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  • Cancer-associated fibroblasts promote prostate tumor growth and progression through upregulation of cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-24
    Hannes Neuwirt; Jan Bouchal; Gvantsa Kharaishvili; Christian Ploner; Karin Jöhrer; Florian Pitterl; Anja Weber; Helmut Klocker; Iris E. Eder

    Androgen receptor targeted therapies have emerged as an effective tool to manage advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Nevertheless, frequent occurrence of therapy resistance represents a major challenge in the clinical management of patients, also because the molecular mechanisms behind therapy resistance are not yet fully understood. In the present study, we therefore aimed to identify novel targets to intervene with therapy resistance using gene expression analysis of PCa co-culture spheroids where PCa cells are grown in the presence of cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and which have been previously shown to be a reliable model for antiandrogen resistance. Gene expression changes of co-culture spheroids (LNCaP and DuCaP seeded together with CAFs) were identified by Illumina microarray profiling. Real-time PCR, Western blotting, immunohistochemistry and cell viability assays in 2D and 3D culture were performed to validate the expression of selected targets in vitro and in vivo. Cytokine profiling was conducted to analyze CAF-conditioned medium. Gene expression analysis of co-culture spheroids revealed that CAFs induced a significant upregulation of cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis pathways in PCa cells. Cytokine profiling revealed high amounts of pro-inflammatory, pro-migratory and pro-angiogenic factors in the CAF supernatant. In particular, two genes, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A synthase 2 (HMGCS2) and aldo-keto reductase family 1 member C3 (AKR1C3), were significantly upregulated in PCa cells upon co-culture with CAFs. Both enzymes were also significantly increased in human PCa compared to benign tissue with AKR1C3 expression even being associated with Gleason score and metastatic status. Inhibiting HMGCS2 and AKR1C3 resulted in significant growth retardation of co-culture spheroids as well as of various castration and enzalutamide resistant cell lines in 2D and 3D culture, underscoring their putative role in PCa. Importantly, dual targeting of cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis with simvastatin, a commonly prescribed cholesterol synthesis inhibitor, and an inhibitor against AKR1C3 had the strongest growth inhibitory effect. From our results we conclude that CAFs induce an upregulation of cholesterol and steroid biosynthesis in PCa cells, driving them into AR targeted therapy resistance. Blocking both pathways with simvastatin and an AKR1C3 inhibitor may therefore be a promising approach to overcome resistances to AR targeted therapies in PCa.

    更新日期:2020-01-24
  • Activation of cannabinoid receptor type 2-induced osteogenic differentiation involves autophagy induction and p62-mediated Nrf2 deactivation
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    Aihua Xu; Yang Yang; Yang Shao; Meng Wu; Yongxin Sun

    Dysfunction in survival and differentiation of osteoblasts commonly occurs in patients with osteoporosis. Cannabinoid receptor type 2 (CNR2) is a major receptor of endocannabinoid system that is crucial for bone mass homeostasis. Our group prior demonstrated that activation of CNR2 signaling promoted osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells in vitro. Autophagy is reported to participate in osteoblastic differentiation. Whether autophagy is regulated by CNR2-mediated cannabinoid signaling is unknown, and how the autophagy-CNR2 interaction affects osteoblastic differentiation requires further elucidation. hFOB 1.19 osteoblasts were treated with CNR2 agonists HU308 (5, 10, 25, 50 or 100 nM) and JWH133 (1, 2, 5, 10 or 20 μM) in presence or absence of autophagy inhibitor 3-Methyladenine (3-MA). The differentiation of hFOB 1.19 cells was determined via evaluating their alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and mineralization ability (Alizarin red staining). Alterations in autophagy-related molecules and osteogenic markers were analyzed via real-time PCR and/or immunoblotting assays. hFOB 1.19 cells spontaneously differentiated towards mature osteoblasts under 39 °C, during which CNR2 expression increased, and autophagy was activated. The strongest autophagy flux was observed at 192 h post differentiation─LC3I to LC3II conversion was enhanced and Beclin 1 expression was upregulated considerably, while p62 expression was downregulated. Treatment of HU308 and JWH133 promoted autophagy in a dose-dependent manner, and suppressed mTOR signaling pathway in hFOB 1.19 cells. In CNR2-silenced cells, HU308’s and JWH133’s effects on autophagy were weakened. HU308 and JWH133 enhanced the ALP activity and mineralization, and upregulated the expression of osteogenic markers, osteopontin and osteocalcin, in hFOB 1.19 cells. Intriguingly, such pro-osteogenic effects induced by CNR2 activation were markedly mitigated by 3-MA. In addition to provoking autophagy, CNR2 agonists also reduced nuclear Nrf2 accumulation and increased Keap1 expression. Further, re-expression of p62 inhibited CNR2 agonists-induced Nrf2 degradation. Osteogenic differentiation induced by CNR2 signaling activation involves autophagy induction and p62-mediated Nrf2 deactivation.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Apoptotic mimicry as a strategy for the establishment of parasitic infections: parasite- and host-derived phosphatidylserine as key molecule
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-15
    João Luiz Mendes Wanderley; Renato Augusto DaMatta; Marcello André Barcinski

    The establishment of parasitic infection is dependent on the development of efficient strategies to evade the host defense mechanisms. Phosphatidylserine (PS) molecules are pivotal for apoptotic cell recognition and clearance by professional phagocytes. Moreover, PS receptors are able to trigger anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive responses by phagocytes, either by coupled enzymes or through the induction of regulatory cytokine secretion. These PS-dependent events are exploited by parasites in a mechanism called apoptotic mimicry. Generally, apoptotic mimicry refers to the effects of PS recognition for the initiation and maintenance of pathogenic infections. However, in this context, PS molecules can be recognized on the surface of the infectious agent or in the surface of apoptotic host debris, leading to the respective denomination of classical and non-classical apoptotic mimicry. In this review, we discuss the role of PS in the pathogenesis of several human infections caused by protozoan parasites.

    更新日期:2020-01-15
  • Targeting the orphan nuclear receptor NR2F6 in T cells primes tumors for immune checkpoint therapy
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-14
    Victoria Klepsch; Maria Pommermayr; Dominik Humer; Natascha Brigo; Natascha Hermann-Kleiter; Gottfried Baier

    NR2F6 has been proposed as an alternative cancer immune checkpoint in the effector T cell compartment. However, a realistic assessment of the in vivo therapeutic potential of NR2F6 requires acute depletion. Employing primary T cells isolated from Cas9-transgenic mice for electroporation of chemically synthesized sgRNA, we established a CRISPR/Cas9-mediated acute knockout protocol of Nr2f6 in primary mouse T cells. Analyzing these Nr2f6CRISPR/Cas9 knockout T cells, we reproducibly observed a hyper-reactive effector phenotype upon CD3/CD28 stimulation in vitro, highly reminiscent to Nr2f6−/− T cells. Importantly, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated Nr2f6 ablation prior to adoptive cell therapy (ACT) of autologous polyclonal T cells into wild-type tumor-bearing recipient mice in combination with PD-L1 or CTLA-4 tumor immune checkpoint blockade significantly delayed MC38 tumor progression and induced superior survival, thus further validating a T cell-inhibitory function of NR2F6 during tumor progression. These findings indicate that Nr2f6CRISPR/Cas9 knockout T cells are comparable to germline Nr2f6−/− T cells, a result providing an independent confirmation of the immune checkpoint function of lymphatic NR2F6. Taken together, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated acute Nr2f6 gene ablation in primary mouse T cells prior to ACT appeared feasible for potentiating established PD-L1 and CTLA-4 blockade therapies, thereby pioneering NR2F6 inhibition as a sensitizing target for augmented tumor regression.

    更新日期:2020-01-14
  • SapC-DOPS – a Phosphatidylserine-targeted Nanovesicle for selective Cancer therapy
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Kombo F. N’Guessan; Priyankaben H. Patel; Xiaoyang Qi

    Phosphatidylserine (PS) is normally located in the inner leaflet of the membrane bilayer of healthy cells, however it is expressed at high levels on the surface of cancer cells. This has allowed for the development of selective therapeutic agents against cancer cells (without affecting healthy cells). SapC-DOPS is a PS-targeting nanovesicle which effectively targets and kills several cancer types including pancreatic, lung, brain, and pediatric tumors. Our studies have demonstrated that SapC-DOPS selectively induces apoptotic cell death in malignant and metastatic cells, whereas untransformed cells remain unaffected due to low surface PS expression. Furthermore, SapC-DOPS can be used in combination with standard therapies such as irradiation and chemotherapeutic drugs to significantly enhance the antitumor efficacy of these treatments. While the PS-targeting nanovesicles are a promising selective therapeutic option for the treatment of cancers, more preclinical studies are needed to fully understand the mechanisms leading to non-apoptotic PS expression on the surface of viable cancer cells and to determine the effectiveness of SapC-DOPS in advanced metastatic disease. In addition, the completion of clinical studies will determine therapeutic effects and drug safety in patients. A phase I clinical trial using SapC-DOPS has been completed on patients with solid tumors and has demonstrated compelling patient outcomes with a strong safety profile. Results from this study are informing future studies with SapC-DOPS.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • FOXE1 represses cell proliferation and Warburg effect by inhibiting HK2 in colorectal cancer
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-09
    Weixing Dai; Xianke Meng; Shaobo Mo; Wenqiang Xiang; Ye Xu; Long Zhang; Renjie Wang; Qingguo Li; Guoxiang Cai

    Low expression of FOXE1, a member of Forkhead box (FOX) transcription factor family that plays vital roles in cancers, contributes to poor prognosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. The effects of FOXE1 on the growth of colon cancer cells and the expression of glycolytic enzymes were investigated in vitro and in vivo. Molecular biological experiments were used to reveal the underlying mechanisms of altered aerobic glycolysis. CRC tissue specimens were used to determine the clinical association of ectopic metabolism caused by dysregulated FOXE1. FOXE1 is highly expressed in normal colon tissues compared with cancer tissues and low expression of FOXE1 is significantly associated with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Silencing FOXE1 in CRC cell lines dramatically enhanced cell proliferation and colony formation and promoted glucose consumption and lactate production, while enforced expression of FOXE1 manifested the opposite effects. Mechanistically, FOXE1 bound directly to the promoter region of HK2 and negatively regulated its transcription. Furthermore, the expression of FOXE1 in CRC tissues was negatively correlated with that of HK2. FOXE1 functions as a critical tumor suppressor in regulating tumor growth and glycolysis via suppressing HK2 in CRC.

    更新日期:2020-01-09
  • Correction to: The balance of Bmp6 and Wnt10b regulates the telogen-anagen transition of hair follicles
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-07
    Pan Wu; Yiming Zhang; Yizhan Xing; Wei Xu; Haiying Guo; Fang Deng; Xiaogen Ma; Yuhong Li

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that they would like to correct the second last sentence of “Authors’ information” section as PW is an undergraduate, but was incorrectly described as a Ph.D. in the sentence. The sentence should read “PW is an undergraduate. YZ, YX, WX, HG, FD and YL are Ph.D.”. The authors sincerely apologize for having this unintentional error in the article, and apologize for any inconvenience caused.

    更新日期:2020-01-07
  • Comprehensive profiling identifies a novel signature with robust predictive value and reveals the potential drug resistance mechanism in glioma
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Fan Zeng; Kuanyu Wang; Xiu Liu; Zheng Zhao

    Gliomas are the most common and malignant brain tumors. The standard therapy is surgery combined with radiotherapy, chemotherapy, and/or other comprehensive methods. However, the emergence of chemoresistance is the main obstacle in treatment and its mechanism is still unclear. We firstly developed a multi-gene signature by integrated analysis of cancer stem cell and drug resistance related genes. The Chinese Glioma Genome Atlas (CGGA, 325 samples) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA, 699 samples) datasets were then employed to verify the efficacy of the risk signature and investigate its significance in glioma prognosis. GraphPad Prism, SPSS and R language were used for statistical analysis and graphical work. This signature could distinguish the prognosis of patients, and patients with high risk score exhibited short survival time. The Cox regression and Nomogram model indicated the independent prognostic performance and high prognostic accuracy of the signature for survival. Combined with a well-known chemotherapy impact factor-MGMT promoter methylation status, this risk signature could further subdivide patients with distinct survival. Functional analysis of associated genes revealed signature-related biological process of cell proliferation, immune response and cell stemness. These mechanisms were confirmed in patient samples. The signature was an independent and powerful prognostic biomarker in glioma, which would improve risk stratification and provide a more accurate assessment of personalized treatment.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • Ras isoforms: signaling specificities in CD40 pathway
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-06
    Arathi Nair; Sushmita Chakraborty; Late Anirban Banerji; Ankita Srivastava; Charudutta Navare; Bhaskar Saha

    Ras are small cellular GTPases which regulate diverse cellular processes. It has three isoforms: H-Ras, K-Ras, and N-Ras. Owing to the N-terminus (1–165 residues) sequence homology these isoforms were thought to be functionally redundant. However, only K-Ras-deficient mice but not H-Ras- and N-Ras-deficient mice show embryonic lethality. Similarly, mutations in a given Ras isoform are associated with a particular type of cancer. Moreover, we have previously reported that Ras isoforms perform unique functions in Leishmania major infection. Thus, Ras isoforms are implicated to have signaling and functional specificity but the mechanism remains to be elucidated. Using CD40 as a model receptor, we showed that depending on the strength of signaling, specific Ras isoforms are activated. Weak CD40 signal activates N-Ras, whereas strong signal activates H-Ras and K-Ras. Additionally, we showed that suppression of N-Ras expression reduced CD40-induced extracellular signal–regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK-1/2) activation and Interleukin (IL)-10 production; whereas suppression of H-Ras or K-Ras reduced CD40-induced p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) activation and IL-12 production. Furthermore, we showed that Ras isoforms have activator (GEF) specificity as weak CD40 signal-activated N-Ras requires Sos-1/2 whereas strong CD40 signal-activated H-Ras/K-Ras requires Ras-GRP as the guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) inducing ERK-1/2- or p38MAPK-mediated IL-10 or IL-12 productions, respectively, in macrophages. Silencing of syk reduced CD40-induced N-Ras activation but silencing of lyn inhibited H-Ras and K-Ras activation. In CD40 signaling, Ras isoforms also showed effector specificity; while H-Ras and K-Ras showed specificity for phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase activation at high dose of CD40 stimulation, N-Ras primarily associated with Raf-1 at low dose of CD40 stimulation. Moreover, fractal analysis showed that functional site surface roughness for H-Ras (SurfaceFD = 2.39) and K-Ras (SurfaceFD = 2.39) are similar but significantly different from N-Ras (SurfaceFD = 2.25). The activator and effector specificities of Ras isoforms in CD40 signaling indicated their differential involvement in CD40 pathway and in maintaining the reciprocity. Our observations reveal Ras-regulated signaling outcome and its potential for developing Ras isoform-targeted immunotherapy and prophylaxis.

    更新日期:2020-01-06
  • RNA sequencing reveals an additional Crz1-binding motif in promoters of its target genes in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2020-01-03
    Huihui Xu; Tianshu Fang; Raha Parvizi Omran; Malcolm Whiteway; Linghuo Jiang

    The calcium/calcineurin signaling pathway is mediated by the transcription factors NFAT (nuclear factor of activated T cells) in mammals and Crz1 (calcineurin-responsive zinc finger 1) in yeasts and other lower eukaryotes. A previous microarray analysis identified a putative Crz1-binding motif in promoters of its target genes in Candida albicans, but it has not been experimentally demonstrated. An inactivation mutant for CaCRZ1 was generated through CRISPR/Cas9 approach. Transcript profiling was carried out by RNA sequencing of the wild type and the inactivation mutant for CaCRZ1 in response to 0.2 M CaCl2. Gene promoters were scanned by the online MEME (Multiple Em for Motif Elicitation) software. Gel electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis were used for in vitro and in vivo CaCrz1-binding experiments, respectively. RNA sequencing reveals that expression of 219 genes is positively, and expression of 59 genes is negatively, controlled by CaCrz1 in response to calcium stress. These genes function in metabolism, cell cycling, protein fate, cellular transport, signal transduction, transcription, and cell wall biogenesis. Forty of these positively regulated 219 genes have previously been identified by DNA microarray analysis. Promoter analysis of these common 40 genes reveals a consensus motif [5′-GGAGGC(G/A)C(T/A)G-3′], which is different from the putative CaCrz1-binding motif [5′-G(C/T)GGT-3′] identified in the previous study, but similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae ScCrz1-binding motif [5′-GNGGC(G/T)CA-3′]. EMSA and ChIP assays indicate that CaCrz1 binds in vitro and in vivo to both motifs in the promoter of its target gene CaUTR2. Promoter mutagenesis demonstrates that these two CaCrz1-binding motifs play additive roles in the regulation of CaUTR2 expression. In addition, the CaCRZ1 gene is positively regulated by CaCrz1. CaCrz1 can bind in vitro and in vivo to its own promoter, suggesting an autoregulatory mechanism for CaCRZ1 expression. CaCrz1 differentially binds to promoters of its target genes to regulate their expression in response to calcium stress. CaCrz1 also regulates its own expression through the 5′-TGAGGGACTG-3′ site in its promoter.

    更新日期:2020-01-04
  • The let-7 family of microRNAs suppresses immune evasion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma by promoting PD-L1 degradation
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Dan Yu; Xueshibojie Liu; Guanghong Han; Yan Liu; Xue Zhao; Di Wang; Xiaomin Bian; Tingting Gu; Lianji Wen

    Accumulation of immunosuppressive protein programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been documented in several cancers and contributes to the evasion of the host immune system. However, cancer cell-intrinsic signaling-dependent control of PD-L1 expression remains to be elucidated. Herein, we aimed to identify the let-7 family of microRNAs as candidates that up-regulate tumor cell PD-L1 expression and mediates immune evasion of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). The expression of let-7 family and PD-L1 was quantified in HNSCC tissues and adjacent normal tissues. PD-L1 degradation was evaluated in HNSCC cells in response to elevated expressions of let-7a or let-7b. The regulation of let-7 family on PD-L1 degradation through a mechanism involving T-cell factor-4 (TCF-4) control of β-catenin/STT3 pathway was evaluated. Immune recognition of HNSCC in vivo was examined in subcutaneous tumor-bearing C3H mice in the presence of let-7a/b and/or CTLA-4 antibody. The let-7 family were significantly down-regulated in the context of HNSCC, sharing a negative correlation with PD-L1 expression. Glycosylated PD-L1 was detected in HNSCC cells, which was reduced by let-7a/b over-expression. TCF-4, the target of let-7a/b, activated the β-catenin/STT3 pathway and promoted PD-L1 degradation. In vivo analysis demonstrated that let-7a/b over-expression potentiated anticancer immunotherapy by CTLA-4 blockade. Taken together, our findings highlight targeting let-7 family as a potential strategy to enhance immune checkpoint therapy for HNSCC.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Deletion of low-density lipoprotein-related receptor 5 inhibits liver Cancer cell proliferation via destabilizing Nucleoporin 37
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-27
    Jinxiao Chen; Da Wo; En Ma; Hongwei Yan; Jun Peng; Weidong Zhu; Yong Fang; Dan-ni Ren

    LRP5/6 are co-receptors in Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Recently, we discovered multiple β-catenin independent functions of LRP5/6 in tumor cells and in the diseased heart. Nucleoporin 37 (NUP37) is an important component of the nuclear pore complex (NPC), whose elevated expression is associated with worsened prognosis in liver cancer. Previous studies have shown that NUP37 interacted with YAP and activated YAP/TEAD signaling in liver cancer. Our preliminary findings showed a nuclear location of LRP5. We thus tested the hypothesis that LRP5 may act as a genuine regulator of YAP/TEAD signaling via modulating NUP37 in a β-catenin-independent way. We performed siRNA knockdown of LRP5, LRP6, or β-catenin in liver cancer HepG2 cells to determine the effect on tumor cell proliferation. Protein expressions and interaction between LRP5 and NUP37 were determined using immunoprecipitation and western blot analyses. HepG2 cell proliferation was markedly inhibited by knockdown of LRP5 but not LRP6 or β-catenin, suggesting that LRP5 has a specific, β-catenin-independent role in inhibiting HepG2 cell proliferation. Knockdown of NUP37 by siRNA inhibited the proliferation of HepG2 cells, whereas overexpression of NUP37 reversed the decrease in cell proliferation induced by LRP5 knockdown. Immunoprecipitation assays confirmed that LRP5 bound to NUP37. Furthermore, LRP5 overexpression restored NUP37 knockdown-induced downregulation of YAP/TEAD pathway. LRP5 deletion attenuates cell proliferation via destabilization of NUP37, in a β-catenin-independent manner. LRP5 therefore acts as a genuine regulator of YAP/TEAD signaling via maintaining the integrity of the NPC, and implicates a therapeutic strategy in targeting LRP5 for inhibiting liver cancer cell proliferation.

    更新日期:2019-12-30
  • Cholesterol restricts lymphotoxin β receptor-triggered NF-κB signaling
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Magdalena Banach-Orłowska; Renata Wyszyńska; Beata Pyrzyńska; Małgorzata Maksymowicz; Jakub Gołąb; Marta Miączyńska

    Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) plays important roles in the development of the immune system and immune response. At the cellular level, ligand-bound LTβR activates the pro-inflammatory NF-κB pathway but the detailed mechanisms regulating its signaling remain unknown. Understanding them is of high importance since LTβR and its ligands are promising therapeutic targets. Here, we studied the consequences of perturbed cellular cholesterol content on LTβR-induced NF-κB signaling. To modulate cholesterol availability and/or level in lung carcinoma A549 and H2228, and endothelial HUVEC cells different treatment regimens with filipin, methyl-β-cyclodextrin and simvastatin were applied. LTβR localization was studied by confocal microscopy. The activity of LTβR-induced NF-κB pathway was assessed by measuring the levels of NF-κB pathway inhibitor IκBα and phosphorylation of RelA transcription factor by Western blotting. The NF-κB transcriptional response, production of chemokines and adhesion molecules were examined by qRT-PCR, ELISA, and Western blotting, respectively. Adherence of different types of primary immune cells to epithelial A549 cells and endothelial HUVECs was measured fluorometrically. Interactions of LTβR with its protein partners were investigated by immunoprecipitation. We showed that filipin-mediated sequestration of cholesterol or its depletion from the plasma membrane with methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired LTβR internalization and potentiated LTβR-dependent activation of the canonical branch of the NF-κB pathway. The latter was manifested by enhanced degradation of IκBα inhibitor, elevated RelA phosphorylation, substantial increase in the expression of NF-κB target genes encoding, among others, cytokines and adhesion molecules known to play important roles in immune response. It was followed by robust secretion of CXCL8 and upregulation of ICAM1, that favored the adhesion of immune cells (NK and T cells, neutrophils) to A549 cells and HUVECs. Mechanistically, we showed that cholesterol depletion stabilized interactions of ligand-stimulated LTβR with modified forms of TRAF2 and NEMO proteins. Our results showed that the reduction of the plasma membrane content of cholesterol or its sequestration strongly potentiated signaling outcome initiated by LTβR. Thus, drugs modulating cholesterol levels could potentially improve efficacy of LTβR-based therapies.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Hedgehog/GLI signaling in tumor immunity - new therapeutic opportunities and clinical implications
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-26
    Sandra Grund-Gröschke; Georg Stockmaier; Fritz Aberger

    Uncontrolled activation of the Hedgehog/Glioma-associated oncogene (HH/GLI) pathway is a potent oncogenic driver signal promoting numerous cancer hallmarks such as proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, metastasis and metabolic rewiring. Several HH pathway inhibitors have already been approved for medical therapy of advanced and metastatic basal cell carcinoma and acute myeloid leukemia with partially impressive therapeutic activity. However, de novo and acquired resistance as well as severe side effects and unexplained lack of therapeutic efficacy are major challenges that urgently call for improved treatment options with more durable responses. The recent breakthroughs in cancer immunotherapy have changed our current understanding of targeted therapy and opened up promising therapeutic opportunities including combinations of selective cancer pathway and immune checkpoint inhibitors. Although HH/GLI signaling has been intensely studied with respect to the classical hallmarks of cancer, its role in the modulation of the anti-tumoral immune response has only become evident in recent studies. These have uncovered HH/GLI regulated immunosuppressive mechanisms such as enhanced regulatory T-cell formation and production of immunosuppressive cytokines. In light of these exciting novel data on oncogenic HH/GLI signaling in immune cross-talk and modulation, we summarize and connect in this review the existing knowledge from different HH-related cancers and chronic inflammatory diseases. This is to provide a basis for the investigation and evaluation of novel treatments combining immunotherapeutic strategies with approved as well as next-generation HH/GLI inhibitors. Further, we also critically discuss recent studies demonstrating a possible negative impact of current HH/GLI pathway inhibitors on the anti-tumoral immune response, which may explain some of the disappointing results of several oncological trials with anti-HH drugs.

    更新日期:2019-12-27
  • Comparative phosphorylation map of Dishevelled 3 links phospho-signatures to biological outputs
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-23
    Kateřina Hanáková; Ondřej Bernatík; Marek Kravec; Miroslav Micka; Jitender Kumar; Jakub Harnoš; Petra Ovesná; Petra Paclíková; Matěj Rádsetoulal; David Potěšil; Konstantinos Tripsianes; Lukáš Čajánek; Zbyněk Zdráhal; Vítězslav Bryja

    Dishevelled (DVL) is an essential component of the Wnt signaling cascades. Function of DVL is controlled by phosphorylation but the molecular details are missing. DVL3 contains 131 serines and threonines whose phosphorylation generates complex barcodes underlying diverse DVL3 functions. In order to dissect the role of DVL phosphorylation we analyzed the phosphorylation of human DVL3 induced by previously reported (CK1ε, NEK2, PLK1, CK2α, RIPK4, PKCδ) and newly identified (TTBK2, Aurora A) DVL kinases. Shotgun proteomics including TiO2 enrichment of phosphorylated peptides followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry on immunoprecipitates from HEK293T cells was used to identify and quantify phosphorylation of DVL3 protein induced by 8 kinases. Functional characterization was performed by in-cell analysis of phospho-mimicking/non-phosphorylatable DVL3 mutants and supported by FRET assays and NMR spectroscopy. We used quantitative mass spectrometry and calculated site occupancies and quantified phosphorylation of > 80 residues. Functional validation demonstrated the importance of CK1ε-induced phosphorylation of S268 and S311 for Wnt-3a-induced β-catenin activation. S630–643 cluster phosphorylation by CK1, NEK2 or TTBK2 is essential for even subcellular distribution of DVL3 when induced by CK1 and TTBK2 but not by NEK2. Further investigation showed that NEK2 utilizes a different mechanism to promote even localization of DVL3. NEK2 triggered phosphorylation of PDZ domain at S263 and S280 prevents binding of DVL C-terminus to PDZ and promotes an open conformation of DVL3 that is more prone to even subcellular localization. We identify unique phosphorylation barcodes associated with DVL function. Our data provide an example of functional synergy between phosphorylation in structured domains and unstructured IDRs that together dictate the biological outcome.

    更新日期:2019-12-23
  • Carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII) supports tumor blood endothelial cell survival under lactic acidosis in the tumor microenvironment
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-17
    Dorcas A. Annan; Nako Maishi; Tomoyoshi Soga; Randa Dawood; Cong Li; Hiroshi Kikuchi; Takayuki Hojo; Masahiro Morimoto; Tetsuya Kitamura; Mohammad Towfik Alam; Kazuyuki Minowa; Nobuo Shinohara; Jin-Min Nam; Yasuhiro Hida; Kyoko Hida

    Tumor endothelial cells (TECs) perform tumor angiogenesis, which is essential for tumor growth and metastasis. Tumor cells produce large amounts of lactic acid from glycolysis; however, the mechanism underlying the survival of TECs to enable tumor angiogenesis under high lactic acid conditions in tumors remains poorly understood. The metabolomes of TECs and normal endothelial cells (NECs) were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The expressions of pH regulators in TECs and NECs were determined by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Cell proliferation was measured by the MTS assay. Western blotting and ELISA were used to validate monocarboxylate transporter 1 and carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAII) protein expression within the cells, respectively. Human tumor xenograft models were used to access the effect of CA inhibition on tumor angiogenesis. Immunohistochemical staining was used to observe CAII expression, quantify tumor microvasculature, microvessel pericyte coverage, and hypoxia. The present study shows that, unlike NECs, TECs proliferate in lactic acidic. TECs showed an upregulated CAII expression both in vitro and in vivo. CAII knockdown decreased TEC survival under lactic acidosis and nutrient-replete conditions. Vascular endothelial growth factor A and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor signaling induced CAII expression in NECs. CAII inhibition with acetazolamide minimally reduced tumor angiogenesis in vivo. However, matured blood vessel number increased after acetazolamide treatment, similar to bevacizumab treatment. Additionally, acetazolamide-treated mice showed decreased lung metastasis. These findings suggest that due to their effect on blood vessel maturity, pH regulators like CAII are promising targets of antiangiogenic therapy.

    更新日期:2019-12-18
  • Bystander effects of ionizing radiation: conditioned media from X-ray irradiated MCF-7 cells increases the angiogenic ability of endothelial cells
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Nasrollah Jabbari; Muhammad Nawaz; Jafar Rezaie

    Non-targeting effects of radiotherapy have become as clinical concern due to secondary tumorigenesis in the patients receiving radiotherapy. Radiotherapy also affects non-tumoral cells present in the tumor microenvironment and surrounding tissues. As such, the irradiated cells are thought to communicate the signals that promote secondary tumorigenesis by affecting the function and fate of non-irradiated cells in the vicinity including endothelial cells. This may include up-regulation of genes in irradiated cells, secretion of paracrine factors and induction of gene expression in surrounding non-irradiated cells, which favor cell survival and secondary tumorigenesis. In the current study, we aimed to investigate whether the conditioned media from X-ray irradiated MCF-7 cells contribute to induction of gene expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and modulate their angiogenic capability and migration. Following the co-culturing of X-ray irradiated MCF-7 media with HUVECs, the migration and wound healing rate of HUVECs was monitored using Transwell plate and scratch wound healing assay, respectively. The levels of angiogenic protein i.e. vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) in the conditioned media of MCF-7 cells was measured using ELISA. Additionally, we quantified mRNA levels of VEGFR-2, HSP-70, Ang-2, and Ang-1 genes in HUVECs by real time-PCR. Tubulogenesis capacity of endothelial cells was measured by growth factor reduced Matrigel matrix, whereas expression of CD34 (a marker of angiogenic tip cells) was detected by flow cytometry. Data showed that VEGF-A protein content of conditioned media of irradiated MCF-7 cells was increased (P < 0.05) with increase in dose. Data showed that irradiated conditioned media from MCF-7 cells, when incubated with HUVECs, significantly enhanced the cell migration and wound healing rate of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). The mRNA levels of VEGFR-2, HSP-70, Ang-2, and Ang-1 were dose-dependently enhanced in HUVECs incubated with irradiated conditioned media (P < 0.05). Importantly, HUVECs treated with irradiated conditioned media showed a marked increase in the tube formation capability as well as in expression of CD34 marker (P < 0.05). Our findings indicate that conditioned media from irradiated MCF-7 cells induce angiogenic responses in endothelial cells in vitro, which could be due to transfer of overexpressed VEGF-A and possibly other factors secreted from irradiated MCF-7 cells to endothelial cells, and induction of intrinsic genes (VEGFR-2, HSP-70, Ang-2, and Ang-1) in endothelial cells.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor expression and function is required for early chondrogenesis
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Csaba Matta; Tamás Juhász; János Fodor; Tibor Hajdú; Éva Katona; Csilla Szűcs-Somogyi; Roland Takács; Judit Vágó; Tamás Oláh; Ádám Bartók; Zoltan Varga; Gyorgy Panyi; László Csernoch; Róza Zákány

    In vitro chondrogenesis depends on the concerted action of numerous signalling pathways, many of which are sensitive to the changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor is a cation channel with high permeability for Ca2+. Whilst there is now accumulating evidence for the expression and function of NMDA receptors in non-neural tissues including mature cartilage and bone, the contribution of glutamate signalling to the regulation of chondrogenesis is yet to be elucidated. We studied the role of glutamatergic signalling during the course of in vitro chondrogenesis in high density chondrifying cell cultures using single cell fluorescent calcium imaging, patch clamp, transient gene silencing, and western blotting. Here we show that key components of the glutamatergic signalling pathways are functional during in vitro chondrogenesis in a primary chicken chondrogenic model system. We also present the full glutamate receptor subunit mRNA and protein expression profile of these cultures. This is the first study to report that NMDA-mediated signalling may act as a key factor in embryonic limb bud-derived chondrogenic cultures as it evokes intracellular Ca2+ transients, which are abolished by the GluN2B subunit-specific inhibitor ifenprodil. The function of NMDARs is essential for chondrogenesis as their functional knock-down using either ifenprodil or GRIN1 siRNA temporarily blocks the differentiation of chondroprogenitor cells. Cartilage formation was fully restored with the re-expression of the GluN1 protein. We propose a key role for NMDARs during the transition of chondroprogenitor cells to cartilage matrix-producing chondroblasts.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Ubiquitin-specific protease 22 is critical to in vivo angiogenesis, growth and metastasis of non-small cell lung cancer
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Keqiang Zhang; Lu Yang; Jinhui Wang; Ting Sun; Yuming Guo; Rebecca Nelson; Tommy R. Tong; Rajendra Pangeni; Ravi Salgia; Dan J. Raz

    Loss of monoubiquitination of histone H2B (H2Bub1) was found to be associated with poor differentiation, cancer stemness, and enhanced malignancy of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Herein, we investigated the biological significance and therapeutic implications of ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22), an H2Bub1 deubiquitinase, in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). USP22 expression and its clinical relevance were assessed in NSCLC patients. The effects of USP22 knockout on sensitivity to cisplatin and irradiation, and growth, metastasis of NSCLC xenografts, and survival of cancer-bearing mice were investigated. The underlying mechanisms of targeting USP22 were explored. Overexpression of USP22 was observed in 49.0% (99/202) of NSCLC tissues; higher USP22 immunostaining was found to be associated with enhanced angiogenesis and recurrence of NSCLC. Notably, USP22 knockout dramatically suppressed in vitro proliferation, colony formation; and angiogenesis, growth, metastasis of A549 and H1299 in mouse xenograft model, and significantly prolonged survival of metastatic cancer-bearing mice. Furthermore, USP22 knockout significantly impaired non-homologous DNA damage repair capacity, enhanced cisplatin and irradiation-induced apoptosis in these cells. In terms of underlying mechanisms, RNA sequencing and gene ontology enrichment analysis demonstrated that USP22 knockout significantly suppressed angiogenesis, proliferation, EMT, RAS, c-Myc pathways, concurrently enhanced oxidative phosphorylation and tight junction pathways in A549 and H1299 NSCLC cells. Immunoblot analysis confirmed that USP22 knockout upregulated E-cadherin, p16; reduced ALDH1A3, Cyclin E1, c-Myc, and attenuated activation of AKT and ERK pathways in these cells. Our findings suggest USP22 plays critical roles in the malignancy and progression of NSCLC and provide rationales for targeting USP22, which induces broad anti-cancer activities, as a novel therapeutic strategy for NSCLC patient.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • NQO1 potentiates apoptosis evasion and upregulates XIAP via inhibiting proteasome-mediated degradation SIRT6 in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-16
    Hong-Zhong Zhou; Han-Qing Zeng; Ding Yuan; Ji-Hua Ren; Sheng-Tao Cheng; Hai-Bo Yu; Fang Ren; Qing Wang; Yi-Ping Qin; Ai-Long Huang; Juan Chen

    Our previous study has demonstrated that NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is significantly upregulated in human liver cancer where it potentiates the apoptosis evasion of liver cancer cell. However, the underlying mechanisms of the oncogenic function of NQO1 in HCC have not been fully elucidated. Expression of NQO1, SIRT6, AKT and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) protein were measured by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Additionally, the interaction between NQO1 and potential proteins were determined by immunoprecipitation assays. Furthermore, the effect of NQO1 and SIRT6 on tumor growth was determined in cell model and orthotopic tumor implantation model. We found that NQO1 overexpression in HCC enhanced SIRT6 protein stability via inhibiting ubiquitin-mediated 26S proteasome degradation. High level of SIRT6 reduced acetylation of AKT which resulted in increased phosphorylation and activity of AKT. Activated AKT subsequently phosphorylated anti-apoptotic protein XIAP at Ser87 which determined its protein stability. Reintroduction of SIRT6 or AKT efficiently rescued NQO1 knock-out-mediated inhibition of growth and induction of apoptosis. In orthotopic mouse model, NQO1 knock-out inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis while this effect was effectively rescued by SIRT6 overexpression or MG132 treatment partially. Collectively, these results reveal an oncogenic function of NQO1 in sustaining HCC cell proliferation through SIRT6/AKT/XIAP signaling pathway.

    更新日期:2019-12-17
  • Expression of E-cadherin and specific CXCR3 isoforms impact each other in prostate cancer
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-12
    Bo Ma; Ahmad Khazali; Hanshuang Shao; Yuhan Jiang; Alan Wells

    Carcinoma cells shift between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes during cancer progression, as defined by surface presentation of the cell-cell cohesion molecule E-cadherin, affecting dissemination, progression and therapy responsiveness. Concomitant with the loss of E-cadherin during the mesenchymal transition, the predominant receptor isoform for ELR-negative CXC ligands shifts from CXCR3-B to CXCR3-A which turns this classical G-protein coupled receptor from an inhibitor to an activator of cell migration, thus promoting tumor cell invasiveness. We proposed that CXCR3 was not just a coordinately changed receptor but actually a regulator of the cell phenotype. Immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time PCR and flow cytometry assays investigated the expression of E-cadherin and CXCR3 isoforms. Intrasplenic inoculation of human prostate cancer (PCa) cells with spontaneous metastasis to the liver analyzed E-cadherin and CXCR3-B expression during cancer progression in vivo. We found reciprocal regulation of E-cadherin and CXCR3 isoforms. E-cadherin surface expression promoted CXCR3-B presentation on the cell membrane, and to a lesser extent increased its mRNA and total protein levels. In turn, forced expression of CXCR3-A reduced E-cadherin expression level, whereas CXCR3-B increased E-cadherin in PCa. Meanwhile, a positive correlation of E-cadherin and CXCR3-B expression was found both in experimental PCa liver micro-metastases and patients’ tissue. CXCR3-B and E-cadherin positively correlated in vitro and in vivo in PCa cells and liver metastases, whereas CXCR3-A negatively regulated E-cadherin expression. These results suggest that CXCR3 isoforms may play important roles in cancer progression and dissemination via diametrically regulating tumor’s phenotype.

    更新日期:2019-12-13
  • TRIM30 modulates Interleukin-22-regulated papillary thyroid Cancer cell migration and invasion by targeting Sox17 for K48-linked Polyubiquitination
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Wei Li; Fen Li; Weiwei Lei; Zezhang Tao

    Interleukin-22 (IL-22) belongs to the IL-10 cytokine family and is mainly produced by activated Th1 cells. Although IL-22 expression is reported to be elevated in many cancers, and increased IL-22 expression correlates with tumor progression and poor prognosis, little is known about the role of IL-22 in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). We previously demonstrated that IL-22 promotes PTC cell migration and invasion through the microRNA-595/Sox17 axis. We used qRT-PCR and western blot to determine TRIM30, Sox17 and β-catenin expression in PTC cells. Knockdown and overexpression were performed to detect the role of TRIM30/Sox17/β-catenin axis on the migration and invasion PTC cells. Co-IP were used to determine the interaction between TRIM30 and Sox17. In this study, we demonstrated that IL-22 triggered tripartite-motif protein 30 (TRIM30) association with Sox17, thereby mediating K48-linked polyubiquitination of Sox17. We then demonstrated that TRIM30 was a positive regulator of IL-22-regulated migration and invasion of PTC cells. We also found that IL-22 induced the transcriptional activity of β-catenin and translocation of β-catenin from cytosol to the nucleus. Upon investigating the mechanisms behind this event, we found that IL-22 disrupted Sox17/β-catenin interactions by inducing TRIM30/Sox17 interactions, leading to promotion of β-catenin-dependent signaling. The analysis of hundreds of clinical specimens revealed that IL-22, TRIM30 and β-catenin levels were upregulated in PTC tissues compared with normal thyroid, and that their expression levels were closely correlated. Taken together, under the influence of IL-22, by sequestration of Sox17, TRIM30 promotes β-catenin-dependent signaling that promotes PTC cell proliferation.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • 1,25-(OH)2D3/Vitamin D receptor alleviates systemic lupus erythematosus by downregulating Skp2 and upregulating p27
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-12-10
    Dan Liu; Yu-Xuan Fang; Xia Wu; Wei Tan; Wei Zhou; Yu Zhang; Yan-Qing Liu; Guo-Qing Li

    Recent evidence has suggested that the 1,25(OH)2D3/Vitamin D receptor (VDR) acts to suppress the immune response associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a serious multisystem autoimmune disease. Hence, the aim of the current study was to investigate the mechanism by which 1,25-(OH)2D3/VDR influences SLE through regulating the Skp2/p27 signaling pathway. Initially, the levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, VDR, Skp2, and p27 were measured in collected renal tissues and peripheral blood. Meanwhile, the levels of inflammatory factors, biochemical indicators (BUN, Cr, anti-nRNP IgG, anti-dsDNA IgG) and urinary protein levels were assayed in in VDRinsert and VDR-knockout mice in response to 1,25(OH)2D3 supplement. In addition, the distribution of splenic immune cells was observed in these mice. Among the SLE patients, the levels of 1,25(OH)2D3, VDR and p27 were reduced, while the levels of Skp2 were elevated. In addition, the levels of anti-nRNP IgG and anti-dsDNA IgG were increased, suggesting induction of inflammatory responses. Notably, 1,25(OH)2D3/VDR mice had lower concentrations of BUN and Cr, urinary protein levels, precipitation intensity of the immune complex and complement, as well as the levels of anti-nRNP IgG and anti-dsDNA IgG in SLE mice. Additionally, 1,25(OH)2D3 or VDR reduced the degree of the inflammatory response while acting to regulate the distribution of splenic immune cells. This study indicated that 1,25-(OH)2D3/VDR facilitated the recovery of SLE by downregulating Skp2 and upregulating p27 expression, suggesting the potential of 1,25-(OH)2D3/VDR as a promising target for SLE treatment.

    更新日期:2019-12-11
  • Karyopherin α2-dependent import of E2F1 and TFDP1 maintains protumorigenic stathmin expression in liver cancer
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-11-29
    Elisabeth Drucker; Kerstin Holzer; Stefan Pusch; Juliane Winkler; Diego F. Calvisi; Eva Eiteneuer; Esther Herpel; Benjamin Goeppert; Stephanie Roessler; Alessandro Ori; Peter Schirmacher; Kai Breuhahn; Stephan Singer

    Members of the karyopherin superfamily serve as nuclear transport receptors/adaptor proteins and provide exchange of macromolecules between the nucleo- and cytoplasm. Emerging evidence suggests a subset of karyopherins to be dysregulated in hepatocarcinogenesis including karyopherin-α2 (KPNA2). However, the functional and regulatory role of KPNA2 in liver cancer remains incompletely understood. Quantitative proteomics (LC-MS/MS, ~ 1750 proteins in total) was used to study changes in global protein abundance upon siRNA-mediated KPNA2 knockdown in HCC cells. Functional and mechanistic analyses included colony formation and 2D migration assays, co-immunoprecipitation (CoIP), chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), qRT-PCR, immmunblotting, and subcellular fractionation. In vitro results were correlated with data derived from a murine HCC model and HCC patient samples (3 cohorts, n > 600 in total). The proteomic approach revealed the pro-tumorigenic, microtubule (MT) interacting protein stathmin (STMN1) among the most downregulated proteins upon KPNA2 depletion in HCC cells. We further observed that KPNA2 knockdown leads to reduced tumor cell migration and colony formation of HCC cells, which could be phenocopied by direct knockdown of stathmin. As the underlying regulatory mechanism, we uncovered E2F1 and TFDP1 as transport substrates of KPNA2 being retained in the cytoplasm upon KPNA2 ablation, thereby resulting in reduced STMN1 expression. Finally, murine and human HCC data indicate significant correlations of STMN1 expression with E2F1/TFPD1 and with KPNA2 expression and their association with poor prognosis in HCC patients. Our data suggest that KPNA2 regulates STMN1 by import of E2F1/TFDP1 and thereby provide a novel link between nuclear transport and MT-interacting proteins in HCC with functional and prognostic significance.

    更新日期:2019-11-30
  • Correction to: MicroRNA-9 regulates survival of chondroblasts and cartilage integrity by targeting protogenin
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-11-28
    Jinsoo Song; Dongkyun Kim; Churl-Hong Chun; Eun-Jung Jin

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that Figs. 3 and 6 are incorrect.

    更新日期:2019-11-29
  • 1H-NMR metabolomics reveals the Glabrescione B exacerbation of glycolytic metabolism beside the cell growth inhibitory effect in glioma
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Giuseppina D’Alessandro; Deborah Quaglio; Lucia Monaco; Clotilde Lauro; Francesca Ghirga; Cinzia Ingallina; Michela De Martino; Sergio Fucile; Alessandra Porzia; Maria Amalia Di Castro; Federica Bellato; Francesca Mastrotto; Mattia Mori; Paola Infante; Paola Turano; Stefano Salmaso; Paolo Caliceti; Lucia Di Marcotullio; Bruno Botta; Veronica Ghini; Cristina Limatola

    Glioma is the most common and primary brain tumors in adults. Despite the available multimodal therapies, glioma patients appear to have a poor prognosis. The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is involved in tumorigenesis and emerged as a promising target for brain tumors. Glabrescione B (GlaB) has been recently identified as the first direct inhibitor of Gli1, the downstream effector of the pathway. We established the overexpression of Gli1 in murine glioma cells (GL261) and GlaB effect on cell viability. We used 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic approach to obtain informative metabolic snapshots of GL261 cells acquired at different time points during GlaB treatment. The activation of AMP activated protein Kinase (AMPK) induced by GlaB was established by western blot. After the orthotopic GL261 cells injection in the right striatum of C57BL6 mice and the intranasal (IN) GlaB/mPEG5kDa-Cholane treatment, the tumor growth was evaluated. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) combined with Mass Spectrometry (MS) was used to quantify GlaB in brain extracts of treated mice. We found that GlaB affected the growth of murine glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo animal model. Using an untargeted 1H-NMR metabolomic approach, we found that GlaB stimulated the glycolytic metabolism in glioma, increasing lactate production. The high glycolytic rate could in part support the cytotoxic effects of GlaB, since the simultaneous blockade of lactate efflux with α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (ACCA) affected glioma cell growth. According to the metabolomic data, we found that GlaB increased the phosphorylation of AMPK, a cellular energy sensor involved in the anabolic-to-catabolic transition. Our results indicate that GlaB inhibits glioma cell growth and exacerbates Warburg effect, increasing lactate production. In addition, the simultaneous blockade of Gli1 and lactate efflux amplifies the anti-tumor effect in vivo, providing new potential therapeutic strategy for this brain tumor.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • WNT5B governs the phenotype of basal-like breast cancer by activating WNT signaling
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-08-28
    Shaojie Jiang; Miaofeng Zhang; Yanhua Zhang; Weiping Zhou; Tao Zhu; Qing Ruan; Hui Chen; Jie Fang; Fei Zhou; Jihong Sun; Xiaoming Yang

    Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women worldwide. Metastatic disease remains the primary cause of death in patients with breast cancer. Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is associated with aggressive behavior, stem-like phenotype, high histological grade, poor clinical features, and high rates of recurrences and/or metastasis. However, the mechanism of BLBC phenotype shaping remains obscure. Seventeen normal breast/breast cancer cell lines were used for evaluating the breast cancer subtype-markers, WNT targets and constitutive components, and epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers analysis by western blot. One hundred and twenty formalin-fixed breast cancer tissues were used for immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Nine online platforms (cBioPortal, CCLE, GEPIA, etc.) were used for related analyses. We identified Wnt5b as a key regulatory factor that governs the phenotype of BLBC by activating canonical and non-canonical WNT signaling. Wnt5b exhibited basal-like specificity in cells and clinical samples both at the mRNA and protein levels and also showed good correlation with basal-like phenotype at the mRNA level. Besides, Wnt5b was also a promising therapeutic target for LGK-974 treatment. In addition, we identified that CK1α was expressed at low levels in BLBC and that the activation of CK1α by pyrvinium was an alternative strategy for BLBC treatment. Wnt5b is not only a diagnostic biomarker but also a potential therapeutic target of BLBC.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Aspulvinone O, a natural inhibitor of GOT1 suppresses pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma cells growth by interfering glutamine metabolism
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-08-30
    Weiguang Sun; Shanshan Luan; Changxing Qi; Qingyi Tong; Shan Yan; Hua Li; Yonghui Zhang

    Distinctive from their normal counterparts, cancer cells exhibit unique metabolic dependencies on glutamine to fuel anabolic processes. Specifically, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cells rely on an unconventional metabolic pathway catalyzed by aspartate transaminase 1 (GOT1) to rewire glutamine metabolism and support nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) production. Thus, the important role of GOT1 in energy metabolism and Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) balance demonstrates that targeting GOT1 may serve as an important therapeutic target in PDAC. To assay the binding affinity between Aspulvinone O (AO) and GOT1 proteins, the virtual docking, microscale thermophoresis (MST), cellular thermal shift assay (CETSA) and drug affinity responsive target stability (DARTS) methods were employed. GOT1 was silenced in several PDAC cell lines. The level of OCR and ECR were assayed by seahorse. To evaluate the in vivo anti-tumor efficacy of AO, the xenograft model was built in CB17/scid mouse. Screening of an in-house natural compound library identified the AO as a novel inhibitor of GOT1 and repressed glutamine metabolism, which sensitizes PDAC cells to oxidative stress and suppresses cell proliferation. Virtual docking analysis suggested that AO could bind to the active site of GOT1 and form obvious hydrophobic interaction with Trp141 together with hydrogen bonds with Thr110 and Ser256. Further in vitro validation, including MST, CETSA and DARTS, further demonstrated the specific combining capacity of AO. We also show that the selective inhibition of GOT1 by AO significantly reduces proliferation of PDAC in vitro and in vivo. Taken together, our findings identify AO as a potent bioactive inhibitor of GOT1 and a novel anti-tumour agent for PDAC therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Reversal effect of FW-04-806, a macrolide dilactone compound, on multidrug resistance mediated by ABCB1 and ABCG2 in vitro and in vivo
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-01
    Zhiqiang Zhang; Chunling Ma; Peng Li; Min Wu; Shengnan Ye; Liwu Fu; Jianhua Xu

    Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, such as ABCB1 and ABCG2, has been proved to be a major trigger for multidrug resistance (MDR) in certain types of cancer. A promising approach to reverse MDR is the combined use of nontoxic and potent ABC transporters inhibitor with conventional anticancer drugs. We previously reported that FW-04-806 (conglobatin) as a novel Hsp90 inhibitor with low toxicity, capable of attenuating Hsp90/Cdc37 /clients interactions and producing antitumor action in vitro and in vivo. Our early activity screening found that FW-04-806 at non-cytotoxic concentration was able to enhance the cytotoxicity of chemotherapeutic agents on the ABCB1 overexpressing cells. Therefore, we speculated that FW-04-806 might be a promising MDR reversal agent. In the present study we further investigated its reversal effect of MDR induced by ABC transporters in vitro and in vivo. MTT assay in vitro and xenograftes in vivo were used to investigate reversal effect of FW-04-806 on MDR in ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpressing cancer cells. To understand the mechanisms for the MDR reversal, we examined the effects of FW-04-806 on intracellular accumulation of doxorubicin (DOX, adriamycin, adr)/Rhodamine 123 (Rho 123), efflux of doxorubicin, expression levels of gene and protein of ABCB1 or ABCG2 and ATPase activity of ABCB1, and carried out molecular docking between FW-04-806 and human ABCB1. The results indicated that FW-04-806 significantly enhanced the cytotoxicity of substrate chemotherapeutic agents on the ABCB1 or ABCG2 overexpressing cells in vitro and in vivo suggesting its reversal MDR effects. FW-04-806 increased the intracellular accumulation of DOX or Rho123 by inhibiting the efflux function of ABC transporters in MDR cells rather than in their parental sensitive cells. However, unlike other ABC transporter inhibitors, FW-04-806 had no effect on the ATPase activity nor on the expression of ABCB1 or ABCG2 on either mRNA or protein level. Molecular docking suggested that FW-04-806 may have lower affinity to the ATPase site, which was consistent with its no significant effect on the ATPase activity of ABCB1; However FW-04-806 may bind to substrate binding site in TMDs more stably than substrate anticancer drugs therefore obstruct the anticancer drugs pumped out of the cell. FW-04-806 is a compound that has both anti-tumor and reversal MDR effects, and its antitumor clinical application is worth further study.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Inhibition of T cell immunoglobulin and mucin-1 (TIM-1) protects against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Yueying Zheng; Liqing Wang; Manli Chen; Lu Liu; Aijie Pei; Rong Zhang; Shuyuan Gan; Shengmei Zhu

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that the given name of Liqing Wang was incorrectly published as Liqiang Wang. The original article has been updated.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Downregulation of exosomal CLEC3B in hepatocellular carcinoma promotes metastasis and angiogenesis via AMPK and VEGF signals
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-02
    Wenjuan Dai; Yilin Wang; Tianxiao Yang; Jing Wang; Weicheng Wu; Jianxin Gu

    C-Type Lectin Domain Family 3 Member B (CLEC3B), is down-regulated in serum and tumor tissues in different cancers including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the functions of CLEC3B in HCC remains elucidated. The aim of this study is to analyze the roles of CLEC3B in HCC. The expression of genes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry, western blot, real-time PCR, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, and analysis on TCGA-LIHC database and gene expression omnibus. Transmission electron microscopy and immunofluorescence were applied to detect CLEC3B in exosomes. The function of exosomal CLEC3B in tumor progression were performed in vivo and in vitro. We determined that down-regulated CLEC3B in HCC indicated a poor prognosis. Exosomes derived from HCC with down-regulated CLEC3B promoted migration, invasion, epithelial–mesenchymal transition of both tumor cells and endothelial cells (ECs). Moreover, the downregulation CLEC3B in exosomes suppressed VEGF secretion in both HCC cells and ECs, and eventually inhibited angiogenesis. Mechanistically, CLEC3B-mediated VEGF expression in tumor cells and ECs depends on the activation of AMPK signal pathway. This study demonstrates that CLEC3B acts as a novel independent prognostic factor, and CLEC3B in exosomes might be a potential therapeutic target for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • N822K- or V560G-mutated KIT activation preferentially occurs in lipid rafts of the Golgi apparatus in leukemia cells
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-04
    Yuuki Obata; Yasushi Hara; Isamu Shiina; Takatsugu Murata; Yasutaka Tasaki; Kyohei Suzuki; Keiichi Ito; Shou Tsugawa; Kouhei Yamawaki; Tsuyoshi Takahashi; Koji Okamoto; Toshirou Nishida; Ryo Abe

    KIT tyrosine kinase is expressed in mast cells, interstitial cells of Cajal, and hematopoietic cells. Permanently active KIT mutations lead these host cells to tumorigenesis, and to such diseases as mast cell leukemia (MCL), gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), and acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Recently, we reported that in MCL, KIT with mutations (D816V, human; D814Y, mouse) traffics to endolysosomes (EL), where it can then initiate oncogenic signaling. On the other hand, KIT mutants including KITD814Y in GIST accumulate on the Golgi, and from there, activate downstream. KIT mutations, such as N822K, have been found in 30% of core binding factor-AML (CBF-AML) patients. However, how the mutants are tyrosine-phosphorylated and where they activate downstream molecules remain unknown. Moreover, it is unclear whether a KIT mutant other than KITD816V in MCL is able to signal on EL. We used leukemia cell lines, such as Kasumi-1 (KITN822K, AML), SKNO-1 (KITN822K, AML), and HMC-1.1 (KITV560G, MCL), to explore how KIT transduces signals in these cells and to examine the signal platform for the mutants using immunofluorescence microscopy and inhibition of intracellular trafficking. In AML cell lines, KITN822K aberrantly localizes to EL. After biosynthesis, KIT traffics to the cell surface via the Golgi and immediately migrates to EL through endocytosis in a manner dependent on its kinase activity. However, results of phosphorylation imaging show that KIT is preferentially activated on the Golgi. Indeed, blockade of KITN822K migration to the Golgi with BFA/M-COPA inhibits the activation of KIT downstream molecules, such as AKT, ERK, and STAT5, indicating that KIT signaling occurs on the Golgi. Moreover, lipid rafts in the Golgi play a role in KIT signaling. Interestingly, KITV560G in HMC-1.1 migrates and activates downstream in a similar manner to KITN822K in Kasumi-1. In AML, KITN822K mislocalizes to EL. Our findings, however, suggest that the mutant transduces phosphorylation signals on lipid rafts of the Golgi in leukemia cells. Unexpectedly, the KITV560G signal platform in MCL is similar to that of KITN822K in AML. These observations provide new insights into the pathogenic role of KIT mutants as well as that of other mutant molecules.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • 4.1B suppresses cancer cell proliferation by binding to EGFR P13 region of intracellular juxtamembrane segment
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-06
    Fumin Xue; Chao An; Lixiang Chen; Gang Liu; Feifei Ren; Xinhua Guo; Haibin Sun; Lu Mei; Xiangdong Sun; Jinpeng Li; Youcai Tang; Xiuli An; Pengyuan Zheng

    Gastric cancer (GC) has high incidence and mortality worldwide. However, the underlying mechanisms that regulate gastric carcinogenesis are largely undefined. 4.1B is an adaptor protein found at the interface of membrane and the cytoskeleton. Previous studies demonstrated that 4.1B serves as tumor suppressor. We showed that 4.1B expression was decreased or lost in most GC patients. The expression pattern of it was tightly correlated with tumor size, TNM stage and overall survival (OS). We further showed that 4.1B inhibited the proliferation of two GC cell lines, MGC-803 and MKN-45, by impeding the EGFR/MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT pathways. A similar phenotype was also observed in immortalized mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) derived from wild type (WT) and 4.1B knock-out (BKO) mice. Additionally, immunofluorescence (IF) staining and Co-IP showed that protein 4.1B bound to EGFR. Furthermore, the FERM domain of 4.1B interacted with EGFR through the initial 13 amino acids (P13) of the intracellular juxtamembrane (JM) segment of EGFR. The binding of 4.1B to EGFR inhibited dimerization and autophosphorylation of EGFR. Our present work revealed that 4.1B plays important regulatory roles in the proliferation of GC cells by binding to EGFR and inhibiting EGFR function through an EGFR/MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. Our results provide novel insight into the mechanism of the development and progression of GC.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Ventricular Zone Expressed PH Domain Containing 1 (VEPH1): an adaptor protein capable of modulating multiple signaling transduction pathways during normal and pathological development
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Theodore J. Brown; Alexandra Kollara; Premalatha Shathasivam; Maurice J. Ringuette

    Ventricular Zone Expressed PH Domain-Containing 1 (VEPH1) is an 833-amino acid protein encoded by an evolutionarily conserved single-copy gene that emerged with pseudocoelomates. This gene has no paralog in any species identified to date and few studies have investigated the function of its encoded protein. Loss of expression of its ortholog, melted, in Drosophila results in a severe neural phenotype and impacts TOR, FoxO, and Hippo signaling. Studies in mammals indicate a role for VEPH1 in modulating TGFβ signaling and AKT activation, while numerous studies indicate VEPH1 expression is altered in several pathological conditions, including cancer. Although often referred to as an uncharacterized protein, available evidence supports VEPH1 as an adaptor protein capable of modulating multiple signal transduction networks. Further studies are required to define these adaptor functions and the role of VEPH1 in development and disease progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Nonlytic exocytosis of Cryptococcus neoformans from neutrophils in the brain vasculature
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-09
    Xiaofan Yang; Huijuan Wang; Fan Hu; Xichen Chen; Mingshun Zhang

    Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) is an encapsulated budding yeast that causes life-threatening meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised individuals, especially those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). To cause meningoencephalitis, C. neoformans circulating in the bloodstream must first be arrested in the brain microvasculature. Neutrophils, the most abundant phagocytes in the bloodstream and the first leukocytes to be recruited to an infection site, can ingest C. neoformans. Little is known about how neutrophils interact with arrested fungal cells in the brain microvasculature. A blood-brain barrier (BBB) in vitro model was established. The interactions between neutrophils adhering to brain endothelial cells and fungi were observed under a live cell imaging microscope. A flow cytometry assay was developed to explore the mechanisms. Immunofluorescence staining of brain tissues was utilized to validate the in vitro phenomena. Using real-time imaging, we observed that neutrophils adhered to a monolayer of mouse brain endothelial cells could expel ingested C. neoformans without lysis of the neutrophils or fungi in vitro, demonstrating nonlytic exocytosis of fungal cells from neutrophils. Furthermore, nonlytic exocytosis of C. neoformans from neutrophils was influenced by either the fungus (capsule and viability) or the neutrophil (phagosomal pH and actin polymerization). Moreover, nonlytic exocytosis of C. neoformans from neutrophils was recorded in brain tissue. These results highlight a novel function by which neutrophils extrude C. neoformans in the brain vasculature.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • CXCL1-LCN2 paracrine axis promotes progression of prostate cancer via the Src activation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Yongning Lu; Baijun Dong; Fan Xu; Yunze Xu; Jiahua Pan; Jiajia Song; Jin Zhang; Yiran Huang; Wei Xue

    Mechanisms driving the progression of castration-resistant prostate cancer are believed to relate substantially to the tumor microenvironment. However, the cross-talks between tumor epithelial cell, stromal cells, and immune cells are yet to be fully elucidated. The present study aims to determine the role of chemokine and neutrophil derived cytokine paracrine axis in mediating the interaction between tumor cells, stromal myofibroblasts, and neutrophils in the tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer. To identify myofibroblasts and neutrophil derived specific proteins affecting progression of prostate cancer, bioinformatics analyses were firstly performed in independent human prostate cancer gene expression data sets from the GEO data bank. Expression of stromal myofibroblasts secretory chemokine CXCL1 and neutrophil derived cytokine LCN2 was evaluated in prostate tissues via immunohistochemistry assay. We further investigated the effect of CXCL1 and LCN2 on prostate cancer using in vivo and in vitro models, and explored the underlying signal transduction pathways. A CXCL1-LCN2 paracrine network was confirmed in prostate cancer tissue samples, which was correlated with the biochemical recurrence of prostate cancer. Of note, CXCL1-LCN2 axis activates Src signaling, triggers the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), consequently promotes the migration of prostate cancer cells, leading to enhanced tumor metastasis. Our findings may provide enhanced insight into the interactions of carcinoma-stromal cells and immune cells linked to prostate cancer progression, wherein CXCL1-LCN2 axis is a key contributor to prostate cancer cells migration. These data indicate tumor microenvironment and Src signaling pathway may be potential therapeutic targets of prostate cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Fibroblast-derived CXCL12 regulates PTEN expression and is associated with the proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells via PI3k/Akt signaling
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-10
    Jiachi Ma; Xiaowen Sun; Yimin Wang; Bangling Chen; Liyu Qian; Yaguo Wang

    Stromal-derived CXCL12 play an important role which influence the proliferation and invasiveness of colon cancer in microenvironment. The present study aimed to analyze the underlying mechanism by which CXCL12 and tumour suppressor protein phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted on chromosome 10 (PTEN) influences the metastatic potential of colon cancer and internal relation of colon cancer and stromal cells. RT-PCR and western blot were detected the expression of CXCL12, CXCR4 and PTEN in colon cancer cells and stromal cells. The co-operative effects of CXCL12 and PTEN on proliferation and invasion of colon cancer cells were evaluated by real-time PCR, proliferation and invasion assays using an in vitro system consisting of co-cultured cancer cells and stromal cells. We eventually investigated activation of PI3K/Akt signaling by CXCL12 regulate PTEN and involved in the metastatic process of colon cancer. In addition, we also examine how the knockdown of PTEN influences proliferation and invasion and correlate with CXCL12/CXCR4/PI3K/Akt, determination of PTEN up-down-stream targets that preferentially contribute to tumorigenesis. Blockage of PTEN phosphorylation led to a stronger enhancement of cell proliferation and invasion upon stimulation with CXCL12 via its activation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Furthermore, knockdown of PTEN by siRNA transfection was also found to enhance the activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway, thereby promoting cell invasion and proliferation. CXCL12 induced transcriptional down-regulation of activated PTEN and this signaling pathway promotes cell survival. CXCL12/CXCR4/PI3K/Akt cascade may be critical for colon cancer cells to metastasize. Based on our results, we suggest that the modification of CXCR4, PTEN, or PI3K function might be promising new therapeutic approaches to inhibit the aggressive spread of colon cancer.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Dual roles and therapeutic potential of Keap1-Nrf2 pathway in pancreatic cancer: a systematic review
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-11
    Jiang-Jiang Qin; Xiang-Dong Cheng; Jia Zhang; Wei-Dong Zhang

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most fatal diseases with a very high rate of metastasis and low rate of survival. Despite the advances in understanding this devastating disease, PC still accounts for 3% of all cancers and causes almost 7% of death of cancer patients. Recent studies have demonstrated that the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and its key negative regulator Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) are dysregulated in PC and the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway is an emerging target for PC prevention and therapy. Indeed, Nrf2 plays an either tumor-suppressive or promoting function in PC, which depends on the developmental stages of the disease and the cellular context. Several natural-product Nrf2 activators have been developed to prevent pancreatic carcinogenesis, while the Nrf2 inhibitors have been examined for their efficacy in inhibiting PC growth and metastasis and reversing chemoresistance. However, further preclinical and clinical studies for determining the effectiveness and safety of targeting the Keap1-Nrf2 pathway for PC prevention and therapy are warranted. In this review, we comprehensively discuss the dual roles of the Keap1-Nrf2 signaling pathway in PC as well as the current targeting strategies and known activators and inhibitors of Nrf2. We also propose new strategies that may be used to address the current issues and develop more specific and more effective Nrf2 activator/inhibitors for PC prevention and therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • cAMP- and cGMP-elevating agents inhibit GPIbα-mediated aggregation but not GPIbα-stimulated Syk activation in human platelets
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-13
    Stephanie Makhoul; Katharina Trabold; Stepan Gambaryan; Stefan Tenzer; Daniele Pillitteri; Ulrich Walter; Kerstin Jurk

    The glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX-V complex is a unique platelet plasma membrane receptor, which is essential for platelet adhesion and thrombus formation. GPIbα, part of the GPIb-IX-V complex, has several physiological ligands such as von Willebrand factor (vWF), thrombospondin and distinct coagulation factors, which trigger platelet activation. Despite having an important role, intracellular GPIb-IX-V signaling and its regulation by other pathways are not well defined. Our aim was to establish the intracellular signaling response of selective GPIbα activation in human platelets, in particular the role of the tyrosine kinase Syk and its regulation by cAMP/PKA and cGMP/PKG pathways, respectively. We addressed this using echicetin beads (EB), which selectively bind to GPIbα and induce platelet aggregation. Purified echicetin from snake Echis carinatus venom was validated by mass spectrometry. Washed human platelets were incubated with EB, in the presence or absence of echicetin monomers (EM), Src family kinase (SFK) inhibitors, Syk inhibitors and the cAMP- and cGMP-elevating agents iloprost and riociguat, respectively. Platelet aggregation was analyzed by light transmission aggregometry, protein phosphorylation by immunoblotting. Intracellular messengers inositolmonophosphate (InsP1) and Ca2+i were measured by ELISA and Fluo-3 AM/FACS, respectively. EB-induced platelet aggregation was dependent on integrin αIIbβ3 and secondary mediators ADP and TxA2, and was antagonized by EM. EB stimulated Syk tyrosine phosphorylation at Y352, which was SFK-dependent and Syk-independent, whereas Y525/526 phosphorylation was SFK-dependent and partially Syk-dependent. Furthermore, phosphorylation of both Syk Y352 and Y525/526 was completely integrin αIIbβ3-independent but, in the case of Y525/526, was partially ADP/TxA2-dependent. Syk activation, observed as Y352/ Y525/Y526 phosphorylation, led to the phosphorylation of direct substrates (LAT Y191, PLCγ2 Y759) and additional targets (Akt S473). PKA/PKG pathways inhibited EB-induced platelet aggregation and Akt phosphorylation but, surprisingly, enhanced Syk and LAT/PLCγ2 tyrosine phosphorylation. A similar PKA/PKG effect was confirmed with convulxin−/GPVI-stimulated platelets. EB-induced InsP1 accumulation/InsP3 production and Ca2+-release were Syk-dependent, but only partially inhibited by PKA/PKG pathways. EB and EM are specific agonists and antagonists, respectively, of GPIbα-mediated Syk activation leading to platelet aggregation. The cAMP/PKA and cGMP/PKG pathways do not inhibit but enhance GPIbα−/GPVI-initiated, SFK-dependent Syk activation, but strongly inhibit further downstream responses including aggregation. These data establish an important intracellular regulatory network induced by GPIbα.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Abi1 loss drives prostate tumorigenesis through activation of EMT and non-canonical WNT signaling
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Disharee Nath; Xiang Li; Claudia Mondragon; Dawn Post; Ming Chen; Julie R. White; Anita Hryniewicz-Jankowska; Tiffany Caza; Vladimir A. Kuznetsov; Heidi Hehnly; Tamara Jamaspishvili; David M. Berman; Fan Zhang; Sonia H. Y. Kung; Ladan Fazli; Martin E. Gleave; Gennady Bratslavsky; Pier Paolo Pandolfi; Leszek Kotula

    Prostate cancer development involves various mechanisms, which are poorly understood but pointing to epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) as the key mechanism in progression to metastatic disease. ABI1, a member of WAVE complex and actin cytoskeleton regulator and adaptor protein, acts as tumor suppressor in prostate cancer but the role of ABI1 in EMT is not clear. To investigate the molecular mechanism by which loss of ABI1 contributes to tumor progression, we disrupted the ABI1 gene in the benign prostate epithelial RWPE-1 cell line and determined its phenotype. Levels of ABI1 expression in prostate organoid tumor cell lines was evaluated by Western blotting and RNA sequencing. ABI1 expression and its association with prostate tumor grade was evaluated in a TMA cohort of 505 patients and metastatic cell lines. Low ABI1 expression is associated with biochemical recurrence, metastasis and death (p = 0.038). Moreover, ABI1 expression was significantly decreased in Gleason pattern 5 vs. pattern 4 (p = 0.0025) and 3 (p = 0.0012), indicating an association between low ABI1 expression and highly invasive prostate tumors. Disruption of ABI1 gene in RWPE-1 cell line resulted in gain of an invasive phenotype, which was characterized by a loss of cell-cell adhesion markers and increased migratory ability of RWPE-1 spheroids. Through RNA sequencing and protein expression analysis, we discovered that ABI1 loss leads to activation of non-canonical WNT signaling and EMT pathways, which are rescued by re-expression of ABI1. Furthermore, an increase in STAT3 phosphorylation upon ABI1 inactivation and the evidence of a high-affinity interaction between the FYN SH2 domain and ABI1 pY421 support a model in which ABI1 acts as a gatekeeper of non-canonical WNT-EMT pathway activation downstream of the FZD2 receptor. ABI1 controls prostate tumor progression and epithelial plasticity through regulation of EMT-WNT pathway. Here we discovered that ABI1 inhibits EMT through suppressing FYN-STAT3 activation downstream from non-canonical WNT signaling thus providing a novel mechanism of prostate tumor suppression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Pharmacological and functional similarities of the human neuropeptide Y system in C. elegans challenges phylogenetic views on the FLP/NPR system
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-09-18
    Miron Mikhailowitsch Gershkovich; Victoria Elisabeth Groß; Anette Kaiser; Simone Prömel

    The neuropeptide Y system affects various processes, among others food intake, and is frequently discussed in the context of targeting obesity. Studies in model organisms are indispensable to enable molecular studies in a physiological context. Although the NPY system is evolutionarily conserved in all bilaterians, in the widely used model Caenorhabditis elegans there is controversy on the existence of NPY orthologous molecules. While the FMRFamide-like peptide (FLP)/Neuropeptide receptor-Resemblance (NPR) system in the nematode was initially suggested to be orthologous to the mammalian NPY system, later global phylogenetic studies indicate that FLP/NPR is protostome-specific. We performed a comprehensive pharmacological study of the FLP/NPR system in transfected cells in vitro, and tested for functional substitution in C. elegans knockout strains. Further, we phenotypically compared different flp loss-of-function strains. Differences between groups were compared by ANOVA and post-hoc testing (Dunnett, Bonferroni). Our pharmacological analysis of the FLP/NPR system including formerly functionally uncharacterized NPY-like peptides from C. elegans demonstrates that G protein-coupling and ligand requirements for receptor activation are similar to the human NPY system. In vitro and in vivo analyses show cross-reactivity of NPY with the FLP/NPR system manifesting in the ability of the human GPCRs to functionally substitute FLP/NPR signaling in vivo. The high pharmacological/functional similarities enabled us to identify C. elegans FLP-14 as a key molecule in avoidance behavior. Our data demonstrate the pharmacological and functional similarities of human NPY and C. elegans NPR systems. This adds a novel perspective to current phylogenetic reconstructions of the neuropeptide Y system. NPY and NPR receptors are pharmacologically so similar that the human receptors can functionally compensate for the C. elegans ones, suggesting orthologous relationships. This is also underlined by the presence of NPY-like peptides and parallels in peptide requirements for receptor activation. Further, the results presented here highlight the potential of this knowledge for physiological as well as molecular studies on neuropeptide GPCRs such as the NPY system in the future.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Identification of Cancer–associated metabolic vulnerabilities by modeling multi-objective optimality in metabolism
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-10
    Ziwei Dai; Shiyu Yang; Liyan Xu; Hongrong Hu; Kun Liao; Jianghuang Wang; Qian Wang; Shuaishi Gao; Bo Li; Luhua Lai

    Cancer cells undergo global reprogramming of cellular metabolism to satisfy demands of energy and biomass during proliferation and metastasis. Computational modeling of genome-scale metabolic models is an effective approach for designing new therapeutics targeting dysregulated cancer metabolism by identifying metabolic enzymes crucial for satisfying metabolic goals of cancer cells, but nearly all previous studies neglect the existence of metabolic demands other than biomass synthesis and trade-offs between these contradicting metabolic demands. It is thus necessary to develop computational models covering multiple metabolic objectives to study cancer metabolism and identify novel metabolic targets. We developed a multi-objective optimization model for cancer cell metabolism at genome-scale and an integrated, data-driven workflow for analyzing the Pareto optimality of this model in achieving multiple metabolic goals and identifying metabolic enzymes crucial for maintaining cancer-associated metabolic phenotypes. Using this workflow, we constructed cell line-specific models for a panel of cancer cell lines and identified lists of metabolic targets promoting or suppressing cancer cell proliferation or the Warburg Effect. The targets were then validated using knockdown and over-expression experiments in cultured cancer cell lines. We found that the multi-objective optimization model correctly predicted phenotypes including cell growth rates, essentiality of metabolic genes and cell line specific sensitivities to metabolic perturbations. To our surprise, metabolic enzymes promoting proliferation substantially overlapped with those suppressing the Warburg Effect, suggesting that simply targeting the overlapping enzymes may lead to complicated outcomes. We also identified lists of metabolic enzymes important for maintaining rapid proliferation or high Warburg Effect while having little effect on the other. The importance of these enzymes in cancer metabolism predicted by the model was validated by their association with cancer patient survival and knockdown and overexpression experiments in a variety of cancer cell lines. These results confirm this multi-objective optimization model as a novel and effective approach for studying trade-off between metabolic demands of cancer cells and identifying cancer-associated metabolic vulnerabilities, and suggest novel metabolic targets for cancer treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Transcriptional activation of CBFβ by CDK11p110 is necessary to promote osteosarcoma cell proliferation
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-14
    Yong Feng; Yunfei Liao; Jianming Zhang; Jacson Shen; Zengwu Shao; Francis Hornicek; Zhenfeng Duan

    Aberrant expression of cyclin-dependent protein kinases (CDK) is a hallmark of cancer. CDK11 plays a crucial role in cancer cell growth and proliferation. However, the molecular mechanisms of CDK11 and CDK11 transcriptionally regulated genes are largely unknown. In this study, we performed a global transcriptional analysis using gene array technology to investigate the transcriptional role of CDK11 in osteosarcoma. The promoter luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and Gel Shift assay were used to identify direct transcriptional targets of CDK11. Clinical relevance and function of core-binding factor subunit beta (CBFβ) were further accessed in osteosarcoma. We identified a transcriptional role of protein-DNA interaction for CDK11p110, but not CDK11p58, in the regulation of CBFβ expression in osteosarcoma cells. The CBFβ promoter luciferase assay, chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, and Gel Shift assay confirmed that CBFβ is a direct transcriptional target of CDK11. High expression of CBFβ is associated with poor outcome in osteosarcoma patients. Expression of CBFβ contributes to the proliferation and metastatic behavior of osteosarcoma cells. These data establish CBFβ as a mediator of CDK11p110 dependent oncogenesis and suggest that targeting the CDK11- CBFβ pathway may be a promising therapeutic strategy for osteosarcoma treatment.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Distribution, dynamics and functional roles of phosphatidylserine within the cell
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-15
    Jason G. Kay; Gregory D. Fairn

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer), an essential constituent of eukaryotic membranes, is the most abundant anionic phospholipid in the eukaryotic cell accounting for up to 10% of the total cellular lipid. Much of what is known about PtdSer is the role exofacial PtdSer plays in apoptosis and blood clotting. However, PtdSer is generally not externally exposed in healthy cells and plays a vital role in several intracellular signaling pathways, though relatively little is known about the precise subcellular localization, transmembrane topology and intracellular dynamics of PtdSer within the cell. The recent development of new, genetically-encoded probes able to detect phosphatidylserine is leading to a more in-depth understanding of the biology of this phospholipid. This review aims to give an overview of recent developments in our understanding of the role of PtdSer in intracellular signaling events derived from the use of these recently developed methods of phosphatidylserine detection.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Phloretin attenuates STAT-3 activity and overcomes sorafenib resistance targeting SHP-1–mediated inhibition of STAT3 and Akt/VEGFR2 pathway in hepatocellular carcinoma
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Sarita Saraswati; Abdulqader Alhaider; Abdelgalil Mohamed Abdelgadir; Pooja Tanwer; Hesham M. Korashy

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver malignancy. Phloretin (PH) possesses anticancer, antitumor, and hepatoprotective effects, however, the effects and potential mechanisms of phloretin remain elusive. Five HCC cells were tested in vitro for sensitivity to PH, Sorafenib (Sor) or both and the apoptosis, signal transduction and phosphatase activity were analyzed. To validate the role of SHP-1, we used PTP inhibitor III and SHP-1 siRNA. Further, we used purified SHP-1 proteins or HCC cells expressing deletion N-SH2 domain or D61A point mutants to study the PH efficacy on SHP-1. The `in vivo studies were conducted using HepG2 and SK-Hep1 and Sor resistant HepG2SR and Huh7SR xenografts. Molecular docking was done with Swiss dock and Auto Dock Vina. PH inhibited cell growth and induced apoptosis in all HCC cells by upregulating SHP-1 expression and downregulating STAT3 expression and further inhibited pAKT/pERK signaling. PH activated SHP-1 by disruption of autoinhibition of SHP-1, leading to reduced p-STAT3Tyr705 level. PH induced apoptosis in two Sor-resistant cell lines and overcome STAT3, AKT, MAPK and VEGFR2 dependent Sor resistance in HCCs. PH potently inhibited tumor growth in both Sor-sensitive and Sor-resistant xenografts in vivo by impairing angiogenesis, cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis via targeting the SHP-1/STAT3 signaling pathway. Our data suggest that PH inhibits STAT3 activity in Sor-sensitive and -resistant HCCs via SHP-1–mediated inhibition of STAT3 and AKT/mTOR/JAK2/VEGFR2 pathway. Our results clearly indicate that PH may be a potent reagent for hepatocellular carcinoma and a noveltargeted therapy for further clinical investigations.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Linoleic acid improves assembly of the CII subunit and CIII2/CIV complex of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system in heart failure
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-16
    Satoshi Maekawa; Shingo Takada; Hideo Nambu; Takaaki Furihata; Naoya Kakutani; Daiki Setoyama; Yasushi Ueyanagi; Dongchon Kang; Hisataka Sabe; Shintaro Kinugawa

    Linoleic acid is the major fatty acid moiety of cardiolipin, which is central to the assembly of components involved in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Although linoleic acid is an essential nutrient, its excess intake is harmful to health. On the other hand, linoleic acid has been shown to prevent the reduction in cardiolipin content and to improve mitochondrial function in aged rats with spontaneous hypertensive heart failure (HF). In this study, we found that lower dietary intake of linoleic acid in HF patients statistically correlates with greater severity of HF, and we investigated the mechanisms therein involved. HF patients, who were classified as New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class I (n = 45), II (n = 93), and III (n = 15), were analyzed regarding their dietary intakes of different fatty acids during the one month prior to the study. Then, using a mouse model of HF, we confirmed reduced cardiolipin levels in their cardiac myocytes, and then analyzed the mechanisms by which dietary supplementation of linoleic acid improves cardiac malfunction of mitochondria. The dietary intake of linoleic acid was significantly lower in NYHA III patients, as compared to NYHA II patients. In HF model mice, both CI-based and CII-based OXPHOS activities were affected together with reduced cardiolipin levels. Silencing of CRLS1, which encodes cardiolipin synthetase, in cultured cardiomyocytes phenocopied these events. Feeding HF mice with linoleic acid improved both CI-based and CII-based respiration as well as left ventricular function, together with an increase in cardiolipin levels. However, although assembly of the respirasome (i.e., CI/CIII2/CIV complex), as well as assembly of CII subunits and the CIII2/CIV complex statistically correlated with cardiolipin levels in cultured cardiomyocytes, respirasome assembly was not notably restored by dietary linoleic acid in HF mice. Therefore, although linoleic acid may significantly improve both CI-based and CII-based respiration of cardiomyocytes, respirasomes impaired by HF were not easily repaired by the dietary intake of linoleic acid. Dietary supplement of linoleic acid is beneficial for improving cardiac malfunction in HF, but is unable to completely cure HF.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Induction of LEF1 by MYC activates the WNT pathway and maintains cell proliferation
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-17
    Yi-Heng Hao; M. Carmen Lafita-Navarro; Lauren Zacharias; Nofit Borenstein-Auerbach; Min Kim; Spencer Barnes; Jiwoong Kim; Jerry Shay; Ralph J. DeBerardinis; Maralice Conacci-Sorrell

    While regulated WNT activity is required for normal development and stem cell maintenance, mutations that lead to constitutive activation of the WNT pathway cause cellular transformation and drive colorectal cancer. Activation of the WNT pathway ultimately leads to the nuclear translocation of β-catenin which, in complex with TCF/LEF factors, promotes the transcription of genes necessary for growth. The proto-oncogene MYC is one of the most critical genes activated downstream the WNT pathway in colon cancer. Here, we investigate the converse regulation of the WNT pathway by MYC. We performed RNA-seq analyses to identify genes regulated in cells expressing MYC. We validated the regulation of genes in the WNT pathway including LEF1 by MYC using RT-qPCR, Western blotting, and ChIP-seq. We investigated the importance of LEF1 for the viability of MYC-expressing cells in in fibroblasts, epithelial cells, and colon cells. Bioinformatic analyses were utilized to define the expression of MYC-regulated genes in human colon cancer and metabolomics analyses were used to identify pathways regulated by LEF1 in MYC expressing cells. MYC regulates the levels of numerous WNT-related genes, including the β-catenin co-transcription factor LEF1. MYC activates the transcription of LEF1 and is required for LEF1 expression in colon cancer cells and in primary colonic cells transformed by APC loss of function, a common mutation in colon cancer patients. LEF1 caused the retention of β-catenin in the nucleus, leading to the activation of the WNT pathway in MYC-expressing cells. Consequently, MYC-expressing cells were sensitive to LEF1 inhibition. Moreover, we describe two examples of genes induced in MYC-expressing cells that require LEF1 activity: the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor delta (PPARδ) and the Acyl CoA dehydrogenase 9 (ACAD9). We demonstrated that MYC is a transcriptional regulator of LEF1 in colonic cells. Our work proposes a novel pathway by which MYC regulates proliferation through activating LEF1 expression which in turn activates the WNT pathway.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: MIIP inhibits the growth of prostate cancer via interaction with PP1α and negative modulation of AKT signaling
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Guang Yan; Yi Ru; Fengqi Yan; Xin Xiong; Wei Hu; Tao Pan; Jianming Sun; Chi Zhang; Qinhao Wang; Xia Li

    Following publication of the original article [1], the authors reported that the given name of Qinhao Wang was incorrectly published as Qinghao Wang. The original article has been corrected.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Inhibition of the key metabolic pathways, glycolysis and lipogenesis, of oral cancer by bitter melon extract
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Subhayan Sur; Hiroshi Nakanishi; Colin Flaveny; Joseph E. Ippolito; Jane McHowat; David A. Ford; Ratna B. Ray

    Metabolic reprogramming is one of the hallmarks of cancer which favours rapid energy production, biosynthetic capabilities and therapy resistance. In our previous study, we showed bitter melon extract (BME) prevents carcinogen induced mouse oral cancer. RNA sequence analysis from mouse tongue revealed a significant modulation in “Metabolic Process” by altering glycolysis and lipid metabolic pathways in BME fed group as compared to cancer group. In present study, we evaluated the effect of BME on glycolysis and lipid metabolism pathways in human oral cancer cells. Cal27 and JHU022 cells were treated with BME. RNA and protein expression were analysed for modulation of glycolytic and lipogenesis genes by quantitative real-time PCR, western blot analyses and immunofluorescence. Lactate and pyruvate level was determined by GC/MS. Extracellular acidification and glycolytic rate were measured using the Seahorse XF analyser. Shotgun lipidomics in Cal27 and JHU022 cell lines following BME treatment was performed by ESI/ MS. ROS was measured by FACS. Treatment with BME on oral cancer cell lines significantly reduced mRNA and protein expression levels of key glycolytic genes SLC2A1 (GLUT-1), PFKP, LDHA, PKM and PDK3. Pyruvate and lactate levels and glycolysis rate were reduced in oral cancer cells following BME treatment. In lipogenesis pathway, we observed a significant reduction of genes involves in fatty acid biogenesis, ACLY, ACC1 and FASN, at the mRNA and protein levels following BME treatment. Further, BME treatment significantly reduced phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and plasmenylethanolamine, and reduced iPLA2 activity. Additionally, BME treatment inhibited lipid raft marker flotillin expression and altered its subcellular localization. ER-stress associated CHOP expression and generation of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species were induced by BME, which facilitated apoptosis. Our study revealed that bitter melon extract inhibits glycolysis and lipid metabolism and induces ER and oxidative stress-mediated cell death in oral cancer. Thus, BME-mediated metabolic reprogramming of oral cancer cells will have important preventive and therapeutic implications along with conventional therapies.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Roles of phosphatidylserine exposed on the viral envelope and cell membrane in HIV-1 replication
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-21
    Bernadette Anne Chua; Jamie Ann Ngo; Kathy Situ; Kouki Morizono

    Phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) is usually present only in the inner leaf of the lipid bilayers of the cell membrane, but is exposed on the outer leaf when cells are activated and/or die. Exposure of PtdSer has physiological functions. For example, the PtdSer exposed on dead cells can serve as “eat-me signals” for phagocytes to clear dead cells by phagocytosis, which prevents autoimmune reactions and inflammation. HIV-1 induces PtdSer exposure on infected and target cells and it also exposes PtdSer on its envelope. Recent studies showed that PtdSer exposed on the HIV-1 envelope and infected and target cells can facilitate or inhibit multiple steps of HIV-1 replication. At the virus binding and entry steps, interaction of the envelope PtdSer and the host’s PtdSer-binding molecules can enhance HIV-1 infection of cells by facilitating virus attachment. At the virus budding step, HIV-1 can be trapped on the cell surface by one family of PtdSer-binding receptors, T-cell immunoglobulin mucin domain proteins (TIM)-1, 3, and 4 expressed on virus producer cells. Although this trapping can inhibit release of HIV-1, one of the HIV-1 accessory gene products, Negative Factor (Nef), can counteract virus trapping by TIM family receptors (TIMs) by inducing the internalization of these receptors. HIV-1 infection can induce exposure of PtdSer on infected cells by inducing cell death. A soluble PtdSer-binding protein in serum, protein S, bridges PtdSer exposed on HIV-1-infected cells and a receptor tyrosine kinase, Mer, expressed on macrophages and mediate phagocytic clearance of HIV-1 infected cells. HIV-1 can also induce exposure of PtdSer on target cells at the virus binding step. Binding of HIV-1 envelope proteins to its receptor (CD4) and co-receptors (CXCR4 or CCR5) elicit signals that induce PtdSer exposure on target cells by activating TMEM16F, a phospholipid scramblase. PtdSer exposed on target cells enhances HIV-1 infection by facilitating fusion between the viral envelope and target cell membrane. Because various other phospholipid channels mediating PtdSer exposure have recently been identified, it will be of interest to examine how HIV-1 actively interacts with these molecules to manipulate PtdSer exposure levels on cells and viral envelope to support its replication.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Notch pathway: a bistable inducer of biological noise?
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Filip Vujovic; Neil Hunter; Ramin M. Farahani

    Notch signalling pathway is central to development of metazoans. The pathway codes a binary fate switch. Upon activation, downstream signals contribute to resolution of fate dichotomies such as proliferation/differentiation or sub-lineage differentiation outcome. There is, however, an interesting paradox in the Notch signalling pathway. Despite remarkable predictability of fate outcomes instructed by the Notch pathway, the associated transcriptome is versatile and plastic. This inconsistency suggests the presence of an interface that compiles input from the plastic transcriptome of the Notch pathway but communicates only a binary output in biological decisions. Herein, we address the interface that determines fate outcomes. We provide an alternative hypothesis for the Notch pathway as a biological master switch that operates by induction of genetic noise and bistability in order to facilitate resolution of dichotomous fate outcomes in development.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Notch1-ADAM8 positive feed-back loop regulates the degradation of chondrogenic extracellular matrix and osteoarthritis progression
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-22
    Biao Duan; Yan Liu; He Hu; Fu-Guo Shi; Ya-Long Liu; Hao Xue; Xin-Yu Yun; Ming-Yu Yan; Xi-Rui Han; An-Fu Chen; Yong Wang; Zhe-Hai Li

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the most prevalent joint disease, and there are still no effective therapeutic agents or clinical methods for the cure of this disease to date. The degradation of cartilage extracellular matrix (ECM) is a major cause of OA. IL-1β was used to induce chondrogenic degradation. Q-PCR and Western blotting were used to detect mRNA and protein level, respectively. ELISA was used to detect the secreted TNF-α and IL-6 level. Immunofluorescence was used to detect the protein level of Aggrecan, Collagen II and ki67. TUNEL and flow cytometry were used to examine cell apoptosis of chondrocytes. ChIP and luciferase assay were used to study molecular gene regulation. Osteoarthritic animal model and Safranin-O staining were used to determine the in vivo OA phenotype. The expression of ADAM8 was up-regulated in osteoarthritic chondrocytes. Knockdown of ADAM8 suppressed the OA phenotype in the in vitro OA cell model. ADAM8 regulated OA progression through the activation of EGFR/ERK/NF-κB signaling pathway. Inhibition of Notch signaling suppressed OA phenotype in the in vitro OA cell model. Notch signaling regulated the gene expression of ADAM8 directly via Hes1. Notch1-ADAM8 positive feedback loop promoted the progression of OA in vivo. Notch1-ADAM8 feed-back loop regulates the degradation of chondrogenic extracellular matrix and osteoarthritis progression.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The multi-site docking protein Grb2-associated binder 1 (Gab1) enhances interleukin-6-induced MAPK-pathway activation in an SHP2-, Grb2-, and time-dependent manner
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-24
    Hannes Bongartz; Karen Gille; Wiebke Hessenkemper; Katharina Mandel; Marc Lewitzky; Stephan M. Feller; Fred Schaper

    Cytokine-dependent activation of signalling pathways is tightly orchestrated. The spatiotemporal activation of signalling pathways dictates the specific physiological responses to cytokines. Dysregulated signalling accounts for neoplastic, developmental, and inflammatory diseases. Grb2-associated binder (Gab) family proteins are multi-site docking proteins, which expand cytokine-induced signal transduction in a spatial- and time-dependent manner by coordinating the recruitment of proteins involved in mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) and phosphatidyl-inositol-3-kinase (PI3K) signalling. Interaction of Gab family proteins with these signalling proteins determines strength, duration and localization of active signalling cascades. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of signal orchestration by Gab family proteins in IL-6-induced signalling are only scarcely understood. We performed kinetic analyses of interleukin-6 (IL-6)-induced MAPK activation and analysed downstream responses. We compared signalling in wild-type cells, Gab1 knock-out cells, those reconstituted to express Gab1 mutants, and cells expressing gp130 receptors or receptor mutants. Interleukin-6-induced MAPK pathway activation can be sub-divided into an early Gab1-independent and a subsequent Gab1-dependent phase. Early Gab1-independent MAPK activation is critical for the subsequent initiation of Gab1-dependent amplification of MAPK pathway activation and requires binding of SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 2 (SHP2) to the interleukin-6 receptor complex. Subsequent and coordinated recruitment of Grb2 and SHP2 to Gab1 is essential for Gab1-dependent amplification of IL-6-induced late MAPK pathway activation and subsequent gene expression. Overall, we elaborated the molecular requirements for Gab1-dependent, spatiotemporal orchestration of interleukin-6-dependent MAPK signalling. We discriminated IL-6-induced Gab1-independent, early activation of MAPK signalling and Gab1-dependent, sustained activation of MAPK signalling.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • The PPAR-γ antagonist T007 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and counteracts OVX-induced bone loss in mice
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-26
    Xiang Li; Lei Ning; Jianjun Ma; Ziang Xie; Xiangde Zhao; Gangliang Wang; Xinyu Wan; Pengcheng Qiu; Teng Yao; Haoming Wang; Shunwu Fan; Shuanglin Wan

    Osteoclasts are key determinant cellular components implicated in the development and progression of disorders driven by bone damage. Herein, we studied the upshot of T007, an antagonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ), on osteoclastogenesis using cell and animal models. The in vitro assays revealed that T007 hindered the osteoclastogenesis caused by the treatment with the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) through inhibiting the levels of PPARγ in cells. The PPARγ siRNA partially reproduced the inhibitory action of T007. The opposite findings were produced after PPARγ overexpression. Furthermore, T007 prevented from bone loss in a mouse model of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy (OVX). These findings implied that T007 is a potential efficient drug for the prophylaxis and cure of osteoclast-related disorders. Taken together, our findings demonstrated that T007 impedes osteoclastogenesis and will be useful for the therapy of bone related diseases, essentially osteoporosis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Targeting PKCι-PAK1 signaling pathways in EGFR and KRAS mutant adenocarcinoma and lung squamous cell carcinoma
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-28
    Masaoki Ito; Carles Codony-Servat; Jordi Codony-Servat; David Lligé; Imane Chaib; Xiaoyan Sun; Jing Miao; Rongwei Sun; Xueting Cai; Alberto Verlicchi; Morihito Okada; Miguel Angel Molina-Vila; Niki Karachaliou; Peng Cao; Rafael Rosell

    p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) stimulates growth and metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Protein kinase C iota (PKCι) is an enzyme highly expressed in NSCLC, regulating PAK1 signaling. In the present study we explored whether the PKCι-PAK1 signaling pathway approach can be an efficient target in different types of NSCLC cell and mouse models. The effect of IPA-3 (PAK1 inhibitor) plus auranofin (PKCι inhibitor) combination was evaluated by cell viability assay, colony formation and western blotting assay, using three types of NSCLC cell lines: EGFR or KRAS mutant adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma with PAK1 amplification. In addition, for clinical availability, screening for new PAK1 inhibitors was carried out and the compound OTSSP167 was evaluated in combination with auranofin in cell and mice models. The combination of IPA-3 or OTSSP167 plus auranofin showed high synergism for inhibiting cell viability and colony formation in three cell lines. Mechanistic characterization revealed that this drug combination abrogated expression and activation of membrane receptors and downstream signaling proteins crucial in lung cancer: EGFR, MET, PAK1, PKCι, ERK1/2, AKT, YAP1 and mTOR. A nude mouse xenograft assay demonstrated that this drug combination strongly suppressed tumor volume compared with single drug treatment. Combination of IPA-3 or OTSSP167 and auranofin was highly synergistic in EGFR or KRAS mutant adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma cell lines and decreased tumor volume in mice models. It is of interest to further test the targeting of PKCι-PAK1 signaling pathways in EGFR mutant, KRAS mutant and squamous NSCLC patients.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Correction to: Transcriptional activation of CBFβ by CDK11p110 is necessary to promote osteosarcoma cell proliferation
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Yong Feng; Yunfei Liao; Jianming Zhang; Jacson Shen; Zengwu Shao; Francis Hornicek; Zhenfeng Duan

    Following publication of the original article [1], it was reported that Figs. 4 and 5 were not updated during the production process.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Flipping the dogma – phosphatidylserine in non-apoptotic cell death
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-10-29
    Inbar Shlomovitz; Mary Speir; Motti Gerlic

    The exposure of phosphatidylserine (PS) on the outer plasma membrane has long been considered a unique feature of apoptotic cells. Together with other “eat me” signals, it enables the recognition and phagocytosis of dying cells (efferocytosis), helping to explain the immunologically-silent nature of apoptosis. Recently, however, PS exposure has also been reported in non-apoptotic forms of regulated inflammatory cell death, such as necroptosis, challenging previous dogma. In this review, we outline the evidence for PS exposure in non-apoptotic cells and extracellular vesicles (EVs), and discuss possible mechanisms based on our knowledge of apoptotic-PS exposure. In addition, we examine the outcomes of non-apoptotic PS exposure, including the reversibility of cell death, efferocytosis, and consequent inflammation. By examining PS biology, we challenge the established approach of distinguishing apoptosis from other cell death pathways by AnnexinV staining of PS externalization. Finally, we re-evaluate how PS exposure is thought to define apoptosis as an immunologically silent process distinct from other non-apoptotic and inflammatory cell death pathways. Ultimately, we suggest that a complete understanding of how regulated cell death processes affect the immune system is far from being fully elucidated.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • GREM1 is associated with metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in ER-negative breast cancer patients
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Ulrike Neckmann; Camilla Wolowczyk; Martina Hall; Eivind Almaas; Jiang Ren; Sen Zhao; Bjarne Johannessen; Rolf I. Skotheim; Geir Bjørkøy; Peter ten Dijke; Toril Holien

    In breast cancer, activation of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and elevated levels of BMP-antagonists have been linked to tumor progression and metastasis. However, the simultaneous upregulation of BMPs and their antagonist, and the fact that both promote tumor aggressiveness seems contradictory and is not fully understood. We analyzed the transcriptomes of the metastatic 66cl4 and the non-metastatic 67NR cell lines of the 4T1 mouse mammary tumor model to search for factors that promote metastasis. CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing was used for mechanistic studies in the same cell lines. Furthermore, we analyzed gene expression patterns in human breast cancer biopsies obtained from public datasets to evaluate co-expression and possible relations to clinical outcome. We found that mRNA levels of the BMP-antagonist Grem1, encoding gremlin1, and the ligand Bmp4 were both significantly upregulated in cells and primary tumors of 66cl4 compared to 67NR. Depletion of gremlin1 in 66cl4 could impair metastasis to the lungs in this model. Furthermore, we found that expression of Grem1 correlated with upregulation of several stem cell markers in 66cl4 cells compared to 67NR cells. Both in the mouse model and in patients, expression of GREM1 associated with extracellular matrix organization, and formation, biosynthesis and modification of collagen. Importantly, high expression of GREM1 predicted poor prognosis in estrogen receptor negative breast cancer patients. Analyses of large patient cohorts revealed that amplification of genes encoding BMP-antagonists and elevation of the corresponding transcripts is evident in biopsies from more than half of the patients and much more frequent for the secreted BMP-antagonists than the intracellular inhibitors of SMAD signaling. In conclusion, our results show that GREM1 is associated with metastasis and predicts poor prognosis in ER-negative breast cancer patients. Gremlin1 could represent a novel target for therapy.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Loss-of-function phenotype of a PKCθT219A knockin mouse strain
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-11-06
    Nikolaus Thuille; Kerstin Siegmund; Victoria Klepsch; Jacqueline Schörgenhuber; Sarah Danklmaier; Michael Leitges; Gottfried Baier

    Protein kinase C θ has been established as an important signaling intermediate in T-effector-cell activation and survival pathways by controlling activity of the key transcription factors NF-κB and NFAT. Previous studies identified an activation-induced auto-phosphorylation site at Thr-219, located between the tandem C1 domains of the regulatory fragment in PKCθ, as a structural requirement for its correct membrane translocation and the subsequent transactivation of downstream signals leading to IL-2 production in a human T cell line. The present work aimed to define the role of this phosphorylation switch on PKCθ in a physiological context through a homozygous T219A knockin mouse strain. T cell activation was analyzed by H3-thymidine uptake (proliferative response), qRT-PCR and luminex measurements (cytokine production). NFAT and NF-κB transactivation responses were estimated by Gel mobility shift and Alpha Screen assays. Frequencies of T cell subsets were analyzed by flow cytometry. Despite a normal T cell development, in vitro activated effector T cells clearly revealed a requirement of Thr-219 phosphorylation site on PKCθ for a transactivation of NF-κB and NFAT transcription factors and, subsequently, robust IL-2 and IFN-γ expression. This phenotype is reminiscent of the PKCθ knockout T cells, physiologically validating that this (p) Thr-219 auto-phosphorylation site indeed critically regulates PKCθ function in primary mouse T cells.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
  • Platelets promote breast cancer cell MCF-7 metastasis by direct interaction: surface integrin α2β1-contacting-mediated activation of Wnt-β-catenin pathway
    Cell Commun. Signal. (IF 5.111) Pub Date : 2019-11-07
    Xiao-xiao Zuo; Ya Yang; Yue Zhang; Zhi-gang Zhang; Xiao-fei Wang; Yong-gang Shi

    Integrin-mediated platelet-tumor cell contacting plays an important role in promoting epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) transformation of tumor cells and cancer metastasis, but whether it occurs in breast cancer cells is not completely clear. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of integrin α2β1 in platelet contacting to human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 and its effect on the EMT and the invasion of MCF-7 cells. Human platelets were activated by thrombin, and separated into pellets and releasates before the co-incubation with MCF-7 cells. Cell invasion was evaluated by transwell assay. The surface integrins on pellets and MCF-7 cells were inhibited by antibodies. The effect of integrin α2β1 on Wnt-β-catenin pathway was assessed by integrin α2β1-silencing and Wnt-β-catenin inhibitor XAV. The therapeutic effect of integrin α2β1-silencing was confirmed in the xenograft mouse model. Pellets promote the invasion and EMT of MCF-7 cells via direct contacting of surface integrin α2β1. The integrin α2β1 contacting activates Wnt-β-catenin pathway and promotes the expression of EMT proteins in MCF-7 cells. The activated Wnt-β-catenin pathway also promotes the autocrine of TGF-β1 in MCF-7 cells. Both Wnt-β-catenin and TGF-β1/pSmad3 pathways promote the expression of EMT proteins. Integrin α2β1-silencing inhibits breast cancer metastasis in vivo. The direct interaction between platelets and tumor cells exerts its pro-metastatic function via surface integrin α2β1 contacting and Wnt-β-catenin activation. Integrin α2β1-silencing has the potential effect of inhibiting breast cancer metastasis.

    更新日期:2019-11-28
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