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  • Stochastic gene expression and chromosome interactions in protecting the human active X from silencing by XIST
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2021-01-18
    Barbara R. Migeon

    ABSTRACT Mammals use X chromosome inactivation to compensate for the sex difference in numbers of X chromosomes. A relatively unexplored question is how the active X is protected from inactivation by its own XIST gene, the long non-coding RNA, which initiates silence of the inactive X. Previous studies of autosomal duplications show that human chromosome 19 plays a critical role in protecting the active

    更新日期:2021-01-18
  • Physical constraints in polymer modeling of chromatin associations with the nuclear periphery at kilobase scale
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Annaël Brunet; Nicolas Destainville; Philippe Collas

    ABSTRACT Interactions of chromatin with the nuclear lamina imposes a radial genome distribution important for nuclear functions. How physical properties of chromatin affect these interactions is unclear. We used polymer simulations to model how physical parameters of chromatin affect its interaction with the lamina. Impact of polymer stiffness is greater than stretching on its configurations at the

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Evolution and diversification of the nuclear envelope
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2021-01-12
    Norma E. Padilla-Mejia; Alexandr A. Makarov; Lael D. Barlow; Erin R. Butterfield; Mark C. Field

    Abstract Eukaryotic cells arose over 1.5 billion years ago, with the endomembrane system a central feature, facilitating evolution of specialised intracellular compartments. Endomembranes include the nuclear envelope (NE) that divides the cytoplasm from the nucleoplasm. The NE possesses universal features, specifically a double lipid bilayer membrane, nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), and continuity with

    更新日期:2021-01-13
  • Recent advances in understanding the biological roles of the plant nuclear envelope
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    Norman Reid Groves; Alecia Biel; Morgan Moser; Tyler Mendes; Katelyn Amstutz; Iris Meier

    ABSTRACT The functional organization of the plant nuclear envelope is gaining increasing attention through new connections made between nuclear envelope-associated proteins and important plant biological processes. Animal nuclear envelope proteins play roles in nuclear morphology, nuclear anchoring and movement, chromatin tethering and mechanical signaling. However, how these roles translate to functionality

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Advancing knowledge of the plant nuclear periphery and its application for crop science
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-12-09
    David E. Evans; Sarah Mermet; Christophe Tatout

    ABSTRACT In this review, we explore recent advances in knowledge of the structure and dynamics of the plant nuclear envelope. As a paradigm, we focused our attention on the Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton (LINC) complex, a structurally conserved bridging complex comprising SUN domain proteins in the inner nuclear membrane and KASH domain proteins in the outer nuclear membrane. Studies have

    更新日期:2020-12-09
  • Automated 3D bio-imaging analysis of nuclear organization by NucleusJ 2.0
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-11-29
    Tristan Dubos; Axel Poulet; Céline Gonthier-Gueret; Guillaume Mougeot; Emmanuel Vanrobays; Yanru Li; Sylvie Tutois; Emilie Pery; Frédéric Chausse; Aline V. Probst; Christophe Tatout; Sophie Desset

    ABSTRACT NucleusJ 1.0, an ImageJ plugin, is a useful tool to analyze nuclear morphology and chromatin organization in plant and animal cells. NucleusJ 2.0 is a new release of NucleusJ, in which image processing is achieved more quickly using a command-lineuser interface. Starting with large collection of 3D nuclei, segmentation can be performed by the previously developed Otsu-modified method or by

    更新日期:2020-12-01
  • Nuclear lamin phosphorylation: an emerging role in gene regulation and pathogenesis of laminopathies
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-10-25
    Sunny Yang Liu; Kohta Ikegami

    ABSTRACT Decades of studies have established that nuclear lamin polymers form the nuclear lamina, a protein meshwork that supports the nuclear envelope structure and tethers heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. Much less is known about unpolymerized nuclear lamins in the nuclear interior, some of which are now known to undergo specific phosphorylation. A recent finding that phosphorylated lamins

    更新日期:2020-10-30
  • Reorganization of the nuclear architecture in the Drosophila melanogaster Lamin B mutant lacking the CaaX box.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Semen M Bondarenko,Igor V Sharakhov

    Lamins interact with the nuclear membrane and chromatin but the precise players and mechanisms of these interactions are unknown. Here, we tested whether the removal of the CaaX motif from Lamin B disrupts its attachment to the nuclear membrane and affects chromatin distribution. We usedDrosophila melanogaster LamA25  homozygous mutants that lack the CaaX box. We found that the mutant Lamin B was not

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Impairment of nuclear F-actin formation and its relevance to cellular phenotypes in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-20
    Yuto Takahashi,Shogo Hiratsuka,Nanako Machida,Daisuke Takahashi,Junpei Matsushita,Pavel Hozak,Tom Misteli,Kei Miyamoto,Masahiko Harata

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by a mutation of lamin A, which contributes to nuclear architecture and the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus. The expression of a lamin A mutant, named progerin, leads to functional and structural disruption of nuclear organization. Since progerin lacks a part of the actin-binding site of lamin A, we hypothesized

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Mechanical properties of nucleoprotein complexes determined by nanoindentation spectroscopy.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-20
    Tatini Rakshit,Daniël P Melters,Emilios K Dimitriadis,Yamini Dalal

    The interplay between transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, 3-D organization, and mechanical properties of the chromatin fiber controls genome function in eukaryotes. Besides the canonical histones which fold the bulk of the chromatin into nucleosomes, histone variants create distinctive chromatin domains that are thought to regulate transcription, replication, DNA damage repair, and faithful

    更新日期:2020-09-20
  • Nuclear membrane ruptures, cell death, and tissue damage in the setting of nuclear lamin deficiencies.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Natalie Y Chen,Paul H Kim,Loren G Fong,Stephen G Young

    The nuclear membranes function as a barrier to separate the cell nucleus from the cytoplasm, but this barrier can be compromised by nuclear membrane ruptures, leading to intermixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents. Spontaneous nuclear membrane ruptures (i.e., ruptures occurring in the absence of mechanical stress) have been observed in cultured cells, but they are more frequent in the setting of

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • The ESCRT-III complex is required for nuclear pore complex sequestration and regulates gamete replicative lifespan in budding yeast meiosis.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Bailey A Koch,Elizabeth Staley,Hui Jin,Hong-Guo Yu

    Cellular aging occurs as a cell loses its ability to maintain homeostasis. Aging cells eliminate damaged cellular compartments and other senescence factors via self-renewal. The mechanism that regulates cellular rejuvenation remains to be further elucidated. Using budding yeast gametogenesis as a model, we show here that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III regulates nuclear

    更新日期:2020-09-08
  • Interplay of the nuclear envelope with chromatin in physiology and pathology.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-23
    Romina Burla,Mattia La Torre,Klizia Maccaroni,Fiammetta Verni,Simona Giunta,Isabella Saggio

    ABSTRACT The nuclear envelope compartmentalizes chromatin in eukaryotic cells. The main nuclear envelope components are lamins that associate with a panoply of factors, including the LEM domain proteins. The nuclear envelope of mammalian cells opens up during cell division. It is reassembled and associated with chromatin at the end of mitosis when telomeres tether to the nuclear periphery. Lamins,

    更新日期:2020-08-23
  • Lamin microaggregates lead to altered mechanotransmission in progerin-expressing cells.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Brooke E Danielsson,Katie V Tieu,Kranthidhar Bathula,Travis J Armiger,Pragna S Vellala,Rebecca E Taylor,Kris Noel Dahl,Daniel E Conway

    ABSTRACT The nuclear lamina is a meshwork of intermediate filament proteins, and lamin A is the primary mechanical protein. An altered splicing of lamin A, known as progerin, causes the disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Progerin-expressing cells have altered nuclear shapes and stiffened nuclear lamina with microaggregates of progerin. Here, progerin microaggregate inclusions in the lamina

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Exportins can inhibit major mitotic assembly events in vitro: membrane fusion, nuclear pore formation, and spindle assembly.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Matthew S Nord,Cyril Bernis,Sarah Carmona,Dennis C Garland,Anna Travesa,Douglass J Forbes

    ABSTRACT Xenopus egg extracts are a powerful in vitro tool for studying complex biological processes, including nuclear reconstitution, nuclear membrane and pore assembly, and spindle assembly. Extracts have been further used to demonstrate a moonlighting regulatory role for nuclear import receptors or importins on these cell cycle assembly events. Here we show that exportins can also play a role in

    更新日期:2020-08-08
  • Characterization of t-loop formation by TRF2.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Leonid A Timashev,Titia De Lange

    ABSTRACT T-loops are thought to hide telomeres from DNA damage signaling and DSB repair pathways. T-loop formation requires the shelterin component TRF2, which represses ATM signaling and NHEJ. Here we establish that TRF2 alone, in the absence of other shelterin proteins can form t-loops. Mouse and human cells contain two isoforms of TRF2, one of which is uncharacterized. We show that both isoforms

    更新日期:2020-07-15
  • CTCF as a boundary factor for cohesin-mediated loop extrusion: evidence for a multi-step mechanism.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Anders S Hansen

    ABSTRACT Mammalian genome structure is closely linked to function. At the scale of kilobases to megabases, CTCF and cohesin organize the genome into chromatin loops. Mechanistically, cohesin is proposed to extrude chromatin loops bidirectionally until it encounters occupied CTCF DNA-binding sites. Curiously, loops form predominantly between CTCF binding sites in a convergent orientation. How CTCF interacts

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • LINC-complex mediated positioning of the vegetative nucleus is involved in calcium and ROS signaling in Arabidopsis pollen tubes.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Morgan Moser,Andrew Kirkpatrick,Norman Reid Groves,Iris Meier

    ABSTRACT Nuclear movement and positioning play a role in developmental processes throughout life. Nuclear movement and positioning are mediated primarily by linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. LINC complexes are comprised of the inner nuclear membrane SUN proteins and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) KASH proteins. In Arabidopsis pollen tubes, the vegetative nucleus (VN) maintains

    更新日期:2020-07-07
  • SATB1-mediated chromatin landscape in T cells
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Tomas Zelenka; Charalampos Spilianakis

    ABSTRACT The regulatory circuits that define developmental decisions of thymocytes are still incompletely resolved. SATB1 protein is predominantly expressed at the CD4+CD8+cell stage exerting its broad transcription regulation potential with both activatory and repressive roles. A series of post-translational modifications and the presence of potential SATB1 protein isoforms indicate the complexity

    更新日期:2020-06-10
  • Telomere-led meiotic chromosome movements: recent update in structure and function
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-06-07
    C. Y. Lee; C. G. Bisig; M. N. Conrad; Y. Ditamo; L. Previato de Almeida; M. E. Dresser; R. J. Pezza

    ABSTRACT In S. cerevisiae prophase meiotic chromosomes move by forces generated in the cytoplasm and transduced to the telomere via a protein complex located in the nuclear membrane. We know that chromosome movements require actin cytoskeleton [13,31] and the proteins Ndj1, Mps3, and Csm4. Until recently, the identity of the protein connecting Ndj1-Mps3 with the cytoskeleton components was missing

    更新日期:2020-06-07
  • Nuclear filaments: role in chromosomal positioning and gene expression.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Manindra Bera,Kaushik Sengupta

    ABSTRACT Nuclear lamins form an elastic meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane and provide mechanical rigidity to the nucleus and maintain shape. Lamins also maintain chromosome positioning and play important roles in several nuclear processes like replication, DNA damage repair, transcription, and epigenetic modifications. LMNA mutations affect cardiac tissue, muscle tissues, adipose tissues

    更新日期:2020-05-26
  • Dynamics as a cause for the nanoscale organization of the genome.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Roman Barth,Genevieve Fourel,Haitham A Shaban

    Chromatin 'blobs' were recently identified by live super-resolution imaging of labeled nucleosomes as pervasive but fleeting structural entities. However, the mechanisms leading to the formation of these blobs and their functional implications are unknown. We explore here whether causal relationships exist between parameters that characterize the chromatin blob dynamics and structure, by adapting a

    更新日期:2020-05-23
  • Telomere-led meiotic chromosome movements: recent update in structure and function
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    CY Lee; CG Bisig; MN Conrad; Y Ditamo; L Previato de Almeida; ME Dresser; RJ Pezza

    ABSTRACT Telomere-led chromosome movement or Rapid Prophase Movements (RPM) occur in meiotic prophase and is a conserved process required for proper homologous chromosome interactions. This type of active movements originates in the cytoplasm and is translated to the telomeres through the nuclear membrane. We highlight our recent advances in the engine generating RPMs in S. cerevisiae, with special

    更新日期:2020-05-15
  • Are the processes of DNA replication and DNA repair reading a common structural chromatin unit?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Stefania Mamberti,M Cristina Cardoso

    Decades of investigation on genomic DNA have brought us deeper insights into its organization within the nucleus and its metabolic mechanisms. This was fueled by the parallel development of experimental techniques and has stimulated model building to simulate genome conformation in agreement with the experimental data. Here, we will discuss our recent discoveries on the chromatin units of DNA replication

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • Emerging roles of cytoskeletal proteins in regulating gene expression and genome organization during differentiation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Xin Xie,S Raza Mahmood,Tamara Gjorgjieva,Piergiorgio Percipalle

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, cytoskeletal proteins are emerging as essential players in nuclear function. In particular, actin regulates chromatin as part of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, it modulates transcription and it is incorporated into nascent ribonucleoprotein complexes, accompanying them from the site of transcription to polyribosomes. The nuclear actin pool is undistinguishable

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • The coordination of nuclear envelope assembly and chromosome segregation in metazoans.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Shiwei Liu,David Pellman

    The nuclear envelope (NE) is composed of two lipid bilayer membranes that enclose the eukaryotic genome. In interphase, the NE is perforated by thousands of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which allow transport in and out of the nucleus. During mitosis in metazoans, the NE is broken down and then reassembled in a manner that enables proper chromosome segregation and the formation of a single nucleus

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • Bromodomain AAA+ ATPases get into shape.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Magdalena Murawska,Andreas G Ladurner

    Bromodomain AAA+ ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are emerging as oncogenic proteins and compelling targets for anticancer therapies. However, structural and biochemical insight into these machines is missing. A recent study by Cho et al. reports the first cryo-EM structure of a bromodomain AAA+ ATPase and provides first insights into the functions of this putative histone

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • The role of phosphorylation in the elasticity of the tethers that connect telomeres of separating anaphase chromosomes.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Emma Kite,Arthur Forer

    Elastic tethers, connecting telomeres of all separating anaphase chromosome pairs, lose elasticity when they lengthen during anaphase. Treatment with phosphatase inhibitor CalyculinA causes anaphase chromosomes to move backwards after they reach the poles, suggesting that dephosphorylation causes loss of tether elasticity. We added 50nM CalyculinA to living anaphase crane-fly spermatocytes with different

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • Hyperosmotic stress: in situ chromatin phase separation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ada L Olins,Travis J Gould,Logan Boyd,Bettina Sarg,Donald E Olins

    Dehydration of cells by acute hyperosmotic stress has profound effects upon cell structure and function. Interphase chromatin and mitotic chromosomes collapse ("congelation"). HL-60/S4 cells remain ~100% viable for, at least, 1 hour, exhibiting shrinkage to ~2/3 their original volume, when placed in 300mM sucrose in tissue culture medium. Fixed cells were imaged by immunostaining confocal and STED

    更新日期:2020-04-20
  • Processive DNA synthesis is associated with localized decompaction of constitutive heterochromatin at the sites of DNA replication and repair.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Vadim O Chagin,Britta Reinhart,Annette Becker,Oliver Mortusewicz,K Laurence Jost,Alexander Rapp,Heinrich Leonhardt,M Cristina Cardoso

    Constitutive heterochromatin is considered as a functionally inert genome compartment, important for its architecture and stability. How such stable structure is maintained is not well understood. Here, we apply four different visualization schemes to label it and investigate its dynamics during DNA replication and repair. We show that replisomes assemble over the heterochromatin in a temporally ordered

    更新日期:2019-11-19
  • ALT control, delete: FANCM as an anti-cancer target in Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Julienne J O'Rourke,Rohan Bythell-Douglas,Elyse A Dunn,Andrew J Deans

    Break-induced replication is a specific type of DNA repair that has a co-opted role in telomere extension by telomerase-negative cancer cells. This Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (or ‘ALT’) is required for viability in approximately 10% of all carcinomas, but up to 50% of the soft-tissue derived sarcomas. In several recent studies, we and others demonstrate that expression and activity of FANCM

    更新日期:2019-11-14
  • Correction.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-09-18

    (2020). Correction. Nucleus: Vol. 11, No. 1, pp. i-i.

    更新日期:2019-09-18
  • The Wilhelm Bernhard workshop: half a century of collegiality.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Thoru Pederson

    (2019). The Wilhelm Bernhard workshop: half a century of collegiality. Nucleus: Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 213-215.

    更新日期:2019-08-12
  • The cell nucleus. A study in Burgundy.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Oleg Demidov,Vasilisa Aksenova,Mary Dasso,Alexei Arnaoutov

    Wilhelm Bernhard’s revolutionary microscopy techniques helped him put forward the hypothesis of specialized compartmentalization of the nucleus. He also described for the first time the nuclear bodies and peri-chromatin fibrils, and demonstrated that these granules contain an RNA component. The tradition of biennial workshops, named after this great scientist, continues, and this year it took place

    更新日期:2019-08-12
  • Probing the 3D architecture of the plant nucleus with microscopy approaches: challenges and solutions
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Tao Dumur, Susan Duncan, Katja Graumann, Sophie Desset, Ricardo S Randall, Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, Hank W Bass, Dimiter Prodanov, Christophe Tatout, Célia Baroux

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a central organelle whose architecture determines genome function at multiple levels. Deciphering nuclear organizing principles influencing cellular responses and identity is a timely challenge. Despite many similarities between plant and animal nuclei, plant nuclei present intriguing specificities. Complementary to molecular and biochemical approaches, 3D microscopy

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • Probing the 3D architecture of the plant nucleus with microscopy approaches: challenges and solutions.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Tao Dumur,Susan Duncan,Katja Graumann,Sophie Desset,Ricardo S Randall,Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid,Dimiter Prodanov,Christophe Tatout,Célia Baroux

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a central organelle whose architecture determines genome function at multiple levels. Deciphering nuclear organizing principles influencing cellular responses and identity is a timely challenge. Despite many similarities between plant and animal nuclei, plant nuclei present intriguing specificities. Complementary to molecular and biochemical approaches, 3D microscopy

    更新日期:2019-07-30
  • Editorial for the SEB Florence special issue: functional organisation of the nuclear periphery
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    David E Evans, Katja Graumann, Roland Foisner

    (2019). Editorial for the SEB Florence special issue: functional organisation of the nuclear periphery. Nucleus: Vol. 10, SEB Florence 2018: Functional organisation of the nuclear periphery; Guest edited by David Evans and Katja Graumann, pp. 167-168.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Regulation of inner nuclear membrane associated protein degradation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    Bailey Koch,Hong-Guo Yu

    The nucleus is enclosed by a double-membrane structure, the nuclear envelope, which separates the nucleoplasm from the cytoplasm. The outer nuclear membrane is continuous with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), whereas the inner nuclear membrane (INM) is a specialized compartment with a unique proteome. In order to ensure compartmental homeostasis, INM-associated degradation (INMAD) is required for both

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • Editorial for the SEB florence special issue: functional organisation of the nuclear periphery.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-25
    David E Evans,Katja Graumann,Roland Foisner

    (2019). Editorial for the SEB Florence special issue: functional organisation of the nuclear periphery. Nucleus: Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 167-168.

    更新日期:2019-07-25
  • MLKS2 is an ARM domain and F-actin-associated KASH protein that functions in stomatal complex development and meiotic chromosome segregation
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Hardeep K. Gumber, Joseph F. McKenna, Andrea F. Tolmie, Alexis M. Jalovec, Andre C. Kartick, Katja Graumann, Hank W. Bass

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is an essential multi-protein structure spanning the eukaryotic nuclear envelope. The LINC complex functions to maintain nuclear architecture, positioning, and mobility, along with specialized functions in meiotic prophase and chromosome segregation. Members of the LINC complex were recently identified in maize, an important scientific and

    更新日期:2019-06-20
  • MLKS2 is an ARM domain and F-actin-associated KASH protein that functions in stomatal complex development and meiotic chromosome segregation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-06-20
    Hardeep K Gumber,Joseph F McKenna,Andrea F Tolmie,Alexis M Jalovec,Andre C Kartick,Katja Graumann,Hank W Bass

    The linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complex is an essential multi-protein structure spanning the eukaryotic nuclear envelope. The LINC complex functions to maintain nuclear architecture, positioning, and mobility, along with specialized functions in meiotic prophase and chromosome segregation. Members of the LINC complex were recently identified in maize, an important scientific and

    更新日期:2019-06-20
  • Identification of new transmembrane proteins concentrated at the nuclear envelope using organellar proteomics of mesenchymal cells.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-05-29
    Li-Chun Cheng,Sabyasachi Baboo,Cory Lindsay,Liza Brusman,Salvador Martinez-Bartolomé,Olga Tapia,Xi Zhang,John R Yates,Larry Gerace

    The double membrane nuclear envelope (NE), which is contiguous with the ER, contains nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) – the channels for nucleocytoplasmic transport, and the nuclear lamina (NL) – a scaffold for NE and chromatin organization. Since numerous human diseases linked to NE proteins occur in mesenchyme-derived cells, we used proteomics to characterize NE and other subcellular fractions isolated

    更新日期:2019-05-29
  • Plant condensin II is required for the correct spatial relationship between centromeres and rDNA arrays
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Takuya Sakamoto, Tomoya Sugiyama, Tomoe Yamashita, Sachihiro Matsunaga

    Plants possess the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein complexes cohesin, condensin, and SMC5/6, which function in fundamental biological processes such as sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation and segregation, and damaged DNA repair. Recently, increasing evidence in several organisms has suggested that condensin is involved in chromatin organizations during interphase.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Plant condensin II is required for the correct spatial relationship between centromeres and rDNA arrays.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-05-16
    Takuya Sakamoto,Tomoya Sugiyama,Tomoe Yamashita,Sachihiro Matsunaga

    Plants possess the structural maintenance of chromosome (SMC) protein complexes cohesin, condensin, and SMC5/6, which function in fundamental biological processes such as sister chromatid cohesion, chromosome condensation and segregation, and damaged DNA repair. Recently, increasing evidence in several organisms has suggested that condensin is involved in chromatin organizations during interphase.

    更新日期:2019-05-16
  • Pairing of homologous chromosomes in C. elegans meiosis requires DEB-1 - an orthologue of mammalian vinculin.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-05-08
    Jana Rohožková,Lenka Hůlková,Jana Fukalová,Petr Flachs,Pavel Hozák

    During meiosis, homologous chromosomes undergo a dramatic movement in order to correctly align. This is a critical meiotic event but the molecular properties of this ‘chromosomal dance’ still remainunclear. We identified DEB-1 – an orthologue of mammalian vinculin – as a new component of the mechanistic modules responsible for attaching the chromosomes to the nuclear envelope as apart of the LINC complex

    更新日期:2019-05-08
  • Comprehensive nuclear proteome of Arabidopsis obtained by sequential extraction
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-04-09
    Chieko Goto, Shoko Hashizume, Yoichiro Fukao, Ikuko Hara-Nishimura, Kentaro Tamura

    In eukaryotes, the nucleus plays key roles in fundamental cellular processes, including DNA replication, chromatin maintenance, transcription, and translation. To better understand the functional diversity of nuclei, we developed a method for the comprehensive extraction of the nuclear proteome from Arabidopsis. We used a buffer with a high sucrose concentration to purify nuclei and then conducted

    更新日期:2019-04-09
  • Comprehensive nuclear proteome of Arabidopsis obtained by sequential extraction.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-04-09
    Chieko Goto,Shoko Hashizume,Yoichiro Fukao,Ikuko Hara-Nishimura,Kentaro Tamura

    In eukaryotes, the nucleus plays key roles in fundamental cellular processes, including DNA replication, chromatin maintenance, transcription, and translation. To better understand the functional diversity of nuclei, we developed a method for the comprehensive extraction of the nuclear proteome from Arabidopsis. We used a buffer with a high sucrose concentration to purify nuclei and then conducted

    更新日期:2019-04-09
  • Ribosomal RNA genes shape chromatin domains associating with the nucleolus
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Ariadna Picart-Picolo, Nathalie Picault, Frédéric Pontvianne

    Genomic interactions can occur in addition to those within chromosome territories and can be organized around nuclear bodies. Several studies revealed how the nucleolus anchors higher order chromatin structures of specific chromosome regions displaying heterochromatic features. In this review, we comment on advances in this emerging field, with a particular focus on a recent study published by Quinodoz

    更新日期:2019-03-25
  • Ribosomal RNA genes shape chromatin domains associating with the nucleolus.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-25
    Ariadna Picart-Picolo,Nathalie Picault,Frédéric Pontvianne

    Genomic interactions can occur in addition to those within chromosome territories and can be organized around nuclear bodies. Several studies revealed how the nucleolus anchors higher order chromatin structures of specific chromosome regions displaying heterochromatic features. In this review, we comment on advances in this emerging field, with a particular focus on a recent study published by Quinodoz

    更新日期:2019-03-25
  • Vascular smooth muscle cell loss underpins the accelerated atherosclerosis in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-22
    Magda R Hamczyk,Vicente Andrés

    Lamin A, a product of the LMNA gene, is an essential nuclear envelope component in most differentiated cells. Mutations in LMNA have been linked to premature aging disorders, including Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS). HGPS is caused by progerin, an aberrant form of lamin A that leads to premature death, typically from the complications of atherosclerotic disease. A key characteristic of

    更新日期:2019-03-22
  • SUN/KASH interactions facilitate force transmission across the nuclear envelope.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-19
    Hongyan Hao,Daniel A Starr

    LINC complexes (Linker of Nucleoskeleton and Cytoskeleton), consisting of inner nuclear membrane SUN (Sad1, UNC-84) proteins and outer nuclear membrane KASH (Klarsicht, ANC-1, and Syne Homology) proteins, are essential for nuclear positioning, cell migration and chromosome dynamics. To test the in vivo functions of conserved interfaces revealed by crystal structures, Cain et al used a combination of

    更新日期:2019-03-19
  • The nuclear envelope in higher plant mitosis and meiosis
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-17
    Monica Pradillo, David Evans, Katja Graumann

    Mitosis and meiosis in higher plants involve significant reconfiguration of the nuclear envelope and the proteins that interact with it. The dynamic series of events involves a range of interactions, movement, breakdown, and reformation of this complex system. Recently, progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the protein and membrane interactome that performs these complex tasks, including

    更新日期:2019-03-17
  • The nuclear envelope in higher plant mitosis and meiosis.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-17
    Monica Pradillo,David Evans,Katja Graumann

    Mitosis and meiosis in higher plants involve significant reconfiguration of the nuclear envelope and the proteins that interact with it. The dynamic series of events involves a range of interactions, movement, breakdown, and reformation of this complex system. Recently, progress has been made in identifying and characterizing the protein and membrane interactome that performs these complex tasks, including

    更新日期:2019-03-17
  • Novel contribution of epigenetic changes to nuclear dynamics.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-03-17
    Marcel Dreger,Elena Madrazo,Adam Hurlstone,Javier Redondo-Muñoz

    Migrating cells have to cross many physical barriers and confined in 3D environments. The surrounding environment promotes mechano- and biological signals that orchestrate cellular changes, such as cytoskeletal and adhesion rearrangements and proteolytic digestion. Recent studies provide new insights into how the nucleus must alter its shape, localization and mechanical properties in order to promote

    更新日期:2019-03-17
  • Role of lamins in 3D genome organization and global gene expression.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-02-12
    Youngjo Kim,Xiaobin Zheng,Yixian Zheng

    Genome-wide mapping of lamin-B1-genome interactions has shown that gene-poor and transcriptionally inactive genomic regions are associated with the nuclear lamina. Numerous studies have suggested that lamins, the major structural components of the nuclear lamina, play a role in global chromatin organization and gene expression. How lamins could influence the 3D genome organization and transcription

    更新日期:2019-02-12
  • Exonuclease domain mutants of yeast DIS3 display genome instability.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-02-11
    Karissa L Milbury,Biplab Paul,Azra Lari,Claire Fowler,Ben Montpetit,Peter C Stirling

    The exosome functions to regulate the cellular transcriptome through RNA biogenesis, surveillance, and decay. Mutations in Dis3, a catalytic subunit of the RNA exosome with separable endonuclease and exonuclease activities, are linked to multiple myeloma. Here we report that a cancer-associated DIS3 allele, dis3E729K, provides evidence for DIS3 functioning in mitotic fidelity in yeast. This dis3E729K

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Interplay of lamin A and lamin B LADs on the radial positioning of chromatin
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Frida Forsberg, Annaël Brunet, Tharvesh M. Liyakat Ali, Philippe Collas

    Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A (CsA) can elicit hepatotoxicity by affecting gene expression. Here, we address the link between CsA and large-scale chromatin organization in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. We show the existence of lamina-associated domains (LADs) interacting with lamin A, lamin B, or both. These ‘A-B’, ‘A-only’ and ‘B-only’ LADs display distinct fates after CsA treatment:

    更新日期:2019-02-01
  • Interplay of lamin A and lamin B LADs on the radial positioning of chromatin.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-02-01
    Frida Forsberg,Annaël Brunet,Tharvesh M Liyakat Ali,Philippe Collas

    Immunosuppressive drugs such as cyclosporin A (CsA) can elicit hepatotoxicity by affecting gene expression. Here, we address the link between CsA and large-scale chromatin organization in HepG2 hepatocarcinoma cells. We show the existence of lamina-associated domains (LADs) interacting with lamin A, lamin B, or both. These ‘A-B’, ‘A-only’ and ‘B-only’ LADs display distinct fates after CsA treatment:

    更新日期:2019-02-01
  • Meiotic chromosome movement: what’s lamin got to do with it?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Dimitra Paouneskou, Verena Jantsch

    Active meiotic chromosome movements are a universally conserved feature. They occur at the early stages of prophase of the first meiotic division and support the chromosome pairing process by (1) efficiently installing the synaptonemal complex between homologous chromosomes, (2) discouraging inadvertent chromosome interactions and (3) bringing homologous chromosomes into proximity. Chromosome movements

    更新日期:2019-01-30
  • Meiotic chromosome movement: what's lamin got to do with it?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-01-30
    Dimitra Paouneskou,Verena Jantsch

    Active meiotic chromosome movements are a universally conserved feature. They occur at the early stages of prophase of the first meiotic division and support the chromosome pairing process by (1) efficiently installing the synaptonemal complex between homologous chromosomes, (2) discouraging inadvertent chromosome interactions and (3) bringing homologous chromosomes into proximity. Chromosome movements

    更新日期:2019-01-30
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