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  • Cellular Senescence Variation by Metabolic and Epigenomic Remodeling
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Mitsuyoshi Nakao; Hiroshi Tanaka; Tomoaki Koga

    Cellular senescence is a state of permanent cell cycle arrest accompanied by unique secretory actions, which influences tissue formation, tumor suppression and aging in vivo. Recent evidences suggest that metabolic and epigenomic reprogram cooperatively creates phenotypic differences of senescent cells, which may provide new clues to control aging processes.

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Cristae Membrane Dynamics – A Paradigm Change
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-23
    Arun Kumar Kondadi; Ruchika Anand; Andreas S. Reichert

    Mitochondria are dynamic organelles that have essential metabolic and regulatory functions. Earlier studies using electron microscopy (EM) revealed an immense diversity in the architecture of cristae – infoldings of the mitochondrial inner membrane (IM) – in different cells, tissues, bioenergetic and metabolic conditions, and during apoptosis. However, cristae were considered to be largely static entities

    更新日期:2020-09-23
  • Caspase 2 and p53 Reunited in Tumor Control
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-11
    Giulia Petroni; Ilio Vitale; Lorenzo Galluzzi

    Recent findings (Tsabar et al.) demonstrate that human cancer cells that evade the cell cycle blockage normally imposed by DNA damage experience sustained p53 signaling upon MDM2 degradation by caspase 2. Such a response may be connected to the delivery of immunostimulatory signals to ensure the elimination of genetically instable cancer cells.

    更新日期:2020-09-11
  • Bone Marrow Transplantation Dynamics: When Progenitor Expansion Prevails
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-10
    Ayako Nakamura-Ishizu; Shah Adil Ishtiyaq Ahmad; Toshio Suda

    The transplantation of healthy hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) contained in the bone marrow is a frontline treatment option for hematopoietic diseases. Detailed analysis of post-transplant HSC kinetics is crucial as the initial engraftment of HSCs influences prognosis. Dong et al. have explored the dynamic change in HSC cell fate upon bone marrow transplantation through the utilization of single-cell

    更新日期:2020-09-10
  • Photoreceptor Discs: Built Like Ectosomes
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-06
    William J. Spencer; Tylor R. Lewis; Jillian N. Pearring; Vadim Y. Arshavsky

    The light-sensitive outer segment organelle of the vertebrate photoreceptor cell is a modified cilium filled with hundreds of flattened ‘disc’ membranes that provide vast light-absorbing surfaces. The outer segment is constantly renewed with new discs added at its base every day. This continuous process is essential for photoreceptor viability. In this review, we describe recent breakthroughs in the

    更新日期:2020-09-07
  • Tight Junction Structure and Function Revisited.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-09-02
    Tetsuhisa Otani,Mikio Furuse

    Tight junctions (TJs) are intercellular junctions critical for building the epithelial barrier and maintaining epithelial polarity. The claudin family of membrane proteins play central roles in TJ structure and function. However, recent findings have uncovered claudin-independent aspects of TJ structure and function, and additional players including junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs), membrane lipids

    更新日期:2020-09-03
  • All Roads Lead to Directional Cell Migration.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-29
    Adam Shellard,Roberto Mayor

    Directional cell migration normally relies on a variety of external signals, such as chemical, mechanical, or electrical, which instruct cells in which direction to move. Many of the major molecular and physical effects derived from these cues are now understood, leading to questions about whether directional cell migration is alike or distinct under these different signals, and how cells might be

    更新日期:2020-08-29
  • Golgi Outposts Nucleate Microtubules in Cells with Specialized Shapes.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-27
    Alex Valenzuela,Lindsey Meservey,Huy Nguyen,Meng-Meng Fu

    Classically, animal cells nucleate or form new microtubules off the perinuclear centrosome. In recent years, the Golgi outpost has emerged as a satellite organelle that can function as an acentrosomal microtubule-organizing center (MTOC), nucleating new microtubules at distances far from the nucleus or cell body. Golgi outposts can nucleate new microtubules in specialized cells with unique cytoarchitectures

    更新日期:2020-08-27
  • Hematopoietic Reprogramming Entangles with Hematopoiesis.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-26
    Chuijin Wei,Pei Yu,Lin Cheng

    Hematopoiesis generally refers to hematopoietic development in fetuses and adults, as well as to hematopoietic stem cell differentiation into progeny lineages. The multiple processes that generate diverse hematopoietic cells have been considered to be unidirectional. However, many reports have recently demonstrated that these processes are not only reversible but also interconvertible via cell reprogramming

    更新日期:2020-08-26
  • PhotoPROTACs: A Novel Biotechnology for Cancer Treatment.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-24
    Zhi-Wei Wang,Yi Liu,Xueqiong Zhu

    PROteolysis-TArgeting Chimeras (PROTACs) have been developed for targeting specific protein destruction. Two recent studies in Science Advances by Liu et al. and Reynders et al. reported a novel technology, PHOtochemically TArgeting Chimeras (PHOTACs) or opto-PROTAC, which is light-induced control of protein degradation. This new approach might lead to precision therapeutics in patients with cancer

    更新日期:2020-08-24
  • Quantitative Data Analysis in Single-Molecule Localization Microscopy.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-20
    Yu-Le Wu,Aline Tschanz,Leonard Krupnik,Jonas Ries

    Super-resolution microscopy, and specifically single-molecule localization microscopy (SMLM), is becoming a transformative technology for cell biology, as it allows the study of cellular structures with nanometer resolution. Here, we review a wide range of data analyses approaches for SMLM that extract quantitative information about the distribution, size, shape, spatial organization, and stoichiometry

    更新日期:2020-08-21
  • A Novel Paradigm for Expert Core Facility Staff Training.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-01
    Jennifer C Waters

    Scientific research relies on a range of technologies, many of which are developing at a fast pace. Technical experts able to advise researchers on experimental design and validate the performance1 of shared instruments are increasingly recognized as critical members of the research community. Here I describe a novel postdoctoral fellowship program designed to train expert imaging scientists, which

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • A Condensed View of the Chromosome Passenger Complex.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Prasad Trivedi,P Todd Stukenberg

    The inner centromere is a region on the mitotic chromosome that serves as a platform for mitotic signaling and possesses unique biophysical properties that enable it to withstand relatively large pulling forces that are generated by kinetochores (KTs) during chromosome segregation. The chromosomal passenger complex (CPC) localizes to and is the key regulator of inner centromere organization and function

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Response Failure in Diseases.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-16
    Kashi Raj Bhattarai,Manoj Chaudhary,Hyung-Ryong Kim,Han-Jung Chae

    Recent work provides evidence for the new terminology, ‘endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or sensing failure’, in relation to metabolic disease. We seek to identify and amass possible conditions of ER stress response failure in various metabolic and age-related pathogenesis, including obesity and diabetes.

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Polyploidy: A Biological Force From Cells to Ecosystems.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-06
    Donald T Fox,Douglas E Soltis,Pamela S Soltis,Tia-Lynn Ashman,Yves Van de Peer

    Polyploidy, resulting from the duplication of the entire genome of an organism or cell, greatly affects genes and genomes, cells and tissues, organisms, and even entire ecosystems. Despite the wide-reaching importance of polyploidy, communication across disciplinary boundaries to identify common themes at different scales has been almost nonexistent. However, a critical need remains to understand commonalities

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • The Roles of CD8+ T Cell Subsets in Antitumor Immunity.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Michael St Paul,Pamela S Ohashi

    Effector CD8+ T cells are typically thought to be a homogenous group of cytotoxic cells that produce interferon-(IFN) γ. However, recent findings have challenged this notion because multiple subsets of CD8+ T cells have been described, each with distinct effector functions and cytotoxic potential. These subsets, referred to as the Tc subsets, have also been detected in tumor microenvironments (TMEs)

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Building GLUT4 Vesicles: CHC22 Clathrin's Human Touch.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-30
    Gwyn W Gould,Frances M Brodsky,Nia J Bryant

    Insulin stimulates glucose transport by triggering regulated delivery of intracellular vesicles containing the GLUT4 glucose transporter to the plasma membrane. This process is defective in diseases such as type 2 diabetes (T2DM). While studies in rodent cells have been invaluable in understanding GLUT4 traffic, evolutionary plasticity must be considered when extrapolating these findings to humans

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Cytoskeletal Crosstalk in Cell Migration.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-13
    Shailaja Seetharaman,Sandrine Etienne-Manneville

    Cell migration is a highly dynamic process driven by the cytoskeleton, which mainly comprises the actin microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments. During migration, cells polarize and form protrusions at the front, where new adhesions are formed. These nascent adhesions mature into focal adhesions that transmit the traction forces required for movement. All of these steps are coupled

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • Conformational Basis of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Signaling Versatility.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-02
    Laura M Wingler,Robert J Lefkowitz

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are privileged structural scaffolds in biology that have the versatility to regulate diverse physiological processes. Interestingly, many GPCR ligands exhibit significant ‘bias’ – the ability to preferentially activate subsets of the many cellular pathways downstream of these receptors. Recently, complementary information from structural and spectroscopic approaches

    更新日期:2020-08-20
  • 更新日期:2020-08-18
  • A Senescence-Centric View of Aging: Implications for Longevity and Disease.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    M Borghesan,W M H Hoogaars,M Varela-Eirin,N Talma,M Demaria

    Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell cycle arrest associated with macromolecular alterations and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and molecules. From their initial discovery in the 1960s, senescent cells have been hypothesized as potential contributors to the age-associated loss of regenerative potential. Here, we discuss recent evidence that implicates cellular senescence as a central

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • EMT, MET, Plasticity, and Tumor Metastasis.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-08-13
    Basil Bakir,Anna M Chiarella,Jason R Pitarresi,Anil K Rustgi

    Cancer cell identity and plasticity are required in transition states, such as epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal–epithelial transition (MET), in primary tumor initiation, progression, and metastasis. The functional roles of EMT, MET, and the partial state (referred to as pEMT) may vary based on the type of tumor, the state of dissemination, and the degree of metastatic colonization

    更新日期:2020-08-14
  • 更新日期:2020-07-20
  • Principles of Leukocyte Migration Strategies.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-07-17
    Petra Kameritsch,Jörg Renkawitz

    Migration of leukocytes is essential for the induction, maintenance, and regulation of immune responses. On their trafficking routes, leukocytes encounter microenvironments of diverse mechanochemical composition, such as epithelial sheets, fibrillar networks, and cell-dense lymphatic organs. These microenvironments impose fundamental challenges on leukocytes, which include adhesive crawling under high

    更新日期:2020-07-17
  • Extracellular Vesicles: New Bullets to Fight Fungal Infections.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-18
    Ramaroson Andriantsitohaina,Nicolas Papon

    While behaving as a commensal yeast in healthy people, Candida albicans remains the deadliest fungal pathogen in immunocompromised patients. Halder et al. deciphered unprecedented immunomodulatory properties of monocyte extracellular vesicles in response to Candida infections, paving the way to consider therapeutic innovations for fungal infections but also inflammatory diseases.

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • The Centriole Mystique.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-05-23
    Thoru Pederson

    Centrioles organize the microtubule network and mitotic spindle and, as basal bodies, nucleate cilia and flagella. They undergo a beguiling process in which one appears to give rise to another and at a baffling orthogonal geometry. Nucleic acid-based replication has been pondered during cycles of zeniths and nadirs of plausibility, the latter now the state. Centrioles can also arise de novo, and thus

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Regulation and Consequences of cGAS Activation by Self-DNA.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-13
    Christian Zierhut,Hironori Funabiki

    Cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) synthase (cGAS) is a major responder to the pathogenic DNA of viruses and bacteria. Upon DNA binding, cGAS becomes enzymatically active to generate the second messenger cGAMP, leading to activation of inflammatory genes, type I interferon production, autophagy, and cell death. Following genotoxic stress, cGAS can also respond to endogenous DNA, deriving from mitochondria, endogenous

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Heterogeneity in mRNA Translation.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-05-25
    Stijn Sonneveld,Bram M P Verhagen,Marvin E Tanenbaum

    During mRNA translation, the genetic information stored in mRNA is translated into a protein sequence. It is imperative that the genetic information is translated with high precision. Surprisingly, however, recent experimental evidence has demonstrated that translation can be highly heterogeneous, even among different mRNA molecules derived from a single gene in an individual cell; multiple different

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Investigating Cellular Recognition Using CRISPR/Cas9 Genetic Screening.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-25
    Zheng-Shan Chong,Gavin J Wright,Sumana Sharma

    Neighbouring cells can recognise and communicate with each other by direct binding between cell surface receptor and ligand pairs. Examples of cellular recognition events include pathogen entry into a host cell, sperm–egg fusion, and self/nonself discrimination by the immune system. Despite growing appreciation of cell surface recognition molecules as potential therapeutic targets, identifying key

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Classical and Nonclassical Intercellular Communication in Senescence and Ageing.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-03
    Juan Antonio Fafián-Labora,Ana O'Loghlen

    Intercellular communication refers to the different ways through which cells communicate with each other and transfer a variety of messages. These communication methods involve a number of different processes that occur individually or simultaneously, which change depending on the physiological or pathological context. The best characterized means of intercellular communication is the release of soluble

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Complex Cartography: Regulation of E2F Transcription Factors by Cyclin F and Ubiquitin.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-06-05
    Michael J Emanuele,Taylor P Enrico,Ryan D Mouery,Danit Wasserman,Sapir Nachum,Amit Tzur

    The E2F family of transcriptional regulators sits at the center of cell cycle gene expression and plays vital roles in normal and cancer cell cycles. Whereas control of E2Fs by the retinoblastoma family of proteins is well established, much less is known about their regulation by ubiquitin pathways. Recent studies placed the Skp1-Cul1-F-box-protein (SCF) family of E3 ubiquitin ligases with the F-box

    更新日期:2020-07-16
  • Membrane Architecture in the Spotlight of Correlative Microscopy.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-05-10
    Iva Ganeva,Wanda Kukulski

    Cellular membranes differ in their molecular organisation, shape, and dynamics. Knowing how these properties of membrane architecture relate to the presence and function of specific membrane components is fundamental for understanding membrane-associated cellular processes. Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is ideally poised to address such problems. Fluorescence microscopy allows identification

    更新日期:2020-05-10
  • Crowning the Kinetochore: The Fibrous Corona in Chromosome Segregation.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Geert J P L Kops,Reto Gassmann

    The kinetochore is at the heart of chromosome segregation in mitosis and meiosis. Rather than a static linker complex for chromatin and spindle microtubules, it is highly dynamic in composition, size, and shape. While known for decades that it can expand and grow a fibrous meshwork known as the corona, it was until recently unclear what constitutes this ‘crown’ and what its relevance is for kinetochore

    更新日期:2020-05-05
  • Turning the Oxygen Dial: Balancing the Highs and Lows.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-05-05
    Alan H Baik,Isha H Jain

    Oxygen is both vital and toxic to life. Molecular oxygen is the most used substrate in the human body and is required for several hundred diverse biochemical reactions. The discovery of the PHD-HIF-pVHL system revolutionized our fundamental understanding of oxygen sensing and cellular adaptations to hypoxia. It deepened our knowledge of the biochemical underpinnings of numerous diseases, ranging from

    更新日期:2020-05-05
  • A Dynamical Paradigm for Molecular Cell Biology.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-30
    John J Tyson,Bela Novak

    The driving passion of molecular cell biologists is to understand the molecular mechanisms that control important aspects of cell physiology, but this ambition is often limited by the wealth of molecular details currently known about these mechanisms. Their complexity overwhelms our intuitive notions of how molecular regulatory networks might respond under normal and stressful conditions. To make progress

    更新日期:2020-04-30
  • Metabolic Regulation of Tissue Stem Cells.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-28
    Suzanne N Shapira,Heather R Christofk

    Adult tissue stem cells mediate organ homeostasis and regeneration and thus are continually making decisions about whether to remain quiescent, proliferate, or differentiate into mature cell types. These decisions often integrate external cues, such as energy balance and the nutritional status of the organism. Metabolic substrates and byproducts that regulate epigenetic and signaling pathways are now

    更新日期:2020-04-28
  • Fine-Tuning TOM-Mitochondrial Import via Ubiquitin.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-25
    Mohamed A Eldeeb,Andrew N Bayne,Jean-François Trempe,Edward A Fon

    Given their polyvalent functions, an inherent challenge that mitochondria face is the exposure to mitochondrial import stresses, culminating in their dysfunction. Recently, mitochondrial import of several mitochondrial substrates was shown to be regulated via a 'tug of war' between USP30 and MARCH5, two ubiquitin-related enzymes located at the TOM complex.

    更新日期:2020-04-25
  • Noncanonical Cell Fate Regulation by Bcl-2 Proteins.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-16
    Stephen Jun Fei Chong,Saverio Marchi,Giulia Petroni,Guido Kroemer,Lorenzo Galluzzi,Shazib Pervaiz

    Bcl-2 proteins are widely known as key controllers of mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization, arguably the most important step of intrinsic apoptosis. Accumulating evidence indicate that most, if not all, members of the Bcl-2 protein family also mediate a number of apoptosis-unrelated functions. Intriguingly, many of these functions ultimately impinge on cell fate decisions via apoptosis-dependent

    更新日期:2020-04-16
  • Structure-Mediated Degradation of CircRNAs.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-15
    Yingli Guo,Xiawei Wei,Yong Peng

    The elaborate control of biogenesis and turnover is essential for circular RNAs (circRNAs) to exert their functions properly in eukaryotic cells, whereas how circRNAs are degraded remains unclear. A recent study by Fischer et al. reveals a novel structure-mediated circRNA decay that selectively degrades highly structured RNAs by UPF1 and G3BP1.

    更新日期:2020-04-15
  • The Complex Interplay between Antioxidants and ROS in Cancer.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-14
    Isaac S Harris,Gina M DeNicola

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in tissue homeostasis, cellular signaling, differentiation, and survival. In this review, we discuss the types ofROS, their impact on cellular processes, and their pro- and antitumorigenic effects. Further, we discuss recent advances in our understanding of both endogenous and exogenous antioxidants in tumorigenic processes. Finally, wediscuss how

    更新日期:2020-04-14
  • Actin Cell Cortex: Structure and Molecular Organization.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-08
    Tatyana M Svitkina

    The actin cytoskeleton consists of structurally and biochemically different actin filament arrays. Among them, the actin cortex is thought to have key roles in cell mechanics, but remains a poorly characterized part of the actin cytoskeleton. The cell cortex is typically defined as a thin layer of actin meshwork that uniformly underlies the plasma membrane of the entire cell. However, this definition

    更新日期:2020-04-08
  • Transcription Factors and DNA Play Hide and Seek.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-07
    David M Suter

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind to specific DNA motifs to regulate the expression of target genes. To reach their binding sites, TFs diffuse in 3D and perform local motions such as 1D sliding, hopping, or intersegmental transfer. TF-DNA interactions depend on multiple parameters, such as the chromatin environment, TF partitioning into distinct subcellular regions, and cooperativity with other DNA-binding

    更新日期:2020-04-07
  • Folding the Mitochondrial UPR into the Integrated Stress Response.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-04-02
    Nadine S Anderson,Cole M Haynes

    Eukaryotic cells must accurately monitor the integrity of the mitochondrial network to overcome environmental insults and respond to physiological cues. The mitochondrial unfolded protein response (UPRmt) is a mitochondrial-to-nuclear signaling pathway that maintains mitochondrial proteostasis, mediates signaling between tissues, and regulates organismal aging. Aberrant UPRmt signaling is associated

    更新日期:2020-04-02
  • Controlling Cell Death through Post-translational Modifications of DED Proteins.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-29
    Kamil Seyrek,Nikita V Ivanisenko,Max Richter,Laura K Hillert,Corinna König,Inna N Lavrik

    Apoptosis is a form of programmed cell death, deregulation of which occurs in multiple disorders, including neurodegenerative and autoimmune diseases as well as cancer. The formation of a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) and death effector domain (DED) filaments are critical for initiation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of DED-containing DISC components

    更新日期:2020-03-29
  • Cholesterol Handling in Lysosomes and Beyond.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-23
    Ying Meng,Saskia Heybrock,Dante Neculai,Paul Saftig

    Lysosomes are of major importance for the regulation of cellular cholesterol homeostasis. Food-derived cholesterol and cholesterol esters contained within lipoproteins are delivered to lysosomes by endocytosis. From the lysosomal lumen, cholesterol is transported to the inner surface of the lysosomal membrane through the glycocalyx; this shuttling requires Niemann-Pick C (NPC) 1 and NPC2 proteins.

    更新日期:2020-03-23
  • Emerging Mechanisms and Disease Relevance of Ferroptosis.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    Brent R Stockwell,Xuejun Jiang,Wei Gu

    Cell death is an essential feature of development in multicellular organisms, a critical driver of degenerative diseases, and can be harnessed for treating some cancers. Understanding the mechanisms governing cell death is critical for addressing its role in disease. Similarly, metabolism is essential for normal energy and biomolecule production, and goes awry in many diseases. Metabolism and cell

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Golgi Apparatus: An Emerging Platform for Innate Immunity.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-21
    Ye Tao,Yanqing Yang,Rongbin Zhou,Tao Gong

    The Golgi apparatus serves as a receiving station where proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are further processed before being sent to other cellular compartments. In addition to its well-appreciated roles in vesicular trafficking and protein/lipid secretion, recent studies have demonstrated that the Golgi acts as a signaling platform to facilitate multiple innate immune pathways. Moreover

    更新日期:2020-03-21
  • Nitrogen Metabolism in Cancer and Immunity.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-10
    Kiran Kurmi,Marcia C Haigis

    As one of the fundamental requirements for cell growth and proliferation, nitrogen acquisition and utilization must be tightly regulated. Nitrogen can be generated from amino acids (AAs) and utilized for biosynthetic processes through transamination and deamination reactions. Importantly, limitations of nitrogen availability in cells can disrupt the synthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, and other important

    更新日期:2020-03-10
  • ER-Phagy: Quality Control and Turnover of Endoplasmic Reticulum.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-03-02
    Haruka Chino,Noboru Mizushima

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest organelle in cells and has fundamental functions, such as folding, processing, and trafficking of proteins, cellular metabolism, and ion storage. To maintain its function, it is turned over constitutively, and even more actively under certain stress conditions. Quality control of the ER is mediated primarily by two pathways: the ubiquitin-proteasome system

    更新日期:2020-03-02
  • Multiciliated Cells: Rise and Fall of the Deuterosomes
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Dheeraj Rayamajhi; Sudipto Roy

    Esoteric organelles called deuterosomes have been implicated in the explosive production of hundreds of basal bodies in multiciliated cells (MCCs). A new study by Meunier, Holland, and colleagues now shows that deuterosomes are dispensable, re-igniting the quest for mechanisms driving basal body biogenesis in this specialized ciliated cell type.

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Transient Autophagy Inhibition Precipitates Oncogenesis: A Red Flag For Pharmacological Autophagy Inhibitors?
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-27
    Lorenzo Galluzzi,Guido Kroemer

    Recent findings demonstrate that transient genetic inhibition of autophagy promotes age-associated pathologies in mice. While autophagy restoration effectively counteracts such disorders, it also exacerbates the incidence of various solid and hematological tumors. These data may cast additional shadows on the clinical potential of autophagy inhibition for cancer therapy.

    更新日期:2020-02-27
  • Structural Insights into STING Signaling.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-24
    Sabrina L Ergun,Lingyin Li

    Since its discovery 12 years ago, the stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway has attracted the intense focus of top cell biologists, biochemists, and structural biologists, due to its unique activation mechanisms and broad implications in cancer, aging, and autoimmunity. The STING pathway is an essential innate immune signaling cascade responsible for the sensing of aberrant cytosolic double-stranded

    更新日期:2020-02-24
  • Lipid Rafts: Controversies Resolved, Mysteries Remain.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Ilya Levental,Kandice R Levental,Frederick A Heberle

    The lipid raft hypothesis postulates that lipid-lipid interactions can laterally organize biological membranes into domains of distinct structures, compositions, and functions. This proposal has in equal measure exhilarated and frustrated membrane research for decades. While the physicochemical principles underlying lipid-driven domains has been explored and is well understood, the existence and relevance

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Poly(ADP-ribose): A Dynamic Trigger for Biomolecular Condensate Formation.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-20
    Anthony K L Leung

    Poly(ADP-ribose) (PAR) is a nucleic acid-like protein modification that can seed the formation of microscopically visible cellular compartments that lack enveloping membranes, recently termed biomolecular condensates. These PAR-mediated condensates are linked to cancer, viral infection, and neurodegeneration. Recent data have shown the therapeutic potential of modulating PAR conjugation (PARylation):

    更新日期:2020-02-20
  • Mechanisms Linking Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Proteostasis Failure.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-12
    Bingwei Lu,Su Guo

    Maintaining cellular protein homeostasis (proteostasis) is an essential task for all eukaryotes. Proteostasis failure worsens with aging and is considered a cause of and a therapeutic target for age-related diseases including neurodegenerative disorders. The cellular networks regulating proteostasis and the pathogenic events driving proteostasis failure in disease remain poorly understood. Model organism

    更新日期:2020-02-12
  • Mitochondrial Functions in Infection and Immunity.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Varnesh Tiku,Man-Wah Tan,Ivan Dikic

    Mitochondria have a central role in regulating a range of cellular activities and host responses upon bacterial infection. Multiple pathogens affect mitochondria dynamics and functions to influence their intracellular survival or evade host immunity. On the other side, major host responses elicited against infections are directly dependent on mitochondrial functions, thus placing mitochondria centrally

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • Cell Plasticity in Liver Regeneration
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-11
    Weiping Li; Lu Li; Lijian Hui

    The liver, whose major functional cell type is the hepatocyte, is a peculiar organ with remarkable regenerative capacity. The widely held notion that hepatic progenitor cells contribute to injury-induced liver regeneration has long been debated. However, multiple lines of evidence suggest that the plasticity of differentiated cells is a major mechanism for the cell source in injury-induced liver regeneration

    更新日期:2020-02-11
  • CRL4Cdt2: Coupling Genome Stability to Ubiquitination.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-02-07
    Andreas Panagopoulos,Stavros Taraviras,Hideo Nishitani,Zoi Lygerou

    The cullin-RING E3 ubiquitin ligase CRL4Cdt2 has emerged as a master regulator of genome stability, which targets key cell cycle proteins for proteolysis during S phase and after DNA damage. Recent advances shed light on how it couples ubiquitination to DNA synthesis, offering a new paradigm for substrate recognition: Cdt2 binds directly onto proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loaded on DNA

    更新日期:2020-02-07
  • Getting into Position: Nuclear Movement in Muscle Cells.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-01-30
    Mafalda Azevedo,Mary K Baylies

    The positioning of nuclei within the cell is a dynamic process that depends on the cell's fate and developmental stage and that is adjusted for optimal cell function. This is especially true in skeletal muscle cells, which contain hundreds of myonuclei distributed evenly along the periphery of the muscle cell. Mispositioned myonuclei are often associated with muscle dysfunction and disease. Different

    更新日期:2020-01-31
  • Prime Editing: A New Way for Genome Editing.
    Trends Cell Biol. (IF 16.041) Pub Date : 2020-01-27
    Marek Marzec,Agnieszka Brąszewska-Zalewska,Goetz Hensel

    Precise and efficient use of genome editing tools are hampered by the introduction of DNA double-strand breaks, donor DNA templates, or homology-directed repair. A recent study expands the genome editing toolbox with the introduction of prime editing, which overcomes previous challenges and introduces insertions, deletions, and all putative 12 types of base-to-base conversions in human cells.

    更新日期:2020-01-27
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