUBA/α-tubulin acetylation
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Changhan Ouyang; Jing Mu; Qiulun Lu; Jian Li; Huaiping Zhu; Qilong Wang; Ming-Hui Zou; Zhonglin Xie

    Macroautophagy/autophagy, a fundamental process for degradation of macromolecules and organelles, occurs constitutively at a basal level and is upregulated in response to stress. Whether autophagy regulates protein acetylation and microtubule stability in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) migration, however, remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that the histone acetyltransferase KAT2A/GCN5 (lysine acetyltransferase 2) binds directly to the autophagosome protein MAP1LC3/LC3 (microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3) via a conserved LC3-interacting region (LIR) domain. This interaction is required for KAT2A sequestration in autophagosomes and degradation by lysosomal acid hydrolases. Suppression of autophagy results in KAT2A accumulation. KAT2A functions as an acetyltransferase to increase TUBA/α-tubulin acetylation, promote microtubule polymerization and stability, ultimately inhibiting directional cell migration. Our findings indicate that deacetylation of TUBA and perturbation of microtubule stability via selective autophagic degradation of KAT2A are essential for autophagy-promoting VSMC migration. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; ATAT1: alpha tubulin acetyltransferase 1; ATG: autophagy-related; BECN1: beclin 1; CQ: chloroquine; FBS: fetal bovine serum; GST: glutathione S-transferase; H4K16ac: histone H4 lysine 16 acetylation; HASMCs: human aortic smooth muscle cells; HBSS: Hank’s buffered salt solution; HDAC6: histone deacetylase 6; hMOF: human males absent on the first; IP: immunoprecipitation; KAT2A/GCN5: lysine acetyltransferase 2A; Lacta: lactacystin; LIR: LC3-interaction region; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MEFs: mouse embryonic fibroblasts; MTOC: microtubule-organizing center; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; PtdIns3K: class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase; RUNX2: runt-related transcription factor 2; SIRT1: sirtuin 1; SIRT2: sirtuin 2; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; VSMCs: vascular smooth muscle cells; WT: wild-type.

  • Differential regulation of autophagy during metabolic stress in astrocytes and neurons
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Aditi Kulkarni; Audrey Dong; Vineet Vinay Kulkarni; Jessica Chen; Olivia Laxton; Anip Anand; Sandra Maday

    Macroautophagy/autophagy is a key homeostatic process that targets cytoplasmic components to the lysosome for breakdown and recycling. Autophagy plays critical roles in glia and neurons that affect development, functionality, and viability of the nervous system. The mechanisms that regulate autophagy in glia and neurons, however, are poorly understood. Here, we define the molecular underpinnings of autophagy in primary cortical astrocytes in response to metabolic stress, and perform a comparative study in primary hippocampal neurons. We find that inducing metabolic stress by nutrient deprivation or pharmacological inhibition of MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase) robustly activates autophagy in astrocytes. While both paradigms of metabolic stress dampen MTOR signaling, they affect the autophagy pathway differently. Further, we find that starvation-induced autophagic flux is dependent on the buffering system of the starvation solution. Lastly, starvation conditions that strongly activate autophagy in astrocytes have less pronounced effects on autophagy in neurons. Combined, our study reveals the complexity of regulating autophagy in different paradigms of metabolic stress, as well as in different cell types of the brain. Our findings raise important implications for how neurons and glia may collaborate to maintain homeostasis in the brain. Abbreviations ACSF: artificial cerebrospinal fluid; baf A1: bafilomycin A1; EBSS: earle’s balanced salt solution; GFAP: glial fibrillary acidic protein; Glc: glucose; GM: glial media; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; p-RPS6: phospho-RPS6; p-ULK1: phospho-ULK1; RPS6: ribosomal protein S6; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; ULK1: unc-51-like kinase 1.

  • BST2 suppresses porcine epidemic diarrhea virus replication by targeting and degrading virus nucleocapsid protein with selective autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Ning Kong; Tongling Shan; Hua Wang; Yajuan Jiao; Yewen Zuo; Liwei Li; Wu Tong; Lingxue Yu; Yifeng Jiang; Yanjun Zhou; Guoxin Li; Fei Gao; Hai Yu; Hao Zheng; Guangzhi Tong

    Interferon-induced BST2 (bone marrow stromal cell antigen 2) inhibits viral replication by tethering enveloped virions to the cell surface to restrict viral release and by inducing the NFKB-dependent antiviral immune response. However, the mechanism by which BST2 uses the selective autophagy pathway to inhibit viral replication is poorly understood. In this study, we showed that BST2 expression was significantly increased during porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) infection of Vero cells by IRF1 targeting its promoter. We also showed that BST2 suppressed PEDV replication by binding and degrading the PEDV-encoded nucleocapsid (N) protein. The downregulation of N protein was blocked by macroautophagy/autophagy inhibitors but not a proteasome inhibitor, implying that the N protein was degraded via the selective autophagy pathway. Both the BST2 and N protein interacted with the E3 ubiquitin ligase MARCHF8/MARCH8 and the cargo receptor CALCOCO2/NDP52, and the ubiquitination of N protein was necessary for the degradation of N mediated by the BST2-MARCHF8 axis. The knockdown of MARCHF8 or ATG5 with small interfering RNAs blocked the selective autophagy pathway, rescued the protein abundance of PEDV N in 293T cells, and prevented the inhibition of PEDV replication by BST2 in Vero cells. Together, our data demonstrate the novel mechanism of BST2-mediated virus restriction, in which BST2 recruits MARCHF8 to catalyze the ubiquitination of the PEDV N protein. The ubiquitinated N protein is then recognized by CALCOCO2/NDP52, which delivers it to autolysosome for degradation through the selective autophagy pathway.

  • Podocytes maintain high basal levels of autophagy independent of mtor signaling
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Tillmann Bork; Wei Liang; Kosuke Yamahara; Philipp Lee; Zhejia Tian; Shuya Liu; Christoph Schell; Kathrin Thedieck; Bjoern Hartleben; Ketan Patel; Pierre-Louis Tharaux; Olivia Lenoir; Tobias B. Huber

    While constant basal levels of macroautophagy/autophagy are a prerequisite to preserve long-lived podocytes at the filtration barrier, MTOR regulates at the same time podocyte size and compensatory hypertrophy. Since MTOR is known to generally suppress autophagy, the apparently independent regulation of these two key pathways of glomerular maintenance remained puzzling. We now report that long-term genetic manipulation of MTOR activity does in fact not influence high basal levels of autophagy in podocytes either in vitro or in vivo. Instead we present data showing that autophagy in podocytes is mainly controlled by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and ULK1 (unc-51 like kinase 1). Pharmacological inhibition of MTOR further shows that the uncoupling of MTOR activity and autophagy is time dependent. Together, our data reveal a novel and unexpected cell-specific mechanism, which permits concurrent MTOR activity as well as high basal autophagy rates in podocytes. Thus, these data indicate manipulation of the AMPK-ULK1 axis rather than inhibition of MTOR as a promising therapeutic intervention to enhance autophagy and preserve podocyte homeostasis in glomerular diseases. Abbreviations: AICAR: 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; BW: body weight; Cq: chloroquine; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ESRD: end stage renal disease; FACS: fluorescence activated cell sorting; GFP: green fluorescent protein; i.p.: intra peritoneal; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; NPHS1: nephrosis 1, nephrin; NPHS2: nephrosis 2, podocin; PLA: proximity-ligation assay; PRKAA: 5ʹ-AMP-activated protein kinase catalytic subunit alpha; RPTOR/RAPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR, complex 1; RFP: red fluorescent protein; TSC1: tuberous sclerosis 1; ULK1: unc-51 like kinase 1

  • Evidence for lysosomal biogenesis proteome defect and impaired autophagy in preeclampsia
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-20
    Akitoshi Nakashima; Shi-Bin Cheng; Masahito Ikawa; Tamotsu Yoshimori; Warren J. Huber; Ramkumar Menon; Zheping Huang; Jamie Fierce; James F. Padbury; Yoel Sadovsky; Shigeru Saito; Surendra Sharma

    The etiology of preeclampsia (PE), a serious pregnancy complication, remains an enigma. We have demonstrated that proteinopathy, a pathologic feature of neurodegenerative diseases, is a key observation in the placenta and serum from PE patients. We hypothesize that the macroautophagy/autophagy machinery that mediates degradation of aggregated proteins and damaged organelles is impaired in PE. Here, we show that TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, and its regulated proteins, LAMP1, LAMP2, and CTSD (cathepsin D), were dysregulated in the placenta from early and late onset PE deliveries. Primary human trophoblasts and immortalized extravillous trophoblasts (EVTs) showed reduced TFEB expression and nuclear translocation as well as lysosomal protein content in response to hypoxia. Hypoxia-exposed trophoblasts also showed decreased PPP3/calcineurin phosphatase activity and increased XPO1/CRM1 (exportin 1), events that inhibit TFEB nuclear translocation. These proteins were also dysregulated in the PE placenta. These results are supported by observed lysosomal ultrastructural defects with decreased number of autolysosomes in hypoxia-treated primary human trophoblasts. Autophagy-deficient human EVTs exhibited poor TFEB nuclear translocation, reduced lysosomal protein expression and function, and increased MTORC1 activity. Sera from PE patients induced these features and protein aggregation in EVTs. Importantly, trophoblast-specific conditional atg7 knockout mice exhibited reduced TFEB expression with increased deposition of protein aggregates in the placenta. These results provide compelling evidence for a regulatory link between accumulation of protein aggregates and TFEB-mediated impaired lysosomal biogenesis and autophagy in the placenta of PE patients.

  • Cloud hunting: doryphagy, a form of selective macroautophagy that degrades centriolar satellites
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Søs Grønbæk Holdgaard; Valentina Cianfanelli; Francesco Cecconi

    The selective clearance of cellular components by macroautophagy is critical for maintaining cellular homeostasis. In this punctum, we summarize and discuss our recent findings regarding a novel type of selective macroautophagy that targets centriolar satellites (CS) for degradation, a process we termed doryphagy from the Greek word “doryphoros”, standing for “satellite”. CS are microtubule-associated protein complexes that regulate centrosome composition. We show that CS degradation is mediated through a direct interaction between GABARAPs and an LC3-interacting region (LIR) motif in the CS protein PCM1. Macroautophagy-deficient systems accumulate large abnormal CS and consequently display centrosome reorganization and abnormal mitoses. Our findings provide a mechanistic link between macroautophagy deficiency and centrosome abnormalities and exemplify how mammalian Atg8-family proteins (mATG8s) can regulate substrate specificity.

  • c9orf72 and smcr8 mutant mice reveal MTORC1 activation due to impaired lysosomal degradation and exocytosis
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Qiang Shao; Mei Yang; Chen Liang; Li Ma; Wei Zhang; Zhiwen Jiang; Jun Luo; Jae-Kyung Lee; Chengyu Liang; Jian-Fu Chen

    How lysosome and MTORC1 signaling interact remains elusive in terminally differentiated cells. A G4C2 repeat expansion in C9orf72 is the most common cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) (C9ALS-FTD). We previously identified a C9orf72-SMCR8-containing complex. Here we found that c9orf72 and smcr8 double-knockout (dKO) mice exhibit similar but more severe immune defects than the individual knockouts. In c9orf72 or smcr8 mutant macrophages, lysosomal degradation and exocytosis were impaired due to the disruption of autolysosome acidification. As a result of impaired lysosomal degradation, MTOR protein was aberrantly increased, resulting in MTORC1 signaling overactivation. Inhibition of hyperactive MTORC1 partially rescued macrophage dysfunction, splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy in c9orf72 or smcr8 mutant mice. Pharmacological inhibition of lysosomal degradation upregulated MTOR protein and MTORC1 signaling in differentiated wild-type macrophages, which resemble phenotypes in KO mice. In contrast, C9orf72 or Smcr8 depletion in proliferating macrophages decreased MTORC1 signaling. Our studies causatively link C9orf72-SMCR8’s cellular functions in lysosomal degradation, exocytosis, and MTORC1 signaling with their organism-level immune regulation, suggesting cell state (proliferation vs. differentiation)-dependent regulation of MTOR signaling via lysosomes.

  • Autophagy Modulator Scoring System: a User-friendly Tool for Quantitative Analysis of Methodological Integrity of Chemical Autophagy Modulator Studies
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-15
    Yu Dong; Yuanjia Hu; Sovan Sarkar; Wei-Xing Zong; Min Li; Du Feng; Ju-Xian Song; Min Li; Diego L. Medina; Jieqiong Tan; Zhuohua Zhang; Zhenyu Yue; Jia-Hong Lu

    Over the past 20 years (1999-2019), we have witnessed a rapid increase in publications involving chemical macroautophagy/autophagy modulators. However, an overview of the methodologies used in these studies is still lacking, and methodology flaws are frequently observed in some reports. To provide an objective and quantitative analysis of studies involving autophagy modulators, we present an Autophagy Modulator Scoring System (AMSS), which is designed to evaluate methodological integrity. AMSS-A includes the autophagy characterization by 4 aspects, namely, autophagosome quantification, autophagy-related biochemical changes, autophagy substrate degradation, and autophagic flux. AMSS-B contains the pharmacological and functional characteristics of chemical autophagy modulators, including lysosomal function, drug targets, autophagy-dependent pharmacological effects, and validation in multiple cell lines and in vivo models. Our analysis shows that of the 385 studies reporting chemical autophagy modulators, only 142 single studies had examined all 4 aspects of autophagy characterization in AMSS-A, and only 10 out of 142 studies had fulfilled all the AMSS criteria in a single study. A comprehensive analysis of the methodologies used in all the studies was made, along with a summary of studies that demonstrated the highest methodological integrity based on AMSS ranking. To test the reliability of the AMSS, a co-efficiency analysis of scores and co-citation values in the co-citation network was performed, and a significant co-efficiency was obtained. Collectively, AMSS provides insight into the methodological integrity of autophagy modulators studies and also offers a user-friendly toolkit to help choose appropriate assays to characterize autophagy modulators.

  • Sustained Activation of Autophagy Suppresses Adipocyte Maturation via a Lipolysis-dependent Mechanism
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-15
    Xing Zhang; Dandan Wu; Chunqing Wang; Yan Luo; Xiaofeng Ding; Xin Yang; Floyd Silva; Sara Arenas; John Michael Weaver; Michael Mandell; Vojo Deretic; Meilian Liu

    Dysregulation of macroautophagy/autophagy is implicated in obesity and insulin resistance. However, it remains poorly defined how autophagy regulates adipocyte development. Using adipose-specific rptor/raptor knockout (KO), atg7 KO and atg7 rptor double-KO mice, we show that inhibiting MTORC1 by RPTOR deficiency led to autophagic sequestration of lipid droplets, formation of LD-containing lysosomes, and elevation of basal and isoproterenol-induced lipolysis in vivo and in primary adipocytes. Despite normal differentiation at an early phase, progressive degradation and shrinkage of cellular LDs and downregulation of adipogenic markers PPARG and PLIN1 occurred in terminal differentiation of rptor KO adipocytes, which was rescued by inhibiting lipolysis or lysosome. In contrast, inactivating autophagy by depletion of ATG7 protected adipocytes against RPTOR deficiency-induced formation of LD-containing lysosomes, LD degradation, and downregulation of adipogenic markers in vitro. Ultimately, atg7 rptor double-KO mice displayed decreased lipolysis, restored adipose tissue development, and upregulated thermogenic gene expression in brown and inguinal adipose tissue compared to RPTOR-deficient mice in vivo. Collectively, our study demonstrates that autophagy plays an important role in regulating adipocyte maturation via a lipophagy and lipolysis-dependent mechanism.

  • Oxidation of multiple MiT/TFE transcription factors links oxidative stress to transcriptional control of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-11
    Hongfeng Wang; Nana Wang; Delai Xu; Qilian Ma; Yang Chen; Shiqiang Xu; Qin Xia; Yan Zhang; Jochen H. M. Prehn; Guanghui Wang; Zheng Ying

    Significant evidences indicate that reactive oxygen species (ROS) can induce macroautophagy/autophagy under both physiological and pathological conditions. Although the relationship between ROS and autophagy regulation has been well studied, the basic mechanism by which ROS affects autophagy and the biological role of this regulation are still not fully understood. In the present study we show that multiple MiT-TFE transcription factors including TFEB, TFE3 and MITF, which are master regulators of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, can be activated upon direct cysteine oxidation by ROS. Oxidation promotes the nuclear translocation of these MiT-TFE transcription factors by inhibiting the association of them with RRAG GTPases, which in turn leads to enhanced global gene expression level in autophagy-lysosome system. Our study highlights the role of oxidation of MiT-TFE transcription factors in ROS-linked autophagy, and provides novel mechanism that MiT-TFE transcription factors-mediated transcriptional control of autophagy may govern cell homeostasis in response to oxidative stress, a biological process tightly linked to human diseases including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

  • CASP9 (caspase 9) is essential for autophagosome maturation through regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Hyun-Kyu An, Kyung Min Chung, Hyunhee Park, Jihyun Hong, Ji-Eun Gim, Hyosun Choi, Ye Won Lee, Jieun Choi, Ji Young Mun, Seong-Woon Yu

    CASP9 (caspase 9) is a well-known initiator caspase which triggers intrinsic apoptosis. Recent studies also suggest various non-apoptotic roles of CASP9, including macroautophagy/autophagy regulation. However, the involvement of CASP9 in autophagy and its molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here we report the non-apoptotic function of CASP9 in positive regulation of autophagy through maintenance of mitochondrial homeostasis. Growth factor or amino acid deprivation-induced autophagy activated CASP9, but without apoptotic features. Pharmacological inhibition or genetic ablation of CASP9 decreased autophagy flux, while ectopic expression of CASP9 rescued autophagy defects. In CASP9 knockout (KO) cells, initiation and elongation of phagophore membranes were normal, but sealing of the membranes and autophagosome maturation were impaired, and the lifetime of autophagosomes was prolonged. Ablation of CASP9 caused an accumulation of inactive ATG3 and decreased lipidation of the Atg8-family members, most severely that of GABARAPL1. Moreover, it resulted in abnormal mitochondrial morphology with depolarization of the membrane potential, reduced reactive oxygen species production, and aberrant accumulation of mitochondrial fusion-fission proteins. CASP9 expression or exogenously added H2O2 in the CASP9 KO cells corrected the ATG3 level and lipidation status of Atg8-family members, and restored autophagy flux. Of note, only CASP9 expression but not H2O2 rescued mitochondrial defects, revealing regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis by CASP9. Our findings suggest a new regulatory link between mitochondria and autophagy through CASP9 activity, especially for the proper operation of the Atg8-family conjugation system and autophagosome closure and maturation. Abbreviations: AA: amino acid; ACD: autophagic cell death; ACTB: actin beta; ANXA5: annexin A5; APAF1: apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1; Atg: autophagy related; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BECN1: beclin 1; CARD: caspase recruitment domain containing; CASP: caspase; CM-H2DCFDA: chloromethyl-2ʹ,7ʹ-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate; Δψm: mitochondrial membrane potential; DN: dominant-negative; DNM1L/DRP1: dynamin 1 like; EBSS: Earle’s balanced salt solution; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; GABARAPL1: GABA type A receptor associated protein like 1; GABARAPL2: GABA type A receptor associated protein like 2; HCN: hippocampal neural stem cells; IAM: inner autophagosome membrane; INS: insulin; KO: knockout; LEHD: Z-LEHD-fmk; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MFN1: mitofusin 1; MFN2: mitofusin 2; MTORC1: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase complex 1; PARP1: poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline; PE: phosphatidylethanolamine; ROS: reactive oxygen species; sgRNA: single guide RNA; SR-SIM: super-resolution structured illumination microscopy; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STS: staurosporine; STX17: syntaxin 17; TMRE: tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester; TUBB: tubulin beta class I; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; WT: wild type; ZFYVE1/DFCP1: zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1

  • Hypoxia-induced autophagy drives colorectal cancer initiation and progression by activating the PRKC/PKC-EZR (ezrin) pathway
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-27
    Komal Qureshi-Baig, Diana Kuhn, Elodie Viry, Vitaly I. Pozdeev, Martine Schmitz, Fabien Rodriguez, Pit Ullmann, Eric Koncina, Martin Nurmik, Sonia Frasquilho, Petr V. Nazarov, Nikolaus Zuegel, Marc Boulmont, Yervand Karapetyan, Laurent Antunes, Daniel Val, Michel Mittelbronn, Bassam Janji, Serge Haan, Elisabeth Letellier

    ABSTRACT In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are often found in hypoxic niches. Nevertheless, the influence of hypoxia on TICs is poorly understood. Using previously established, TIC-enrichedpatient-derived colorectal cancer (CRC) cultures, we show that hypoxia increases the self-renewal capacity of TICs while inducing proliferation arrest in their more differentiated counterpart cultures. Gene expression data revealed macroautophagy/autophagy as one of the major pathways induced by hypoxia in TICs. Interestingly, hypoxia-induced autophagy was found to induce phosphorylation of EZR (ezrin) at Thr567 residue, which could be reversed by knocking down ATG5, BNIP3, BNIP3L, or BECN1. Furthermore, we identified PRKCA/PKCα as a potential kinase involved in hypoxia-induced autophagy-mediated TIC self-renewal. Genetic targeting of autophagy or pharmacological inhibition of PRKC/PKC and EZR resulted in decreased tumor-initiating potential of TICs. In addition, we observed significantly reduced in vivo tumor initiation and growth after a stable knockdown of ATG5. Analysis of human CRC samples showed that p-EZR is often present in TICs located in the hypoxic and autophagic regions of the tumor. Altogether, our results establish the hypoxia-autophagy-PKC-EZR signaling axis as a novel regulatory mechanism of TIC self-renewal and CRC progression. Autophagy inhibition might thus represent a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients. Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CQ: chloroquine; CSC: cancer stem cells; CRC: colorectal cancer; HIF1A/HIF-1α: hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; PRKC/PKC: protein kinase C; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TICs: tumor-initiating cells.

  • Streamlined Particle Quantification (SParQ) plug-in is an automated fluorescent vesicle quantification plug-in for particle quantification in Fiji/ImageJ.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-22
    Ana Mesquita, Joao Pereira, Andreas Jenny

    The endolysosomal system is critical for protein homeostasis in cells. A common way of studying protein transport and degradation (e.g. via autophagy) is by labeling vesicular structures such as endosomes, autophagosomes, lysosomes, or model substrates with fluorescent tags or by fluorescent antibody staining. Detailed analyses require quantification of hundreds of structures under various conditions. Typically, the images are analyzed individually with software such as the widely available Fiji/ImageJ (https://imagej.net/Fiji/Downloads), adjusting and thresholding each image and channel independently, which is a very labor intensive and fastidious task. To streamline the process, we developed a plug-in that, integrated into Fiji, enables the automated quantification of vesicular (i.e. punctate) structures. Importantly, the process still allows the operator to evaluate and have control over all the phases of quantification process.

  • Regulation of reticulophagy by the N-degron pathway
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-20
    Chang Hoon Ji, Hee Yeon Kim, Ah Jung Heo, Min Ju Lee, Daniel Youngjae Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Bo Yeon Kim, Yong Tae Kwon

    Cellular homeostasis requires selective autophagic degradation of damaged or defective organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Previous studies have shown that specific ER transmembrane receptors recruit LC3 on autophagic membranes by using LC3-interacting domains. In this study, we showed that the N-degron pathway mediates ubiquitin (Ub)-dependent reticulophagy. During this 2-step process, the ER transmembrane E3 ligase TRIM13 undergoes auto-ubiquitination via lysine 63 (K63) linkage chains and acts as a ligand for the autophagic receptor SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1). In parallel, ER-residing molecular chaperones, such as HSPA5/GRP78/BiP, are relocated to the cytosol and conjugated with the amino acid L-arginine (Arg) at the N-termini by ATE1 (arginyltransferase 1). The resulting N-terminal Arg (Nt-Arg) binds the ZZ domain of SQSTM1, inducing oligomerization of SQSTM1-TRIM13 complexes and facilitating recruitment of LC3 on phagophores to the sites of reticulophagy. We developed small molecule ligands to the SQSTM1 ZZ domain and demonstrate that these chemical mimics of Nt-Arg facilitate reticulophagy and autophagic protein quality control of misfolded aggregates in the ER.

  • Restriction of intracellular Salmonella replication by restoring TFEB-mediated xenophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Veena Ammanathan, Piyush Mishra, Aravinda K. Chavalmane, Sasikumar Muthusamy, Vidya Jadhav, Chandrashekaran Siddamadappa, Ravi Manjithaya

    Macroautophagy/autophagy functions as a part of the innate immune system in clearing intracellular pathogens. Although this process is well known, the mechanisms that control antibacterial autophagy are not clear. In this study we show that during intracellular Salmonella typhimurium infection, the activity of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosome biogenesis, is suppressed by maintaining it in a phosphorylated state on the lysosomes. Furthermore, we have identified a novel, antibacterial small molecule autophagy (xenophagy) modulator, acacetin. The xenophagy effect exerted by acacetin occurs in an MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase)-independent, TFEB-dependent manner. Acacetin treatment results in persistently maintaining active TFEB in the nucleus and also in TFEB mediated induction of functional lysosomes that target Salmonella-containing vacuoles (SCVs). The enhanced proteolytic activity due to deployment of lysosomes results in clamping down Salmonella replication in SCVs. Acacetin is effective as a xenophagy compound in an in vivo mouse model of infection and reduces intracellular Salmonella burden. Abbreviations: 3-MA: 3-methyladenine; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; CFU: colony-forming units; DQ-BSA: dye quenched-bovine serum albumin; EEA1: early endosome antigen 1; FITC: fluorescein isothiocyanate; FM 4-64: pyridinium,4-(6-[4-{diethylamino}phenyl]-1,3,5-hexatrienyl)-1-(3[triethylammonio] propyl)-dibromide; GFP: green fluorescent protein; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAPILC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MOI: multiplicity of infection; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; RFP: red fluorescent protein; SCVs: Salmonella-containing vacuoles; SD: standard deviation; SDS: sodium dodecyl sulfate; SEM: standard mean error; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; TFEB: transcription factor EB.

  • Identification of an AGO (Argonaute) protein as a prey of TER94/VCP
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-12
    Hotaka Kobayashi, Yukihide Tomari

    VCP (valosin containing protein) recognizes a wide variety of substrates and mediates their degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system and macroautophagy/autophagy. The substrate repertoire of VCP, however, is not fully understood. In our recent study, we found that Drosophila TER94/VCP mediates autophagic degradation of an Argonaute subfamily protein (AGO1), which binds microRNAs (miRNAs) and silences the expression of thousands of target genes. In the absence of TER94/VCP, miRNA-mediated gene silencing is globally impaired. Our findings reveal an unexpected connection between VCP and AGO, which may dramatically expand the biological significance of VCP.

  • BAG2 ameliorates endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced cell apoptosis in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages through selective autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-11
    Shuxin Liang, Fengyu Wang, Changlei Bao, Jing Han, Ying Guo, Fayang Liu, Yong Zhang

    BAG2 (BCL2 associated athanogene 2) is associated with cell fate determination in response to various pathological conditions. However, the effects of BAG2 on M. tuberculosis-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remain elusive. Herein, we report that M. tuberculosis infection of macrophages triggered ER stress and downregulated BAG2 expression. Overexpression of BAG2 enhanced autophagic flux and activated macroautophagy/autophagy targeted to the ER (reticulophagy). In addition, through increasingly localizing SQSTM1 to the ER in BAG2-overexpressing macrophages, we found that the autophagy receptor protein SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) is associated with the BAG2-induced reticulophagy. Our data also confirmed that BAG2 could render cells resistant to M. tuberculosis-induced cellular damage, and the anti-apoptotic effects of BAG2 in M. tuberculosis-treated macrophages were partially abolished by the autophagic flux inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Furthermore, the dissociation of BECN1 and BCL2 mediated by activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) was responsible for BAG2-activated autophagy. In addition, XBP1 downstream of the ERN1/IRE1 signaling pathway was bound to the Bag2 promoter region and transcriptionally inhibited BAG2 expression. Collectively, these results indicated that BAG2 has anti-apoptotic effects on M. tuberculosis-induced ER stress, which is dependent on the promotion of autophagic flux and the induction of selective autophagy. We revealed a potential host defense mechanism that links BAG2 to ER stress and autophagy during M. tuberculosis infection. Abbreviations: ATF6: activating transcription factor 6; BECN1: beclin 1; Baf A1: bafilomycin A1; CASP3: caspase 3; DDIT3/CHOP/GADD153: DNA damage inducible transcript 3; DAPI: 4ʹ,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EIF2AK3/PERK: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 alpha kinase 3; ER: endoplasmic reticulum; ERN1/IRE1: endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1; HSPA5/GRP78/BiP: heat shock protein 5; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; UPR: unfolded protein response; XBP1: x-box binding protein 1

  • STYK1 promotes autophagy through enhancing the assembly of autophagy-specific class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Cefan Zhou, Xuehong Qian, Miao Hu, Rui Zhang, Nanxi Liu, Yuan Huang, Jing Yang, Juan Zhang, Hua Bai, Yuyan Yang, Yefu Wang, Declan Ali, Marek Michalak, Xing-Zhen Chen, Jingfeng Tang

    Macroautophagy/autophagy plays key roles in development, oncogenesis, and cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Autophagy-specific class III phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase complex I (PtdIns3K-C1) is essential for autophagosome formation. However, the regulation of this complex formation requires further investigation. Here, we discovered that STYK1 (serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1), a member of the receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) family, is a new upstream regulator of autophagy. We discovered that STYK1 facilitated autophagosome formation in human cells and zebrafish, which was characterized by elevated LC3-II and lowered SQSTM1/p62 levels and increased puncta formation by several marker proteins, such as ATG14, WIPI1, and ZFYVE1. Moreover, we observed that STYK1 directly binds to the PtdIns3K-C1 complex as a homodimer. The binding with this complex was promoted by Tyr191 phosphorylation, by means of which the kinase activity of STYK1 was elevated. We also demonstrated that STYK1 elevated the serine phosphorylation of BECN1, thereby decreasing the interaction between BECN1 and BCL2. Furthermore, we found that STYK1 preferentially facilitated the assembly of the PtdIns3K-C1 complex and was required for PtdIns3K-C1 complex kinase activity. Taken together, our findings provide new insights into autophagy induction and reveal evidence of novel crosstalk between the components of RTK signaling and autophagy. Abbreviations: AICAR: 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide; AMPK: adenosine 5‘-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy related; ATP: adenosine triphosphate; BCL2: BCL2 apoptosis regulator; BECN1: beclin 1; Bre A: brefeldin A; Co-IP: co-immunoprecipitation; CRISPR: clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats; DAPI: 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole; EBSS: Earle’s balanced salt solution; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GSEA: gene set enrichment analysis; MAP1LC3/LC3, microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPK8/JNK1: mitogen-activated protein kinase 8; mRFP: monomeric red fluorescent protein; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; PIK3C3: phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase catalytic subunit type 3; PIK3R4: phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 4; qRT-PCR: quantitative reverse transcription PCR; RACK1: receptor for activated C kinase 1; RUBCN: rubicon autophagy regulator; siRNA: small interfering RNA; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STYK1/NOK: serine/threonine/tyrosine kinase 1; TCGA: The Cancer Genome Atlas; Ub: ubiquitin; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; WIPI1: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1; ZFYVE1: zinc finger FYVE-type containing 1

  • A discovery platform for the identification of caloric restriction mimetics with broad health-improving effects
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Oliver Kepp, Guo Chen, Didac Carmona-Gutierrez, Frank Madeo, Guido Kroemer

    The age-related decline in organismal fitness results in vulnerability to pathologies and eventual lethal decay. One way to counteract cellular aging and to delay and/or prevent the onset of age-related maladies is the reduction of calorie intake or the institution of fasting regimens. Caloric restriction mimetics (CRMs) have the ability to imitate the health-promoting and lifespan-extending effects of caloric restriction without the need for dietary restriction. CRMs induce an increase in autophagic flux in response to the deacetylation of cellular proteins in the absence of cytotoxicity. Here we report the development of a high-throughput screen discovery platform for novel CRMs that uses systems biology approaches, in vitro validation and functional tests employing in vivo disease models. This workflow led to the identification of 3,4-dimethoxychalcone (3,4-DC) as a novel CRM that stimulated TFEB (transcription factor EB)- and TFE3 (transcription factor E3)-dependent macroautophagy/autophagy. 3,4-DC showed cardioprotective effects and stimulated anticancer immunosurveillance in the context of immunogenic chemotherapy.

  • ATTEC: a potential new approach to target proteinopathies
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Zhaoyang Li, Chenggang Zhu, Yu Ding, Yiyan Fei, Boxun Lu

    Many diseases are caused by aberrant accumulation of certain proteins that are misfolded and cytotoxic, and lowering the level of these proteins provides promising treatment strategies for these diseases. We hypothesized that compounds that interact with both the disease-causing protein and the phagophore (autophagosome precursor) protein LC3 may tether the former to phagophores for subsequent autophagic degradation. If true, this autophagosome-tethering compound (ATTEC) concept could be applied to many disease-causing proteins to treat diseases. We tested this hypothesis in the scenario of Huntington disease (HD), a neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by the mutant HTT (mHTT) protein with an expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) stretch. In our recent study, we designed a small-molecule microarray-based screening and identified four mHTT-lowering compounds that interact with both mHTT and LC3, but not wild-type (WT) HTT. These compounds target mHTT to phagophores for autophagic degradation without influencing the WT HTT level, and rescue HD-relevant phenotypes in HD cells and in vivo in the fly and mouse HD models. Interestingly, these compounds interact with the expanded polyQ stretch directly and are able to reduce other disease-causing proteins with expanded polyQ. In summary, our study provides the initial validation of lowering mHTT by ATTEC, providing entry points to new treatment strategies of HD and similar diseases.

  • Dysregulation of TFEB contributes to Manganese-induced Autophagic Failure and Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Astrocytes
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Ziyan Zhang, Jingqi Yan, Aaron B. Bowman, Miles R. Bryan, Rajat Singh, Michael Aschner

    Epidemiological and clinical studies have long shown that exposure to high levels of heavy metals are associated with increased risks of neurodegenerative diseases. It is widely accepted that autophagic dysfunction is involved in pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative disorders; however, the role of heavy metals in regulation of macroautophagy/autophagy is unclear. Here, we show that manganese (Mn) induces a decline in nuclear localization of TFEB (transcription factor EB), a master regulator of the autophagy-lysosome pathway, leading to autophagic dysfunction in astrocytes of mouse striatum. We further show that Mn exposure suppresses autophagic-lysosomal degradation of mitochondria and induces accumulation of unhealthy mitochondria. Activation of autophagy by rapamycin or TFEB overexpression ameliorates Mn-induced mitochondrial respiratory dysfunction and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in astrocytes, suggesting a causal relation between autophagic failure and mitochondrial dysfunction in Mn toxicity. Taken together, our data demonstrate that Mn inhibits TFEB activity, leading to impaired autophagy that is causally related to mitochondrial dysfunction in astrocytes. These findings reveal a previously unappreciated role for Mn in dysregulation of autophagy and identify TFEB as a potential therapeutic target to mitigate Mn toxicity.

  • Allosteric regulation through a switch element in the autophagy E2, Atg3
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Yu Qiu, Yumei Zheng, Christy R. R. Grace, Xu Liu, Daniel J. Klionsky, Brenda A. Schulman

    Lipidation of Atg8-family ubiquitin-like proteins (UBLs) plays important roles in macroautophagy/autophagy. This process is catalyzed by an E1-E2-E3 trienzyme cascade, in which an E1 enzyme, Atg7, directs Atg8 to its E2 enzyme, Atg3, forming a thioester bond-linked Atg3~Atg8 intermediate; then the composite E3, Atg12–Atg5-Atg16, interacts with the Atg3~Atg8 intermediate and promotes Atg8 transfer from the catalytic cysteine of Atg3 to the head group of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids. Despite progress that has been made towards understanding the Atg8 lipidation pathway, the molecular mechanism of Atg3 as it orchestrates between the E1 and E3 remains unclear. Here we summarize our recent work reporting an element in Atg3, termed the E1, E2, and E3-interacting region (E123IR), is an allosteric switch: in the absence of other binding partners, the E123IR restrains Atg3′s catalytic loop, while the E1 or E3 enzyme directly binds this region to remove this brace and thereby conformationally activate Atg3 to elicit Atg8 lipidation in vitro and in vivo.

  • PTK2/FAK regulates UPS impairment via SQSTM1/p62 phosphorylation in TARDBP/TDP-43 proteinopathies
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-05
    Shinrye Lee, Yu-Mi Jeon, Sun Joo Cha, Seyeon Kim, Younghwi Kwon, Myungjin Jo, You-Na Jang, Seongsoo Lee, Jaekwang Kim, Sang Ryong Kim, Kea Joo Lee, Sung Bae Lee, Kiyoung Kim, Hyung-Jun Kim

    TARDBP/TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein) proteinopathies are a common feature in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), and Alzheimer disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying TARDBP-induced neurotoxicity are largely unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that TARDBP proteinopathies induce impairment in the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS), as evidenced by an accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and a reduction in proteasome activity in neuronal cells. Through kinase inhibitor screening, we identified PTK2/FAK (PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2) as a suppressor of neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Importantly, PTK2 inhibition significantly reduced ubiquitin aggregates and attenuated TARDBP-induced cytotoxicity in a Drosophila model of TARDBP proteinopathies. We further identified that phosphorylation of SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) at S403 (p-SQSTM1 [S403]), a key component in the autophagic degradation of poly-ubiquitinated proteins, is increased upon TARDBP overexpression and is dependent on the activation of PTK2 in neuronal cells. Moreover, expressing a non-phosphorylated form of SQSTM1 (SQSTM1S403A) significantly repressed the accumulation of insoluble poly-ubiquitinated proteins and neurotoxicity induced by TARDBP overexpression in neuronal cells. In addition, TBK1 (TANK binding kinase 1), a kinase that phosphorylates S403 of SQSTM1, was found to be involved in the PTK2-mediated phosphorylation of SQSTM1. Taken together, our data suggest that the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of TARDBP by regulating neurotoxicity induced by UPS impairment. Therefore, targeting the PTK2-TBK1-SQSTM1 axis may represent a novel therapeutic intervention for neurodegenerative diseases with TARDBP proteinopathies.Abbreviations: ALP: macroautophagy/autophagy lysosomal pathway; ALS: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; ATXN2: ataxin 2; BafA1: bafilomycin A1; cCASP3: cleaved caspase 3; CSNK2: casein kinase 2; FTLD: frontotemporal lobar degeneration; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; OPTN: optineurin; PTK2/FAK: PTK2 protein tyrosine kinase 2; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TARDBP/TDP-43: TAR DNA binding protein; TBK1: TANK binding kinase 1; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UPS: ubiquitin-proteasome system.

  • RNA-binding protein ZFP36/TTP protects against ferroptosis by regulating autophagy signaling pathway in hepatic stellate cells
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Zili Zhang, Mei Guo, Yujia Li, Min Shen, Desong Kong, Jiangjuan Shao, Hai Ding, Shanzhong Tan, Anping Chen, Feng Zhang, Shizhong Zheng

    Ferroptosis is a recently discovered form of programmed cell death, but its regulatory mechanisms remain poorly understood. Here, we show that the RNA-binding protein ZFP36/TTP (ZFP36 ring finger protein) plays a crucial role in regulating ferroptosis in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs). Upon exposure to ferroptosis-inducing compounds, the ubiquitin ligase FBXW7/CDC4 (F-box and WD repeat domain containing 7) decreased ZFP36 protein expression by recognizing SFSGLPS motif. FBXW7 plasmid contributed to classical ferroptotic events, whereas ZFP36 plasmid impaired FBXW7 plasmid-induced HSC ferroptosis. Interestingly, ZFP36 plasmid inhibited macroautophagy/autophagy activation by destabilizing ATG16L1 (autophagy related 16 like 1) mRNA. ATG16L1 plasmid eliminated the inhibitory action of ZFP36 plasmid on ferroptosis, and FBXW7 plasmid enhanced the effect of ATG16L1 plasmid on autophagy. Importantly, ZFP36 plasmid promoted ATG16L1 mRNA decay via binding to the AU-rich elements (AREs) within the 3ʹ-untranslated region. The internal mutation of the ARE region abrogated the ZFP36-mediated ATG16L1 mRNA instability, and prevented ZFP36 plasmid-mediated ferroptosis resistance. In mice, treatment with erastin and sorafenib alleviated murine liver fibrosis by inducing HSC ferroptosis. HSC-specific overexpression of Zfp36 impaired erastin- or sorafenib-induced HSC ferroptosis. Noteworthy, we analyzed the effect of sorafenib on HSC ferroptosis in fibrotic patients with hepatocellular carcinoma receiving sorafenib monotherapy. Attractively, sorafenib monotherapy led to ZFP36 downregulation, ferritinophagy activation, and ferroptosis induction in human HSCs. Overall, these results revealed novel molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways of ferroptosis, and also identified ZFP36-autophagy-dependent ferroptosis as a potential target for the treatment of liver fibrosis.

  • Polyamines reverse immune senescence via the translational control of autophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Hanlin Zhang, Anna Katharina Simon

    Organismal aging is associated with compromised cellular function, which can be partially attributed to accumulation of cellular damage. Being the major, if not only, cellular bulk-degradation mechanism, macroautophagy (hereafter autophagy) declines with age in multiple tissues and organisms. Spermidine is an endogenous polyamine metabolite that also declines with age. It prolongs lifespan and improves tissue functions of model organisms in an autophagy-dependent manner. We report that autophagic flux is significantly reduced in B cells from old mice. Spermidine induces autophagy and improves the function of both old mouse and old human B cells. Mechanistically, spermidine post-translationally modifies (hypusinates) the translation factor EIF5A. Hypusinated EIF5A specifically regulates the synthesis of the master autophagy and lysosome transcription factor, TFEB (transcription factor EB). This pathway declines with age in both mice and humans, which may eventually lead to declining autophagy and impaired tissue functions in old individuals.

  • Regulation of lysosome integrity and lysophagy by the ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UBE2QL1
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Bojana Kravic, Christian Behrends, Hemmo Meyer

    Lysosomal membrane permeabilization or full rupture of lysosomes is a common and severe stress condition that is relevant for degenerative disease, infection and cancer. Cells respond with extensive ubiquitination of damaged lysosomes, which triggers selective macroautophagy/autophagy of the whole organelle, termed lysophagy. We screened an siRNA library targeting human E2-conjugating enzymes and identified UBE2QL1 as critical for efficient lysosome ubiquitination after chemically-induced lysosomal damage. UBE2QL1 translocates to lysosomes upon damage and associates with autophagy regulators. Loss of UBE2QL1-mediated ubiquitination reduces association of the autophagy receptor SQSTM1/p62 and the LC3-decorated phagophore, and prevents recruitment of the ubiquitin-targeted AAA-ATPase VCP/p97 that facilitates lysophagy. Even in unchallenged cells, UBE2QL1 depletion leads to MTOR dissociation and TFEB activation, and mutation of the homolog UBC-25 destabilizes lysosomes in C. elegans, indicating that UBE2QL1 is critical for maintaining lysosome integrity in addition to lysophagy.

  • Pharmacological restoration of autophagy reduces hypertension-related stroke occurrence
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Maurizio Forte, Franca Bianchi, Maria Cotugno, Simona Marchitti, Elena De Falco, Salvatore Raffa, Rosita Stanzione, Flavio di Nonno, Isotta Chimenti, Silvia Palmerio, Francesca Pagano, Vincenzo Petrozza, Andrea Micaloni, Michele Madonna, Michela Relucenti, Maria Rosaria Torrisi, Giacomo Frati, Massimo Volpe, Speranza Rubattu, Sebastiano Sciarretta

    The identification of the mechanisms predisposing to stroke may improve its preventive and therapeutic strategies in patients with essential hypertension. The role of macroautophagy/autophagy in the development of hypertension-related stroke needs to be clarified. We hypothesized that a defective autophagy may favor hypertension-related spontaneous stroke by promoting mitochondrial dysfunction. We studied autophagy in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat, which represents a clinically relevant model of stroke associated with high blood pressure. We assessed autophagy, mitophagy and NAD+:NADH levels in brains of SHRSP and stroke-resistant SHR fed with high salt diet. Vascular smooth muscle cells silenced for the mitochondrial complex I subunit Ndufc2 gene (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit C2) and cerebral endothelial cells isolated from SHRSP were also used to assess autophagy/mitophagy and mitochondrial function in response to high salt levels. We found a reduction of autophagy in brains of high salt-fed SHRSP. Autophagy impairment was associated with NDUFC2 downregulation, mitochondrial dysfunction and NAD+ depletion. Restoration of NAD+ levels by nicotinamide administration reactivated autophagy and reduced stroke development in SHRSP. A selective reactivation of autophagy/mitophagy by Tat-Beclin 1 also reduced stroke occurrence, restored autophagy/mitophagy and improved mitochondrial function. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) from subjects homozygous for the thymine allele variant at NDUFC2/rs11237379, which is associated with NDUFC2 deficiency and increased stroke risk, displayed an impairment of autophagy and increased senescence in response to high salt levels. EPC senescence was rescued by Tat-Beclin 1. Pharmacological activation of autophagy may represent a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce stroke occurrence in hypertension.

    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Ben Loos, Daniel J. Klionsky, Andre du Toit, Jan-Hendrik S. Hofmeyr

    Macroautophagy (which we will call autophagy hereafter) is a critical intracellular bulk degradation system that is active at basal rates in eukaryotic cells. This process is embedded in the homeostasis of nutrient availability and cellular metabolic demands, degrading primarily long-lived proteins and some organelles, preserving cell viability. Autophagy is perturbed in many pathological conditions, and its manipulation to either enhance or inhibit this pathway therapeutically has received considerable attention. Although better probes are being developed for a more precise readout of autophagic activity in vitro and increasingly in vivo, many questions remain. These center in particular around the accurate measurement of autophagic flux and its translation from the in vitro to the in vivo environment as well as its application in the clinic. In this review, we highlight some of the key aspects that appear to contribute to stumbling blocks on the road towards clinical translation and discuss points of departure for reaching some of the desired goals. We discuss techniques that may be well aligned with achieving the desired spatiotemporal resolution to gather data on autophagic flux in a multi-scale fashion, so as to better apply the existing tools that are based on single-cell analysis and to use them in the living organism. We assess how current techniques may be used for the establishment of autophagic flux standards or reference points and consider strategies for a conceptual approach on titrating autophagy inducers based on their effect on autophagic flux and potency to achieve a favorable protein degradation rate. Finally, we discuss potential solutions for inherent controls for autophagy analysis that are accessible, so as to better discern systemic and tissue-specific autophagic flux in future clinical applications.

  • Defending Stressed Mitochondria: Uncovering the Role of MUL1 in Suppressing Neuronal Mitophagy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-03
    Rajat Puri, Xiu-Tang Cheng, Mei-Yao Lin, Ning Huang, Zu-Hang Sheng

    Chronic mitochondrial stress is associated with major neurodegenerative diseases; and thus, the recovery of those mitochondria constitutes a critical step of energy maintenance in early stages of neurodegeneration. Our recent study provides the first lines of evidence showing that the MUL1-MFN2 pathway acts as an early checkpoint to maintain mitochondrial integrity by regulating mitochondrial morphology and interplay with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). This mechanism ensures that degradation through mitophagy is restrained in neurons under early stress conditions. MUL1 deficiency increases MFN2 activity, triggering the first phase of mitochondrial hyperfusion and acting as an antagonist of ER-mitochondria (ER-Mito) tethering. Reduced ER-Mito interplay enhances the cytoplasmic Ca2+ load that induces the DNM1L/Drp1-dependent second phase of mitochondrial fragmentation and mitophagy. Our study provides new mechanistic insights into neuronal mitochondrial maintenance under stress conditions. Identifying this pathway is particularly relevant because chronic mitochondrial dysfunction and altered ER-Mito contacts have been reported in major neurodegenerative diseases.

  • Manipulation of Mitophagy by “All-in-One” Nanosensitizer Augments Sonodynamic Glioma Therapy
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-11-01
    Fei Qu, Pan Wang, Kun Zhang, Yin Shi, Yixiang Li, Chengren Li, Junhan Lu, Quanhong Liu, Xiaobing Wang

    Limited penetration of chemotherapeutic drugs through the blood brain barrier (BBB), and the increased chemo-resistance of glioma cells due to macroautophagy/autophagy, result in high tumor recurrence and extremely limited survival of glioma patients. Ultrasound-targeted microbubble destruction (UTMD) is a technique of transient and reversible BBB disruption, which greatly facilitates intracerebral drug delivery. In addition, sonodynamic therapy (SDT) based on ultrasound stimulation and a sonosensitizer, can be a safe and non-invasive strategy for treating glioma. We innovatively designed a smart “all-in-one” nanosensitizer platform by incorporating the sonoactive chlorin e6 (Ce6) and an autophagy inhibitor-hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) into angiopep-2 peptide-modified liposomes (designated as ACHL), which integrates multiple diagnostic and therapeutic functions. ACHL selectively accumulated in the brain tumors during the optimal time-window of transient UTMD-mediated BBB opening. The nanosensitizer then responded to a second ultrasonic stimulation, and simultaneously unloaded HCQ and generated ROS in the glioma cells. The sonotherapy triggered apoptosis as well as MAPK/p38-PINK1-PRKN-dependent mitophagy, in which the antioxidant relieved the sonotoxicity and MAPK/p38 activation, while the inhibition of MAPK/p38 attenuated the progression toward mitophagy by compromising redistribution of PRKN. Moreover, HCQ blocking autophagosome degradation, augmented intracellular ROS production and resulted in an oxidative-damage regenerative loop. ACHL-SDT treatment using this construct significantly inhibited the xenograft-tumor growth and prolonged the survival time of tumor-bearing mice, exhibiting an improved therapeutic efficiency. All together, we demonstrated a precision sonotherapy with simultaneous apoptosis induction and mitophagy inhibition, which served as an intelligently strategic sense of working alongside, providing new insights into the theranostics of brain tumors.

  • Lysosomotropic beta blockers induce oxidative stress and IL23A production in Langerhans cells
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-10-31
    Gerrit Müller, Charlotte Lübow, Günther Weindl

    Oxidative stress and Th17 cytokines are important mediators of inflammation. Treatment with beta-adrenoceptor (ADRB) antagonists (beta-blockers) is associated with induction or aggravation of psoriasis-like skin inflammation, yet the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we identify lysosomotropic beta-blockers as critical inducers of IL23A in human monocyte-derived Langerhans-like cells under sterile-inflammatory conditions. Cytokine release was not mediated by cAMP, suggesting the involvement of ADRB-independent pathways. NFKB/NF-κB and MAPK14/p38 activation was required for propranolol-induced IL23A secretion whereas the NLRP3 inflammasome was dispensable. MAPK14 regulated recruitment of RELB to IL23A promoter regions. Without affecting the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, propranolol increased lysosomal pH and induced a late-stage block in macroautophagy/autophagy. Propranolol specifically induced reactive oxygen species production, which was critical for IL23A secretion, in Langerhans-like cells. Our findings provide insight into a potentially crucial immunoregulatory mechanism in cutaneous dendritic cells that may explain how lysosomotropic drugs regulate inflammatory responses.

  • Circular RNA circHIPK3 modulates autophagy via MIR124-3p-STAT3-PRKAA/AMPKα signaling in STK11 mutant lung cancer
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Xiuyuan Chen, Rui Mao, Wenmei Su, Xia Yang, Qianqian Geng, Chunfang Guo, Zhuwen Wang, Jun Wang, Laura A. Kresty, David G. Beer, Andrew C. Chang, Guoan Chen

    The role of circular RNA in cancer is emerging. A newly reported circular RNA HIPK3 (circHIPK3) is critical in cell proliferation of various cancer types, although its role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), has yet to be elucidated. Our results provided evidence that silencing of circHIPK3 significantly impaired cell proliferation, migration, invasion and induced macroautophagy/autophagy. Mechanistically, we uncovered that autophagy was induced upon loss of circHIPK3 via the MIR124-3p-STAT3-PRKAA/AMPKa axis in STK11 mutant lung cancer cell lines (A549 and H838). STAT3 abrogation as well as transfection with a MIR124-3p mimic, recapitulated the induction of autophagy. We also demonstrated antagonistic regulation on autophagy between circHIPK3 and linear HIPK3 (linHIPK3). We therefore propose that the ratio between circHIPK3 and linHIPK3 (C:L ratio) may reflect autophagy levels in cancer cells. We observed that a high C:L ratio (>0.49) was an indicator of poor survival, especially in advanced-stage NSCLC patients. These results support that circHIPK3 is a key autophagy regulator in a subset of lung cancer and has potential clinical use as a prognostic factor. The circular RNA HIPK3 (circHIPK3) functions as an oncogene and autophagy regulator may potential use as a prognostic marker and therapeutic target in lung cancer.

  • MAPT/Tau accumulation represses autophagy flux by disrupting IST1-regulated ESCRT-III complex formation: a vicious cycle in Alzheimer neurodegeneration
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2019-06-28
    Qiong Feng, Yu Luo, Xiang-Nan Zhang, Xi-Fei Yang, Xiao-Yue Hong, Dong-Shen Sun, Xia-Chun Li, Yu Hu, Xiao-Guang Li, Jun-Fei Zhang, Xiao Li, Ying Yang, Qun Wang, Gong-Ping Liu, Jian-Zhi Wang

    Macroautophagy/autophagy deficit induces intracellular MAPT/tau accumulation, the hallmark pathology in Alzheimer disease (AD) and other tauopathies; however, the reverse role of MAPT accumulation in autophagy and neurodegeneration is not clear. Here, we found that overexpression of human wild-type full-length MAPT, which models MAPT pathologies as seen in sporadic AD patients, induced autophagy deficits via repression of autophagosome-lysosome fusion leading to significantly increased LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3)-II and SQSTM1/p62 (sequestosome 1) protein levels with autophagosome accumulation. At the molecular level, intracellular MAPT aggregation inhibited expression of IST1 (IST1 factor associated with ESCRT-III), a positive modulator for the formation of ESCRT (the Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) complex that is required for autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Upregulating IST1 in human MAPT transgenic mice attenuated autophagy deficit with reduced MAPT aggregation and ameliorated synaptic plasticity and cognitive functions, while downregulating IST1 per se induced autophagy deficit with impaired synapse and cognitive function in naïve mice. IST1 can facilitate association of CHMP2B (charged multivesicular body protein 2B) and CHMP4B/SNF7-2 to form ESCRT-III complex, while lack of IST1 impeded the complex formation. Finally, we demonstrate that MAPT accumulation suppresses IST1 transcription with the mechanisms involving the ANP32A-regulated mask of histone acetylation. Our findings suggest that the AD-like MAPT accumulation can repress autophagosome-lysosome fusion by deregulating ANP32A-INHAT-IST1-ESCRT-III pathway, which also reveals a vicious cycle of MAPT accumulation and autophagy deficit in the chronic course of AD neurodegeneration.Abbreviations: AAV: adeno-associated virus; Aβ: β-amyloid; aCSF: artificial cerebrospinal fluid; AD: Alzheimer disease; ANP32A: acidic nuclear phosphoprotein 32 family member A; ATG: autophagy related; AVs: autophagic vacuoles; CEBPB: CCAAT enhancer binding protein beta; CHMP: charged multivesicular body protein; DMEM: Dulbecco’s modified eagle’s medium; EBSS: Earle’s balanced salt solution; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; ESCRT: endosomal sorting complex required for transport; fEPSPs: field excitatory postsynaptic potentials; GAPDH: glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; GSK3B: glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta; HAT: histone acetyl transferase; HDAC: histone deacetylase; INHAT: inhibitor of histone acetyl transferase; IST1: IST1 factor associated with ESCRT-III; LAMP2: lysosomal associated membrane protein 2; LTP: long-term potentiation; MAP1LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAPT/tau: microtubule associated protein tau; MVB: multivesicular bodies; MWM: Morris water maze; PBS: phosphate-buffered saline solution; RAB7: member RAS oncogene family; SNAREs: soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1

  • Hypoxia-induced autophagy drives colorectal cancer initiation and progression by activating the PRKC/PKC-EZR (ezrin) pathway.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : null
    Komal Qureshi-Baig,Diana Kuhn,Elodie Viry,Vitaly I Pozdeev,Martine Schmitz,Fabien Rodriguez,Pit Ullmann,Eric Koncina,Martin Nurmik,Sonia Frasquilho,Petr V Nazarov,Nikolaus Zuegel,Marc Boulmont,Yervand Karapetyan,Laurent Antunes,Daniel Val,Michel Mittelbronn,Bassam Janji,Serge Haan,Elisabeth Letellier

    In solid tumors, cancer stem cells (CSCs) or tumor-initiating cells (TICs) are often found in hypoxic niches. Nevertheless, the influence of hypoxia on TICs is poorly understood. Using previously established, TIC-enrichedpatient-derived colorectal cancer (CRC) cultures, we show that hypoxia increases the self-renewal capacity of TICs while inducing proliferation arrest in their more differentiated counterpart cultures. Gene expression data revealed macroautophagy/autophagy as one of the major pathways induced by hypoxia in TICs. Interestingly, hypoxia-induced autophagy was found to induce phosphorylation of EZR (ezrin) at Thr567 residue, which could be reversed by knocking down ATG5, BNIP3, BNIP3L, or BECN1. Furthermore, we identified PRKCA/PKCα as a potential kinase involved in hypoxia-induced autophagy-mediated TIC self-renewal. Genetic targeting of autophagy or pharmacological inhibition of PRKC/PKC and EZR resulted in decreased tumor-initiating potential of TICs. In addition, we observed significantly reduced in vivo tumor initiation and growth after a stable knockdown of ATG5. Analysis of human CRC samples showed that p-EZR is often present in TICs located in the hypoxic and autophagic regions of the tumor. Altogether, our results establish the hypoxia-autophagy-PKC-EZR signaling axis as a novel regulatory mechanism of TIC self-renewal and CRC progression. Autophagy inhibition might thus represent a promising therapeutic strategy for cancer patients.Abbreviations: ATG: autophagy related; BECN1: beclin 1; BNIP3: BCL2 interacting protein 3; BNIP3L: BCL2 interacting protein 3 like; CQ: chloroquine; CSC: cancer stem cells; CRC: colorectal cancer; HIF1A/HIF-1α: hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; PRKC/PKC: protein kinase C; SQSTM1/p62: sequestosome 1; TICs: tumor-initiating cells.

  • A non-canonical autophagy-dependent role of the ATG16L1T300A variant in urothelial vesicular trafficking and uropathogenic Escherichia coli persistence.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-20
    Caihong Wang,Kyle A Bauckman,Adam S B Ross,Jane W Symington,Marianne M Ligon,Gael Scholtes,Akhil Kumar,Hao-Wei Chang,Joy Twentyman,Bisiayo E Fashemi,Ramnik J Xavier,Indira U Mysorekar

    50% of Caucasians carry a Thr300Ala variant (T300A) in the protein encoded by the macroautophagy/autophagy gene ATG16L1. Here, we show that the T300A variant confers protection against urinary tract infections (UTIs), the most common infectious disease in women. Using knockin mice carrying the human T300A variant, we show that the variant limits the UTI-causing bacteria, uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC), from establishing persistent intracellular reservoirs, which can seed UTI recurrence. This phenotype is recapitulated in mice lacking Atg16l1 or Atg7 exclusively in the urothelium. We further show that mice with the T300A variant exhibit urothelial cellular abnormalities, including vesicular congestion and aberrant accumulation of UPK (uroplakin) proteins. Importantly, presence of the T300A variant in humans is associated with similar urothelial architectural abnormalities, indicating an evolutionarily conserved impact. Mechanistically, we show that the reduced bacterial persistence is independent of basal autophagic flux or proinflammatory cytokine responses and does not involve Atg14 or Epg5. However, the T300A variant is associated with increased expression of the small GTPase Rab33b; RAB33B interacts with ATG16L1, as well as other secretory RABs, RAB27B and RAB11A, important for UPEC exocytosis from the urothelium. Finally, inhibition of secretory RABs in bladder epithelial cells increases intracellular UPEC load. Together, our results reveal that UPEC selectively utilize genes important for autophagosome formation to persist in the urothelium, and that the presence of the T300A variant in ATG16L1 is associated with changes in urothelial vesicle trafficking, which disrupts the ability of UPEC to persist, thereby limiting the risk of recurrent UTIs. Abbreviations: 3-PEHPC: 3-pyridinyl ethylidene hydroxyl phosphonocarboxylate; ATG: autophagy; ATG16L1: autophagy related 16 like 1; BECs: bladder epithelial cells; dpi: days post infection; hpi: hours post infection; IF: immunofluorescence; IL1B: interleukin 1 beta; IL6: interleukin 6; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MVB: multivesicular bodies; T300A: Thr300Ala; TNF: tumor necrosis factor; QIR(s): quiescent intracellular reservoir(s); siRNA: short interfering RNA; UPEC: uropathogenic Escherichia coli; UTI(s): urinary tract infection(s); TEM: transmission electron microscopy; WT: wild type.

  • Methionine restriction for improving progeria: another autophagy-inducing anti-aging strategy?
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Clea Bárcena,Carlos López-Otín,Guido Kroemer

    Methionine restriction, i.e., a partial depletion of the essential sulfur amino acid methionine from nutrition, extends lifespan in model organisms including yeast, nematodes, mice and rats. Recent results indicate that this strategy also prolongs health span and longevity in 2 short-lived strains of mice (with the LmnaG609G/G609G or zmpste24-/- genotypes) that represent animal models of Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). The beneficial effects of methionine restriction on HGPS could be linked to reduced inflammation, and improved DNA stability, as well as the normalization of lipid and bile acid metabolism. Previous work has established that behavioral, nutritional, pharmacological and genetic manipulations that extend longevity in model organisms are only efficient if they induce increased autophagic flux. Methionine restriction extends lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in an Atg5- and Atg7-dependent fashion, supporting the notion that methionine restriction may indeed mediate its antiaging effects through the induction of macroautophagy/autophagy as well. Based on these findings, we speculate that autophagy might constitute an actionable therapeutic target to treat progeroid syndromes.

  • Transgenic expression of a ratiometric autophagy probe specifically in neurons enables the interrogation of brain autophagy in vivo.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-03
    Ju-Hyun Lee,Mala V Rao,Dun-Sheng Yang,Philip Stavrides,Eunju Im,Anna Pensalfini,Chunfeng Huo,Pallabi Sarkar,Tamotsu Yoshimori,Ralph A Nixon

    Autophagy-lysosome pathway (ALP) disruption is considered pathogenic in multiple neurodegenerative diseases; however, current methods are inadequate to investigate macroautophagy/autophagy flux in brain in vivo and its therapeutic modulation. Here, we describe a novel autophagy reporter mouse (TRGL6) stably expressing a dual-fluorescence-tagged LC3 (tfLC3, mRFP-eGFP-LC3) by transgenesis selectively in neurons. The tfLC3 probe distributes widely in the central nervous system, including spinal cord. Expression levels were similar to endogenous LC3 and induced no detectable ALP changes. This ratiometric reporter registers differential pH-dependent changes in color as autophagosomes form, fuse with lysosomes, acidify, and degrade substrates within autolysosomes. We confirmed predicted changes in neuronal autophagy flux following specific experimental ALP perturbations. Furthermore, using a third fluorescence label in TRGL6 brains to identify lysosomes by immunocytochemistry, we validated a novel procedure to detect defective autolysosomal acidification in vivo. Thus, TRGL6 mice represent a unique tool to investigate in vivo ALP dynamics in specific neuron populations in relation to neurological diseases, aging, and disease modifying agents. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin, beta; AD: Alzheimer disease; AL: autolysosomes; ALP: autophagy-lysosome pathway; AP: autophagosome; APP: amyloid beta (Abeta) precursor protein; ATG5: autophagy related 5; ATG7: autophagy related 7; AV: autophagic vacuoles; CNS: central nervous system; CTSD: cathepsin D; CQ: chloroquine; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; GFP: green fluorescent protein; GABARAP: gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor associated protein; GABARAPL2/GATE16: gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor-associated protein-like 2; ICC: immunocytochemistry; ICV: intra-cerebroventricular; LAMP2: lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2; Leup: leupeptin; LY: lysosomes; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; RBFOX3/NeuN: RNA binding protein, fox-1 homolog (C. elegans) 3; RFP: red fluorescent protein; RPS6KB1: ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1; SDS-PAGE: sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; tfLC3: mRFP-eGFP-LC3; TRGL6: Thy1 mRFP eGFP LC3-line 6; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; PD: Parkinson disease.

  • Regulation of JMY's actin nucleation activity by TTC5/STRAP and LC3 during autophagy.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-12-30
    Xu Liu,Daniel J Klionsky

    Actin plays indispensable roles in autophagosome biogenesis. Branched actin networks assembled within phagophore membranes are required for generating the autophagosome membrane shape and movement. The ARP2/3 complex and its regulators, such as JMY (junction mediating and regulatory protein, p53 cofactor), translocate to phagophore membranes to promote local actin filament formation during autophagy. Hu et al., recently showed that during autophagy LC3 recruits JMY to the phagophore and promotes its actin nucleation activity. They also characterized TTC5/STRAP (tetratricopeptide repeat domain 5) as a negative autophagy regulator via binding to JMY and antagonizing its activation. Moreover, an in vitro reconstitution system was developed to demonstrate that membrane-bound LC3 is sufficient to recruit JMY and stimulate JMY-mediated actin filament assembly.

  • Neuronal-targeted TFEB rescues dysfunction of the autophagy-lysosomal pathway and alleviates ischemic injury in permanent cerebral ischemia.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-12
    Yueyang Liu,Xue Xue,Haotian Zhang,Xiaohang Che,Jing Luo,Ping Wang,Jiaoyan Xu,Zheng Xing,Linlin Yuan,Yinglu Liu,Xiaoxiao Fu,Dongmei Su,Shibo Sun,Haonan Zhang,Chunfu Wu,Jingyu Yang

    Mounting attention has been focused on defects in macroautophagy/autophagy and the autophagy-lysosomal pathway (ALP) in cerebral ischemia. TFEB (transcription factor EB)-mediated induction of ALP has been recently considered as the common mechanism in ameliorating the pathological lesion of myocardial ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we explored the vital role of TFEB in permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO)-mediated dysfunction of ALP and ischemic insult in rats. The results showed that ALP function was first enhanced in the early stage of the ischemic process, especially in neurons of the cortex, and this was accompanied by increased TFEB expression and translocation to the nucleus, which was mediated at least in part through activation by PPP3/calcineurin. At the later stages of ischemia, a gradual decrease in the level of nuclear TFEB was coupled with a progressive decline in lysosomal activity, accumulation of autophagosomes and autophagy substrates, and exacerbation of the ischemic injury. Notably, neuron-specific overexpression of TFEB significantly enhanced ALP function and rescued the ischemic damage, starting as early as 6 h and even lasting to 48 h after ischemia. Furthermore, neuron-specific knockdown of TFEB markedly reversed the activation of ALP and further aggravated the neurological deficits and ischemic outcome at the early stage of pMCAO. These results highlight neuronal-targeted TFEB as one of the key players in the pMCAO-mediated dysfunction of ALP and ischemic injury, and identify TFEB as a promising target for therapies aimed at neuroprotection in cerebral ischemia. Abbreviations: AAV, adeno-associated virus; AIF1/IBA1, allograft inflammatory factor 1; ALP, autophagy-lysosomal pathway; CQ, chloroquine; CTSB, cathepsin B; CTSD, cathepsin D; CsA, cyclosporin A; GFAP, glial fibrillary acidic protein; LAMP, lysosomal-associated membrane protein; LC3, microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3; MAP2, microtubule-associated protein 2; mNSS, modified Neurological Severity Score; MTOR, mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; OGD, oxygen and glucose deprivation; pMCAO, permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion; RBFOX3/NeuN, RNA binding fox-1 homolog 3; SQSTM1, sequestosome1; TFEB, transcription factor EB; TTC, 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride.

  • MITF-MIR211 axis is a novel autophagy amplifier system during cellular stress.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-07
    Deniz Gulfem Ozturk,Muhammed Kocak,Arzu Akcay,Kubilay Kinoglu,Erdogan Kara,Yalcin Buyuk,Hilal Kazan,Devrim Gozuacik

    Macroautophagy (autophagy) is an evolutionarily conserved recycling and stress response mechanism. Active at basal levels in eukaryotes, autophagy is upregulated under stress providing cells with building blocks such as amino acids. A lysosome-integrated sensor system composed of RRAG GTPases and MTOR complex 1 (MTORC1) regulates lysosome biogenesis and autophagy in response to amino acid availability. Stress-mediated inhibition of MTORC1 results in the dephosphorylation and nuclear translocation of the TFE/MITF family of transcriptional factors, and triggers an autophagy- and lysosomal-related gene transcription program. The role of family members TFEB and TFE3 have been studied in detail, but the importance of MITF proteins in autophagy regulation is not clear so far. Here we introduce for the first time a specific role for MITF in autophagy control that involves upregulation of MIR211. We show that, under stress conditions including starvation and MTOR inhibition, a MITF-MIR211 axis constitutes a novel feed-forward loop that controls autophagic activity in cells. Direct targeting of the MTORC2 component RICTOR by MIR211 led to the inhibition of the MTORC1 pathway, further stimulating MITF translocation to the nucleus and completing an autophagy amplification loop. In line with a ubiquitous function, MITF and MIR211 were co-expressed in all tested cell lines and human tissues, and the effects on autophagy were observed in a cell-type independent manner. Thus, our study provides direct evidence that MITF has rate-limiting and specific functions in autophagy regulation. Collectively, the MITF-MIR211 axis constitutes a novel and universal autophagy amplification system that sustains autophagic activity under stress conditions. Abbreviations: ACTB: actin beta; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; AKT1S1/PRAS40: AKT1 substrate 1; AMPK: AMP-activated protein kinase; ATG: autophagy-related; BECN1: beclin 1; DEPTOR: DEP domain containing MTOR interacting protein; GABARAP: GABA type A receptor-associated protein; HIF1A: hypoxia inducible factor 1 subunit alpha; LAMP1: lysosomal associated membrane protein 1; MAP1LC3B/LC3B: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3 beta; MAPKAP1/SIN1: mitogen-activated protein kinase associated protein 1; MITF: melanogenesis associated transcription factor; MLST8: MTOR associated protein, LST8 homolog; MRE: miRNA response element; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; MTORC1: MTOR complex 1; MTORC2: MTOR complex 2; PRR5/Protor 1: proline rich 5; PRR5L/Protor 2: proline rich 5 like; RACK1: receptor for activated C kinase 1; RPTOR: regulatory associated protein of MTOR complex 1; RICTOR: RPTOR independent companion of MTOR complex 2; RPS6KB/p70S6K: ribosomal protein S6 kinase; RT-qPCR: quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction; SQSTM1: sequestosome 1; STK11/LKB1: serine/threonine kinase 11; TFE3: transcription factor binding to IGHM enhancer 3; TFEB: transcription factor EB; TSC1/2: TSC complex subunit 1/2; ULK1: unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1; UVRAG: UV radiation resistance associated; VIM: vimentin; VPS11: VPS11, CORVET/HOPS core subunit; VPS18: VPS18, CORVET/HOPS core subunit; WIPI1: WD repeat domain, phosphoinositide interacting 1.

  • PRKN-regulated mitophagy and cellular senescence during COPD pathogenesis.
    Autophagy (IF 11.059) Pub Date : 2018-10-07
    Jun Araya,Kazuya Tsubouchi,Nahoko Sato,Saburo Ito,Shunsuke Minagawa,Hiromichi Hara,Yusuke Hosaka,Akihiro Ichikawa,Nayuta Saito,Tsukasa Kadota,Masahiro Yoshida,Yu Fujita,Hirofumi Utsumi,Kenji Kobayashi,Haruhiko Yanagisawa,Mitsuo Hashimoto,Hiroshi Wakui,Takeo Ishikawa,Takanori Numata,Yumi Kaneko,Hisatoshi Asano,Makoto Yamashita,Makoto Odaka,Toshiaki Morikawa,Stephen L Nishimura,Katsutoshi Nakayama,Kazuyoshi Kuwano

    Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced accumulation of mitochondrial damage has been widely implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. Mitophagy plays a crucial role in eliminating damaged mitochondria, and is governed by the PINK1 (PTEN induced putative protein kinase 1)-PRKN (parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase) pathway. Although both increased PINK1 and reduced PRKN have been implicated in COPD pathogenesis in association with mitophagy, there are conflicting reports for the role of mitophagy in COPD progression. To clarify the involvement of PRKN-regulated mitophagy in COPD pathogenesis, prkn knockout (KO) mouse models were used. To illuminate how PINK1 and PRKN regulate mitophagy in relation to CS-induced mitochondrial damage and cellular senescence, overexpression and knockdown experiments were performed in airway epithelial cells (AEC). In comparison to wild-type mice, prkn KO mice demonstrated enhanced airway wall thickening with emphysematous changes following CS exposure. AEC in CS-exposed prkn KO mice showed accumulation of damaged mitochondria and increased oxidative modifications accompanied by accelerated cellular senescence. In vitro experiments showed PRKN overexpression was sufficient to induce mitophagy during CSE exposure even in the setting of reduced PINK1 protein levels, resulting in attenuation of mitochondrial ROS production and cellular senescence. Conversely PINK1 overexpression failed to recover impaired mitophagy caused by PRKN knockdown, indicating that PRKN protein levels can be the rate-limiting factor in PINK1-PRKN-mediated mitophagy during CSE exposure. These results suggest that PRKN levels may play a pivotal role in COPD pathogenesis by regulating mitophagy, suggesting that PRKN induction could mitigate the progression of COPD. Abbreviations: AD: Alzheimer disease; AEC: airway epithelial cells; BALF: bronchoalveolar lavage fluid; AKT: AKT serine/threonine kinase; CALCOCO2/NDP52: calcium binding and coiled-coil domain 2; CDKN1A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 1A; CDKN2A: cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor 2A; COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CS: cigarette smoke; CSE: CS extract; CXCL1: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 1; CXCL8: C-X-C motif chemokine ligand 8; HBEC: human bronchial epithelial cells; 4-HNE: 4-hydroxynonenal; IL: interleukin; KO: knockout; LF: lung fibroblasts; LPS: lipopolysaccharide; MAP1LC3/LC3: microtubule associated protein 1 light chain 3; MTOR: mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase; 8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; OPTN: optineurin; PRKN: parkin RBR E3 ubiquitin protein ligase; PCD: programmed cell death; PFD: pirfenidone; PIK3C: phosphatidylinositol-4:5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit; PINK1: PTEN induced putative kinase 1; PTEN: phosphatase and tensin homolog; RA: rheumatoid arthritis; ROS: reactive oxygen species; SA-GLB1/β-Gal: senescence-associated-galactosidase, beta 1; SASP: senescence-associated secretory phenotype; SNP: single nucleotide polymorphism; TNF: tumor necrosis factor.

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上海纽约大学William Glover