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  • Osteoclasts Provide Coupling Signals to Osteoblast Lineage Cells Through Multiple Mechanisms.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Natalie A Sims,T John Martin

    Bone remodeling is essential for the repair and replacement of damaged and old bone. The major principle underlying this process is that osteoclast-mediated resorption of a quantum of bone is followed by osteoblast precursor recruitment; these cells differentiate to matrix-producing osteoblasts, which form new bone to replace what was resorbed. Evidence from osteopetrotic syndromes indicate that osteoclasts

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Osteocyte: New Insights.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Alexander G Robling,Lynda F Bonewald

    Osteocytes are an ancient cell, appearing in fossilized skeletal remains of early fish and dinosaurs. Despite its relative high abundance, even in the context of nonskeletal cells, the osteocyte is perhaps among the least studied cells in all of vertebrate biology. Osteocytes are cells embedded in bone, able to modify their surrounding extracellular matrix via specialized molecular remodeling mechanisms

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Marrow Adipocytes: Origin, Structure, and Function.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Francisco J A de Paula,Clifford J Rosen

    The skeleton harbors an array of lineage cells that have an essential role in whole body homeostasis. Adipocytes start the colonization of marrow space early in postnatal life, expanding progressively and influencing other components of the bone marrow through paracrine signaling. In this unique, closed, and hypoxic environment close to the endosteal surface and adjacent to the microvascular space

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Aging and Lung Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Soo Jung Cho,Heather W Stout-Delgado

    People worldwide are living longer, and it is estimated that by 2050, the proportion of the world's population over 60 years of age will nearly double. Natural lung aging is associated with molecular and physiological changes that cause alterations in lung function, diminished pulmonary remodeling and regenerative capacity, and increased susceptibility to acute and chronic lung diseases. As the aging

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Genetics of COPD.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-11-15
    Edwin K Silverman

    Although chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) risk is strongly influenced by cigarette smoking, genetic factors are also important determinants of COPD. In addition to Mendelian syndromes such as alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, many genomic regions that influence COPD susceptibility have been identified in genome-wide association studies. Similarly, multiple genomic regions associated with

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Why Lungs Keep Time: Circadian Rhythms and Lung Immunity.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Charles Nosal,Anna Ehlers,Jeffrey A Haspel

    Circadian rhythms are daily cycles in biological function that are ubiquitous in nature. Understood as a means for organisms to anticipate daily environmental changes, circadian rhythms are also important for orchestrating complex biological processes such as immunity. Nowhere is this more evident than in the respiratory system, where circadian rhythms in inflammatory lung disease have been appreciated

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Regulation and Effects of FGF23 in Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    John Musgrove,Myles Wolf

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global health epidemic that accelerates cardiovascular disease, increases risk of infection, and causes anemia and bone disease, among other complications that collectively increase risk of premature death. Alterations in calcium and phosphate homeostasis have long been considered nontraditional risk factors for many of the most morbid outcomes of CKD. The discovery

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Diurnal Regulation of Renal Electrolyte Excretion: The Role of Paracrine Factors.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Dingguo Zhang,David M Pollock

    Many physiological processes, including most kidney-related functions, follow specific rhythms tied to a 24-h cycle. This is largely because circadian genes operate in virtually every cell type in the body. In addition, many noncanonical genes have intrinsic circadian rhythms, especially within the liver and kidney. This new level of complexity applies to the control of renal electrolyte excretion

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • APOL1 and Kidney Disease: From Genetics to Biology.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    David J Friedman,Martin R Pollak

    Genetic variants in the APOL1 gene, found only in individuals of recent African ancestry, greatly increase risk of multiple types of kidney disease. These APOL1 kidney risk alleles are a rare example of genetic variants that are common but also have a powerful effect on disease susceptibility. These alleles rose to high frequency in sub-Saharan Africa because they conferred protection against pathogenic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Autophagy in Kidney Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Mary E Choi

    Autophagy is a cellular homeostatic program for the turnover of cellular organelles and proteins, in which double-membraned vesicles (autophagosomes) sequester cytoplasmic cargos, which are subsequently delivered to the lysosome for degradation. Emerging evidence implicates autophagy as an important modulator of human disease. Macroautophagy and selective autophagy (e.g., mitophagy, aggrephagy) can

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Contributions of Aging to Cerebral Small Vessel Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    T Michael De Silva,Frank M Faraci

    Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is characterized by changes in the pial and parenchymal microcirculations. SVD produces reductions in cerebral blood flow and impaired blood-brain barrier function, which are leading contributors to age-related reductions in brain health. End-organ effects are diverse, resulting in both cognitive and noncognitive deficits. Underlying phenotypes and mechanisms are

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • BMP Signaling in Development, Stem Cells, and Diseases of the Gastrointestinal Tract.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Yongchun Zhang,Jianwen Que

    The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is essential for the morphogenesis of multiple organs in the digestive system. Abnormal BMP signaling has also been associated with disease initiation and progression in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and associated organs. Recent studies using animal models, tissue organoids, and human pluripotent stem cells have significantly expanded our understanding

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Neuronal Mechanisms that Drive Organismal Aging Through the Lens of Perception.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Christi M Gendron,Tuhin S Chakraborty,Brian Y Chung,Zachary M Harvanek,Kristina J Holme,Jacob C Johnson,Yang Lyu,Allyson S Munneke,Scott D Pletcher

    Sensory neurons provide organisms with data about the world in which they live, for the purpose of successfully exploiting their environment. The consequences of sensory perception are not simply limited to decision-making behaviors; evidence suggests that sensory perception directly influences physiology and aging, a phenomenon that has been observed in animals across taxa. Therefore, understanding

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Intestinal Stem Cell Aging: Origins and Interventions.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Heinrich Jasper

    Regenerative processes that maintain the function of the gastrointestinal (GI) epithelium are critical for health and survival of multicellular organisms. In insects and vertebrates, intestinal stem cells (ISCs) regenerate the GI epithelium. ISC function is regulated by intrinsic, local, and systemic stimuli to adjust regeneration to tissue demands. These control mechanisms decline with age, resulting

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Gestational Exposure to Common Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Their Impact on Neurodevelopment and Behavior.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Dinushan Nesan,Deborah M Kurrasch

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals are common in our environment and act on hormone systems and signaling pathways to alter physiological homeostasis. Gestational exposure can disrupt developmental programs, permanently altering tissues with impacts lasting into adulthood. The brain is a critical target for developmental endocrine disruption, resulting in altered neuroendocrine control of hormonal signaling

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • IP3 Receptor Plasticity Underlying Diverse Functions.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Kozo Hamada,Katsuhiko Mikoshiba

    In the body, extracellular stimuli produce inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), an intracellular chemical signal that binds to the IP3 receptor (IP3R) to release calcium ions (Ca2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. In the past 40 years, the wide-ranging functions mediated by IP3R and its genetic defects causing a variety of disorders have been unveiled. Recent cryo-electron microscopy and X-ray crystallography

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Physiology of the Carotid Body: From Molecules to Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Patricia Ortega-Sáenz,José López-Barneo

    The carotid body (CB) is an arterial chemoreceptor organ located in the carotid bifurcation and has a well-recognized role in cardiorespiratory regulation. The CB contains neurosecretory sensory cells (glomus cells), which release transmitters in response to hypoxia, hypercapnia, and acidemia to activate afferent sensory fibers terminating in the respiratory and autonomic brainstem centers. Knowledge

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • The Acidic Tumor Microenvironment as a Driver of Cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Ebbe Boedtkjer,Stine F Pedersen

    Acidic metabolic waste products accumulate in the tumor microenvironment because of high metabolic activity and insufficient perfusion. In tumors, the acidity of the interstitial space and the relatively well-maintained intracellular pH influence cancer and stromal cell function, their mutual interplay, and their interactions with the extracellular matrix. Tumor pH is spatially and temporally heterogeneous

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Circadian Regulation of Cardiac Physiology: Rhythms That Keep the Heart Beating.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Jianhua Zhang,John C Chatham,Martin E Young

    On Earth, all life is exposed to dramatic changes in the environment over the course of the day; consequently, organisms have evolved strategies to both adapt to and anticipate these 24-h oscillations. As a result, time of day is a major regulator of mammalian physiology and processes, including transcription, signaling, metabolism, and muscle contraction, all of which oscillate over the course of

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cardiac Fibroblast Diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Michelle D Tallquist

    Cardiac fibrosis is a pathological condition that occurs after injury and during aging. Currently, there are limited means to effectively reduce or reverse fibrosis. Key to identifying methods for curbing excess deposition of extracellular matrix is a better understanding of the cardiac fibroblast, the cell responsible for collagen production. In recent years, the diversity and functions of these enigmatic

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cardiomyocyte Polyploidy and Implications for Heart Regeneration.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Peiheng Gan,Michaela Patterson,Henry M Sucov

    In mammals, most cardiomyocytes (CMs) become polyploid (they have more than two complete sets of chromosomes). The purpose of this review is to evaluate assumptions about CM ploidy that are commonly discussed, even if not experimentally demonstrated, and to highlight key issues that are still to be resolved. Topics discussed here include (a) technical and conceptual difficulties in defining a polyploid

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Cardiac Pacemaker Activity and Aging.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2020-02-10
    Colin H Peters,Emily J Sharpe,Catherine Proenza

    A progressive decline in maximum heart rate (mHR) is a fundamental aspect of aging in humans and other mammals. This decrease in mHR is independent of gender, fitness, and lifestyle, affecting in equal measure women and men, athletes and couch potatoes, spinach eaters and fast food enthusiasts. Importantly, the decline in mHR is the major determinant of the age-dependent decline in aerobic capacity

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • New Approaches to Target Inflammation in Heart Failure: Harnessing Insights from Studies of Immune Cell Diversity.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Aaron J Rhee,Kory J Lavine

    Despite mounting evidence implicating inflammation in cardiovascular diseases, attempts at clinical translation have shown mixed results. Recent preclinical studies have reenergized this field and provided new insights into how to favorably modulate cardiac macrophage function in the context of acute myocardial injury and chronic disease. In this review, we discuss the origins and roles of cardiac

    更新日期:2020-04-21
  • Introduction.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2016-02-11
    D Julius

    更新日期:2019-11-01
  • Plasticity of the Maternal Vasculature During Pregnancy.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    George Osol,Nga Ling Ko,Maurizio Mandalà

    Maternal cardiovascular changes during pregnancy include an expansion of plasma volume, increased cardiac output, decreased peripheral resistance, and increased uteroplacental blood flow. These adaptations facilitate the progressive increase in uteroplacental perfusion that is required for normal fetal growth and development, prevent the development of hypertension, and provide a reserve of blood in

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Biomarkers of Acute and Chronic Kidney Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    William R Zhang,Chirag R Parikh

    The current unidimensional paradigm of kidney disease detection is incompatible with the complexity and heterogeneity of renal pathology. The diagnosis of kidney disease has largely focused on glomerular filtration, while assessment of kidney tubular health has notably been absent. Following insult, the kidney tubular cells undergo a cascade of cellular responses that result in the production and accumulation

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Generating Kidney from Stem Cells.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Melissa H Little,Lorna J Hale,Sara E Howden,Santhosh V Kumar

    Human kidney tissue can now be generated via the directed differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells. This advance is anticipated to facilitate the modeling of human kidney diseases, provide platforms for nephrotoxicity screening, enable cellular therapy, and potentially generate tissue for renal replacement. All such applications will rely upon the accuracy and reliability of the model and the

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Regulation of Thirst and Vasopressin Release.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Daniel G Bichet

    Recent experiments using optogenetic tools facilitate the identification and functional analysis of thirst neurons and vasopressin-producing neurons. Four major advances provide a detailed anatomy and physiology of thirst, taste for water, and arginine-vasopressin (AVP) release: ( a) Thirst and AVP release are regulated by the classical homeostatic, interosensory plasma osmolality negative feedback

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Innate Lymphoid Cells of the Lung.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Jillian L Barlow,Andrew N J McKenzie

    Although, as the major organ of gas exchange, the lung is considered a nonlymphoid organ, an interconnected network of lung-resident innate cells, including epithelial cells, dendritic cells, macrophages, and natural killer cells is crucial for its protection. These cells provide defense against a daily assault by airborne bacteria, viruses, and fungi, as well as prevent the development of cancer,

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Metabolic Pathways Fueling the Endothelial Cell Drive.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Xuri Li,Anil Kumar,Peter Carmeliet

    Endothelial cell (EC) metabolism is important for health and disease. Metabolic pathways, such as glycolysis, fatty acid oxidation, and amino acid metabolism, determine vasculature formation. These metabolic pathways have different roles in securing the production of energy and biomass and the maintenance of redox homeostasis in vascular migratory tip cells, proliferating stalk cells, and quiescent

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Normalizing Function of Tumor Vessels: Progress, Opportunities, and Challenges.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    John D Martin,Giorgio Seano,Rakesh K Jain

    Abnormal blood and lymphatic vessels create a hostile tumor microenvironment characterized by hypoxia, low pH, and elevated interstitial fluid pressure. These abnormalities fuel tumor progression, immunosuppression, and treatment resistance. In 2001, we proposed a novel hypothesis that the judicious use of antiangiogenesis agents-originally developed to starve tumors-could transiently normalize tumor

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Regulation of Blood and Lymphatic Vessels by Immune Cells in Tumors and Metastasis.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2019-02-10
    Massimiliano Mazzone,Gabriele Bergers

    Research over the last decades has provided strong evidence for the pivotal role of the tumor-associated blood and lymphatic vasculature in supporting immunoevasion and in subverting T cell-mediated immunosurveillance. Conversely, tumor blood and lymphatic vessel growth is in part regulated by the immune system, with infiltrating innate as well as adaptive immune cells providing both immunosuppressive

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • The Physiology of Optimizing Health with a Focus on Exercise as Medicine.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-12-10
    Bente Klarlund Pedersen

    Physical inactivity is one of the leading health problems in the world. Strong epidemiological and clinical evidence demonstrates that exercise decreases the risk of more than 35 different disorders and that exercise should be prescribed as medicine for many chronic diseases. The physiology and molecular biology of exercise suggests that exercise activates multiple signaling pathways of major health

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Branched Chain Amino Acids.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Michael Neinast,Danielle Murashige,Zoltan Arany

    Branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are building blocks for all life-forms. We review here the fundamentals of BCAA metabolism in mammalian physiology. Decades of studies have elicited a deep understanding of biochemical reactions involved in BCAA catabolism. In addition, BCAAs and various catabolic products act as signaling molecules, activating programs ranging from protein synthesis to insulin secretion

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Cell Death in the Lung: The Apoptosis-Necroptosis Axis.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Maor Sauler,Isabel S Bazan,Patty J Lee

    Regulated cell death is a major mechanism to eliminate damaged, infected, or superfluous cells. Previously, apoptosis was thought to be the only regulated cell death mechanism; however, new modalities of caspase-independent regulated cell death have been identified, including necroptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagic cell death. As an understanding of the cellular mechanisms that mediate regulated cell

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Cellular Metabolism in Lung Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Gang Liu,Ross Summer

    The lung is often overlooked as a metabolically active organ, yet biochemical studies have long demonstrated that glucose utilization surpasses that of many other organs, including the heart, kidney, and brain. For most cells in the lung, energy consumption is relegated to performing common cellular tasks, like mRNA transcription and protein translation. However, certain lung cell populations engage

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Mitochondrial Iron in Human Health and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-28
    Diane M Ward,Suzanne M Cloonan

    Mitochondria are an iconic distinguishing feature of eukaryotic cells. Mitochondria encompass an active organellar network that fuses, divides, and directs a myriad of vital biological functions, including energy metabolism, cell death regulation, and innate immune signaling in different tissues. Another crucial and often underappreciated function of these dynamic organelles is their central role in

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Epithelial-Stromal Interactions in Pancreatic Cancer.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-12
    Yaqing Zhang,Howard C Crawford,Marina Pasca di Magliano

    Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an extensive fibroinflammatory reaction that includes immune cells, fibroblasts, extracellular matrix, vascular and lymphatic vessels, and nerves. Overwhelming evidence indicates that the pancreatic cancer microenvironment regulates cancer initiation, progression, and maintenance. Pancreatic cancer treatment has progressed little over the past several decades,

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Steps in Mechanotransduction Pathways that Control Cell Morphology.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-11-07
    Haguy Wolfenson,Bo Yang,Michael P Sheetz

    It is increasingly clear that mechanotransduction pathways play important roles in regulating fundamental cellular functions. Of the basic mechanical functions, the determination of cellular morphology is critical. Cells typically use many mechanosensitive steps and different cell states to achieve a polarized shape through repeated testing of the microenvironment. Indeed, morphology is determined

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Phospholipid Remodeling in Physiology and Disease.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-10-31
    Bo Wang,Peter Tontonoz

    Phospholipids are major constituents of biological membranes. The fatty acyl chain composition of phospholipids determines the biophysical properties of membranes and thereby affects their impact on biological processes. The composition of fatty acyl chains is also actively regulated through a deacylation and reacylation pathway called Lands' cycle. Recent studies of mouse genetic models have demonstrated

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Unexpected Roles for the Second Brain: Enteric Nervous System as Master Regulator of Bowel Function.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-10-31
    Sabine Schneider,Christina M Wright,Robert O Heuckeroth

    At the most fundamental level, the bowel facilitates absorption of small molecules, regulates fluid and electrolyte flux, and eliminates waste. To successfully coordinate this complex array of functions, the bowel relies on the enteric nervous system (ENS), an intricate network of more than 500 million neurons and supporting glia that are organized into distinct layers or plexi within the bowel wall

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Visceral Pain.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-10-31
    Luke Grundy,Andelain Erickson,Stuart M Brierley

    Most of us live blissfully unaware of the orchestrated function that our internal organs conduct. When this peace is interrupted, it is often by routine sensations of hunger and urge. However, for >20% of the global population, chronic visceral pain is an unpleasant and often excruciating reminder of the existence of our internal organs. In many cases, there is no obvious underlying pathological cause

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • ATP-Gated P2X Receptor Channels: Molecular Insights into Functional Roles.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Ralf Schmid,Richard J Evans

    In the nervous system, ATP is co-stored in vesicles with classical transmitters and released in a regulated manner. ATP from the intracellular compartment can also exit the cell through hemichannels and following shear stress or membrane damage. In the past 30 years, the action of ATP as an extracellular transmitter at cell-surface receptors has evolved from somewhat of a novelty that was treated with

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Contribution of Wound-Associated Cells and Mediators in Orchestrating Gastrointestinal Mucosal Wound Repair.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-10-24
    Miguel Quirós,Asma Nusrat

    The gastrointestinal mucosa, structurally formed by the epithelium and lamina propria, serves as a selective barrier that separates luminal contents from the underlying tissues. Gastrointestinal mucosal wound repair is orchestrated by a series of spatial and temporal events that involve the epithelium, recruited immune cells, resident stromal cells, and the microbiota present in the wound bed. Upon

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Evolving Concepts of Mitochondrial Dynamics.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-09-26
    Gerald W Dorn

    The concept that mitochondria are highly dynamic is as widely accepted as it is untrue for a number of important contexts. Healthy mitochondria of the most energy-dependent and mitochondrial-rich mammalian organ, the heart, only rarely undergo fusion or fission and are seemingly static within cardiac myocytes. Here, we revisit mitochondrial dynamism with a fresh perspective developed from the recently

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Central Mechanisms for Thermoregulation.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-09-26
    S F Morrison,K Nakamura

    Maintenance of a homeostatic body core temperature is a critical brain function accomplished by a central neural network. This orchestrates a complex behavioral and autonomic repertoire in response to environmental temperature challenges or declining energy homeostasis and in support of immune responses and many behavioral states. This review summarizes the anatomical, neurotransmitter, and functional

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Evolved Mechanisms of Aerobic Performance and Hypoxia Resistance in High-Altitude Natives.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-09-26
    Grant B McClelland,Graham R Scott

    Comparative physiology studies of high-altitude species provide an exceptional opportunity to understand naturally evolved mechanisms of hypoxia resistance. Aerobic capacity (VO2max) is a critical performance trait under positive selection in some high-altitude taxa, and several high-altitude natives have evolved to resist the depressive effects of hypoxia on VO2max. This is associated with enhanced

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Maintenance of Skeletal Muscle Mitochondria in Health, Exercise, and Aging.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    David A Hood,Jonathan M Memme,Ashley N Oliveira,Matthew Triolo

    Mitochondria are critical organelles responsible for regulating the metabolic status of skeletal muscle. These organelles exhibit remarkable plasticity by adapting their volume, structure, and function in response to chronic exercise, disuse, aging, and disease. A single bout of exercise initiates signaling to provoke increases in mitochondrial biogenesis, balanced by the onset of organelle turnover

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • Cysteine-Based Redox Sensing and Its Role in Signaling by Cyclic Nucleotide-Dependent Kinases in the Cardiovascular System.
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-09-14
    Friederike Cuello,Philip Eaton

    Oxidant molecules are produced in biological systems and historically have been considered causal mediators of damage and disease. While oxidants may contribute to the pathogenesis of disease, evidence continues to emerge that shows these species also play important regulatory roles in health. A major mechanism of oxidant sensing and signaling involves their reaction with reactive cysteine thiols within

    更新日期:2019-02-11
  • The Role of Autophagy in the Heart
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Sebastiano Sciarretta, Yasuhiro Maejima, Daniela Zablocki, Junichi Sadoshima

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved mechanism by which cytoplasmic elements are degraded intracellularly. Autophagy has also emerged as a major regulator of cardiac homeostasis and function. Autophagy preserves cardiac structure and function under baseline conditions and is activated during stress, limiting damage under most conditions. It reduces injury and preserves cardiac function during ischemia

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Aging in the Cardiovascular System: Lessons from Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria Syndrome
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Magda R. Hamczyk, Lara del Campo, Vicente Andrés

    Aging, the main risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), is becoming progressively more prevalent in our societies. A better understanding of how aging promotes CVD is therefore urgently needed to develop new strategies to reduce disease burden. Atherosclerosis and heart failure contribute significantly to age-associated CVD-related morbimortality. CVD and aging are both accelerated in patients

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Bacterial Mechanosensors
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Charles D. Cox, Navid Bavi, Boris Martinac

    Bacteria represent one of the most evolutionarily successful groups of organisms to inhabit Earth. Their world is awash with mechanical cues, probably the most ancient form of which are osmotic forces. As a result, they have developed highly robust mechanosensors in the form of bacterial mechanosensitive (MS) channels. These channels are essential in osmoregulation, and in this setting, provide one

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • SR-B1: A Unique Multifunctional Receptor for Cholesterol Influx and Efflux
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Wen-Jun Shen, Salman Azhar, Fredric B. Kraemer

    The scavenger receptor, class B type 1 (SR-B1), is a multiligand membrane receptor protein that functions as a physiologically relevant high-density lipoprotein (HDL) receptor whose primary role is to mediate selective uptake or influx of HDL-derived cholesteryl esters into cells and tissues. SR-B1 also facilitates the efflux of cholesterol from peripheral tissues, including macrophages, back to liver

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Chemoreceptors in the Gut
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    S. Steensels, I. Depoortere

    The gastrointestinal tract represents the largest interface between the human body and the external environment. It must continuously monitor and discriminate between nutrients that need to be assimilated and harmful substances that need to be expelled. The different cells of the gut epithelium are therefore equipped with a subtle chemosensory system that communicates the sensory information to several

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Dynamism of an Astrocyte In Vivo: Perspectives on Identity and Function
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Kira E. Poskanzer, Anna V. Molofsky

    Astrocytes are an abundant and evolutionarily conserved central nervous system cell type. Despite decades of evidence that astrocytes are integral to neural circuit function, it seems as though astrocytic and neuronal biology continue to advance in parallel to each other, to the detriment of both. Recent advances in molecular biology and optical imaging are being applied to astrocytes in new and exciting

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Neuromuscular Junction Formation, Aging, and Disorders
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Lei Li, Wen-Cheng Xiong, Lin Mei

    Synapses, the fundamental unit in neuronal circuits, are critical for learning and memory, perception, thinking, and reaction. The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a synapse formed between motoneurons and skeletal muscle fibers that is covered by Schwann cells (SCs). It is essential for controlling muscle contraction. NMJ formation requires intimate interactions among motoneurons, muscles, and SCs.

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Spinal Circuits for Touch, Pain, and Itch
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Stephanie C. Koch, David Acton, Martyn Goulding

    The exteroceptive somatosensory system is important for reflexive and adaptive behaviors and for the dynamic control of movement in response to external stimuli. This review outlines recent efforts using genetic approaches in the mouse to map the spinal cord circuits that transmit and gate the cutaneous somatosensory modalities of touch, pain, and itch. Recent studies have revealed an underlying modular

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • The Evolving Understanding of Dopamine Neurons in the Substantia Nigra and Ventral Tegmental Area
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Stephanie C. Gantz, Christopher P. Ford, Hitoshi Morikawa, John T. Williams

    In recent years, the population of neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and substantia nigra (SN) has been examined at multiple levels. The results indicate that the projections, neurochemistry, and receptor and ion channel expression in this cell population vary widely. This review centers on the intrinsic properties and synaptic regulation that control the activity of dopamine neurons. Although

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Two Classes of Secreted Synaptic Organizers in the Central Nervous System
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Michisuke Yuzaki

    Research in the last two decades has identified many synaptic organizers in the central nervous system that directly regulate the assembly of pre- and/or postsynaptic molecules, such as synaptic vesicles, active zone proteins, and neurotransmitter receptors. They are classified into secreted factors and cell adhesion molecules, such as neurexins and neuroligins. Certain secreted factors are termed

    更新日期:2018-02-12
  • Epithelial Na+ Channel Regulation by Extracellular and Intracellular Factors
    Annu. Rev. Physiol. (IF 19.556) Pub Date : 2018-02-12
    Thomas R. Kleyman, Ossama B. Kashlan, Rebecca P. Hughey

    Epithelial Na+ channels (ENaCs) are members of the ENaC/degenerin family of ion channels that evolved to respond to extracellular factors. In addition to being expressed in the distal aspects of the nephron, where ENaCs couple the absorption of filtered Na+ to K+ secretion, these channels are found in other epithelia as well as nonepithelial tissues. This review addresses mechanisms by which ENaC activity

    更新日期:2018-02-12
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