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  • Non-Thermal Biocompatible Plasma Jet Induction of Apoptosis in Brain Cancer Cells
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Mahmuda Akter; Jun Sup Lim; Eun Ha Choi; Ihn Han

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly malignant and rapidly advancing astrocytic brain tumor in adults. Current therapy possibilities are chemotherapy, surgical resection, and radiation. The complexity of drug release through the blood-brain barrier, tumor reaction to chemotherapy, and the inherent resistance of tumor cells present challenges. New therapies are needed for individual use or combination

    更新日期:2021-01-26
  • Osteocytic Connexin43 Channels Regulate Bone–Muscle Crosstalk
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Guobin Li; Lan Zhang; Kaiting Ning; Baoqiang Yang; Francisca M. Acosta; Peng Shang; Jean X. Jiang; Huiyun Xu

    Bone–muscle crosstalk plays an important role in skeletal biomechanical function, the progression of numerous pathological conditions, and the modulation of local and distant cellular environments. Previous work has revealed that the deletion of connexin (Cx) 43 in osteoblasts, and consequently, osteocytes, indirectly compromises skeletal muscle formation and function. However, the respective roles

    更新日期:2021-01-26
  • Regulation of CREB Phosphorylation in Nucleus Accumbens after Relief Conditioning
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Elaheh Soleimanpour; Jorge R. Bergado Acosta; Peter Landgraf; Dana Mayer; Evelyn Dankert; Daniela C. Dieterich; Markus Fendt

    Relief learning is the association of environmental cues with the cessation of aversive events. While there is increasing knowledge about the neural circuitry mediating relief learning, the respective molecular pathways are not known. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine different putative molecular pathways underlying relief learning. To this purpose, male rats were subjected either

    更新日期:2021-01-26
  • Aberrant Splicing Events and Epigenetics in Viral Oncogenomics: Current Therapeutic Strategies
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-26
    Flavia Zita Francies; Zodwa Dlamini

    Global cancer incidence and mortality are on the rise. Although cancer is fundamentally a non-communicable disease, a large number of cancers are known to have a viral aetiology. A high burden of infectious agents (Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), human papillomavirus (HPV), hepatitis B virus (HBV)) in certain Sub-Saharan African countries drives the rates of certain cancers. About one-third of

    更新日期:2021-01-26
  • Inflammatory Chemokines in Atherosclerosis
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Selin Gencer; Bryce R. Evans; Emiel P.C. van der Vorst; Yvonne Döring; Christian Weber

    Atherosclerosis is a long-term, chronic inflammatory disease of the vessel wall leading to the formation of occlusive or rupture-prone lesions in large arteries. Complications of atherosclerosis can become severe and lead to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) with lethal consequences. During the last three decades, chemokines and their receptors earned great attention in the research of atherosclerosis

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • The Imaging of Guard Cells of thioglucosidase (tgg) Mutants of Arabidopsis Further Links Plant Chemical Defence Systems with Physical Defence Barriers
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Ishita Ahuja; Ralph Kissen; Linh Hoang; Bjørnar Sporsheim; Kari K. Halle; Silje Aase Wolff; Samina Jam Nazeer Ahmad; Jam Nazeer Ahmad; Atle M. Bones

    The glucosinolate-myrosinase system is a well-known plant chemical defence system. Two functional myrosinase-encoding genes, THIOGLUCOSIDASE 1 (TGG1) and THIOGLUCOSIDASE 2 (TGG2), express in aerial tissues of Arabidopsis. TGG1 expresses in guard cells (GCs) and is also a highly abundant protein in GCs. Recently, by studying wild type (WT), tgg single, and double mutants, we showed a novel association

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • The Potentiation of Anti-Tumor Immunity by Tumor Abolition with Alpha Particles, Protons, or Carbon Ion Radiation and Its Enforcement by Combination with Immunoadjuvants or Inhibitors of Immune Suppressor Cells and Checkpoint Molecules
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Yona Keisari; Itzhak Kelson

    The delivery of radiation therapy (RT) for cancer with intent to cure has been optimized and standardized over the last 80 years. Both preclinical and clinical work emphasized the observation that radiation destroys the tumor and exposes its components to the immune response in a mode that facilitates the induction of anti-tumor immunity or reinforces such a response. External beam photon radiation

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • PD-L1 Protein Expression in Middle Eastern Breast Cancer Predicts Favorable Outcome in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Sandeep Kumar Parvathareddy; Abdul K. Siraj; Saeeda O. Ahmed; Laila Omar Ghazwani; Saud M. Aldughaither; Fouad Al-Dayel; Asma Tulbah; Dahish Ajarim; Khawla S. Al-Kuraya

    Programmed cell-death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been shown to induce potent T-cell mediated anti-tumoral immunity. The significance of PD-L1 expression in the prognosis of breast cancer (BC) remains controversial and its prevalence and prognostic value in breast cancer from Middle Eastern ethnicity is lacking. A total of 1003 unselected Middle Eastern breast cancers were analyzed for PD-L1 expression using

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • Parkinson’s Disease: Potential Actions of Lithium by Targeting the WNT/β-Catenin Pathway, Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Glutamatergic Pathway
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Alexandre Vallée; Jean-Noël Vallée; Yves Lecarpentier

    Parkinson’s disease (PD) is one of the major neurodegenerative diseases (ND) which presents a progressive neurodegeneration characterized by loss of dopamine in the substantia nigra pars compacta. It is well known that oxidative stress, inflammation and glutamatergic pathway play key roles in the development of PD. However, therapies remain uncertain and research for new treatment is mandatory. This

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • Natural Compounds of Marine Origin as Inducers of Immunogenic Cell Death (ICD): Potential Role for Cancer Interception and Therapy
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Clementina Sansone; Antonino Bruno; Concetta Piscitelli; Denisa Baci; Angelo Fontana; Christophe Brunet; Douglas M. Noonan; Adriana Albini

    Regulated cell death (RCD) has always been considered a tolerogenic event. Immunogenic cell death (ICD) occurs as a consequence of tumour cell death accompanied by the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), triggering an immune response. ICD plays a major role in stimulating the function of the immune system in cancer during chemotherapy and radiotherapy. ICD can therefore represent

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • ADAM10-Mediated Cleavage of ICAM-1 Is Involved in Neutrophil Transendothelial Migration
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Sofia K. H. Morsing; Timo Rademakers; Sanne L. N. Brouns; Anne-Marieke D. van Stalborch; Marjo M. P. C. Donners; Jaap D. van Buul

    To efficiently cross the endothelial barrier during inflammation, neutrophils first firmly adhere to the endothelial surface using the endothelial adhesion molecule ICAM-1. Upon actual transmigration, the release from ICAM-1 is required. While Integrin LFA1/Mac1 de-activation is one described mechanism that leads to this, direct cleavage of ICAM-1 from the endothelium represents a second option. We

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • Intracellular Sources of ROS/H2O2 in Health and Neurodegeneration: Spotlight on Endoplasmic Reticulum
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Tasuku Konno; Eduardo Pinho Melo; Joseph E. Chambers; Edward Avezov

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced continuously throughout the cell as products of various redox reactions. Yet these products function as important signal messengers, acting through oxidation of specific target factors. Whilst excess ROS production has the potential to induce oxidative stress, physiological roles of ROS are supported by a spatiotemporal equilibrium between ROS producers and

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • Modeling of Hypoxic Brain Injury through 3D Human Neural Organoids
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Min Soo Kim; Da-Hyun Kim; Hyun Kyoung Kang; Myung Geun Kook; Soon Won Choi; Kyung-Sun Kang

    Brain organoids have emerged as a novel model system for neural development, neurodegenerative diseases, and human-based drug screening. However, the heterogeneous nature and immature neuronal development of brain organoids generated from pluripotent stem cells pose challenges. Moreover, there are no previous reports of a three-dimensional (3D) hypoxic brain injury model generated from neural stem

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • A Multimodal Platform for Simultaneous T-Cell Imaging, Defined Activation, and Mechanobiological Characterization
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-25
    Martin Fölser; Viktoria Motsch; René Platzer; Johannes B. Huppa; Gerhard J. Schütz

    T-cell antigen recognition is accompanied by extensive morphological rearrangements of the contact zone between the T-cell and the antigen-presenting cell (APC). This process involves binding of the T-cell receptor (TCR) complex to antigenic peptides presented via MHC on the APC surface, the interaction of costimulatory and adhesion proteins, remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and the initiation

    更新日期:2021-01-25
  • Arylsulfatase a Remodeling during Human Sperm In Vitro Capacitation Using Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM)
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-23
    María José Gómez-Torres; Natalia Huerta-Retamal; Laura Robles-Gómez; Paula Sáez-Espinosa; Jon Aizpurua; Manuel Avilés; Alejandro Romero

    Capacitation drives sperm biophysical and biochemical changes for sperm-oocyte interactions. It is a well-known fact that the molecular complex arylsulfatase A (ARSA), hyaluronidase sperm adhesion molecule 1 (SPAM1), and heat shock protein 2 (HSPA2) plays a significant role in sperm–zona pellucida (ZP) binding. However, the time-dependent capacitation effects on the sperm surface ARSA presence and

    更新日期:2021-01-24
  • Immune Infiltrates in Breast Cancer: Recent Updates and Clinical Implications
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-23
    Maria Vittoria Dieci; Federica Miglietta; Valentina Guarneri

    In recent decades, the increasing interest in the field of immunotherapy has fostered an intense investigation of the breast cancer (BC) immune microenvironment. In this context, tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) have emerged as a clinically relevant and highly reproducible biomarker capable of affecting BC prognosis and response to treatment. Indeed, the evaluation of TILs on primary tumors proved

    更新日期:2021-01-24
  • JAK-STAT Pathway Inhibition Partially Restores Intestinal Homeostasis in Hdac1- and Hdac2-Intestinal Epithelial Cell-Deficient Mice
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-23
    Alexis Gonneaud; Naomie Turgeon; Francois-Michel Boisvert; Francois Boudreau; Claude Asselin

    We have previously reported that histone deacetylase epigenetic regulator Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletion in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) disrupts mucosal tissue architecture and barrier, causing chronic inflammation. In this study, proteome and transcriptome analysis revealed the importance of signaling pathways induced upon genetic IEC-Hdac1 and Hdac2 deletion. Indeed, Gene Ontology biological process

    更新日期:2021-01-24
  • GSK3β, a Master Kinase in the Regulation of Adult Stem Cell Behavior
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-24
    Claire Racaud-Sultan; Nathalie Vergnolle

    In adult stem cells, Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3β (GSK3β) is at the crossroad of signaling pathways controlling survival, proliferation, adhesion and differentiation. The microenvironment plays a key role in the regulation of these cell functions and we have demonstrated that the GSK3β activity is strongly dependent on the engagement of integrins and protease-activated receptors (PARs). Downstream of

    更新日期:2021-01-24
  • Quiescence, Stemness and Adipogenic Differentiation Capacity in Human DLK1−/CD34+/CD24+ Adipose Stem/Progenitor Cells
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Florian M. Hatzmann; Asim Ejaz; G. Jan Wiegers; Markus Mandl; Camille Brucker; Stefan Lechner; Tina Rauchenwald; Marit Zwierzina; Saphira Baumgarten; Sonja Wagner; Monika Mattesich; Petra Waldegger; Gerhard Pierer; Werner Zwerschke

    We explore the status of quiescence, stemness and adipogenic differentiation capacity in adipose stem/progenitor cells (ASCs) ex vivo, immediately after isolation from human subcutaneous white adipose tissue, by sorting the stromal vascular fraction into cell-surface DLK1+/CD34−, DLK1+/CD34dim and DLK1−/CD34+ cells. We demonstrate that DLK1−/CD34+ cells, the only population exhibiting proliferative

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Targeting Aquaporins in Novel Therapies for Male and Female Breast and Reproductive Cancers
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Sidra Khan; Carmela Ricciardelli; Andrea J. Yool

    Aquaporins are membrane channels in the broad family of major intrinsic proteins (MIPs), with 13 classes showing tissue-specific distributions in humans. As key physiological modulators of water and solute homeostasis, mutations, and dysfunctions involving aquaporins have been associated with pathologies in all major organs. Increases in aquaporin expression are associated with greater severity of

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Adipokines and Autoimmunity in Inflammatory Arthritis
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Elena Neumann; Rebecca Hasseli; Selina Ohl; Uwe Lange; Klaus W. Frommer; Ulf Müller-Ladner

    Adipokines are adipose tissue-derived factors not only playing an important role in metabolism but also influencing other central processes of the body, such as inflammation. In autoimmune diseases, adipokines are involved in inflammatory pathways affecting different cell types. Many rheumatic diseases belong to the group of autoimmune diseases, for example rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Nurse-Like Cells and Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia B Cells: A Mutualistic Crosstalk inside Tissue Microenvironments
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Stefania Fiorcari; Rossana Maffei; Claudio Giacinto Atene; Leonardo Potenza; Mario Luppi; Roberto Marasca

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most common adult leukemia in Western countries and is an example of hematological disease where cooperation between genetic defects and tumor microenvironmental interaction is involved in pathogenesis. CLL is a disease that is considered as “addicted to the host”; indeed, the crosstalk between leukemic cells and the tumor microenvironment is essential for

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Multiplex Analysis of Adipose-Derived Stem Cell (ASC) Immunophenotype Adaption to In Vitro Expansion
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Qiuyue Peng; Martyna Duda; Guoqiang Ren; Zongzhe Xuan; Cristian Pablo Pennisi; Simone Riis Porsborg; Trine Fink; Vladimir Zachar

    In order to enhance the therapeutic potential, it is important that sufficient knowledge regarding the dynamic changes of adipose-derived stem cell (ASC) immunophenotypical and biological properties during in vitro growth is available. Consequently, we embarked on a study to follow the evolution of highly defined cell subsets from three unrelated donors in the course of eight passages on tissue culture

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Methods for Studying Endometrial Pathology and the Potential of Atomic Force Microscopy in the Research of Endometrium
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Agnieszka Kurek; Estera Kłosowicz; Kamila Sofińska; Robert Jach; Jakub Barbasz

    The endometrium lines the uterine cavity, enables implantation of the embryo, and provides an environment for its development and growth. Numerous methods, including microscopic and immunoenzymatic techniques, have been used to study the properties of the cells and tissue of the endometrium to understand changes during, e.g., the menstrual cycle or implantation. Taking into account the existing state

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Hydrogen Sulfide, an Endogenous Stimulator of Mitochondrial Function in Cancer Cells
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Csaba Szabo

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has a long history as toxic gas and environmental hazard; inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase (mitochondrial Complex IV) is viewed as a primary mode of its cytotoxic action. However, studies conducted over the last two decades unveiled multiple biological regulatory roles of H2S as an endogenously produced mammalian gaseous transmitter. Cystathionine -lyase (CSE), cystathionine

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • TDP-43 Regulation of AChE Expression Can Mediate ALS-Like Phenotype in Zebrafish
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-22
    Maria-Letizia Campanari; Anca Marian; Sorana Ciura; Edor Kabashi

    The “distal axonopathy” hypothesis in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) proposes that pathological changes occur at the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) early in the disease. While acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays an important role in the functionality of the NMJ, its potential role in ALS remains unexplored. Here, we identified AChE as a limiting factor regulating muscle/motor neuron connection in

    更新日期:2021-01-22
  • Research Progress in the Molecular Functions of Plant mTERF Proteins
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Pedro Robles; Víctor Quesada

    Present-day chloroplast and mitochondrial genomes contain only a few dozen genes involved in ATP synthesis, photosynthesis, and gene expression. The proteins encoded by these genes are only a small fraction of the many hundreds of proteins that act in chloroplasts and mitochondria. Hence, the vast majority, including components of organellar gene expression (OGE) machineries, are encoded by nuclear

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Calcium Signaling and Mitochondrial Function in Presenilin 2 Knock-Out Mice: Looking for Any Loss-of-Function Phenotype Related to Alzheimer’s Disease
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Alice Rossi; Luisa Galla; Chiara Gomiero; Lorena Zentilin; Mauro Giacca; Valentina Giorgio; Tito Calì; Tullio Pozzan; Elisa Greotti; Paola Pizzo

    Alzheimer′s disease (AD) is the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder in which learning, memory and cognitive functions decline progressively. Familial forms of AD (FAD) are caused by mutations in amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1) and presenilin 2 (PSEN2) genes. Presenilin 1 (PS1) and its homologue, presenilin 2 (PS2), represent, alternatively, the catalytic core of

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • COVID-19: Characteristics and Therapeutics
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Rameswari Chilamakuri; Saurabh Agarwal

    Novel coronavirus (COVID-19 or 2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2), which suddenly emerged in December 2019 is still haunting the entire human race and has affected not only the healthcare system but also the global socioeconomic balances. COVID-19 was quickly designated as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization as there have been about 98.0 million confirmed cases and about 2.0 million confirmed

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • The Jekyll and Hyde of Cellular Senescence in Cancer
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Dilara Demirci; Bengisu Dayanc; Fatma Aybuke Mazi; Serif Senturk

    Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell cycle arrest that can be triggered in response to various insults and is characterized by distinct morphological hallmarks, gene expression profiles, and the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Importantly, cellular senescence is a key component of normal physiology with tumor suppressive functions. In the last few decades, novel cancer treatment

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Using iPSC Models to Understand the Role of Estrogen in Neuron–Glia Interactions in Schizophrenia and Bipolar Disorder
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Denis Reis de Assis; Attila Szabo; Jordi Requena Osete; Francesca Puppo; Kevin S. O’Connell; Ibrahim A. Akkouh; Timothy Hughes; Evgeniia Frei; Ole A. Andreassen; Srdjan Djurovic

    Schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BIP) are severe mental disorders with a considerable disease burden worldwide due to early age of onset, chronicity, and lack of efficient treatments or prevention strategies. Whilst our current knowledge is that SCZ and BIP are highly heritable and share common pathophysiological mechanisms associated with cellular signaling, neurotransmission, energy metabolism

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Berberine Prevents Disease Progression of Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis through Modulating Multiple Pathways
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Yanyan Wang; Yun-Ling Tai; Derrick Zhao; Yuan Zhang; Junkai Yan; Genta Kakiyama; Xuan Wang; Emily C. Gurley; Jinze Liu; Jinpeng Liu; Jimin Liu; Guanhua Lai; Phillip B. Hylemon; William M. Pandak; Weidong Chen; Huiping Zhou

    The disease progression of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) from simple steatosis (NAFL) to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is driven by multiple factors. Berberine (BBR) is an ancient Chinese medicine and has various beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, including NAFLD/NASH. However, the underlying mechanisms remain incompletely understood due to the limitation of the NASH animal

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Effect of Interventions in WNT Signaling on Healing of Cardiac Injury: A Systematic Review
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Evangelos P. Daskalopoulos; W. Matthijs Blankesteijn

    The wound healing that follows myocardial infarction is a complex process involving multiple mechanisms, such as inflammation, angiogenesis and fibrosis. In the last two decades, the involvement of WNT signaling has been extensively studied and effects on virtually all aspects of this wound healing have been reported. However, as often is the case in a newly emerging field, inconsistent and sometimes

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Pin1 Regulates IL-5 Induced Eosinophil Polarization and Migration
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Zhong-Jian Shen; Jie Hu; Melissa A. O’Neal; James S. Malter

    Eosinophils become polarized in response to cytokines such IL-5 or eotaxin prior to directional migration. Polarization is preceded by F-actin assembly, but the mechanisms that regulate these events and how the shape change influences cell migration from the peripheral blood into the lung remain unclear. In this study, we show that the prolyl isomerase, Pin1, is required for IL-5-induced Eos polarization

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Longitudinal Multi-Parametric Liquid Biopsy Approach Identifies Unique Features of Circulating Tumor Cell, Extracellular Vesicle, and Cell-Free DNA Characterization for Disease Monitoring in Metastatic Breast Cancer Patients
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Corinna Keup; Vinay Suryaprakash; Markus Storbeck; Oliver Hoffmann; Rainer Kimmig; Sabine Kasimir-Bauer

    Dynamics of mRNA from circulating tumor cells (CTCs), mRNA from extracellular vesicles (EVs), and cell-free DNA (cfDNA) were assessed to examine the relevance of a longitudinal multi-parametric liquid biopsy strategy. Eighteen milliliters of blood was drawn from 27 hormone receptor-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC) patients at disease

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Overproduction of Human Zip (SLC39) Zinc Transporters in Saccharomyces Cerevisiae for Biophysical Characterization
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-21
    Eva Ramos Becares; Per Amstrup Pedersen; Pontus Gourdon; Kamil Gotfryd

    Zinc constitutes the second most abundant transition metal in the human body, and it is implicated in numerous cellular processes, including cell division, DNA and protein synthesis as well as for the catalytic activity of many enzymes. Two major membrane protein families facilitate zinc homeostasis in the animal kingdom, i.e., Zrt/Irt-like proteins (ZIPs aka solute carrier 39, SLC39, family) and Zn

    更新日期:2021-01-21
  • Variability of Human rDNA
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Evgeny Smirnov; Nikola Chmúrčiaková; František Liška; Pavla Bažantová; Dušan Cmarko

    In human cells, ribosomal DNA (rDNA) is arranged in ten clusters of multiple tandem repeats. Each repeat is usually described as consisting of two parts: the 13 kb long ribosomal part, containing three genes coding for 18S, 5.8S and 28S RNAs of the ribosomal particles, and the 30 kb long intergenic spacer (IGS). However, this standard scheme is, amazingly, often altered as a result of the peculiar

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Regulation of COX Assembly and Function by Twin CX9C Proteins—Implications for Human Disease
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Stephanie Gladyck; Siddhesh Aras; Maik Hüttemann; Lawrence I. Grossman

    Oxidative phosphorylation is a tightly regulated process in mammals that takes place in and across the inner mitochondrial membrane and consists of the electron transport chain and ATP synthase. Complex IV, or cytochrome c oxidase (COX), is the terminal enzyme of the electron transport chain, responsible for accepting electrons from cytochrome c, pumping protons to contribute to the gradient utilized

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Lipoprotein Lipase Regulates Microglial Lipid Droplet Accumulation
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Bailey A. Loving; Maoping Tang; Mikaela C. Neal; Sachi Gorkhali; Robert Murphy; Robert H. Eckel; Kimberley D. Bruce

    Microglia become increasingly dysfunctional with aging and contribute to the onset of neurodegenerative disease (NDs) through defective phagocytosis, attenuated cholesterol efflux, and excessive secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Dysfunctional microglia also accumulate lipid droplets (LDs); however, the mechanism underlying increased LD load is unknown. We have previously shown that microglia

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Genetic Approach to Elucidate the Role of Cyclophilin D in Traumatic Brain Injury Pathology
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Ryan D. Readnower; William Brad Hubbard; Olivia J. Kalimon; James W. Geddes; Patrick G. Sullivan

    Cyclophilin D (CypD) has been shown to play a critical role in mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening and the subsequent cell death cascade. Studies consistently demonstrate that mitochondrial dysfunction, including mitochondrial calcium overload and mPTP opening, is essential to the pathobiology of cell death after a traumatic brain injury (TBI). CypD inhibitors, such as cyclosporin

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Computer Navigation and 3D Printing in the Surgical Management of Bone Sarcoma
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Robert Allan McCulloch; Tommaso Frisoni; Vineet Kurunskal; Davide Maria Donati; Lee Jeys

    The long-term outcomes of osteosarcoma have improved; however, patients with metastases, recurrence or axial disease continue to have a poor prognosis. Computer navigation in surgery is becoming ever more commonplace, and the proposed advantages, including precision during surgery, is particularly applicable to the field of orthopaedic oncology and challenging areas such as the axial skeleton. Within

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Phototropin 1 and 2 Influence Photosynthesis, UV-C Induced Photooxidative Stress Responses, and Cell Death
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Anna Rusaczonek; Weronika Czarnocka; Patrick Willems; Marzena Sujkowska-Rybkowska; Frank Van Breusegem; Stanisław Karpiński

    Phototropins are plasma membrane-associated photoreceptors of blue light and UV-A/B radiation. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes two phototropins, PHOT1 and PHOT2, that mediate phototropism, chloroplast positioning, and stomatal opening. They are well characterized in terms of photomorphogenetic processes, but so far, little was known about their involvement in photosynthesis, oxidative stress

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Role of Chitinase 3-like 1 Protein in the Pathogenesis of Hepatic Insulin Resistance in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Songhua Zhang; Aryanna Sousa; Mengqui Lin; Ayako Iwano; Rishubh Jain; Bing Ma; Chang Min Lee; Jin Wook Park; Suchitra Kamle; Rolf Carlson; Ghun Geun Lee; Jack A. Elias; Jack R. Wands

    A recently discovered human glycoprotein, chitinase 3-like 1 (Chi3L1), may play a role in inflammation, tissue remodeling, and visceral fat accumulation. We hypothesize that Chi3L1 gene expression is important in the development of hepatic insulin resistance characterized by the generation of pAKT, pGSK, and pERK in wild type and Chi3L1 knockout (KO) murine liver following insulin stimulation. The

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • Beyond the Warburg Effect: Oxidative and Glycolytic Phenotypes Coexist within the Metabolic Heterogeneity of Glioblastoma
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Tomás Duraj; Noemí García-Romero; Josefa Carrión-Navarro; Rodrigo Madurga; Ana Ortiz de Mendivil; Ricardo Prat-Acin; Lina Garcia-Cañamaque; Angel Ayuso-Sacido

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most aggressive primary brain tumor, with a median survival at diagnosis of 16–20 months. Metabolism represents a new attractive therapeutic target; however, due to high intratumoral heterogeneity, the application of metabolic drugs in GBM is challenging. We characterized the basal bioenergetic metabolism and antiproliferative potential of metformin (MF), dichloroacetate (DCA)

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • LRRK2 Modulates the Exocyst Complex Assembly by Interacting with Sec8
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-20
    Milena Fais; Giovanna Sanna; Manuela Galioto; Thi Thanh Duyen Nguyen; Mai Uyên Thi Trần; Paola Sini; Franco Carta; Franco Turrini; Yulan Xiong; Ted M. Dawson; Valina L. Dawson; Claudia Crosio; Ciro Iaccarino

    Mutations in LRRK2 play a critical role in both familial and sporadic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Up to date, the role of LRRK2 in PD onset and progression remains largely unknown. However, experimental evidence highlights a critical role of LRRK2 in the control of vesicle trafficking, likely by Rab phosphorylation, that in turn may regulate different aspects of neuronal physiology. Here we show that

    更新日期:2021-01-20
  • ICU Admission Levels of Endothelial Biomarkers as Predictors of Mortality in Critically Ill COVID-19 Patients
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Alice G. Vassiliou; Chrysi Keskinidou; Edison Jahaj; Parisis Gallos; Ioanna Dimopoulou; Anastasia Kotanidou; Stylianos E. Orfanos

    Endotheliopathy is suggested to be an important feature of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients. To determine whether endotheliopathy is involved in COVID-19-associated mortality, markers of endothelial damage were assessed in critically ill COVID-19 patients upon intensive care unit (ICU) admission. Thirty-eight critically ill COVID-19 patients were included in this observational study, 10 of whom died

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • mRNA-Enhanced Cell Therapy and Cardiovascular Regeneration
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Palas K. Chanda; Roman Sukhovershin; John P. Cooke

    mRNA has emerged as an important biomolecule in the global call for the development of therapies during the COVID-19 pandemic. Synthetic in vitro-transcribed (IVT) mRNA can be engineered to mimic naturally occurring mRNA and can be used as a tool to target “undruggable” diseases. Recent advancement in the field of RNA therapeutics have addressed the challenges inherent to this drug molecule and this

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Adenine-Based Purines and Related Metabolizing Enzymes: Evidence for Their Impact on Tumor Extracellular Vesicle Activities
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Patrizia Di Iorio; Renata Ciccarelli

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), mainly classified as small and large EVs according to their size/origin, contribute as multi-signal messengers to intercellular communications in normal/pathological conditions. EVs are now recognized as critical players in cancer processes by promoting transformation, growth, invasion, and drug-resistance of tumor cells thanks to the release of molecules contained inside

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Beneficial Effects of Akkermansia muciniphila Are Not Associated with Major Changes in the Circulating Endocannabinoidome but Linked to Higher Mono-Palmitoyl-Glycerol Levels as New PPARα Agonists
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Clara Depommier; Rosa Maria Vitale; Fabio Arturo Iannotti; Cristoforo Silvestri; Nicolas Flamand; Céline Druart; Amandine Everard; Rudy Pelicaen; Dominique Maiter; Jean-Paul Thissen; Audrey Loumaye; Michel P. Hermans; Nathalie M. Delzenne; Willem M. de Vos; Vincenzo Di Marzo; Patrice D. Cani

    Akkermansia muciniphila is considered as one of the next-generation beneficial bacteria in the context of obesity and associated metabolic disorders. Although a first proof-of-concept of its beneficial effects has been established in the context of metabolic syndrome in humans, mechanisms are not yet fully understood. This study aimed at deciphering whether the bacterium exerts its beneficial properties

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • P2X7 Variants in Oncogenesis
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Anna Pegoraro; Elena De Marchi; Elena Adinolfi

    The P2X7 receptor for extracellular ATP is a well-established mediator of tumoral development and progression both in solid cancers and hematological malignancies. The human P2X7 gene is highly polymorphic, and several splice variants of the receptor have been identified in time. P2X7 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been broadly analyzed by studies relating them to pathologies as different

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • White Matter Interstitial Neurons in the Adult Human Brain: 3% of Cortical Neurons in Quest for Recognition
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Goran Sedmak; Miloš Judaš

    White matter interstitial neurons (WMIN) are a subset of cortical neurons located in the subcortical white matter. Although they were fist described over 150 years ago, they are still largely unexplored and often considered a small, functionally insignificant neuronal population. WMIN are adult remnants of neurons located in the transient fetal subplate zone (SP). Following development, some of the

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Towards a Functional Cure for Diabetes Using Stem Cell-Derived Beta Cells: Are We There Yet?
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Stephanie Bourgeois; Toshiaki Sawatani; Annelore Van Mulders; Nico De Leu; Yves Heremans; Harry Heimberg; Miriam Cnop; Willem Staels

    Diabetes mellitus is a pandemic metabolic disorder that results from either the autoimmune destruction or the dysfunction of insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. A promising cure is beta cell replacement through the transplantation of islets of Langerhans. However, donor shortage hinders the widespread implementation of this therapy. Human pluripotent stem cells, including embryonic stem cells

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Unlike Its Paralog LEDGF/p75, HRP-2 Is Dispensable for MLL-R Leukemogenesis but Important for Leukemic Cell Survival
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Siska Van Belle; Sara El Ashkar; Kateřina Čermáková; Filip Matthijssens; Steven Goossens; Alessandro Canella; Courtney H. Hodges; Frauke Christ; Jan De Rijck; Pieter Van Vlierberghe; Václav Veverka; Zeger Debyser

    HDGF-related protein 2 (HRP-2) is a member of the Hepatoma-Derived Growth Factor-related protein family that harbors the structured PWWP and Integrase Binding Domain, known to associate with methylated histone tails or cellular and viral proteins, respectively. Interestingly, HRP-2 is a paralog of Lens Epithelium Derived Growth Factor p75 (LEDGF/p75), which is essential for MLL-rearranged (MLL-r) leukemia

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • New Prognostic Biomarkers in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Vincenza Conteduca; Alessandra Mosca; Nicole Brighi; Ugo de Giorgi; Pasquale Rescigno

    Prostate cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in men and is a common cause of cancer-related death. Despite significant progress in the diagnosis and treatment of this tumor, patients who relapse after radical treatments inevitably develop metastatic disease. Patient stratification is therefore key in this type of cancer, and there is an urgent need for prognostic biomarkers that can define patients’

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • Advances in Plant Autophagy
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-19
    Agnieszka Sirko; Céline Masclaux-Daubresse

    Note: In lieu of an abstract, this is an excerpt from the first page. Ubiquitin–proteasome and lysosome–autophagy are the two main cellular degradation systems controlling cellular homeostasis in eukaryotes. The autophagy pathway started attracting particular attention only two decades ago, after the ATG genes were discovered in yeast, and their counterparts in higher eukaryotes. Since then, a tremendous

    更新日期:2021-01-19
  • A Splice Variant in SLC16A8 Gene Leads to Lactate Transport Deficit in Human iPS Cell-Derived Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Laurence Klipfel; Marie Cordonnier; Léa Thiébault; Emmanuelle Clérin; Frédéric Blond; Géraldine Millet-Puel; Saddek Mohand-Saïd; Olivier Goureau; José-Alain Sahel; Emeline F. Nandrot; Thierry Léveillard

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a blinding disease for which most of the patients remain untreatable. Since the disease affects the macula at the center of the retina, a structure specific to the primate lineage, rodent models to study the pathophysiology of AMD and to develop therapies are very limited. Consequently, our understanding relies mostly on genetic studies highlighting risk alleles

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Contribution of the CK2 Catalytic Isoforms α and α’ to the Glycolytic Phenotype of Tumor Cells
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Francesca Zonta; Christian Borgo; Camila Paz Quezada Meza; Ionica Masgras; Andrea Rasola; Mauro Salvi; Lorenzo A. Pinna; Maria Ruzzene

    CK2 is a Ser/Thr protein kinase overexpressed in many cancers. It is usually present in cells as a tetrameric enzyme, composed of two catalytic (α or α’) and two regulatory (β) subunits, but it is active also in its monomeric form, and the specific role of the different isoforms is largely unknown. CK2 phosphorylates several substrates related to the uncontrolled proliferation, motility, and survival

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Cytosolic 5′-Nucleotidase II is a Sensor of Energy Charge and Oxidative Stress: A Possible Function as Metabolic Regulator
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Rossana Pesi; Simone Allegrini; Francesco Balestri; Mercedes Garcia-Gil; Federico Cividini; Laura Colombaioni; Lars Petter Jordheim; Marcella Camici; Maria Grazia Tozzi

    Cytosolic 5′-nucleotidase II (NT5C2) is a highly regulated enzyme involved in the maintenance of intracellular purine and the pyrimidine compound pool. It dephosphorylates mainly IMP and GMP but is also active on AMP. This enzyme is highly expressed in tumors, and its activity correlates with a high rate of proliferation. In this paper, we show that the recombinant purified NT5C2, in the presence of

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Putting Cells in Motion: Advantages of Endogenous Boosting of BDNF Production
    Cells (IF 4.366) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Elvira Brattico; Leonardo Bonetti; Gabriella Ferretti; Peter Vuust; Carmela Matrone

    Motor exercise, such as sport or musical activities, helps with a plethora of diseases by modulating brain functions in neocortical and subcortical regions, resulting in behavioural changes related to mood regulation, well-being, memory, and even cognitive preservation in aging and neurodegenerative diseases. Although evidence is accumulating on the systemic neural mechanisms mediating these brain

    更新日期:2021-01-18