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  • Nuclear lamin phosphorylation: an emerging role in gene regulation and pathogenesis of laminopathies
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-10-08
    Sunny Yang Liu; Kohta Ikegami

    ABSTRACT Decades of studies have established that nuclear lamin polymers form the nuclear lamina, a protein meshwork that supports the nuclear envelope structure and tethers heterochromatin to the nuclear periphery. Much less is known about unpolymerized nuclear lamins in the nuclear interior, some of which are now known to undergo specific phosphorylation. A recent finding that phosphorylated lamins

  • Reorganization of the nuclear architecture in the Drosophila melanogaster Lamin B mutant lacking the CaaX box.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-22
    Semen M Bondarenko,Igor V Sharakhov

    Lamins interact with the nuclear membrane and chromatin but the precise players and mechanisms of these interactions are unknown. Here, we tested whether the removal of the CaaX motif from Lamin B disrupts its attachment to the nuclear membrane and affects chromatin distribution. We usedDrosophila melanogaster LamA25  homozygous mutants that lack the CaaX box. We found that the mutant Lamin B was not

  • Impairment of nuclear F-actin formation and its relevance to cellular phenotypes in Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-20
    Yuto Takahashi,Shogo Hiratsuka,Nanako Machida,Daisuke Takahashi,Junpei Matsushita,Pavel Hozak,Tom Misteli,Kei Miyamoto,Masahiko Harata

    Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome (HGPS) is a premature aging disorder caused by a mutation of lamin A, which contributes to nuclear architecture and the spatial organization of chromatin in the nucleus. The expression of a lamin A mutant, named progerin, leads to functional and structural disruption of nuclear organization. Since progerin lacks a part of the actin-binding site of lamin A, we hypothesized

  • Mechanical properties of nucleoprotein complexes determined by nanoindentation spectroscopy.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-20
    Tatini Rakshit,Daniël P Melters,Emilios K Dimitriadis,Yamini Dalal

    The interplay between transcription factors, chromatin remodelers, 3-D organization, and mechanical properties of the chromatin fiber controls genome function in eukaryotes. Besides the canonical histones which fold the bulk of the chromatin into nucleosomes, histone variants create distinctive chromatin domains that are thought to regulate transcription, replication, DNA damage repair, and faithful

  • Nuclear membrane ruptures, cell death, and tissue damage in the setting of nuclear lamin deficiencies.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Natalie Y Chen,Paul H Kim,Loren G Fong,Stephen G Young

    The nuclear membranes function as a barrier to separate the cell nucleus from the cytoplasm, but this barrier can be compromised by nuclear membrane ruptures, leading to intermixing of nuclear and cytoplasmic contents. Spontaneous nuclear membrane ruptures (i.e., ruptures occurring in the absence of mechanical stress) have been observed in cultured cells, but they are more frequent in the setting of

  • The ESCRT-III complex is required for nuclear pore complex sequestration and regulates gamete replicative lifespan in budding yeast meiosis.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    Bailey A Koch,Elizabeth Staley,Hui Jin,Hong-Guo Yu

    Cellular aging occurs as a cell loses its ability to maintain homeostasis. Aging cells eliminate damaged cellular compartments and other senescence factors via self-renewal. The mechanism that regulates cellular rejuvenation remains to be further elucidated. Using budding yeast gametogenesis as a model, we show here that the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) III regulates nuclear

  • Interplay of the nuclear envelope with chromatin in physiology and pathology.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-23
    Romina Burla,Mattia La Torre,Klizia Maccaroni,Fiammetta Verni,Simona Giunta,Isabella Saggio

    ABSTRACT The nuclear envelope compartmentalizes chromatin in eukaryotic cells. The main nuclear envelope components are lamins that associate with a panoply of factors, including the LEM domain proteins. The nuclear envelope of mammalian cells opens up during cell division. It is reassembled and associated with chromatin at the end of mitosis when telomeres tether to the nuclear periphery. Lamins,

  • Lamin microaggregates lead to altered mechanotransmission in progerin-expressing cells.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Brooke E Danielsson,Katie V Tieu,Kranthidhar Bathula,Travis J Armiger,Pragna S Vellala,Rebecca E Taylor,Kris Noel Dahl,Daniel E Conway

    ABSTRACT The nuclear lamina is a meshwork of intermediate filament proteins, and lamin A is the primary mechanical protein. An altered splicing of lamin A, known as progerin, causes the disease Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome. Progerin-expressing cells have altered nuclear shapes and stiffened nuclear lamina with microaggregates of progerin. Here, progerin microaggregate inclusions in the lamina

  • Exportins can inhibit major mitotic assembly events in vitro: membrane fusion, nuclear pore formation, and spindle assembly.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-08-07
    Matthew S Nord,Cyril Bernis,Sarah Carmona,Dennis C Garland,Anna Travesa,Douglass J Forbes

    ABSTRACT Xenopus egg extracts are a powerful in vitro tool for studying complex biological processes, including nuclear reconstitution, nuclear membrane and pore assembly, and spindle assembly. Extracts have been further used to demonstrate a moonlighting regulatory role for nuclear import receptors or importins on these cell cycle assembly events. Here we show that exportins can also play a role in

  • Characterization of t-loop formation by TRF2.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-14
    Leonid A Timashev,Titia De Lange

    ABSTRACT T-loops are thought to hide telomeres from DNA damage signaling and DSB repair pathways. T-loop formation requires the shelterin component TRF2, which represses ATM signaling and NHEJ. Here we establish that TRF2 alone, in the absence of other shelterin proteins can form t-loops. Mouse and human cells contain two isoforms of TRF2, one of which is uncharacterized. We show that both isoforms

  • CTCF as a boundary factor for cohesin-mediated loop extrusion: evidence for a multi-step mechanism.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Anders S Hansen

    ABSTRACT Mammalian genome structure is closely linked to function. At the scale of kilobases to megabases, CTCF and cohesin organize the genome into chromatin loops. Mechanistically, cohesin is proposed to extrude chromatin loops bidirectionally until it encounters occupied CTCF DNA-binding sites. Curiously, loops form predominantly between CTCF binding sites in a convergent orientation. How CTCF interacts

  • LINC-complex mediated positioning of the vegetative nucleus is involved in calcium and ROS signaling in Arabidopsis pollen tubes.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-07-07
    Morgan Moser,Andrew Kirkpatrick,Norman Reid Groves,Iris Meier

    ABSTRACT Nuclear movement and positioning play a role in developmental processes throughout life. Nuclear movement and positioning are mediated primarily by linker of nucleoskeleton and cytoskeleton (LINC) complexes. LINC complexes are comprised of the inner nuclear membrane SUN proteins and the outer nuclear membrane (ONM) KASH proteins. In Arabidopsis pollen tubes, the vegetative nucleus (VN) maintains

  • SATB1-mediated chromatin landscape in T cells
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-06-10
    Tomas Zelenka; Charalampos Spilianakis

    ABSTRACT The regulatory circuits that define developmental decisions of thymocytes are still incompletely resolved. SATB1 protein is predominantly expressed at the CD4+CD8+cell stage exerting its broad transcription regulation potential with both activatory and repressive roles. A series of post-translational modifications and the presence of potential SATB1 protein isoforms indicate the complexity

  • Nuclear filaments: role in chromosomal positioning and gene expression.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-26
    Manindra Bera,Kaushik Sengupta

    ABSTRACT Nuclear lamins form an elastic meshwork underlying the inner nuclear membrane and provide mechanical rigidity to the nucleus and maintain shape. Lamins also maintain chromosome positioning and play important roles in several nuclear processes like replication, DNA damage repair, transcription, and epigenetic modifications. LMNA mutations affect cardiac tissue, muscle tissues, adipose tissues

  • Dynamics as a cause for the nanoscale organization of the genome.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Roman Barth,Genevieve Fourel,Haitham A Shaban

    Chromatin 'blobs' were recently identified by live super-resolution imaging of labeled nucleosomes as pervasive but fleeting structural entities. However, the mechanisms leading to the formation of these blobs and their functional implications are unknown. We explore here whether causal relationships exist between parameters that characterize the chromatin blob dynamics and structure, by adapting a

  • Telomere-led meiotic chromosome movements: recent update in structure and function
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-05-15
    CY Lee; CG Bisig; MN Conrad; Y Ditamo; L Previato de Almeida; ME Dresser; RJ Pezza

    ABSTRACT Telomere-led chromosome movement or Rapid Prophase Movements (RPM) occur in meiotic prophase and is a conserved process required for proper homologous chromosome interactions. This type of active movements originates in the cytoplasm and is translated to the telomeres through the nuclear membrane. We highlight our recent advances in the engine generating RPMs in S. cerevisiae, with special

  • Are the processes of DNA replication and DNA repair reading a common structural chromatin unit?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-04-10
    Stefania Mamberti,M Cristina Cardoso

    Decades of investigation on genomic DNA have brought us deeper insights into its organization within the nucleus and its metabolic mechanisms. This was fueled by the parallel development of experimental techniques and has stimulated model building to simulate genome conformation in agreement with the experimental data. Here, we will discuss our recent discoveries on the chromatin units of DNA replication

  • Emerging roles of cytoskeletal proteins in regulating gene expression and genome organization during differentiation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Xin Xie,S Raza Mahmood,Tamara Gjorgjieva,Piergiorgio Percipalle

    In the eukaryotic cell nucleus, cytoskeletal proteins are emerging as essential players in nuclear function. In particular, actin regulates chromatin as part of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes, it modulates transcription and it is incorporated into nascent ribonucleoprotein complexes, accompanying them from the site of transcription to polyribosomes. The nuclear actin pool is undistinguishable

  • The coordination of nuclear envelope assembly and chromosome segregation in metazoans.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-25
    Shiwei Liu,David Pellman

    The nuclear envelope (NE) is composed of two lipid bilayer membranes that enclose the eukaryotic genome. In interphase, the NE is perforated by thousands of nuclear pore complexes (NPCs), which allow transport in and out of the nucleus. During mitosis in metazoans, the NE is broken down and then reassembled in a manner that enables proper chromosome segregation and the formation of a single nucleus

  • Bromodomain AAA+ ATPases get into shape.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-03-19
    Magdalena Murawska,Andreas G Ladurner

    Bromodomain AAA+ ATPases (ATPases associated with diverse cellular activities) are emerging as oncogenic proteins and compelling targets for anticancer therapies. However, structural and biochemical insight into these machines is missing. A recent study by Cho et al. reports the first cryo-EM structure of a bromodomain AAA+ ATPase and provides first insights into the functions of this putative histone

  • The role of phosphorylation in the elasticity of the tethers that connect telomeres of separating anaphase chromosomes.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-17
    Emma Kite,Arthur Forer

    Elastic tethers, connecting telomeres of all separating anaphase chromosome pairs, lose elasticity when they lengthen during anaphase. Treatment with phosphatase inhibitor CalyculinA causes anaphase chromosomes to move backwards after they reach the poles, suggesting that dephosphorylation causes loss of tether elasticity. We added 50nM CalyculinA to living anaphase crane-fly spermatocytes with different

  • Hyperosmotic stress: in situ chromatin phase separation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2020-01-10
    Ada L Olins,Travis J Gould,Logan Boyd,Bettina Sarg,Donald E Olins

    Dehydration of cells by acute hyperosmotic stress has profound effects upon cell structure and function. Interphase chromatin and mitotic chromosomes collapse ("congelation"). HL-60/S4 cells remain ~100% viable for, at least, 1 hour, exhibiting shrinkage to ~2/3 their original volume, when placed in 300mM sucrose in tissue culture medium. Fixed cells were imaged by immunostaining confocal and STED

  • Processive DNA synthesis is associated with localized decompaction of constitutive heterochromatin at the sites of DNA replication and repair.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-11-19
    Vadim O Chagin,Britta Reinhart,Annette Becker,Oliver Mortusewicz,K Laurence Jost,Alexander Rapp,Heinrich Leonhardt,M Cristina Cardoso

    Constitutive heterochromatin is considered as a functionally inert genome compartment, important for its architecture and stability. How such stable structure is maintained is not well understood. Here, we apply four different visualization schemes to label it and investigate its dynamics during DNA replication and repair. We show that replisomes assemble over the heterochromatin in a temporally ordered

  • ALT control, delete: FANCM as an anti-cancer target in Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-11-14
    Julienne J O'Rourke,Rohan Bythell-Douglas,Elyse A Dunn,Andrew J Deans

    Break-induced replication is a specific type of DNA repair that has a co-opted role in telomere extension by telomerase-negative cancer cells. This Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (or ‘ALT’) is required for viability in approximately 10% of all carcinomas, but up to 50% of the soft-tissue derived sarcomas. In several recent studies, we and others demonstrate that expression and activity of FANCM

  • The F-actin severing protein cofilin-1 is required for RNA polymerase II transcription elongation.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Ales Obrdlik,Piergiorgio Percipalle

    In mammals actin contributes to transcription elongation by facilitating establishment of permissive chromatin. Here we report that the F-actin severing protein cofilin-1 is part of the same complex with actin and phosphorylated RNA polymerase (pol) II. In chromatin immunoprecipitation assays cofilin-1 was found selectively associated with transcribed regions of active genes, its occupancy being influenced

  • Histone deacetylase inhibition redistributes topoisomerase IIβ from heterochromatin to euchromatin.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Ian G Cowell,Nikolaos Papageorgiou,Kay Padget,Gary P Watters,Caroline A Austin

    The genome is organized into large scale structures in the interphase nucleus. Pericentromeric heterochromatin represents one such compartment characterized by histones H3 and H4 tri-methylated at K9 and K20 respectively and with a correspondingly low level of histone acetylation. HP1 proteins are concentrated in pericentric heterochromatin and histone deacetylase inhibitors such as trichostatin A

  • An epichromatin epitope: persistence in the cell cycle and conservation in evolution.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Ada L Olins,Markus Langhans,Marc Monestier,Andreas Schlotterer,David G Robinson,Corrado Viotti,Hanswalter Zentgraf,Monika Zwerger,Donald E Olins

    Interphase nuclear architecture is disrupted and rapidly reformed with each cell division cycle. Successive cell generations exhibit a "memory" of this nuclear architecture, as well as for gene expression. Furthermore, many features of nuclear and mitotic chromosome structure are recognizably species and tissue specific. We wish to know what properties of the underlying chromatin structure may determine

  • Actin-related proteins localized in the nucleus: from discovery to novel roles in nuclear organization.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Yukako Oma,Masahiko Harata

    The actin family consists of conventional actin and actin-related proteins (ARPs), and the members show moderate similarity and share the same basal structure. Following the finding of various ARPs in the cytoplasm in the 1990s, multiple subfamilies that are localized predominantly in the nucleus were identified. Consistent with these cytological observations, subsequent biochemical analyses revealed

  • A role for SUMOylation in snoRNP biogenesis revealed by quantitative proteomics.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Belinda J Westman,Angus I Lamond

    A role for SUMOylation in the biogenesis and/or function of Box C/D snoRNPs has been reported, mediated via SUMO2 conjugation to the core snoRNP protein, Nop58. A quantitative proteomics screen, based on SILAC (stable-isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture) and mass spectrometry using extracts prepared from cultured mammalian cells expressing either 6His-SUMO1 or -SUMO2, revealed that the

  • Telomere dysfunction in human bone marrow failure syndromes.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Ludmila Shtessel,Shawn Ahmed

    Approximately 90% of all human cancers, in which some deregulation of cell cycle arrest or programmed cell death has occurred, express telomerase, a ribonucleoprotein whose activity is normally turned off in healthy somatic tissues. Additionally, small populations of self-renewing stem cells, such as hematopoietic stem cells, skin and hair follicle basal layer cells and intestinal basal crypt cells

  • Determining nuclear shape: the role of farnesylated nuclear membrane proteins.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Maria Polychronidou,Jörg Grobhans

    Changes in nuclear morphology are observed in diverse developmental processes as well as in pathological conditions. Modification of nuclear membrane and nuclear lamina protein levels results in altered nuclear shapes, as it has been demonstrated in experimental systems ranging from yeast to human cells. The important role of nuclear membrane components in regulating nuclear morphology is additionally

  • 'Natively unfolded' nucleoporins in nucleocytoplasmic transport: clustered or evenly distributed?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Weidong Yang

    The nuclear pore complex (NPC) acts as a selective gate that mediates the bidirectional transport of macromolecules between the cytoplasm and the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. 'Natively unfolded' nucleoporins (Nups) with domains rich in phenylalanine-glycine (FG) repeats form the selective permeability barrier and provide binding sites for mobile transport receptors in the NPC. Understanding the structure

  • Investigating the purpose of prelamin A processing.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-06-08
    Brandon Sj Davies,Catherine Coffinier,Shao H Yang,Richard H Barnes,Hea-Jin Jung,Stephen G Young,Loren G Fong

    Lmna yields two major protein products in somatic cells, lamin C and prelamin A. Mature lamin A is produced from prelamin A by four posttranslational processing steps-farnesylation of a carboxyl-terminal cysteine, release of the last three amino acids of the protein, methylation of the farnesylcysteine, and the endoproteolytic release of the carboxyl-terminal 15 amino acids of the protein (including

  • 4D chromatin dynamics in cycling cells: Theodor Boveri's hypotheses revisited.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Hilmar Strickfaden,Andreas Zunhammer,Silvana van Koningsbruggen,Daniela Köhler,Thomas Cremer

    This live cell study of chromatin dynamics in four dimensions (space and time) in cycling human cells provides direct evidence for three hypotheses first proposed by Theodor Boveri in seminal studies of fixed blastomeres from Parascaris equorum embryos: (I) Chromosome territory (CT) arrangements are stably maintained during interphase. (II) Chromosome proximity patterns change profoundly during prometaphase

  • Dynamic properties of meiosis-specific lamin C2 and its impact on nuclear envelope integrity.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Daniel Jahn,Sabine Schramm,Ricardo Benavente,Manfred Alsheimer

    A hallmark of meiosis is the precise pairing and the stable physical connection (synapsis) of the homologous chromosomes. These processes are essential prerequisite for their proper segregation. Pairing of the homologs during meiotic prophase I critically depends on characteristic movements of chromosomes. These movements, in turn, require attachment of meiotic telomeres to the nuclear envelope and

  • Direct actin binding to A- and B-type lamin tails and actin filament bundling by the lamin A tail.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Dan N Simon,Michael S Zastrow,Katherine L Wilson

    Nuclear intermediate filament networks formed by A- and B-type lamins are major components of the nucleoskeleton. Lamins have growing links to human physiology and disease including Emery-Dreifuss muscular dystrophy (EDMD), lipodystrophy, cardiomyopathy, neuropathy, cerebellar disorders and segmental accelerated 'aging' syndromes. How lamins interact with other nucleoskeletal components, and even the

  • A newly discovered role of telomeres in an ancient organism.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Bibo Li

    Trypanosoma brucei expresses Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) genes in a strictly monoallelic fashion in its mammalian hosts, and the regulation of this important virulence mechanism has been the research focus for decades. Telomere position effect (TPE), an epigenetic phenomenon, has been proposed to play a critical role in VSG regulation, yet no telomeric protein was identified whose disruption

  • Extra views on RNA-dependent DNA methylation and MBD6-dependent heterochromatin formation in nucleolar dominance.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Pedro Costa-Nunes,Olga Pontes,Sasha B Preuss,Craig S Pikaard

    Nucleolar dominance is a widespread epigenetic phenomenon, describing the preferential silencing of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes inherited from one progenitor of an interspecific hybrid, independent of maternal or paternal effects. In the allotetraploid hybrid plant species Arabidopsis suecica, A. thaliana-derived rRNA genes are silenced whereas the A. arenosa-derived rRNA genes are transcribed. We reported

  • A transmembrane inner nuclear membrane protein in the mitotic spindle.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Ricardo Figueroa,Santhosh Gudise,Veronica Larsson,Einar Hallberg

    We have recently characterized a novel transmembrane protein of the inner nuclear membrane of mammalian cells. The protein has two very interesting features. First, despite being an integral membrane protein it is able to concentrate in the membranes colocalizing with the mitotic spindle in metaphase and anaphase. Hence, the protein was named Samp1, Spindle associated membrane protein 1. Secondly,

  • SMARCAL1 and replication stress: an explanation for SIOD?
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Carol E Bansbach,Cornelius F Boerkoel,David Cortez

    The SNF2 family of ATPases acts in the context of chromatin to regulate transcription, replication, repair and recombination. Defects in SNF2 genes cause many human diseases. For example, mutations in SMARCAL1 (also named HARP) cause Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia (SIOD); a multi-system disorder characterized by growth defects, immune deficiencies, renal failure and other complex phenotypes. Several

  • Traffic control at the nuclear pore.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Mohamed Kodiha,Noah Crampton,Sanhita Shrivastava,Rehan Umar,Ursula Stochaj

    The proper communication between organelles is essential for many aspects of eukaryotic life. The coordination of nuclear and cytoplasmic activities in particular is of pivotal importance and depends on transport in and out of the nucleus. The material which translocates through nuclear pores is diverse; it includes numerous proteins, RNAs and large ribonucleoprotein complexes like ribosomal subunits

  • Space shuttling in the cell: nucleocytoplasmic transport and microtubule organization during the cell cycle.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Masamitsu Sato,Takashi Toda

    Microtubules form a multifunctional filamentous structure essential for the cell. In interphase, microtubules form networks in the cytoplasm and play pivotal roles in cell polarity and intracellular transport of various biomolecules. In mitosis, microtubules dramatically change their morphology to assemble the mitotic spindle, thereby pulling the chromosomes toward the spindle poles. One long-standing

  • The ins and outs of nuclear re-export of retrogradely transported tRNAs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Jacqueline B Pierce,Manoja Bk Eswara,Dev Mangroo

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae intron-containing pre-tRNAs are exported from the nucleus to the cytoplasm for removal of the introns, and the spliced tRNAs are returned to the nucleus for reasons that are not understood. The re-imported spliced tRNAs are then subjected to aminoacylation in the nucleolus to ensure that they are functional prior to re-export to the cytoplasm. Previous studies have shown

  • The intricacy of nuclear membrane dynamics during nucleophagy.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Dalibor Mijaljica,Mark Prescott,Rodney J Devenish

    The cell nucleus is an organelle bounded by a double-membrane which undergoes drastic reorganization during major cellular events such as cell division and apoptosis. Maintenance of proper nuclear structure, function and dynamics is central to organelle vitality. Over recent years growing evidence has shown that parts of the nucleus can be specifically degraded by an autophagic process termed nucleophagy

  • The traffic of proteins between nucleolar organizer regions and prenucleolar bodies governs the assembly of the nucleolus at exit of mitosis.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Eleonora Muro,Jeannine Gébrane-Younís,Aude Jobart-Malfait,Emilie Louvet,Pascal Roussel,Danièle Hernandez-Verdun

    The building of nuclear bodies after mitosis is a coordinated event crucial for nuclear organization and function. The nucleolus is assembled during early G(1) phase. Here, two periods (early G1a and early G1b) have been defined. During these periods, the nucleolar compartments (DFC, GC) corresponding to different steps of ribosome biogenesis are progressively assembled. In telophase, rDNA transcription

  • Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of HIV-1 integrase is controlled by the viral Rev protein.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Aviad Levin,Zvi Hayouka,Assaf Friedler,Abraham Loyter

    In the current study we show that the Rev protein of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) inhibits nuclear import and mediates nuclear export of the HIV-1 integrase (IN) protein, which catalyzes integration of the viral cDNA. Interaction between IN and Rev in virus infected cells, resulting in the formation of a Rev-IN complex, has been previously described by us. Here we show that nuclear import

  • Dosage effect of zero to three functional LBR-genes in vivo and in vitro.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Sophia Gravemann,Nele Schnipper,Hannes Meyer,Amparo Vaya,Malgorzata Jm Nowaczyk,Anna Rajab,Wolf-Karsten Hofmann,Bastian Salewsky,Holger Tönnies,Heidemarie Neitzel,Hans H Stassen,Karl Sperling,Katrin Hoffmann

    The Lamin B receptor (LBR) is a pivotal architectural protein in the nuclear envelope. Mutations in the Lamin B receptor lead to nuclear hyposegmentation (Pelger-Huët anomaly). We have exactly quantified the nuclear lobulation in neutrophils from individuals with 0, 1, 2 and 3 functional copies of the lamin B receptor gene and analyzed the effect of different mutation types. Our data demonstrate that

  • The cellular response to DNA damage: a focus on MDC1 and its interacting proteins.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Gideon Coster,Michal Goldberg

    The DNA damage response (DDR) is comprised of a network of proteins that respond to DNA damage. Mediator of DNA Damage Checkpoint 1 (MDC1) plays an early and important role in the DDR. Recent data show that MDC1 binds multiple proteins that participate in various aspects of the DDR, positioning it at the core of the DDR. Furthermore, interactions with non-DDR proteins were also revealed, suggesting

  • Maf1 regulation: a model of signal transduction inside the nucleus.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Yuehua Wei,Xf Steven Zheng

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) is responsible for the synthesis of 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and transfer RNAs (tRNAs) essential for protein synthesis and cell growth. Pol III is tightly controlled by growth signals such as nutrients and deregulation of Pol III-dependent transcription can lead to oncogenic transformation. In response to extracellular stimuli, the target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) regulates

  • The fate of irreparable DNA double-strand breaks and eroded telomeres at the nuclear periphery.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Michael Lisby,Teresa Teixeira,Eric Gilson,Vincent Géli

  • Characterization of the membrane-coating Nup84 complex: paradigm for the nuclear pore complex structure.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Erik W Debler,Kuo-Chiang Hsia,Vivien Nagy,Hyuk-Soo Seo,André Hoelz

    Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) function as selective gates for nucleocytoplasmic transport. Although the NPC was discovered more than half a century ago, our knowledge of NPC components in atomic detail has exploded only over the past few years. Recent structural, biochemical, and in vivo studies of NPC components, in particular the membrane-coating heptameric Nup84 complex, have shed light onto the

  • Unloading RNAs in the cytoplasm: an "importin" task.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Sandra Mg Dias,Richard A Cerione,Kristin F Wilson

    The nuclear cap-binding complex (CBC), a heterodimer comprised of a 20 kDa subunit (CBP20) and an 80 kDa regulatory subunit (CBP80), binds to nascent RNA polymerase II transcripts and is important throughout different aspects of RNA metabolism. In a recent publication, using a combination of X-ray crystallographic information, mutagenesis studies, small-angle scattering experiments, analytical ultracentrifugation

  • Nuclear pore complex during neuronal degeneration: cracking the last barrier!
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Daniele Bano,Michael O Hengartner,Pierluigi Nicotera

    In eukaryotic cells, the exchange of molecules between the genetic material within the nucleus and the cytosol occurs through the Nuclear Pore Complex (NPC), which is a large membrane-embedded assembly composed by multiple proteins named nucleoporins arranged around an aqueous channel. The bi-directional passive diffusion and the active transport of factors across the nuclear envelope are responsible

  • Nurturing the genome: A-type lamins preserve genomic stability.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2011-02-18
    Ignacio Gonzalez-Suarez,Susana Gonzalo

    A-type lamins provide a scaffold for tethering chromatin and protein complexes regulating nuclear structure and function. Interest in lamins increased after mutations in the LMNA gene were found to be associated with a variety of human disorders termed laminopathies. These include muscular dystrophy, cardiomyopathy, lipodystrophy, peripheral neuropathy and premature aging syndromes such as progeria

  • CLIC4 and Schnurri-2: a dynamic duo in TGF-beta signaling with broader implications in cellular homeostasis and disease.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2010-07-10
    Anjali Shukla,Stuart H Yuspa

    CLIC4 is a highly conserved, multifunctional member of the chloride intracellular channel family of proteins. The protein is largely cytoplasmic but translocates to the nucleus upon a variety of stimuli including TGF-beta, TNF-alpha and etoposide. Nuclear resident CLIC4 causes growth arrest, terminal differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, it was discovered that TGF-beta causes CLIC4 to associate

  • Correction.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-09-18

    (2019). Correction. Nucleus. Ahead of Print.

  • The Wilhelm Bernhard workshop: half a century of collegiality.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Thoru Pederson

    (2019). The Wilhelm Bernhard workshop: half a century of collegiality. Nucleus: Vol. 10, No. 1, pp. 213-215.

  • The cell nucleus. A study in Burgundy.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-08-12
    Oleg Demidov,Vasilisa Aksenova,Mary Dasso,Alexei Arnaoutov

    Wilhelm Bernhard’s revolutionary microscopy techniques helped him put forward the hypothesis of specialized compartmentalization of the nucleus. He also described for the first time the nuclear bodies and peri-chromatin fibrils, and demonstrated that these granules contain an RNA component. The tradition of biennial workshops, named after this great scientist, continues, and this year it took place

  • Probing the 3D architecture of the plant nucleus with microscopy approaches: challenges and solutions
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Tao Dumur, Susan Duncan, Katja Graumann, Sophie Desset, Ricardo S Randall, Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid, Hank W Bass, Dimiter Prodanov, Christophe Tatout, Célia Baroux

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a central organelle whose architecture determines genome function at multiple levels. Deciphering nuclear organizing principles influencing cellular responses and identity is a timely challenge. Despite many similarities between plant and animal nuclei, plant nuclei present intriguing specificities. Complementary to molecular and biochemical approaches, 3D microscopy

  • Probing the 3D architecture of the plant nucleus with microscopy approaches: challenges and solutions.
    Nucleus (IF 2.792) Pub Date : 2019-07-30
    Tao Dumur,Susan Duncan,Katja Graumann,Sophie Desset,Ricardo S Randall,Ortrun Mittelsten Scheid,Dimiter Prodanov,Christophe Tatout,Célia Baroux

    The eukaryotic cell nucleus is a central organelle whose architecture determines genome function at multiple levels. Deciphering nuclear organizing principles influencing cellular responses and identity is a timely challenge. Despite many similarities between plant and animal nuclei, plant nuclei present intriguing specificities. Complementary to molecular and biochemical approaches, 3D microscopy

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